The Classic Period by wxv15919

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									           The Classic Period




                Ch.6- M. Coe
                 Teotihuacan
                Monte Alban
                  Veracruz
Maya Classic Splendor: Early Period (Ch.4 Coe)
               The Classic Period
•   Rise of civilizations- 150-900AD
•   Climate
•   Lowlands- Long Count Calendar
•   Cuicuilco
•   Main Deities:
    – Rain & Fire (Tlaloc and Huehueteotl)
    – Feathered Serpent: Quetzalcoatl
• Teotihuacan
    – Neolithic period
    – Theocracy
                   Teotihuacan
• Introduction
  – “Place where men go to become Gods”
  – First planned city in Mesoamerica
  – Influenced many other civilizations throughout
• Geographical location
  – Central location
  – Northeast of Mexico City
  – Population of 125,000+
     • Ethnic center for Zapotec, Maya, etc.
                   Teotihuacan
• Architecture- palaces, temples, & apartments
  – Talud-tablero style
  – Residential compounds (165 by 200ft. Square)
  – Palace compounds
     • Xolalapan, Tetitla, Zacuala, Atetelco)
     • Quetzal-Butterfly palace
  – Murals
     • Tepantitla- Spider Woman
        Teotihuacan- Architecture
•   Temple of Quetzalcoatl
•   The Citadel
•   Avenue of the Dead
•   The Pyramid of the Sun
•   The Plaza of the Moon
•   The Pyramid of the Moon
     Teotihuacan- Religion/Pantheon
•   Spider Woman- creation & fertility
•   Sun God & Moon Goddess
•   Tlaloc- Rain God
•   Chalchiuhtlicue- Water Goddess
•   Xipe-Totec- “Our Lord the Flayed One”
•   Huehueteotl- “Old Man of Fire”
•   Quetzalcoatl- fertility symbol?
•   Most deities were connected with Maize & its
    well-being
    Socioeconomic System & Trade
• Evidence of a market with many ethnic groups.
• Crops: maize, beans, squash, chile peppers, cotton, and maguey-
  nopales (“tunas”), beans, pumkins, squash, avocados, amaranth.
• “Roza” and “chinampas” systems
• Game: deer, rabbit, turkeys, fish, dogs, wild ducks and geese.
• Household items:
    –   Metates, ceramic bowls
    –   Spin wheels & needles/thread
    –   Paper with maguey
    –   Trading with other towns
• Social stratification
    – Possible cause of decline
Teotihuacan- Arts, Crafts, and Clothing
• Elegant art style portrayed in frescoes,
  sculpture, pottery and masks.
• Hallmark being the cylindrical pottery
  vase.
• Weapons and obsidian artifacts
   – Control green obsidian deposits in
     Hidalgo.
• Bone needles for clothing- and
  basketry
   – Men- loincloths/kilt with sandals
   – Women- huipilli and underskirt
   – Priests- elaborate costumes with exotic
     feathers, jade or seashell & jewelry.
        Art & Masks
• Functions are unknown
  – Funerary purpose
  – Sympathetic magic
     • Stone, jade, obsidian and gold (later period)
     • Facial features indicate peace and wisdom (ideals?)
       Teotihuacan
• Decline and Fall
  –   700AD
  –   Invaders burned the city
  –   Internal crisis
  –   Political or economic problems
  –   Continued habitation for 200 years- Coyotlatelco
  –   Moved to Atzcapotzalco
  –   Crisis impacted all classic civilizations during the 9th
      century A.D.
       • Climatic change?
       • Chichimeca invasion?
           Early Maya
• Cacaxtla
   – Maya advanced knowledge
   – Tezcatlipoca- War God
   – Paintings are Maya
   – Knightly orders: Eagles & Jaguars
• Xochicalco
   – Location: Morelos
   – 650-900AD
   – Population- 8-15,000
   – Ball-Game courts
   – Great pyramid
   – Feathered Serpent Pyramid
   – Underground observatory
   – Decline & Fall
          Gulf Coast- Veracruz

• Classic Veracruz
  – El Tajín
• Remojadas
• Monte Alban- Classic
                El Tajín
• Most important site of the Classic
  period in Veracrúz.
• Ball Game- 9-14 ball courts found
• Cultural Influences
• Diet & Economy
• Origin of its name
• Religion
  • Los Voladores
• Decline/Fall- around 1250AD.
             Remojadas Culture
•   Location- Central Veracruz
•   Origin- 1300BC to 200BC
•   Diet & Religion
•   Clothing
•   Decline
   Zapotec- Monte Alban
• Location & dates
  – Four Phases (500BC-900AD)
• Diet & Social Organization
• Religion-poytheistic
  – Cozobi- Corn God
  – Cocijo Rain
  – Copizja- Sun
  – Bezelao- Fertility
• Calendar system
• Decline

								
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