Seminar 06P – The End of the LMS Web

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					      Seminar 06P –
   The End of the LMS?
Web 2.0: Preparing for a New
    Focus in E-Learning

            Dr Paul Davis, Dr Paul Trafford
                         Oxford University


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                    Aim & Objectives
Aim:
• To help decision makers appreciate the significance of each of the 4
  areas of analysis (Blogs, Wikis, Newsfeeds, Personalisation & Social
  Networking), their mains uses, but more significantly how the
  whole is greater than the sum of its parts, thus with a view to
  informed consideration of how they may be suitably incorporated in
  institutional practices.

Objectives
• To determine and evaluate the main educational use cases for each
  item under study
• To determine and evaluate basic choices in technical solutions
• To determine and evaluate relative merits of open source software
  to support the process
• To establish the main issues in integration – pedagogical, technical
  and training needs


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                About this Seminar
• Institutional support for learning management
  systems (a.k.a. virtual learning environments)
  w.r.t. Web 2.0
• Broad consideration of academic considerations
• A systematic approach using phases
• Analysis of 4 Web 2.0 areas
• Attempting to bring everything together
• Participation 


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                 Who we are,
               where we‘re from
   “In Oxford may a thousand flowers bloom”
                                                   – local saying




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            Dr Paul Davis
           (Acting) Head,
    Learning Technologies Group

      Dr Paul Trafford
WebLearn System Administrator,
       VLE team, LTG


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                   Oxford University
• Founded in 11th century to train priests, civil
  servants and lawyers
• Students trained by Scholars and submitted for
  examination
• Autonomous colleges (39) and Private Halls (7)
• 1878 first female hall, women admitted to uni in
  1920
• 11,338 students, 6,830 Graduates, 768 P/t, 507
  visiting
• 7,000 uni staff, 3,500 college

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                       Oxford teaching
• Undergraduate: College responsible
  –   Heavily tutorial based
  –   Often optional lectures
  –   ―Read for a degree‖
  –   Capable of attending any course if desired
  –   Live within 3 miles of Carfax for 8 terms
• Postgraduate: Department base
  – Has a college affiliation
  – Taught or research, with tutor/supervisor
  – Live within 25 miles of Carfax


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                    Who are you?




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              History of Bodington
Born and nurtured at Leeds from 1996
Development of facilities piecemeal for specific
  purposes
Not designed as a ―VLE‖ [LMS] (probably term not
  even invented)
Growing interest in VLEs – commercialisation
  considered
2001 released as Open Source
Selected by Oxford WG as institutional VLE in 2001
  – adaptable thus meeting collegiate
  requirements. Re-badged as WebLearn

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                       Why Bodington?
• Open source
• Not ‗locked in‘
• ‗Deep‘ access - requirement for course structures at
  Oxford
• No specific roles set up
• Default was ‗open‘ - did not require an SIS
• But worries about
   – limited track record (now 9 years old)
   – real costs (see ―Finally a free lunch:...‖
     www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ltg/vle/index.xml.ID=news )
   – reliability of system (Up since 1/4/05 without fault)
   – long-term future (planned)
   – limited functionality (developed)



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                Bodington Strengths
•   Allows URL for each item
•   Simple to use and navigate
•   Consistent GUI input
•   Can move resources after creation
•   Can use basic functionality or add HTML
•   Can link in or link out
•   Set rights to restrict access
•   Open Standards - IMS Enterprise services
    interface to integrate with SRS, IMS LIP, QTI..


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        Why Bodington suited us
• Standards cannot be imposed from high
• Collegiate University with (semi-)autonomous
  departments and colleges
• OSS allows modification and customisation
• No licensing restrictions
• The ―glue‖ across the university
• Helps admin, provides web protection, allows
  research.
• Minimal technical requirements
• No licensing restrictions – seats, geography…


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                        Move to Sakai
• Larger user base
• OSS allowing modification
• Enthusiastic embracement of hierarchy
• Modern technology
• Coherent framework
• Modular approach allows distributed
  management
• UK Tetra consortium

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              What is Web 2.0 ?




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          Web 2.0: Definitions(?)
Wikipedia definition:
― a perceived second generation of web-based
  communities and hosted services — such as social-
  networking sites, wikis and folksonomies — which aim to
  facilitate collaboration and sharing between users.‖
Tim O‘Reilly: What is Web 2.0?
Comment [Tim Berners-Lee]:
 Is this term really meaningful? Original goal was always
  the read-write Web.



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 Why Web2.0 matters: student usage
Coming in…
            Facebook                       UGs
                                        N =647
                                                           Taught PGs
                                                              N =180
                                                                                 Res PGs
                                                                                  N =215
                                                                                                      All
                                                                                                 N =1042
            Actively             549    84.85%    115           63.89%    124    57.67%    788    75.62%
            Occasionally          70    10.82%        37        20.56%     56    26.05%    163    15.64%
            Heard of, not used    27     4.17%        26        14.44%     34    15.81%     87     8.35%
            Never heard            1     0.15%         2         1.11%      1     0.47%      4     0.38%


Going out…?
            Discussion                          UGs
                                             N =644
                                                            Taught PGs
                                                               N =179
                                                                            Research PGs
                                                                                  N =215
                                                                                                      All
                                                                                                 N =1038
            forums
            Actively                    92   14.29%        19    10.61%     36    16.74%   147    14.16%
            Occasionally               204   31.68%        58    32.40%     60    27.91%   322    31.02%
            Heard of, not used         330   51.24%        97    54.19%    109    50.70%   536    51.64%
            Never heard                 18   2.80%          5     2.79%     10     4.65%    33     3.18%


                                              Source: JISC Thema survey, 2007


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       Web 2.0 foci for evaluation
• For each tool specify its relative educational merits e.g.
   –   personal reflections
   –   learning experiences
   –   collaboration
   –   knowledge building
   –   communication
   –   personalization
   –   self-publication
   –   social networking



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            Web 2.0: Participation
• It‘s about People! This can be considered as laying the
  foundations.
• How we start "preparing a new focus".
• Internal and external contexts (lifelong learning etc).

