Basic Information for Nutrition Labeling by tak20026


									                                                      EC 704
                                                    April 2000

for Nutrition
A Guide for the
Specialty Food

                  Department of
       Food Science and Human Nutrition
 College of Agriculture, Forestry & Life Sciences
               Clemson University
              A Guide for the Specialty Food Business

The nutrition labeling of food products is best accomplished by an actual
laboratory analysis of the food product. Typical information requested by the
food processor may include calories, total fat, cholesterol, sodium, total
carbohydrates and protein. The amount of vitamins and minerals may also be
analyzed if requested, with consequent higher laboratory fees.

Food companies — especially very small ones with limited resources or low
sales volume — may also obtain the nutrition information for their products
by requesting a computer nutrition analysis. In this type of analysis, only the
information about the ingredients is needed to determine the nutrition value
of a product, not a sample of the product itself. Obviously, the resulting
information will not be as accurate as the laboratory analysis. In addition,
processing operations may also affect the final computer results. For example,
if processing involves drying or baking, the finished product will have less
moisture than the original ingredients.

The computer analysis yields best results when a product’s ingredients are
mixed without further processing, such as drying or evaporation. One way to
minimize errors in calculating the nutrition value by computer is to measure
actual moisture content in the laboratory and use this value as input to the
computer program. The Clemson Food Science Extension Service uses the
computer program GENESIS ® R & D to assist food companies in estimating
nutrition information.

Currently, under 21 CFR 101.9(j)(1), a business may be exempt from the
requirement of including a “Nutrition Facts” panel on its food packages. The
exemption applies only to businesses with fewer than 100 employees and
products fewer than 100,000 units. The exemption does not apply if the
business has more than 100 employees regardless of the number of units. The
exemption also applies to retailers with annual gross sales of less than
$500,000 or with annual gross sales of food to consumers of less than
$50,000.00. The exemption is NOT applicable whenever a health claim or a
nutrient claim such as “low fat” is made.

The following information is taken from the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) website,, and includes an abbreviated list of
more exemptions and sample “Nutrition Facts” labels. For more information,
you can visit the website and follow the directions to select nutrition

Exemption                                             Regulation #

Food served in restaurants or delivered to homes
already prepared for immediate consumption.           21 CFR 101.9(j)(2)

Delicatessen-type foods, bakery products and confections
that are sold directly to consumers from the location
where prepared.                                       21 CFR 101.9(j)(3)

Foods that provide no significant nutrition such as
instant, plain, unsweetened coffee and most spices.   21 CFR 101.9(j)(4)

Dietary supplements.                                  21 CFR 101.9(j)(6)

Medical foods.                                        21 CFR 101.9(j)(8)

Bulk foods shipped for further processing or
packaging before retail sale.                         21 CFR 101.9(j)(9)

Fresh produce and seafood.                            21 CFR 101.9(j0(10)
                                                      and 21 CFR 101.45

Custom-processed fish and game.                       21 CFR 101.9(j)(12)

Packages labeled, “This unit not labeled for
retail sale” within multi-unit package. An outer
wrapper will bear all required label statements.      21 CFR 101.9(j)(15)

Donated food that is given free to the consumer.      21 CFR 101.9(a)

 Figure 1: Nutrition label format indicating suggested specifications
 for a “Nutrition Facts” label. Format requirements are specified in
 21 CFR 101.9(d).

                                                          Franklin Gothic Heavy or
Helvetica Regular 8                                       Helvetica Black, flush left
point with 1 point of                                     & flush right, no smaller
leading                                                   than 13 point.

                                                           7 point rule
 3 point rule

                                                           6 point Helvetica Black

8 point Helvetica Black
with 4 point of leading                                   All lables are enclosed by
                                                          1/2 point box rule within 3
1/4 point rule centered                                   points of text measure
between nutrients
(2 points leading above
and 2 points below)

                                                           1/4 point rule
8 point Helvetica
Regular with 4 points                                     Type below vitamins and
of leading                                                minerals (footnotes) is 6
                                                          point with 1 point leading
8 point Helvetica
Regular, 4 points of
leading with 1o point

Figure 2: Nutrition Label, Standard Format.

Figure 3: Nutrition Label, Tabular Format.

Figure 4: Nutrition Label, Linear or String Format.


The serving size declaration is made up of two parts: a “household measure
term” followed by its metric equivalent in grams (g). For beverages, the
household measures may be declared as either fluid ounces, cups, or fractions
of a cup with the metric equivalent in milliliters (mL). The examples below
show permitted declarations.

Food Examples

Cookies                            “1 cookie (28g)” or “1 cookie (28g/1 oz)”

Milk, juices, soft drinks          “8 fl oz (240ml),” or “1 cup (240ml)” for
                                   multi serving containers, or the container
                                   (e.g., “1 can”) for single serving containers

Grated cheese                      “1 tablespoon (5g)” or “1 tablespoon (5 0.2 oz)”

Reference: 21 CFR 101.9(b)(2), 101.9(b)(5), 101.9(b)(7) & 101.12(b)

Serving sizes for specific products are derived from “Reference Amounts”
which are listed in Tables 1 and 2 in the 21 CFR 101.12 (b).

