HDCS 1300 Section II: Social and Behavioral Sciences Perspectives Section II: Social and Behavioral Sciences Perspectives Why do you suppose the social and behavioral sciences are such a fertile ground for debatable issues? Social and Behavior Sciences Perspectives How do the social and behavior science fields of study differ from natural science fields of study? Psychology Sociology Anthropology Geography Biology Materials Science Comparing Social Science with Natural Science The answers to the preceding questions lies in the relationship of the observer to the field of study. The object of natural science is independent from an observer; no matter how the observer reports or conceives the object, the object is not changed by the observation. (I.e. the study of rock formations as a scientific field) Comparing Social Science with Natural Science The object of the social and behavioral sciences often involves the observer, Who expounds on what is observed Field may change and shift as a result. Hawthorne study? observer was trying to determine if brighter lights or dimmer lights caused workers to work harder Comparing Social Science with Natural Science The observer was puzzled because no matter whether they dimmed the lights or brightened the lights, the workers worked harder. Productivity continued to increase. The discovery was that “if you paid attention to the workers, they were motivated to work harder regardless of the amount of light” - a great example of a study of motivation. Comparing Social Science with Natural Science As one observer remarked “We are what we study” The feedback loop often causes change in the field. Comparing Social Science with Natural Science How is the methodology the same or different? Researchers in both fields use scientific methods to arrive at their interpretations; Natural science relies on mathematical reasoning in drawing its conclusions; but because of the feedback loop in the social sciences, the findings are more often controversial and subjective. Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology Section II focuses on readings from psychology, sociology and anthropology. Even though these fields of study are fairly young in America, there have been controversial and unresolved issues within each field since their inception. What is the focus of these fields? Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology Psychology is “the scientific study of the mind”; Sociology is “the scientific study of the human being in social interaction”; and Anthropology is “the scientific study of mankind from its earliest origins to the present time”. People People, as opposed to inanimate objects, are the focus in much of the research on psychology, sociology and anthropology. Whereas, in science - materials, chemicals, natural resources, etc. are the focus of the research rather than human beings. The Field of Psychology Even though the United States is about 225 years old, the field of psychology in America is only about 100 years old. Following are a few of the early voices and the ideas they were researching 100 years ago as a comparison: Will James G. Stanley Hall Edward Thorndike Will James Developed the first course taught in psychology a little over 125 years ago. Beginning in 1872 on a part-time basis, and finally taking a full-time position in 1874 ,Will James taught as a professor at Harvard until the end of his life. He began teaching a course called physiology, but by 1875, he was labeling his course „The Relations between Physiology (a science) and Psychology.‟ Will James By the time James summarized his view of psychology in The Principles of Psychology (1890), his personal interests were becoming more philosophical in nature. Fields of study were blurred 100 years ago This one early leader focused on physiology, psychology and then philosophy – as related areas in their early stages of development The Principles of Psychology Enormous, two volume work Addresses the full spectrum of psychological phenomena discussed in James‟s time Brain function Habit „the automaton-theory‟ the stream of thought the self Attention Association the perception of time Memory Sensation Imagination Perception Reasoning Voluntary movement Instinct The emotions Will Hypnotism . All these topics are still connected to psychology today Will James James‟s impact on psychology was enormous. Rather than expounding a theory, he provided a point of view that captured the imagination of psychologists, particularly in America. He directly inspired the school of functionalism, which emphasized the purpose and utility of behavior, rather than merely its structural description. Will James This movement flourished early in the Twentieth Century, before it was replaced by behaviorism. Its most basic tenet- a concern for the practical implications of psychological knowledge, and its usefulness for the individual person - have remained hallmarks of American psychology in America to the present. Field of Psychology continued Other important names in psychology include G. Stanley Hall, and Edward Thorndike. Class members may want to use the field of Psychology as a research focus and become familiar with other pioneers and leaders in psychology. Some of the psychology websites will help give a broader and more in-depth view of Psychology and indicate the current issues and trends in the field. G. Stanley Hall G. Stanley Hall was born in 1844 and died in 1924. "Every theory of love, from Plato down teaches that each individual loves in the other sex what he lacks in himself." G. Stanley Hall G. Stanley Hall is a name not only known in the field of Psychology, but also in the field of Education Founder of organized psychology as a science and profession Father of the child study movement, and national leader of educational reform G. Stanley Hall Professor of psychology and pedagogics at Johns Hopkins University in 1882; Started the first journal in psychology; Organized first conventions and meetings of psychologists; Close friend of Sigmund Freud and other early leaders; Emphasized that the study of the child and its development was a field unto itself. Edward Thorndike Edward Thorndike was an American educator and psychologist born in Williamsburg, Mass. Graduate from from Wesleyan University (1895) and Harvard (1896) Received Ph.D. in 1898 from Columbia. Appointed instructor in genetic psychology at Teachers College, Columbia, in 1899 served there until 1940 (as professor from 1904 and as director of the division of psychology of the Institute of Educational Research from 1922). Edward Thorndike Contributions to educational psychology Devised methods to test and measure children's intelligence and their ability to learn Conducted studies in animal psychology and the psychology of learning Compiled dictionaries for children (1935) and for young adults (1941). Edward Thorndike Thorndike‟s numerous writings include Educational Psychology (1903) Mental and Social Measurements (1904) Animal Intelligence (1911) A Teacher's Word Book (1921) Your City (1939) Human Nature and the Social Order (1940). Why is psychology a young field? Critics suggest that in spite of all our "fascination with people," we humans have resisted studying ourselves psychologically