Example: ―Person transition‖
Increasing fluidity in people's movements:
• High School -> Undergrad
• Undergraduate -> Work | Postgrad
• Postgraduate -> Work | Lecturer | Tutor
• Tutor | Lecturer -> Work | Professor
• Professor -> Work | Retired

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  Discussion Point: Walled Gardens
Q. How protective should we be of our academic
  environments? Walled Gardens:
• Protective and refined environment needed to nurture
  the best academic qualities
• Establishes Authority
• Ensures Transmission
• Maintains high standards
However:
• Locks away wealth that could be usefully shared more
  widely
• May be inflexible, out of touch and cannot adapt well
  with changing environment


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What makes an organisation Web 2.0 ready?

Illustration of Computing Services:
• Supportive of primarily face-to-face academic activities
• Contains groups for learning & teaching, research and
    administration
• Service-oriented approach
• Contacts (OUCS Reps) with departments and colleges
• Client Relations Team (CRT) gathers requirements
• User Services Team (UST) comprises of section heads
    from each group – internal communication
• UST overseas project development, with input from CRT



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   Service oriented approach
     http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/avfiles/programmes/efra
            mework/eframework_soa_animation.mov
                             ▼




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                      e-framework
• Documented by:
  – Services
  – Service Usage Models
  – Guides
  See http://www.e-framework.org/ ▼

  Theoretical or practical?



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            Methodology Overview
•   Not a formal methodology
•   Systematic, if not comprehensive
•   Key for Web2.0: ask the right question
•   How do we measure? Quali/Quanti tative
•   How to relate formal and informal process
•   Support transition between phases



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      Organisational Structures
• Can be an important factor in Web2.0
  readiness
• OUCS is central service provider
• Delivers services based on SLD
• Currently with non-specific funding
• LTG explores new technology
• Requests extra resources for innovations
• External resources are ―free‖

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                        Phase Template
•    Requirements gathering
•    Participation
•    Development Strategy
•    Integration Strategy
•    Evaluation
•    Training and Support
•    Resourcing
                        More details in resource pack

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                        Phase Iteration
Projects progress as an iterative cycle of
phases:
•     Phase       0:    Context
•     Phase       1:    Experimentation
•     Phase       2:    Extension and Transition
•     Phase       3:    Standard Support and Integration

[Following the phased approach developed for the
Duke Digital Initiative ]


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             Courtesy of Duke University1


• Homage to Duke? Their template




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    LMS Procurement & Deployment
The phased approach already applied:
• [Phase 0] (2001-2002) LMS Procurement
  Establish the need: single point of access for
  students, avoid duplication of effort etc.
• [Phase 1] (2002) Initial trials in Biochemistry,
• [Phase 2] (January 2003 – April 2004)
  WebLearn institutional pilot: WebLearn service
  integration with institutional SRS data
• [Phase 3] Rollout continues, building
  relationships with Floor Managers and
  encouraging them to share.


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LMS Procurement & Deployment: roles
Focus on developing roles in LMS:
• [Phase 0] Identify e-learning/ICT "champions" involved
  in innovation in department context
• [Phase 1] Develop relationship and provide
  opportunities for knowledge sharing through VLE
  Working Group
• [Phase 1] Invite those in Working Group to meet for
  VLE "show and tell―; first experimentation in VLE
• [Phase 2] VLE Pilot phase: formalise participation by
  supporting and encouraging participants to become
  Floor Managers
• [Phase 3] Full service: continue building relationships
  with Floor Managers and encourage them to share.


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             Web 1.0 vs Web 2.0
Web 1.0
• LMS [VLE] Procurement...
  – Institutional review and WG
  – Key role for open standards and open source
    software
Web 2.0
• Third party service
  – Instant availability
  – No resource input


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                    Workshop




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Risk                        Assessment                        Management
Loss of service (e.g.       Implications if service           Use for non-mission
company becomes             becomes unavailable.              critical services
bankrupt, closed down,      Likelihood of service             Have alternatives
…)                          unavailability.                   available.
                                                              Use trusted services.
                                                              Investigate services.
Data loss                   Likelihood of data loss.          Evaluation of service.
                            Lack of export                    Non-critical use.
                            capabilities.                     Testing of export.
Performance problems        Slow performance.                 Testing.
                                                              Non-critical use.
Lack of inter-operability   Lack of inter-operability         Evaluation of integration
                                                              and export capabilities.
Format changes              New formats may not be            Plan for migration or use
                            stable.                           on a small-scale.
User issues                 User views on services.           Gain feedback.


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                           Blogs




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What‘s the case for Blogging?
"The pertinent question for bloggers is simply,
Why? What is the purpose of broadcasting
one's unfiltered thoughts to the whole wired
world? It's not hard to imagine legitimate,
constructive applications for such a forum. But
it's also not hard to find examples of the worst
kinds of uses."
             Bloggers Need Not Apply, Ivan Tribble [pseudonym]
            from The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 8, 2005 ▼




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Making the case for Blogging
 1. Be clear about what is being sought
 2. Provide appropriate guidance
 3. Pay attention to privacy

Context: Requirements from Undergraduate Teaching
• Medical Sciences Clinical Rotation: Learning
  Experiences have need to allow students to reflect on their
  learning experiences on placements
• Chemistry: Tutorial and Lecture Course Feedback to
  cast light on institutional workings (the relationship between
  lecture courses and tutorials).



