"Basic Information for Nutrition Labeling"
EC 704 April 2000 Basic Information for Nutrition Labeling: A Guide for the Specialty Food Business Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition College of Agriculture, Forestry & Life Sciences Clemson University BASIC INFORMATION NEEDED FOR NUTRITION LABELING A Guide for the Specialty Food Business The nutrition labeling of food products is best accomplished by an actual laboratory analysis of the food product. Typical information requested by the food processor may include calories, total fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates and protein. The amount of vitamins and minerals may also be analyzed if requested, with consequent higher laboratory fees. Food companies — especially very small ones with limited resources or low sales volume — may also obtain the nutrition information for their products by requesting a computer nutrition analysis. In this type of analysis, only the information about the ingredients is needed to determine the nutrition value of a product, not a sample of the product itself. Obviously, the resulting information will not be as accurate as the laboratory analysis. In addition, processing operations may also affect the final computer results. For example, if processing involves drying or baking, the finished product will have less moisture than the original ingredients. The computer analysis yields best results when a product’s ingredients are mixed without further processing, such as drying or evaporation. One way to minimize errors in calculating the nutrition value by computer is to measure actual moisture content in the laboratory and use this value as input to the computer program. The Clemson Food Science Extension Service uses the computer program GENESIS ® R & D to assist food companies in estimating nutrition information. EXEMPTIONS Currently, under 21 CFR 101.9(j)(1), a business may be exempt from the requirement of including a “Nutrition Facts” panel on its food packages. The exemption applies only to businesses with fewer than 100 employees and products fewer than 100,000 units. The exemption does not apply if the business has more than 100 employees regardless of the number of units. The exemption also applies to retailers with annual gross sales of less than $500,000 or with annual gross sales of food to consumers of less than $50,000.00. The exemption is NOT applicable whenever a health claim or a nutrient claim such as “low fat” is made. 1 The following information is taken from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website, http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/, and includes an abbreviated list of more exemptions and sample “Nutrition Facts” labels. For more information, you can visit the website and follow the directions to select nutrition labeling. Exemption Regulation # Food served in restaurants or delivered to homes already prepared for immediate consumption. 21 CFR 101.9(j)(2) Delicatessen-type foods, bakery products and confections that are sold directly to consumers from the location where prepared. 21 CFR 101.9(j)(3) Foods that provide no significant nutrition such as instant, plain, unsweetened coffee and most spices. 21 CFR 101.9(j)(4) Dietary supplements. 21 CFR 101.9(j)(6) Medical foods. 21 CFR 101.9(j)(8) Bulk foods shipped for further processing or packaging before retail sale. 21 CFR 101.9(j)(9) Fresh produce and seafood. 21 CFR 101.9(j0(10) and 21 CFR 101.45 Custom-processed fish and game. 21 CFR 101.9(j)(12) Packages labeled, “This unit not labeled for retail sale” within multi-unit package. An outer wrapper will bear all required label statements. 21 CFR 101.9(j)(15) Donated food that is given free to the consumer. 21 CFR 101.9(a) 2 Figure 1: Nutrition label format indicating suggested specifications for a “Nutrition Facts” label. Format requirements are specified in 21 CFR 101.9(d). Franklin Gothic Heavy or Helvetica Regular 8 Helvetica Black, flush left point with 1 point of & flush right, no smaller leading than 13 point. 7 point rule 3 point rule 6 point Helvetica Black 8 point Helvetica Black with 4 point of leading All lables are enclosed by 1/2 point box rule within 3 1/4 point rule centered points of text measure between nutrients (2 points leading above and 2 points below) 1/4 point rule 8 point Helvetica Regular with 4 points Type below vitamins and of leading minerals (footnotes) is 6 point with 1 point leading 8 point Helvetica Regular, 4 points of leading with 1o point bullets 3 Figure 2: Nutrition Label, Standard Format. Figure 3: Nutrition Label, Tabular Format. Figure 4: Nutrition Label, Linear or String Format. 4 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS TO DETERMINE THE SERVING SIZE OF A PRODUCT The serving size declaration is made up of two parts: a “household measure term” followed by its metric equivalent in grams (g). For beverages, the household measures may be declared as either fluid ounces, cups, or fractions of a cup with the metric equivalent in milliliters (mL). The examples below show permitted declarations. Food Examples Cookies “1 cookie (28g)” or “1 cookie (28g/1 oz)” Milk, juices, soft drinks “8 fl oz (240ml),” or “1 cup (240ml)” for multi serving containers, or the container (e.g., “1 can”) for single serving containers Grated cheese “1 tablespoon (5g)” or “1 tablespoon (5 0.2 oz)” Reference: 21 CFR 101.9(b)(2), 101.9(b)(5), 101.9(b)(7) & 101.12(b) Serving sizes for specific products are derived from “Reference Amounts” which are listed in Tables 1 and 2 in the 21 CFR 101.12 (b). The following example shows how to use the reference amount to determine the serving size for a 16 oz (454g) pizza: 1st step: From the reference amounts table (21 CFR 101.12[b]), you determine that the reference amount for pizza is 140g. 2nd step: Calculate the fraction of the pizza that is closest to the reference amount of 140g (calculations shown for a pizza of net weight 16oz or 454g): 1 /3 X 454g = 151g 1 /4 X 454g = 113g Note that 151g is closer than 113g to the reference amount for pizza (140g) 5 3rd step: The serving size is the fraction closest to the reference amount together with the actual gram weight for that fraction of the pizza: Example: “Serving Size 1/3 pizza (151g)” Therefore, the serving size is “1/3 pizza (151g)” for this example, whereas the reference amount is 140g for all pizzas. Note: Sections 101.9(b)(2)(i) (discrete units), 101.9.(b)(2)(ii) (large discrete units), and 101.9(b)(2)(iii) (bulk products) describe how to use the reference amount to derive a serving size. Other examples of reference amounts are: Bakery products, such as breads and tortillas: 55g Brownies: 40g Cakes: heavy weight: 125g medium weight: 110g light weight: 75g very light weight: 55g Cookies: 30g Mayonnaise and dressing: 15g Mixed dishes: 1 cup or 140g, adding 55g for products with gravy or a sauce Nuts and seed mixtures: 40g Pasta or potato salad: 140g All other salads: 100g Sauces, gravies and condiments: 2 tbsp Major main entrée 1 such as spaghetti sauce: /2 cup Minor main entrée 1 such as cocktail sauce: /4 cup Major or minor condiments such as catsup and hot sauces: 1 tbsp Syrups: 60ml 6 CALCULATING THE SERVING SIZE OF A MIX PRODUCT The following example shows how to calculate the serving size for a biscuit mix product and similar products that require further preparation: 1st step: From the Reference Amounts Table (21 CFR 101.12[b]), determine that the reference amount for biscuits is 55g. 2nd step: Determine amount of mix needed to make a 55g biscuit. 3rd step: Determine closest permitted fraction of tablespoon or cup that contains the amount of mix closest to the amount determined in step 2. 4th step: The serving size is the fraction of a tablespoon or cup of biscuit mix determined in Step 3 together with the actual gram weight of that measure of biscuit mix as the serving size. Use the form “Serving Size __ cup (__ g),” the blanks filled in with correct values for the product. Reference amounts: 21 CFR 101.12(b)&(c) For foods such as cakes or pies that are usually cut into pieces before serving, the following fractions must be used in the serving size declaration: “1/2”, “1/3”, “1/4”, “1/5”, “1/6”, “1/8”, “1/9”, “1/10”, “1/12” and smaller fractions that can be arrived at by further division by 2 or 3. Reference: 21 CFR 101.9(b)(2)(ii) 7 The following is a list of necessary information required to computer-analyze a food product and to generate a “Nutrition Facts” label. You may want to copy this Ingredient Information Sheet and send it to the Clemson Food Science and Human Nutrition Department at the address listed in this sheet INGREDIENT INFORMATION SHEET Product Name:__________________________________________________ Owner’s Name, address and phone/fax numbers:_______________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ A list of all ingredients and their amounts per batch. Include copies of the labels if prepackaged foods or ingredients are used. _______________ __________ ______________ __________ _______________ __________ ______________ __________ _______________ __________ ______________ __________ _______________ __________ ______________ __________ _______________ __________ ______________ __________ _______________ __________ ______________ __________ Indicate if the process to make the product causes water to be lost through drying, baking or evaporation, or if other loss or wasting of ingredients is occurring. _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Weight or volume per batch _______________________________________ Weight or volume per package _____________________________________ Define a serving, such as a teaspoon, a tablespoon, a cup, or half a cup, and include volume or weight of a serving if possible._______________________ How many servings per package?____________________________________ Type of package and size: jar, can, pouch, or bottle, etc.__________________ Indicate the type of nutrition label desired, if known (such as horizontal, vertical) as indicated in the previous examples. ________________________ _______________________________________________________________ The following Southeastern laboratories specialize in food analyses: ABC Research Corporation, Gainesville, FL. Telephone: (904) 372-0436 Silliker Laboratories of Georgia, Stone Mountain, GA. Telephone: (404) 469-2701. Southern Testing and Research Laboratories, Wilson, NC. Telephone: (919) 237-4175. 8 Prepared by Felix Barron, Extension Food Scientist and Associate Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition College of Agriculture, Forestry & Life Sciences 224 Poole Agricultural Center Box 340371 Clemson, SC 29634-0371 9 The Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer. Clemson University Cooperating with U.S. Department of Agriculture, South Carolina Counties, Extension Service, Clemson, South Carolina. Issued in Furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914 Public Service Activities