History of War Timeline

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					History of War Timeline
           By
   Anthony Kowalczyk
   Sabino High School
Peloponnesian War 431-404 B.C.
• Athens and Sparta were both powerful city-states in Greece,
  and each wanted to spread their way of life.
• Sparta attacked Athens in 431 BC, beginning the 27 year
  long Peloponnesian War. Sparta eventually defeated Athens
  by building a blockade around the walls
  of the city. This is called a siege. The people of
  Athens could not leave to get supplies or food
  from the countryside. Faced with starvation,
  Athens surrendered to Sparta in 404 BC.
Punic Wars 264-146 B.C
• In first half of 3rd century BCE Carthage held many
  territories that made it easy for them to control and
  dominate the western Mediterranean Sea, but when they
  conquered Messana on the north eastern tip of Sicily in 264,
  they faced the Romans for war for the first time.
• In 256 Carthage was besieged, but the Romans
  were defeated. Then for some years Carthage
  was the most successful, notably under the
  leadership of Hamiclar, but with the battle
  at the Aegates Islands in 241, the Carthagians
  were beaten so painfully that they requested
  peace.
First Crusade 1096-9
• One Turkish tribe, the Seljuk's, began moving into the Anatolian
  peninsula, or what we now call Turkey. These Turks were
  Muslims, and a Christian emperor, Alexius I, controlled the
  peninsula. Alexius appealed to the Pope to help him rid Anatolia of
  “the unbelievers.”
• Pope Urban II received Alexius’s call for help, but had bigger
  ideas. Jerusalem, in what is now Israel, is considered
  holy land to Christians, Jews and Muslims, but in
  1095, the city was controlled by Muslims. The message
  from Alexius presented Urban with an opportunity
  to retake the holy lands from the Muslims. The pope
  called for a “War of the Cross,” or Crusade,
  to retake the holy lands from the unbelievers.
Hundred Years War 1337-1453
• The Hundred Years War, lasting from 1337 until 1453, was
  a defining time for the history of both England and France.
  The war started in May 1337 when King Philip VI of France
  attempted to take over the English territories in the duchy of
  Aquitaine.
• It ended in July 1453 when the French
  finally expelled the English from the
  continent (except for the city of Calais)
  by force.
Opium War 1839 - 1842
• The Chinese destroyed a large quantity of opium taken from
  British merchants. Great Britain, which had been looking to
  end China's restrictions on foreign trade, responded by
  sending gunboats to attack several Chinese coastal cities.
  China, unable to withstand modern arms, was defeated and
  forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing (1842) and the British
  Supplementary Treaty
  of the Bogue (1843). Hong Kong
  was ceded to the British.
Crimean War 1853-1856
• In July of 1853, Russia occupied territories in the Crimea
  that had previously been controlled by Turkey. Turkey,
  declared war on Russia. After the Turkish fleet
  was destroyed by Russia, Britain and
  France entered the war on the side of
  Turkey. Russia signed a peace treaty
  in 1856.
Paraguayan War (1864 - 1870)
• Francisco Solano López who wanted to build an empire, led
  Paraguay into a war against Argentina, Brazil, and
  Uruguay. The war devastated Paraguay, and when López's
  death ended the conflict in 1870, more than half of the
  population had been killed, the economy had been
  destroyed, agricultural activity was at a standstill and the
  country had lost more than 142,500 sq km (55,000 sq mi).
Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871
• The war between France and Prussia signaled the rise of
  German military power and imperialism. It was provoked
  by Otto von Bismarck (the Prussian chancellor) as part of
  his plan to create a unified German Empire.
• France was eventually forced to
  surrender, due to poor
  preparation for war. The results
  of this war led to events that
  caused the outbreak of
  World War I.
Boer Wars 1880 – 1881, 1899-1902
• The Boer Wars were fought between the British and the
  descendants of the Dutch settlers (Boers) in what is now
  South Africa, who wanted self-government. After the first
  Boer War, Britain granted the Boers self-government in the
  Transvaal.