The following example shows how to use the reference amount to determine
the serving size for a 16 oz (454g) pizza:

        1st step: From the reference amounts table (21 CFR 101.12[b]), you
        determine that the reference amount for pizza is 140g.

        2nd step: Calculate the fraction of the pizza that is closest to the
        reference amount of 140g (calculations shown for a pizza of net
        weight 16oz or 454g):

                     /3 X 454g = 151g
                     /4 X 454g = 113g

        Note that 151g is closer than 113g to the reference amount for pizza

       3rd step: The serving size is the fraction closest to the reference
       amount together with the actual gram weight for that fraction of
       the pizza:

               Example: “Serving Size 1/3 pizza (151g)”

       Therefore, the serving size is “1/3 pizza (151g)” for this example,
       whereas the reference amount is 140g for all pizzas.

       Note: Sections 101.9(b)(2)(i) (discrete units), 101.9.(b)(2)(ii) (large
       discrete units), and 101.9(b)(2)(iii) (bulk products) describe how to
       use the reference amount to derive a serving size.

Other examples of reference amounts are:

       Bakery products, such as breads
        and tortillas:                           55g
       Brownies:                                 40g
       Cakes:                                    heavy weight: 125g
                                                 medium weight: 110g
                                                 light weight: 75g
                                                 very light weight: 55g
       Cookies:                                  30g
       Mayonnaise and dressing:                  15g
       Mixed dishes:                             1 cup or 140g, adding 55g
                                                   for products with gravy
                                                   or a sauce
       Nuts and seed mixtures:                   40g
       Pasta or potato salad:                    140g
       All other salads:                         100g
       Sauces, gravies and condiments:           2 tbsp
       Major main entrée
        such as spaghetti sauce:                     /2 cup
       Minor main entrée
        such as cocktail sauce:                      /4 cup
       Major or minor condiments
        such as catsup and hot sauces:           1 tbsp
       Syrups:                                   60ml

The following example shows how to calculate the serving size for a biscuit
mix product and similar products that require further preparation:

         1st step: From the Reference Amounts Table (21 CFR 101.12[b]),
         determine that the reference amount for biscuits is 55g.

         2nd step: Determine amount of mix needed to make a 55g biscuit.

         3rd step: Determine closest permitted fraction of tablespoon or cup
         that contains the amount of mix closest to the amount determined
         in step 2.

         4th step: The serving size is the fraction of a tablespoon or cup of
         biscuit mix determined in Step 3 together with the actual gram
         weight of that measure of biscuit mix as the serving size.

         Use the form “Serving Size __ cup (__ g),” the blanks filled in with
         correct values for the product.

         Reference amounts: 21 CFR 101.12(b)&(c)

For foods such as cakes or pies that are usually cut into pieces before serving,
the following fractions must be used in the serving size declaration:
“1/2”, “1/3”, “1/4”, “1/5”, “1/6”, “1/8”, “1/9”, “1/10”, “1/12” and smaller fractions that
can be arrived at by further division by 2 or 3. Reference: 21 CFR

The following is a list of necessary information required to computer-analyze
a food product and to generate a “Nutrition Facts” label. You may want to
copy this Ingredient Information Sheet and send it to the Clemson Food
Science and Human Nutrition Department at the address listed in this sheet


Product Name:__________________________________________________
Owner’s Name, address and phone/fax numbers:_______________________
A list of all ingredients and their amounts per batch. Include copies of the
labels if prepackaged foods or ingredients are used.
_______________           __________       ______________         __________
_______________           __________       ______________         __________
_______________           __________       ______________         __________
_______________           __________       ______________         __________
_______________           __________       ______________         __________
_______________           __________       ______________         __________
Indicate if the process to make the product causes water to be lost through
drying, baking or evaporation, or if other loss or wasting of ingredients is
occurring. _____________________________________________________
Weight or volume per batch _______________________________________
Weight or volume per package _____________________________________
Define a serving, such as a teaspoon, a tablespoon, a cup, or half a cup, and
include volume or weight of a serving if possible._______________________
How many servings per package?____________________________________
Type of package and size: jar, can, pouch, or bottle, etc.__________________
Indicate the type of nutrition label desired, if known (such as horizontal,
vertical) as indicated in the previous examples. ________________________

The following Southeastern laboratories specialize in food analyses:

ABC Research Corporation, Gainesville, FL. Telephone: (904) 372-0436
Silliker Laboratories of Georgia, Stone Mountain, GA. Telephone:
 (404) 469-2701.
Southern Testing and Research Laboratories, Wilson, NC. Telephone:
 (919) 237-4175.

Prepared by Felix Barron, Extension Food Scientist
and Associate Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
College of Agriculture, Forestry & Life Sciences
224 Poole Agricultural Center
Box 340371
Clemson, SC 29634-0371

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 race, color, sex, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital or family status and is an
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     Clemson, South Carolina. Issued in Furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home
                                        Economics, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914
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