Theories, Values and Perspectives of Macro Social Work by dns10434

VIEWS: 20 PAGES: 11

									Theories, Values and
Perspectives of Macro
Social Work
Generalist Macro Practice
Social Systems Theory
Basic Concepts
  A Social System is a set of inter-related
   and inter-dependent components
  People, Families, Groups, Organizations,
   Communities, Etc… are all OPEN
   SYSTEMS
  Closed Systems have no interaction
   with their environments
Social Systems Theory
Basic Concepts
  SYSTEM BOUNDARIES separate one system
   from the next– and tension occurs at the
   boundary
  Natural Systems are HIERARCHICAL in
   nature (subsystems & suprasystems)
  Social systems are characterized by
   COMPLEXITY, meaning that the possibilities of
   their structures and capacities to change are
   immeasurable
Social Systems Theory
Basic Concepts
  Information, matter and energy are FILTERED
   through the boundary as INPUTS and
   OUTPUTS
  The system observes itself and makes
   adjustments through information feedback
   loops (throughputs)
  The system accumulates and transforms
   information, matter and energy to sustain itself
   and avoid ENTROPY
Social Systems Theory
Basic Concepts
  SYNERGY: The whole is greater than the sum of its
   parts (nonsummativity)
  A change in one part of the system will impact changes
   in other parts of the system
  The greater the variety of inputs, the greater the
   synergy
  Systems are goal oriented and the ultimate goal of the
   system is to survive
  Lack of goal specification means that the system will
   pursue multiple goals sporadically, which may conflict
   with each other and reduce synergy
The social work agency: A
systems analysis
  What feedback loops are present in the
   agency?
     Are they formal or informal?
     Who controls them?
     Who makes decisions based on the
      information?
  What does the agency do to sustain itself?
     How does the agency respond when its
      survival is threatened?
The social work agency: A
systems analysis
  Who controls the boundaries?
    What information is permitted to cross in?
    What information is permitted out?
  How do the individual components respond to
   change?
    After a changing event, does the system return to
     homeostasis or find a new “steady state”?
  How closely aligned are the goals of the
   organization versus the goals of the clients?
Values and Perspectives
of Macro Practice
  The Big Picture
    Emphasis is placed on the “root causes” of
     social problems
    Social justice is the ultimate goal
  Responsibility for the Greater Good
    Consideration of how individual action will
     impact collective results
    Collective Empowerment (e.g., Staples,
     1990)
Values and Perspectives
of Macro Practice
  Sustainability
    Holistic view of human beings
    Includes relationships between humans and their
     physical environments
    Considers long-term viability of programs/plans
  Democratic Process
    Group participation
    Collective decision-making
    Consensus building
Values and Perspectives
of Macro Practice
  Intervention is necessary, but prevention
   is ideal
  Evidence-based practice
    Make decisions based on observable
     evidence
    Evidence need not be numerical, but must
     be systematically documented
Values and Perspectives
of Macro Practice
  Respect for multiple ways of knowing and
   sources of knowledge (diversity is a strength)
    Inclusion
    The controlling system must have more variety
     (complexity) than what is being controlled
     (throughputs and outputs)
  Strengths
    Focus on the strengths before deficits/needs
    Build on existing strengths, even if they are small
    Celebrate success

								
To top