Compare Pentium and Pentium II

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					ELE548 Research Essay #1                   Due: Feb. 12, 1999




                  ELE548 Research Essay #1

        Compare Pentium and Pentium II




                           Name: Jian Li




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ELE548 Research Essay #1                                        Due: Feb. 12, 1999



Intel's family of microprocessors from the 4004 to the Pentium® II

Time flies so fast. From 1971 till now, 1999, Intel’s family of microprocessors has
developed dramatically. On Feb. 28, a new Pentium III Processor will get into market.
Here we want to compare two members of the family, Pentium and Pentium II, which are
still active in market. However, the more we study the past the more we know now and
figure out the future. Therefore, let’s first take a brief look at what happened in the past.

1971: 4004 Microprocessor
The 4004 was Intel's first microprocessor. This breakthrough invention powered the
Busicom calculator and paved the way for embedding intelligence in inanimate objects as
well as the personal computer.
1972: 8008 Microprocessor
The 8008 was twice as powerful as the 4004. According to the magazine Radio
Electronics, Don Lancaster, a dedicated computer hobbyist, used the 8008 to create a
predecessor to the first personal computer, a device Radio Electronics dubbed a "TV
typewriter." It was used as a dumb terminal.
1974: 8080 Microprocessor
The 8080 became the brains of the first personal computer--the Altair, allegedly named for
a destination of the Starship Enterprise from the Star Trek television show. Computer
hobbyists could purchase a kit for the Altair for $395. Within months, it sold tens of
thousands, creating the first PC back orders in history.
1978: 8086-8088 Microprocessor
A pivotal sale to IBM's new personal computer division made the 8088 the brains of
IBM's new hit product--the IBM PC. The 8088's success propelled Intel into the ranks of
the Fortune 500, and Fortune magazine named the company one of the "Business
Triumphs of the Seventies."
1982: 286 Microprocessor
The 286, also known as the 80286, was the first Intel processor that could run all the
software written for its predecessor. This software compatibility remains a hallmark of
Intel's family of microprocessors. Within 6 years of it release, there were an estimated 15
million 286-based personal computers installed around the world.
1985: Intel 386(TM) Microprocessor
The Intel 386TM microprocessor featured 275,000 transistors--more than 100times as
many as the original 4004. It was a 32-bit chip and was "multi tasking," meaning it could
run multiple programs at the same time.
1989: Intel 486(TM) DX CPU Microprocessor
The 486TM generation really meant you go from a command-level computer into point-
and-click computing. I could have a color computer for the first time and do desktop
publishing at a significant speed," recalls technology historian David K. Allison of the
Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The Intel 486TM processor was the
first to offer a built-in math coprocessor, which speeds up computing because it offers
complex math functions from the central processor.
1993: Pentium® Processor




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ELE548 Research Essay #1                                       Due: Feb. 12, 1999



The Pentium® processor allowed computers to more easily incorporate "real world" data
such as speech, sound, handwriting and photographic images. The name Pentium®,
mentioned in the comics and on television talk shows, became a household word soon
after introduction.
1995: Pentium® Pro Processor
Released in the fall of 1995 the Pentium® Pro processor is designed to fuel 32-bit server
and workstation-level applications, enabling fast computer-aided design, mechanical
engineering and scientific computation. Each Pentium® Pro processor is packaged
together with a second speed-enhancing cache memory chip. The powerful Pentium® Pro
processor boasts 5.5 million transistors.
1997: Pentium® II Processor
The 7.5 million-transistor Pentium® II processor incorporates Intel MMXTM technology,
which is designed specifically to process video, audio and graphics data efficiently. It is
packaged along with a high-speed cache memory chip in an innovative Single Edge
Contact (S.E.C.) cartridge that connects to a motherboard via a single edge connector, as
opposed to multiple pins. With this chip, PC users can capture, edit and share digital
photos with friends and family via the Internet; edit and add text, music or between-scene
transitions to home movies; and, with a video phone, send video over standard phone lines
and the Internet.

Here we have some detailed information about Pentium and Pentium II. Please see
Appendix.


Pentium and Pentium II

From discussions above, we can see the Pentium processor greatly improved on the
floating point capabilities of the 486. The Pentium processor was most notable because it
was the first "superscaler" Intel processor, having multiple execution units to the CPU.
This greatly increased processor speed beyond the mad Mhz rush.