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             Introducing
• RAMBLE = Remote Authoring of Mobile Blogs for
  Learning Environments                     (http://ramble.oucs.ox.ac.uk)
• JISC-funded, part of DEL E-tools for Learners
  and Teachers
• Themes: widening participation and lifelong
  learning
• Short project, aiming for quick results
• Emphasis on open standards through E-Learning
  Framework
• … and open source software in deliverables

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                             Remote Authoring of Mobile Blogs
                                   for Learning Environments


• Digital remoteness – w.r.t. Internet connection

• Physical remoteness – can be away from usual
  physical spaces of teaching and learning

• Temporal remoteness – outside normal hours of
  lectures and tutorials.



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                            Remote Authoring of Mobile Blogs
                                   for Learning Environments

• Writing that originates from the participant
  (student)

• A creative process

• A reflective process supported by the removal of
  physical and temporal constraints

• On an electronic device – a Personal Digital
  Assistant (PDA) given free to participants!


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                      Remote Authoring of Mobile Blogs
                             for Learning Environments
• 1981: Portable Computer             2004: Handheld Computer

• 5‖ screen                           • 3.5‖ screen

• 64K RAM                             • 64MB RAM

• External keyboard                   • Optional External keyboard

• Office software                     • Office software

• Optional modem                      • Bluetooth

• Optional battery pack               • Built-in battery




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                      Remote Authoring of Mobile Blogs
                             for Learning Environments
• 1981: Osborne 1                       2004: HP iPaq 1940




• Weight: 11Kg                          • Weight: 124g



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                      Remote Authoring of Mobile Blogs
                             for Learning Environments

A Weblog (blog):
• is e.g. a journal, commentary written by
  individual or group of people and
  published on the Web
• can be about anything and everything
• is very simple in essence - consists of
  entries, each essentially of two fields
• can be multimedia – text, photos, video..

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                        Remote Authoring of Mobile Blogs
                              for Learning Environments

• Emphasis on personal reflection

• Personal Learning Space – ―Personal Learning
  Environments‖ that can wrap around a person.

• Institutional spaces – Virtual and Managed
  Learning Environments (such as WebLearn)

• Special issues: privacy and security


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                        Development Strategy

• Incremental development
• Separation of concerns
• Adopted international standards (simple Web
  services: XML RPC; Atom, RSS)
• Use of 'best of breed' components
• Mature Open source application components for
  flexibility



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                    Component Based Architecture




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                                         Student Support 1/2

Getting Started - ChemRAMBLE: First Small Taps ▼
• One scheduled face-to-face - 3 Hour introductory
  workshop [quite intensive]
• Simple instructions, loose, not prescriptive
• Students sign Terms of Agreement
• Introduction to VLE
• Introduction to Blogging
• Getting started with the PDA
• Introduction to Moblogging



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                                         Student Support 2/2

Mainly Documentation for ongoing support
• Overview Diagram (showing PC network)
• Introduction to WebLearn VLE
• Introduction to Blogging on a PDA
• Introduction to Blogging in Pebble [Blog server]
• Introduction to HTML [very basic tags]
• Glossary of terms
Plus e-mail list, ChemRAMBLE co-ordinator.


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                                              Integration in VLE

In general, this was very limited
• Newsfeed tool was developed that could read feeds in a
   number of formats from the Pebble blog server
• Only 1 way integration (read) – no post facility from
   within the VLE
• Students could set up their own area to read private
   blogs
• Students could share their private blogs with whomever
   they pleased.
• Basic aggregation of blogs was possible



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Educational uses of blogging




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                             Evaluation: Methodologies

The following methods were used for student blogging
• Monitoring of blog posts by tutors
• Surveys on general PDA use
• Surveys on blogging experience
For technical development, there was external evaluation:
  a QA process, for which JISC used external commercial
  services, culminating in a report.
For internal evaluation, the standard Bodington project
  development processes applied.



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                        Evaluation: Student responses

• Mobility:
  ―really satisfying to use, more relaxing and easier - none of the
   hassle of switching on a computer. "
   ―I could do small pieces at a time and build up a piece‖
• Blogging:
   ―It meant that I wrote down and reflected on lots of ideas that
   would usually not be 'relevant' - e.g. effectiveness of health care
   systems, attitudes of doctors towards patients, my feelings about
   activities.‖
   ―The blog made a daily diary a useful learning tool rather than an
   introspective indulgence! "




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                       Evaluation: Posts from chem04

The following selection of posts were written by
one student (chem04).
• Students encouraged to post a few times a week
• Posts encouraged on study materials, tutorials
  and lectures
• Students could read and comment on each
  others‘ posts
• After the initial workshop, there were no face-to-
  face meetings
• Technical support available via e-mail

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                       Evaluation: Chem04 Early posts

Technical feedback: working with the PDA
‖I made the unfortunate mistake of downloading Softick
before installing the cd. This led to a conflict as Softick
requires one of the drivers installed by the cd in order to
work, however, it does give you the option to load this
manually afterwards, so was easily overcome. I've also
installed the DocumentsToGo program that allows you to
view word and excel documents on the PDA and then swap
these with the computer each time you HotSync. This
required the PDA to be attached before installation begins
as the drivers come from the cd to the PDA via the
computer installation, but was all very straightforward.‖


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                                    Evaluation: Early posts

Positive Feedback on tutor:
‖This evening we had our first sub. tute, already
having had a main tutorial last week. The session
included all 9 chemists from … Colleges and was
quite informal yet structured… our tutor, clearly
had lined up the topics that he wanted to touch
upon and had it in mind where he was going to
take the discussion.‖


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                                 Evaluation: Early posts(2)