and scientifically. Francis Bacon said, "Man prefers to believe what he prefers to be true." We like having a grandiose view of ourselves. Perhaps that is why psychology was one of the last sciences to develop about 100 years ago Psychology is young in comparison to other fields 450 years ago, Copernicus almost lost his head for suggesting that man and earth were not at the center of the universe (natural science) 150 years ago, Darwin suggested humans evolved along with other living things. (natural science) That idea is still bitterly opposed by some religions. Has the study of the human being been encouraged or discouraged by organized religion? Many Theories in Psychology Have Been Controversial About 100 years ago, Freud suggested that we humans aren't even in conscious control of ourselves; unconscious forces really determine what we do. Unconscious factors are still denied by many people; this is now, as then a debatable issue. Man’s Reluctance to Study Himself Humans are prone to oppose anything that lessens their greatness, superiority, power, or importance. Thus, we as a species may even resist the idea that anyone (or anything less than God) is needed to help us cope better with our lives. TRUE OR FALSE? Psychology is Rich in Resources History of Psychology website: http://elvers.stjoe.udayton.edu/history/welcom e.htm Categories Within This Website Psychology department histories -- brief histories of various American and European Psychology Departments. Artifacts -- virtual "museums" and repositories of historical instruments and materials. Courses -- history of psychology syllabi and course materials. Images -- photographic collections of psychologists and medical researchers. Organizations -- web sites of associations and societies for the history of psychology and related disciplines. Categories Chronologies -- chronologies of significant events in the history of psychology and neuroscience. Meta-sites -- sites, like this one, that provide gateways to a variety of other resources. Writings -- original source material--books and articles--written by prominent individuals and historians. Topics -- sites dealing with various topics that may be of interest to historians of psychology. History of Psychology Timeline Many writers show the essence of psychology beginning far earlier than the work of James, Hall, Thorndike and others, particularly in European countries, but in America we pride ourselves on about 100 years of work in this field. The larger timeline is shown at this website: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/6061/en_lin ha.htm American Psychology Association (APA) Primary association today for psychologists, although certainly not the only one. It is from this organization that the style manual you will use in this class emanates. (APA Style Manual) The Field of Sociology Sociology, in fact, is a younger field than psychology. Early pioneers in sociology did not emerge until 1920‟s and 1930‟s in American. Important names George Herbert Mead Talcott Parsons Robert Merton David Snedden. The Field of Sociology But scholars point primarily to three authors and their writings as essential or foundational to the study of sociology Emile Durkheim Carl Marx Max Weber Emile Durkham (1858-1917) Considered by many to be the father of sociology. Credited with making sociology a science, and having made it part of the French academic curriculum as "Science Sociale". During his lifetime, Emile Durkheim gave many lectures, and published an impressive number of sociological studies on subjects such as religion, suicide, and all aspects of society. Emile Durkheim Introduced the concept of anomie in his book The Division of Labour in Society, published in 1893. Used anomie to describe a condition of deregulation that was occurring in society. This meant that rules on how people ought to behave with each other were breaking down and thus people did not know what to expect from one another. Anomie State where norms (expectations on behaviors) are confused, unclear or not present. Durkheim felt that normlessness led to deviant behavior. Emile Durkheim Durkheim proposed two concepts. First, that societies evolved from a simple, nonspecialized form, called mechanical, toward a highly complex, specialized form, called organic. In the former society people behave and think alike, perform the same work tasks and have the same group-oriented goals. Emile Durkham When societies become more complex, or organic, work also becomes more complex. In this society, people are no longer tied to one another and social bonds are impersonal. Changing conditions as well as adjustment of life leads to dissatisfaction, conflict, and deviance Emile Durkheim He observed that social periods of disruption (economic depression, for instance) brought about greater anomie and higher rates of crime, suicide, and deviance. Individuals cannot find their place in society without clear rules to help guide them. “Anomie” thus refers to a breakdown of social norms - a condition where norms no longer control the activities of members in society. Carl Marx Carl Marx, (1818-1883) was, according to critics, not only a sociologist, but a historian, an economist and a revolutionary. Carl Marx would not have called himself a sociologist, but his thought has had an immense impact on sociological theory. His work on labor, wages and the division of labor have been seminal. Carl Marx Banned from Germany, France, Brussels for his revolutionary ideas, he nevertheless created an economic revolution that brought a new political order into being - that of Marxism or communism. He wrote The Communist Manifesto, the most celebrated pamphlet in the history of the socialist movement. Max Weber Max Weber was the first to observe and write on bureaucracies which developed in Germany during the 19th century. He considered them to be efficient, rational and honest, a big improvement over the haphazard administration that they replaced. The German government was better developed than those in the United States and Britain and was nearly equal to that of France. Max Weber Themes and Ideas that have come from Max Weber Class, Status, Power Protestant Ethic & Spirit of Capitalism Bureaucracy Theory of social action: Role of ideas & subjectivism in action Durkheim-Marx-Weber There are many web sites that compare the works of these three important names to sociology. Anthopology Anthropology provides a large backdrop for analyzing issues in the social sciences. It provides a basis for comparative studies of mankind from its earliest origins to day. How do we differ from the human being of thousands of years ago? And yet, how do we remain the same? Anthropology The American Anthropological Association offers many resources on their web-site from current breakthroughs in research to the history of this important field. Their website: http://www.aaanet.org/resinet.htm In Module 2, these issues are important to us! Should doctor-assisted suicide be legalized for the terminally ill? Should race be a consideration in college admissions? Do the Media Introduce Us to New Ways of Thinking About Things? Do Consumers Benefit When Prescription Drugs are Advertised?
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