  The second war ended the Transvaal and the Orange Free
  State as Boer republics. The British
  granted the Boers a 3 million pound
  payment for new livestock and
  repairing farm lands and promised
  eventual self-government,
  which came in 1907.
Russo – Japan War 1904 - 1905
• The war began on Feb. 8, 1904, when the main Japanese
  fleet launched a surprise attack and siege on the Russian
  naval squadron at Port Arthur.
• With Japan winning the war, it forced Russia to abandon its
  expansionist policy in the Far East, and became the first
  Asian power in modern times to defeat a European power.
Mexican Civil War 1911 – 1914
• In 1911, Pancho Villa helps overthrow the Mexican
  government in the Mexican Revolution. The several leaders
  who fought to overthrow the government soon afterwards
  went to war with one another to determine the new leaders
  of Mexico. Villa takes over the Mexican government in
  Mexico City in 1914. As he takes over the government, a
  former ally in northern Mexico
  puts together an army of his own and
  challenges Villa's right to run the
  government. This would begin nearly six
  years of fighting.
World War I 1914-1918
• World War I or the First World War was the first war that
  involved nations all over the globe, including the United
  States. This is where the term world war came from. It was
  called The Great War or the war to end all wars until World
  War II started.
• There were over 37,000,000 casualties on both sides.
Spanish Civil War 1936-1939
• General Francisco Franco led a revolution against the
  government of Spain. The people of Spain were against
  Franco's rebellion, but with the help of Italy, who supplied
  arms and soldiers, and Germany, who provided air support,
  he was able to take control of the government. The rest of
  the world did nothing while this was going on. In effect, this
  was the beginning of World War II.
World War II 1939-1945
• World War II began with the joint German and Russian
  invasion of Poland. France and Great Britain declared war
  on Germany. Germany quickly overran France and forced
  the British out of Europe. Then Germans then turned on
  their Russian allies.
• The United States entered the
  war after the Japanese
  bombed Pearl Harbor,
  December 7, 1941. The
  United States fought the war
  in Africa, Asia and Europe.
Korean War 1950-1953
• On June 25, 1950 at 4 a.m., 70,000 North Korean troops
  with Russian T-34 tanks crossed the thirty-eighth parallel
  into South Korea. President Truman of the United States
  sent soldiers to Korea with the blessing of the United
  Nations.
• At the end of the war, more than 3 million Koreans died
  while millions of refugees remained homeless. About 1
  million Chinese died in this war, while there were 54,246
  American
  casualties.
Six-Day War 1967
• Israel fought on three fronts against three countries and
  defeated them in six days. In the south, Israel engaged and
  defeated the Egyptians. In the central region, Israel engaged
  and defeated the Jordanians. In the north, Israel engaged
  and defeated the Syrians. In each of these theaters, Israel
  gained territory that would help to
  keep Israel safe from future
  attacks.
Falklands War 1982
• In April of 1982, Argentina seized the Falkland Islands from
  Great Britain. As a result, the British government sent a
  large British task force on a 7500 mile journey to liberate a
  group of tiny islands in the South Atlantic. This was the
  biggest naval action to take place since the Second World
  War.
• Argentina surrendered and left
  the islands by June of the same
  year. More than 1000 men lost
  their lives in the conflict.
Iran-Iraq War 1980-88
• The war began with an Iraqi land and air invasion of
  western Iran. Iraqi president Saddam Hussein claimed as
  the reason for his attack on Iran a territorial dispute over
  the Shatt al Arab, a waterway that empties into the Persian
  Gulf and forms the boundary between Iran and Iraq.
• In July of 1988, Iran was forced to accept a United Nations–
  mandated cease-fire.
  Estimates of the number of dead
  range up to 1.5 million.
  Both sides still hold thousands of
  POWs, despite several prisoner
  exchanges and releases since
  1988.