…Reflection on learning
―… I feel this type of learning is extremely effective provided all the
students participate, which was mostly true, though maybe a couple
were more quite than others. I've always believed that one can
continue to believe your thought strategy for a hard topic will be right,
until you are forced to present that strategy verbally to someone who
knows whether it is correct or not. In other words you can't "blag it" to
the guy taking the session. By talking through a topic, or attempting to
answer questions posed, in contrast with sitting back and hiding behind
those people who are forthcoming with ideas, you force yourself to
expose any errors in your thought pattern. It is also extremely
beneficial to hear how other people have come to understand a topic
as the manner of this may well be very simple, moreso than your own.‖




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                                Evaluation: Early posts(3)

…Tutorial Notes
―… The tute went over basic thoughts about energy levels of a
Hydrogen atom, and applied a qualitative approach to the fundamental
relationship of the Principle Quantum Number'n'. This was then
extended to atoms with more than one electron, encorporating the
effective nuclear charge that an orbiting electron observes. Examining
radial distribution functions for the different orbitals helped to explain
why orbitals fill in the order that they do, and also pays to help
understand trends in Ionisation Energies down the group. We touched
on the concepts of Penetration and Shielding and their effects on the
behaviour of electrons in ordinary atoms. This was then posed as a
way of looking at the structure of the periodic table.‖




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                              Evaluation: Early posts(4)

Some constructive criticism of lecturing style
―… I firmly believe that the topics could be much better
understood by the students if more time was allowed to
teach the content of this course... through allowing Dr …
more time to talk to the body and not the board. By this I
mean that he has to continue to write new notes on the
board whilst explaining something that he had introduced
previously, thus he is actually explaining the topic to the
board. A very simple explanation can be made much
clearer even by the use of hand gestures or commonplace
examples related to everyday happenings.


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                                Evaluation: Assumptions

3 Weeks in, wider reflection about assumed prior
knowledge:
I have found it hard to follow a lot of the
mathematical content of the course so far, not
having studied further maths at school, but there
are also students who had taken gap years and
have not applied functional maths for nearly 16
months... this in my mind would make the material
almost unapproachable.


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                                         Evaluation: Facilities

Feedback on facilities (most students blogged
comments like this):
―*Please could someone speak with the … Lab staff
about the temperature in the labs. Its far too cold
and not fair on students or workers alike... get
some investment into it as people still have to
work there*‖
Outcome: it‘s warmer there now!



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                       Evaluation: Blogging Success Factors

A combination of factors facilitate a rich response.
• Students own the PDA, remains private property, so
  have no hesitation in using it fully
• Flexibility in authoring - moblogging allows any time any
  place [see the rain inspired post!]
• Good and reliable technical setup - input methods and
  software
• Sufficient hands-on introduction
• Just the right level of instructions: don't be too
  prescriptive



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                                     Evaluation: Outcomes


For a small project, many outcomes
• Consideration of institutional blog service
• JISC Thema project
• Involvement in Personalised Learning
• Boosted LTG investigation of Web2.0, provided
  input into LTG Shock Conference (many
  blogging topics).
However, as yet no further hosted developments.


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                                        Securing Blog Privacy

But how much effort was required to support this…?
Properly securing privacy requires the each of the following:
• Personal Security of content on PDAs: care needed to protect
  sensitive data
• Transmission of data: data should be encrypted as it gets posted
  from the PDA to the blog server
• Access to blogs on blog server should be restricted for viewing
  and editing
• Data on blog server should be protected (server security)
• VLE needs access to private data, but must be the right private
  data
• Transmission of data between Blog server and VLE should be
  secure
• Bloggers need to be able to access their private blogs, but not
  that of other people (unless authorised)


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                        Securing Blog Privacy – in practice
Securing Privacy required the following to each be secured
• Personal PDA Security: common sense, no formal guidance
• Wired connections for data transmission
• Data on blog server: secure realm ensured only authorised access
   (username and password); blog server configuration ensured the
   required see and edit rights
• Access allowed to VLE server IP (no other service on that IP).
• In VLE, user could set up a restricted access area in which to read
   blog feeds. They could optionally authorise others to do so.
• VLE only requests blog feeds on blog server under a particular URL
   stem corresponding to e.g. a username

Documentation
• Using Private Blogs in Bodington ▼ This provides a step by step
  guide on creating an area in the VLE to read one‘s private blog.



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                        Securing Blog Privacy – evaluation

Creation and Sharing of Private blogs
• Moblogs could be authored and uploaded to blog server with
   reasonable security.
• Private blogs could be shared and embedded safely in the VLE
   context. They could be read, but an ad hoc solution required for
   machine-machine trust.
• Private blogs in VLE required ad hoc developments in both blog
   server configuration and the VLE newsfeed tool.

General Observations
• With a number of different components there are many more
  aspects to secure!
• This example raises the issue of secondary authentication,
  dependent on machine-machine trust.



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         Phase Analysis Summary
Phase 0: Context
•    Addressed long-standing departmental requirements, with potential to
     generalise
•    Liaising with Faculty/departmental staff ensured participation nicely
     distributed, rooted in student use
•    Difficult to ensure sufficient resources available to cover variety of
     project facets, particularly developer time
Phase 1: Experimentation
•    Condensed activity to prepare hardware, software, documentation
•    Quality of Student Blogs exceeded expectations
•    Development progressed, but many issues encountered
Phase 2: Extension and Transition
•    Post project period blog hosting proposal.
•    Impetus given more to research in learning experiences and
     development of newsfeed tools



    13:00 23 Oct 2007     Davis & Trafford, Oxford University                 74
                                         Blog Hosting Service

