Introduction to the Internet and World Wide Web Design

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					Introduction to the Internet
and World Wide Web Design
Introduction

• This is simple overview of how Internet
 and the World Wide Web (WWW) works.
History of the internet
• Late 1960s, ARPA (Advanced Research Projects
    Agency). Supported by Department of Defense.
    To share informations within one university.
•   ARPANET. To connect USA universities and
    organizations to share info and communicate.
    TCP Protocol.
•   Internet: To connect organizations all over the
    world. IP Protocol and other protocols added.
History of the WWW
• World Wide Web enables user to see multimedia
    based document.
•   1993, Mosaic Browser. It leads to Netscape
    Navigator.
•   WWW Consortium(W3C) Objective: To make
    web accessible regardless of lang. and culture.
•   W3C recommendations and standards.
    (XHTML, CSS,XML)
Web Historical Events
• C and C++ PLs.
• Java: Web Programming Lang. (Interactive)
• JVM: Solved partially Browser Portability
    Problem.
•   Java Technology assists in Network
    Communication.
•   .NET: Code reusability and multi-lang.
    applications.
•   Dynamic HTML: Executed on client. Live pages.
•   E-Commerce.
Basic concepts
• Each machine connected to the Internet has a
    unique IP address and port number.
•   Using “ping” command we found the following
    –   www.google.com 66.102.9.99:80
    –   www.yahoo.com 216.109.118.77:80
    –   www.just.edu.jo 10.242.1.51:80
    –   webmail.just.edu.jo 10.242.1.52:80
    –   Your machine is 127.0.0.1 it is unique within itself!
Domain Name Server (DNS)
• DNS match each domain name with its IP
 address
    Domain Name         IP address

     www.google.com     66.102.9.99:80

     www.yahoo.com      216.109.118.77:80

     www.just.edu.jo    10.242.1.51:80

     webmail.just.edu.jo 10.242.1.52:80
www.google.com                   66.102.9.99:80
          Local DNS (at JUST)




          National DNS (Amman)                    Root DNS (USA, Europe, Asia)
                                                  Total 13 DNS worldwide
   Requesting Information
                            HUB 1           HUB 2      HUB 3


         JUST                                                  Google
                            HUB 4           HUB 5      HUB 6



                            HUB 7            HUB 8     HUB 9

       Routing table JUST               RT H4                             RT H6
                                    Dest.    Interf.
Destination      Interface                                      Dest.            Interf.
                                    66.10 HUB8
                                                                66.102.9.99:80
66.102.9.99:80   HUB4               2.9.99                                       google
                                    :80
   Returning information
                         HUB 1   HUB 2    HUB 3


         JUST                                     Google
                         HUB 4   HUB 5    HUB 6



                         HUB 7    HUB 8   HUB 9

      Routing table Google                                  RT H1

Destination      Interface                        Dest.            Interf.
                                                  10.242.1.51:80
10.242.1.51:80   HUB3                                              JUST
Important Keywords
•   DSL
•   NIC
•   ISP
•   Bandwidth
•   ISDN
•   Dial Up Connection
•   URL
•   HTTP
•   Search Engines
•   FTP
•   SMTP
•   Web Server
•   Upload