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From Mainframe to Minicomputer, 1959-1969 by jze12270

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									             From Mainframe to
           Minicomputer, 1959-1969
                  Introduction
                  Influence of the Federal Government
                  Massachusetts Blue Cross
                  NASA-Ames Research Center
                  IRS
                  NASA’s Manned Space Program
                  The Minicomputer
                  Architecture
                  The Digital Equipment Corporation
                  The PDP-8
                  The DEC Culture
                  The MIT Connection
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                      Introduction
              The era of Mainframe computer
              From Mainframe to Minicomputer
              The Minicomputer
              IBM
              DEC – Digital Equipment Corporation
                  PDP-8
              IBM market share of 70%
                  System/360 & System/370




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           The Influence of the Federal
                   Government
              US Defense Department funded major computing
               projects.
              DoD impact on the advancement of computing
               technology
              Massachusetts Blue Cross
               In 1960 – Blue Cross acquired the IBM 7070 to
               process work that was previously done on tabulating
               machines
              Blue Cross uses the IBM 1401 data input and output
               only
              Blue Cross uses AUTOCODER instead of COBOL or
               FORTRAN in order to save memory and for faster
               compilation process
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              In 1967 – Blue Cross acquired IBM’s System/360      3
           The Influence of the Federal
                   Government
              NASA – Ames Research Center
              In 1955 Ames acquired its first stored-program
               electronic computer – IBM 650
              In 1958 Ames became part of the National Aeronautic
               Space Administration (NASA)
              NASA acquired IBM 704, and replaced it with IBM
               7090 - used for scientific calculations
              NASA acquired systems from various vendors – the
               H-800 from Honeywell, and other machines for
               dedicated purposes (operating a flight simulator)
              Vendors were Honeywell, DEC, Scientific Data
               Systems, EAI, and IBM
              In 1963, the 7090 system was upgraded to a complex
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               of machines called a Direct Couple System             4
              The purpose of this machine was to do scientific work
           The Influence of the Federal
                   Government
              NASA – Ames Research Center
              The 7094 was the main machine coupled with the
               7040 to handle I/O
              Each of these machine had a core memory of 32,768
               36-bit words
              IBM 7740 communication computer connected to
               several remote terminals
              Within the Direct Coupled System was the IBM 1401
               that handle printing results, and could operate as a
               stand alone computer
              The Direct Couple System cost about 1.6mil, and
               work well for NASA and was replaced by System/360
               model 50 at a rental fees of $21,000 a month for
               processor and $45,000 for entire system a month
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                                  IRS
              IRS –Internal Revenue Service
              The IRS
              In 1959 the US Treasury Department
               authorized the IRS to computerize its
               operation
              IRS selected IBM to provide its computing
               system
              IBM 1401 was installed in each of IRS
               regional center
              The 1401has a capacity of 4K core memory, a
               card reader, punch, line printer, and two tape
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               drives                                         6
                 NASA Manned Space
                     Program
              NASA
              NASA use of computers to facilitate its space program


              Minicomputer
              From vacuum tubes to transistors to integrated
               circuits.
              Minicomputer comes out of demands from well
               funded customers
              Minicomputer was never a direct competitor to
               mainframe, rather it was for new application, and to
               satisfy new demand in cultural, economic, and
               technological progress

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              Architecture                                           7
                        Architecture
              Architecture
              The architecture of computer
               (minicomputer) – varies in-term of
               packaging, third parties parts and
               applications, price, etc.
              IBM mainframe in the early 1960s
               operated on a 36bits at a time –using
               one or more registers in its central
               processors
              The fastest, most complex, and
               expensive circuits were built into this
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               part of the computer                      8
                         Architecture
              Architecture
              Mode operation could refer to a register in
               which the desired memory location is stored
              Complexity?
              Double-precision?
              Improved and available new transistor in
               the late 1950s result into a processor design
               that was simple, inexpensive, and fast
               system
              Commercial minicomputers begins with an
               inventor associated with large computers
              Seymour Cray – Supercomputer
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                         Architecture
              Architecture
              A shorter word length computer lower the
               complexity and cost of the computer
              Shorter word length also meant less bits in
               an instruction to specify enough memory
               addresses
              IBM 7090 series with a 36-bit word gave the
               equivalent of ten decimal digits
              Minicomputers fixed this problem by
               making the computer’s instruction codes
               more complex
               Minicomputer used several bits of the code
               to specify different modes to extend
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               memory space
                        Architecture
              Architecture
              In 1960 CDC introduced its 1604 model
               computer – intended for scientific
               customers
              Cray designed the 160 model to handle
               input and output for the 1604
              The 160 used short word length (12 bits)
               using ways of accessing memory beyond the
               limits of a short address field
              160 directly address primary memory of
               eight thousand words, a fast clock
               (6.4microsecond) for memory access
              160 was inexpensive to produce
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              160A a standalone version ($60k)
                        Architecture
              Architecture
              The 160A help to open the market of
               computers that were not tied to the
               mainframe architecture and size
              Jack Scantlin of Scantlin Electronic,
               Inc. In 1962 - was one of the first to
               build a system like the 160A to
               provide on-line quotations from the
               NYSE to brokers across the country
              By 1963 – SEI’s Quotron II provide
               stock prices within 15 seconds
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           The Digital Equipment Corp
              DEC
              In 1957 – Kenneth Olsen and Harlan
               Anderson founded the DEC
              In 1955 Olson took charge of the TX-0
               computer in the Lincoln Lab
              TX-0 first operated at Lincoln Lab in 1956
              TX-0 completed in 1957 – was one of the
               most advanced computer in the world
              DEC – PDP-1 designed by Gurley uses TX-
               0 architecture and circuit innovations
              Although – PDP-1 uses the TX-0
               architectural features –they were not exact
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               copy each other
           The Digital Equipment Corp
              DEC
              PDP-1 I/O proceed directly from an I/O
               device to the core memory itself – which
               makes the I/O faster with minimal
               operation on the central processor
              DMA – Direct Memory Access – was
               incorporated in nearly all DEC products
               and defined the architecture of the
               minicomputer
              DMA was built into the microprocessors
               used in modern computers
              DMA process allowed interrupts to occur at
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           The Digital Equipment Corp
              DEC
              PDP-1 was sold to customers. It was not
               leased. Customers were encouraged to
               modified the PDP-1
              Initial selling price was $120,000
              It was described to cheaper than the IBM
               channel on its mainframe computer
               DEC educated its customers about its
               products
              DEC – PDP-8
              PDP-8 show the market size. DEC installed
               over 50,000 PDP-8 systems
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              PDP-8 had a word length of 12 bits
           The Digital Equipment Corp
              DEC – PDP-8
              Influences on PDP-8 from CDC-160, and
               LINC by Wes Clark – 12 bit word length
              The success of PDP-8, and the
               minicomputer was due to a convergence –
               including performance, storage, packaging,
               and price
              PDP-8’s circuits used germanium
               transistors made by “micro-alloy diffused”
               process, pioneered by Philco.
              PDP-8 perform about 35,000 additions per
               second
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              PDP-8 had 4 thousand words of memory, 16
               divided into 32 blocks of 128 words each
           Conclusion




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