Considerations for a blog hosting service (Phase 3)
• An LMS can provide a blogging tool
• Support costs for dedicated blog
• Scalability and Performance
• Integration with institutional authorisation (support
  access controls)
• What happens when someone moves on?
• Corresponding Development – internal business
  processes and application Web interfaces



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University      75
                           Wikis




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   76
                       Why Wikis?
What problems is the wiki trying to solve? Examples:
• An easy general purpose authoring environment for all
• Somewhere to brainstorm
• Drafting of documents, keeping version history
• Development of Web content with references to other
  online materials
• Collaborative work processes - admin, teaching
  preparation, research etc
• Development of hypermedia knowledge base
Suggested Reference: Stimulating ideas from a UKOLN wiki
workshop: Exploiting the Potential of Wikis ▼



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   77
What are the alternative tools?
Existing combinations may work well:
• Desktop authoring tools plus e-mail
• Content Management System (CMS) with
  WYSIWYG editing
• Authoring tools in VLE/LMS
• Other Web site publishing systems
• Blog/social networking site


  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   78
13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   79
The right role and place for wikis…
How does the wiki relate to existing publication systems?
Consider a sample workflow:
1.      jot down initial Eureka! ideas
2.      consolidate ideas
3.      share ideas with classmates or close colleagues
4.      work on ideas
5.      share ideas more widely
6.      draft a presentation, essay or report
7.      publish presentation, essay or report



     13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   80
                Wiki characteristics
What is or makes a wiki?
• Web-based authoring environment with convenient
  access from networked PC
• Immediate changes - allows documents to be up to date
  (see e.g. Wikipedia obituaries)
• A simple means of linking between documents
• Can track document changes against time or person.
• Simpler formatting than HTML means lower barrier to
  authoring and more rapid web presence
• Overall, very much in a state of flux with many revisions




   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   81
  Wikis: strengths and weaknesses
Changeable nature indicates it is especially useful for:
• ongoing knowledge base, especially suits areas that are under rapid
  development (lot of IT!)
• preparation of materials, but not their final publication
• internal business


But wikis have their limitations and weaknesses:
• As a multipurpose tool there are probably better tools for any given
  specialist task - e.g. a wiki is probably not a sensible choice for an
  institutional front page;
• It‘s authoritativeness depends in large part upon the contributors
• Easy authoring may encourage the wiki to grow like topsy.




   13:00 23 Oct 2007    Davis & Trafford, Oxford University            82
          Wiki use cases at Oxford
• Drafting of reports and other individual documents
• Departmental organisation: structures, meeting minutes
  etc
• Team areas (UST, CRT)
• Project areas
• Conference preparation (e.g. Educause seminar!)
• Project Management Guidelines
• External facing WebLearn developers‘ wiki
• Events organisation: 50 Years of OUCS
• Knowledge Bases: ITSS Wiki: SIGMA; Help Centre,
  including feedback


  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   83
Evaluation: Which system to choose?
                                                           3 wiki systems
                                                           and a VLE!




 13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University                    84
  Evaluation: Wiki selection issues
Q. Do you standardise? Which wiki software?
Wiki selection was driven by a mixture of internal and
  external factors (technical and aesthetic preferences)
• [External] majority were used to seeing and working
  with Mediawiki sites, e.g Wikipeda
• [Internal] Restricted access needed for OUCS system
  developers - tried Kwiki [Perl] for short term need;
• Others tried Mediawiki [PHP] and then along came…
• MoinMoin [Python] more functional than Kwiki
Now we are standardising on Moinmoin, but is it suitable
  for wider rollout ...?



  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   85
   Wiki service: Access Requirements
Who can read? Who can write? Who can administer? Be
  sure about your requirements! Revisiting list…
• VLE team draft report: all members read, write,
  administer; OUCS read
• Project dissemination: read only for University? Public?
• OUCS internal structures: Admin read/write/administer;
  Group heads read/write; OUCS staff read
• Conference preparation: speakers read/write/admin;
  selected others read/write; OUCS read
• Event organisation (50 Years OUCS): OUCS read/write;
  Public read?
• ITSS Knowledge Base: ITS3 read; ITSS read/write;


   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   86
              Wiki service: Access controls
So how do you support various access needs? Choices:

1. Make use of built-in authentication and authorisation
   – Another password to remember;
   – Application-specific authorisation to maintain unless further
     development undertaken to integrate with existing systems
   – No distinction between users, allows external contribution

2. Develop application support for institutional SSO (based
   on Stanford Webauth)
   – What about authorisation? See above.
   – Can the public view the pages?
   – Can external collaborators write to the pages?



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University           87
                Wiki service: Current status
•   A service using just Moinmoin has been established
•   OUCS staff have been encouraged, though not forced,
    to make use of Moinmoin.
•   Wiki is run in dual mode (system administrator sets
    configuration) :
    1. Closed internal system for Oxford users requires SSO login
       (Webauth‘ed wikis)
    2. Public-facing wikis uses Moinmoin‘s internal authn and authz to
       support external users. (non-Webauth‘ed wikis).
Outcome:
    – Almost all wikis have been migrated to Moinmoin, though not
      so easily
    – WebLearn wiki pages made public-facing
    – Access control lists work, but would they scale?