This brings us to the Pentium II. The current king of the hill, the P2 is still based on the
same 6th generation technology as the Pentium Pro. With the P2, Intel was able to reap
most of the benefits of the PPro at a much lower cost, by separating the CPU and L2
cache, sold in a large metal and plastic cartridge called the Single Edge Contact Cartridge
(SECC).

The Pentium II cores are: Klamath, Deschutes, Katmai. The Klamath was Intel's 233-
300Mhz parts. Starting with the 333, Intel moved to a more efficient manufacturing
process, the Deschutes core. This was used in the 333 to 450 CPUs. Intel then released a
version of the 300Mhz P2 with the Deschutes core, and the word on the net is that these
are dynamite for overclocking. The newest iteration of the Pentium II is known as
Katmai, now we know it is Pentium III, at speeds of 450Mhz, 500Mhz, and above.




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ELE548 Research Essay #1                                       Due: Feb. 12, 1999



The Pentium II is the current staple of Intel's CPU line. Ranging in speed from 233 to
450Mhz, the P2 line is designed to accommodate all mid to high-end processor needs. The
P2 boasts high performance in both integer and floating point applications, making it an
ideal all-around CPU for a wide variety of applications. Whether that's 3D gaming,
rendering, Photoshop, business, scientific or server applications, the P2 will usually fit the
bill. Its 512k of L2 cache, running at ½ processor speed, is plenty for most processing
tasks, and is hefty enough to give it a considerable boost over Celeron in highly intensive
database or server applications. The Pentium II is like IBM a decade ago - nobody ever
got fired for buying it. If you're looking for a safe, compatible, high-performance chip that
will take any kind of application you throw at it, and are willing to pay a premium for the
best performing chip on the market today, the P2 is the best route. It offers higher speeds
and more L2 cache than Celerons, and prices continue to drop to earthly levels as the new
year (and Katmai) approach.

Every benefit has its reason. Let’s take a look at the features of Pentium II:

1. Dual Independent Bus architecture: Like the Pentium Pro processor, the Pentium II
   processor also uses the D.I.B. architecture. This high-performance technology
   combines both a dedicated, high-speed L2 cache bus plus an advance system bus that
   enables multiple simultaneous transactions. Two buses plus a faster L2 cache equals
   no waiting!
2. Intel MMX technology: Intel's media enhancement technology enables the Pentium II
   processor to deliver higher performance for media, communications and 3D
   applications.
3. Dynamic Execution: The Pentium II processor uses this unique combination of
   processing techniques, first used in the Pentium Pro processor, to speed up software
   performance.
4. Single Edge Contact (S.E.C.) cartridge: Intel's innovative packaging design for this
   and future processors, the S.E.C. cartridge, allows all of the Pentium II processor's
   high performance technologies to be delivered in today's mainstream systems.


What makes the difference now and in the future?

The "next-generation" in Intel's lineup of performance PC processors, the P3 is actually
based on the same Pentium II core, with a few additions that, if nothing but from a
marketing point, should make it a "must-have" upgrade. The Pentium III will initially ship
with 32Kb cache, the same as the Pentium II. At first glance, the new Pentium III-500
doesn't seem like much. It's merely 10% faster than the fastest available Pentium II, and its
new instruction set is playing catch-up with a competing standard that's been out for half a
year.

So what is the reason to upgrade?




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ELE548 Research Essay #1                                       Due: Feb. 12, 1999



Intel has long seen the need to cater to gaming and entertainment titles, (a process that
Apple Computer is only now accepting in their new corporate strategy). The reason is
simple - entertainment not only drives technology, but also brings in new users and creates
a market for upgrades and future processes. This drive spurred the addition of "MMX" to
the Pentium and Pentium II lines, the Multimedia Extensions (the naming of which Intel
vehemently denies) which were supposed to substantially accelerate multimedia
operations.

Hence, it is marketing.


A new CPU in my mind

Go back to the history, more innovations were generated at the first decades. After that
more and more efforts were focused on the needs from the market. That is why Intel will
bring out Pentium III in less than two years after Pentium II’s debut. The relation
between PIII and PII is similar to Pentium Classic and Pentium MMX.

If I wish to design a new CPU now I will follow Intel, because it is not time to offer a
grand new chip with respect to the marketing.



References:

1. http://www.intel.com/sites/all/contents.htm
2. http://www.firingsquad.com/hardware/



Appendix:

1.   Data Sheet of Pentium Processor
2.   Data Sheet of Pentium Processor with MMX Technology
3.   Data Sheet of Pentium II Processor at 233, 266, 300, and 333 Mhz
4.   Data Sheet of Pentium II Processor at 350, 400, 450 Mhz




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