    13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University          88
               Wiki alternative: WebLearn
There are wiki tools that have been incorporated in LMS:
• Wiki Module for Moodle ▼
• Sakai RWiki tool ▼

WebLearn has no wiki tool at present, but
• Allows visual editing of HTML in many places.
• In particular, has a document authoring tool called EasyWriter with
   the following strengths:
    – GUI editing (using FCKEditor)
    – Any number of edits can be made
    – Document locking
    However
    – Very limited version history (only shows who and when)
    – Designed for individual documents only, with conventional hyperlinks




   13:00 23 Oct 2007     Davis & Trafford, Oxford University             89
         Hosted wikis, e.g.
 http://eduwikius.wikispaces.com/




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   90
                The role for wikis




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   91
13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   92
                      Newsfeeds

                    Content Syndication




13:00 23 Oct 2007      Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   93
                     Definitions
Content Syndication, The act of publishing (usually
related) content with a view to its open and widespread
distribution
Web Syndication: a form of syndication in which a
section of a website is made available for other Web-
aware systems and services to use.
Newsfeeds: Syndicated content, typically made available
from a Web source, that is by design timely and usually
updated periodically.
Feed format: a standard lightweight means of encoding
and transmitting data, typically an XML-based format
RSS0.9x/2.0,RSS1.0, and Atom.


 13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   94
                 Newsfeeds: Producers
Many applications can produce newsfeeds:
• LMS
• CMS
• Wikis
• Blogs
• Discussion Fora
• Social Networking Site
Special feature:
• Media enclosure – designated hyperlink to other kinds of
  content, such as audio file (for podcast) that is usually
  accompanied by a short text description


   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   95
                Newsfeeds: Consumers
Many applications can read (or consume) newsfeeds:
• LMS
• CMS
• E-mail clients such as Thunderbird
• Web browsers
• Dedicated standalone apps such as Feedreader
• Dedicated Web-based tools (Bloglines, Google Reader..)
• Portals
• Social Networking Sites
All you need to do as a user:
• Look out for newsfeed icons (like ,      and     )
• Copy and paste the URL into your application

   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   96
Newsfeeds: Producers and Consumers

Sample OxITEMS feed rendered in WebLearn:




 13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   97
 Establishing a Need for a Central Producer

• Transmission of marketing information:
  – The University Press Office sought a means to more
    widely disseminate online news about the University.
    Previously it had been using an in-house system that
    displayed news only on the University front page. )
  – OUCS sought to market its activities more widely,
    particularly its range of courses
  – Other departments similarly wished to make
    announcements and share news items for local
    purposes, for authorised users only.



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   98
Newsfeeds: Initial Experimentation
Initial development
• ‘03-‘04 part of a exploratory portal development
  project, oriented around information retrieval,
  aggregation and personalisation - presentation.
• Portal (based on uPortal) contained support for
  displaying newsfeeds
• Newsfeeds creation service developed in Java
  accessible through the portal.



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   99
  Newsfeeds: change to OxITEMS
• Portal project put on hold.
• Newsfeeds reassessed, leading to new
  project of OxITEMS.
  – Custom in-house development
  – Developed independently of portal
  – Use of PHP (faster development time)
  – Targeted institutional service



  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   100
  OxITEMS: Institutional Requirements
• Authentication:
   – people must use SSO authentication to use the system
• Authorisation: we saw the need for three roles:
   – administrator for each unit
   – manager for each newsfeed
   – authors for each newsfeed
• Devolved administration:
   – make the main IT Support Staff person of a unit the main
     newsfeed administrator for that unit
   – allow that person to add other people as administrators
   – in this way, administration of the newsfeed system would not
     require intervention from Computing Services
[Source: Making RSS work in your institution, IWMW2006]▼


   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University          101
          OxITEMS: Creating an item 1/3

Having logged in, select a channel:




  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   102
          OxITEMS: Creating an item 2/3

Start filling in the form with the news!




  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   103
          OxITEMS: Creating an item 3/3
Enter further details (optional) and submit:




  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   104
            In practice: Use cases
Numerical Stats (as at 9 September 2007):
• 171 channels,
• 31 Units (across all divisions), covering Arts &
  Humanities, Maths & Physical Sciences, Medical
  Sciences and Social Sciences, Central Admin
Examples:
• Graduate teaching events
• New resources reviewed by Intute
• Careers News
• Library News
• Vacancies at History Faculty

   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   105
       Rendering Feeds in WebLearn LMS
• Newsfeeds tool (developed in RAMBLE and
  since refined)
• Feeds can be displayed through
  WebLearn:
  –   Lefthand panel (for alerts)
  –   Container resources – Floors, Suites of Rooms etc
  –   Various configuration options
  –   Access controls apply
  –   Support for RSS0.9x,2.0,RSS1.0,Atom0.3,1.0.
  –   Support for enclosures


  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   106
13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   107
  Rendering Feeds in WebLearn: OxITEMS


An individual item from an event feed




In this case OxITEMS (contains extra event fields)



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   108
        Configuring Feeds in WebLearn




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   109
Rendering Feeds in WebLearn: Aggregation




• One feed per line (any order)
• Can display items inline

  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   110
            Newsfeed References
• OxITEMS News Service:
  http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/oxitems/
• OxITEMS: Harnessing the power of
  newsfeeds (includes podcast) ▼
• WebLearn: Reading and Configuring
  Newsfeeds ▼




  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   111
               Newsfeed Activity




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   112
             Personalisation and
              Social Networking




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   113
             Elements of analysis
• Analyse social networking aspects
• Focus on how LMSs can be designed and
  extended for supporting these kinds of
  functions.
• Tour of MyWebLearn ▼
• The JISC-funded FROCKLE project.
• It's all work in progress!
• Adoption for education?

  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   114
        Defining Social Networks
A social network is a social structure made of
nodes (which are generally individuals or
organizations) that are tied by one or more
specific types of relations, such as values, visions,
idea, financial exchange, friends, kinship, dislike,
conflict, trade, web links, sexual relations, disease
transmission (epidemiology), or airline routes.

                                                       [Wikipedia entry]


   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University            115
Focus on Lifelong Learning: A Waterfall
• Changing nature of work means
   – No ‗job for life‘
   – Greater flexibility in nature of work, skills etc.
• Educational impact
   – Need greater and more diverse use of educational centres
     during one‘s life…
   – UK Government Policy of wider participation and lifelong
     learning.
• Impact on ICT
   – DfES e-Strategy – integrated services, collaboration, personal
     support.
• Impact on JISC Calls
   – JISC e-Learning programme: DEL E-Tools and …



   13:00 23 Oct 2007     Davis & Trafford, Oxford University          116
Cascade into ICT and Education

JISC Circular 3/06 (April ’06) – Capital Projects

The e-Learning capital programme is an £11.36m
investment to support the sector in harnessing the
potential of e-learning to support lifelong learners. A
particular area of investigation will be around providing a
personalised learning experience, meeting the needs
of individual learners in a range of settings through the use
of technologies such as e-portfolios, e-assessment and
social software."



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   117
  Personalisation of learning means…?
• Configuring the appearance of a piece of software
• Selecting which tools to appear in an LMS
• Choosing what lecture podcasts to carry on one‘s iPod
What about PLEs. What are they?
• [Personal Learning] Environments?
• Personal [Learning Environments]?
• [Personalised Learning] Environments?
• Personalised [Learning] Environments
It's all work in progress, where we are learning about the
kinds of processes that characterise these, but suitably
adopted for education.



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   118
13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   119
               Social Tools & Social Sites
Social software tools
 •    Instant Messaging – e.g. Windows Live Messenger
 •    Internet Fora – e.g. LMS community forum
 •    Blogs – e.g. Blogger.com
 •    Wikis – e.g. Wikipedia
 •    Social Bookmarking - e.g. del.icio.us
Social sites – see list on Wikipedia for many more.
 •    MySpace – 200m accounts, owned by Fox
 •    Bebo – third of users <18
 •    Facebook – Harvard->USHE ->HE -> World. #1 photos
 •    LinkedIn – Business-oriented networking


     13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   120
                    Facebook




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   121
 Personalisation in LMS: MyWebLearn

Prior Background - Opening up access
• In April 2006, access to WebLearn was
  made open - users had the right to make
  resources 'public' and thereby allow
  indexing to Google.
• This is key flexibility for personalisation,
  because it allows a range of audiences,
  from public to private.

  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   122
      Introducing MyWebLearn
• ‗Choice‘: Almost all tools available in
  WebLearn are available in MyWebLearn.
• ‗Voice‘: All University staff and students
  are eligible for MyWebLearn;
• ‗Access‘: Each MyWebLearn area contains
  public and private spaces, plus a
  bookmarks area.



  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   123
  MyWebLearn: Home Space




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   124
                  MyWebLearn Uses
• Bookmark key pages about lecture courses, MyWebLearn areas of
  friends and any other interesting areas in WebLearn
• Upload and store copies of essays and other working
  documents. Share them with friends.
• Use the Newsfeeds tool to read in and aggregate favourite
  newsfeeds.
• Keep a personal learning diary using the Logbooks tool.
• Have an internal discussion just with others in your tutor group
  using the Group Communication Room.
• Run surveys, with varying amounts of anonymity using the
  Questionnaire tool.
• Create a public-facing Web site advertising a portfolio...
• Upload a Web site you created earlier into the Web Document
  resource, and decide who can see it.




    13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University     125
MyWebLearn: A Photo Gallery




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   126
    MyWebLearn Private Areas
Access controls ensure only user and system administrator
have access:




  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   127
       MyWebLearn Public Area
Access controls allow those with or without accounts to
access this area:




  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   128
      MyWebLearn Weaknesses
MyWebLearn lacks aliveness:
• Limited Presence – a Notifications tool supports
  at most daily email alerts of activity in your area
  (e.g. accesses and discussion room posts).
• Difficult to locate other MyWebLearn areas
• No groupings of MyWebLearn areas
• Can only connect MyWebLearn areas through
  static hyperlinks – no means of discovery.
• No synchronous tools



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   129
               Introducing FROCKLE
Short term JISC-funded project 2007, part of the E-Learning Tools and
  Frameworks Programme.

Overall aims
•   creating personal profiles
•   discovering other user‘s personal spaces
•   linking to other personal spaces and resources within the VLE
•   Validating external modules

Planned Solution
•   integrate FOAF (Friend of a Friend) capabilities in the Bodington VLE

Project Methodology
• Adopt an incremental and iterative approach to development.
• Produce mock-ups of user interfaces to aid requirements analysis.
• Focus initially on simple software deliverables, with a view to future
   expansion.



     13:00 23 Oct 2007      Davis & Trafford, Oxford University             130
13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   131
FROCKLE: Entry to Demo Site




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   132
FROCKLE: [MyWebLearn] Home Space




 13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   133
FROCKLE: [MyWebLearn] View Profile




 13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   134
FROCKLE: [MyWebLearn] View Profile




 13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   135
        FROCKLE: View Network




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   136
   FROCKLE: View Other Profile




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   137
                    What‘s a Friend?




13:00 23 Oct 2007     Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   138
13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   139
      Social Networking: The ‗Friend‘
                 problem
• The use of one term to cover many kinds
  of relationships is problematic.
• Friendship has many levels
• The meaning of these relationships
  depends on cultural background
• Major issue: privacy



  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   140
    Relationships: An Ancient Example
Q. Can Web2.0 learn about relations from wisdom of 2,500
   years ago?
A. Six Dimensions spanned in the Sigalovada Sutta
   (teachings of the Buddha Gotama):
•   East: Parents
•   South: Teachers
•   West: Spouse
•   North: Friends and Associates
•   Below: Servants and Employees
•   Above: Ascetics and Brahmans [Elders]
[Translations available online from ‗Access to Insight‘]▼



     13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   141
Relationships: Levels of Association
A 7 level progressive model – how one gradually
    becomes friends with another:
1.    Meeting up
2.    Getting Closer
3.    Feeling a liking for one another
4.    Respecting the other
5.    Moral Support
6.    Joining In
7.    Influencing and instilling behaviour in one another



     13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   142
 Discussion: Relationships in Education
What kinds of relationships are characteristic of the
  educational environment? Some examples:
• Peer
• Mentor
• Supervisor - supervisee
• Lecturer - student
• Tutor - tutee
• Fresher - final Year student
How can they be modelled in learning environments?
How can relationships be fruitfully nurtured?



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   143
                                  http://www.atimod.com/e-moderating/5stage.shtml




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University                             144
                    Conclusions

             A place for everything and
               everything in its place



13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   145
13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   146
           UK‘s top social websites
          Source Nielsen/Netratings. Pub Sunday Times 30/9/07
      Website                  Unique               Active reach   Change since
                               audience (000s)                     Dec06
1     Facebook                 6,506                20%            541%
2     MySpace                  6,379                20%            20%
3     Bebo                     4,449                14%            64%
4     Windows Live Spaces 2,333                     7%             -1%
5     Friends Reunited         2,112                7%             1%
6     BBC Communities          1,545                5%             27%
7     Flickr                   1,276                4%             200%
8     Piczo                    851                  3%             -40%
9     Yahoo! Groups            828                  3%             -1%
10    WAYN                     669                  2%             80%



     13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University                      147
     America‘s top social websites
          Source Nielsen/Netratings. Pub Sunday Times 30/9/07
      Website                       Unique audience (000s)      Change
                                    Aug07        Aug06
1     MySpace                       60,327           49,178     23%
2     Facebook                      19,173           8,852      117%
3     Classmates Online             15,364           14,137     9%
4     Windows Live Spaces           8,816            8,203      7%
5     AOL Hometown                  6,956            9,077      -23%
6     Reunion                       4,469            4,292      4%
7     LinkedIn                      4,410            1,678      163%
8     Club Penguin                  3,934            1,125      250%
9     Buzznet                       3,872            766        405%
10    AOL People Connection         3,858            6,025      -36%


     13:00 23 Oct 2007    Davis & Trafford, Oxford University            148
           (Far from) Final Words
• Rapidly changing scene
• Big business e.g. Google interest
• Organisations need to be prepared internally
  first
• Web 2.0 is going to bring profound changes
• Distributed organisation key
• Multi-variegated options available
• Distributed data = risky/non-auditable
• Hard to catalogue/search
• Fragmentation of users across systems


   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   149
       Levels of LMS Integration
• Complete separation of Services
  – Independent services
• Loose coupling
  – Some control through Shibboleth authorisation
  – LMS becomes a ―skeleton‖ for linking to services
• LMS Wholesale Integration of Tools
  – One step on from monolithic LMS

• Support for Web2.0 approach
  – Personalisation: MyWebLearn - it doesn't have to be "out there"
    to be Web 2.0-like.
  – Wikis: focus on content authoring



   13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University       150
                      Key Issues
• Identity Management
  – There are typically multiple identity management
    solutions within even a single organisation
  – For inter-institutional interoperability, Oxford supports
    Shibboleth and belongs to a broad federation.
  – Web2.0 context Open ID through the likes of XDI?
• Third Party Hosting
  – Make sure you carry out risk assessment!
• Branding
  – How to control a uniform system?


  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   151
            Web2.0 – The Future?
[Mis]quote from THES:

"It's disruptive in the sense that proliferation is a major characteristic
    of Web 2.0," [Paul Trafford] explains. "With that comes complexity,
    and it can be hard to manage. But for me the key word is
    participation. These tools enable people to contribute more freely,
    and I expect social computing to play a major part in the
    development of education." Medical students at Oxford already use
    mobile blogs on clinical placement rotation to record their
    experiences. Trafford says that Web 2.0 can provide a host of
    personalised learning opportunities. "In the future, we'll see the
    development of technology that provides tailor-made learning paths,
    making use of whatever tools suit an individual's skills," he argues.




    13:00 23 Oct 2007    Davis & Trafford, Oxford University           152
           Customisable Google




13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   153
               Concluding Remarks
• The nature Web 2.0 is participatory and interactive.
• It prompts many questions,
• It challenges existing structures and modus operandi.
• However, there is a risk of being overwhelmed by the
  proliferation of Web2.0 tools, of abandoning institutions
  and their processes that have been refined over time.
• Thus we need to be discerning and systematic in our
  analysis of Web2.0.
• An iterative phased lifecycle with a question-based
  approach can help in the process.
• We hope this seminar has helped you!


    13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   154
13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   155
                               Credits
1.   Transitioning academic technologies from experimentation to institutional
     support. Yvonne Belanger Samantha Earp, Lynne O‘Brien; Duke University
     Libraries. With permission
•    SOA animation: JISC
     http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/avfiles/programmes/eframework/
     eframework_soa_animation.mov

•    Risk Assessment – Brian Kelly, UKOLN

Pictures
•    New College: Lawrence OP
•    Magdalen Chapel: Rik Lomas
•    Said spire: Lawrence OP
•    Web2.0 logos Ludwig Gatzke, www.flickr.com/photos/stabilo-boss
•    Web Cloud: Markus.angermeier@aperto.de




     13:00 23 Oct 2007     Davis & Trafford, Oxford University              156
                      Resources
Additional items with this presentation:
• Paper Copies of Slides
• Additional printouts with illustrations
• Risk assessment grid
• Newsfeed activity
• UKOLN document: Risk Assessment For Use Of
  Third Party Web 2.0 Services
• Phase template
• USB Stick with various media


  13:00 23 Oct 2007   Davis & Trafford, Oxford University   157

				
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