Topics: •Africa before the coming of Europeans •Kingdoms of West Africa •Plantation Life in the Bahamas •Resistance and Revolt Passive and Active Ancient Ghana, is not quiet the same as the current African nation of Ghana. In fact it lies about 400miles west of modern Ghana. Ancient Ghana encompasses what is not Northern Senegal and Southern Mauritania. History depicts that the ruler of this great African kingdom were the Soninke people, who were led by Dingha Cisse. The kingdom was able to build its power and wealth from the gold in its region, the introduction of the camel and this advancements in its Sahara trade. Ancient is said to have had some of the richest gold mines on earth. This mines were conveniently located near the banks of the Senegal river, which extended the access to trade. The Soninke people also sold slaves , salt and copper in exchange for textiles. They were able to build with their riches a capital city known as Kumbi Saleh at the edge of the Sahara, and due to its located it quickly became one of the most important terminals on the southern trade route. The next great African Kingdom in succession to Ghana is Ancient Mali. The kingdoms of Ancient Ghana and Mali shared a number of features but were distinctly different in government and order. Mali’s ruler converted to Islam and the country did so as well, as the religion spread throughout Africa. Mali and Ghana were similar because the geographical borders of Mali encompassed Ghana as a rose as one of the feudal territories that rose after the fall of Ghana to fill the void. The rulers of Mali controlled the Niger River and the cities that lie on its bank. The kingdom became a major trade route as well as one for travel and became the central artery for commerce for both the west and Northern African trade routes. Mali’s control of the river and these important cities allowed it to flourish into a most powerful and wealthy state. In addition, Mali maintained trade and military power. This feudal state required the support of a militia to maintain the king’s inherited position. The ability of the king to maintain his wealth and power effectively depended very much on the military power. Starting in the 14th century, the king of Mali began to wildly spend his kingdom’s wealth, this weakened its power and allowed infiltration of outside forces. These forces attacked until the came to surface. The kingdom split into three realms with a Sultan heading each, all claiming to be the king of Mali. In addition to this move, the military leaders , themselves, also claimed to be independent leaders. During its success Mali boasted a conquer of Timbuktu and a thriving economy and culture filled with both traditional African customs combined with Islamic practices. Songhai was doomed to be the next great African kingdom in western Africa. The kingdom had been increasing its wealth and influence over the western Sudan area. Around 1464, Sonni Ali-Ber became king of Songhay. He was an able and ambitious ruler but he was not popular with his subjects. A few months after his death, one of his generals seized the throne and adopted the support of the people. The accepted ruler of Songhai became Askia Mohammed. Unlike his predecessor , Askia Mohammed paid great attention to education and religion which contributed to the thriving city. Askia Mohammed created the largest and wealthiest of all kingdoms of the Sudan. He had a well administered states the best and most organized the region had ever seen, as it was stable and efficient. Songhai is best credited with building the University of Sankore. Scholars came from all around to attend the institution known for its advancements in Muslim learning. This period in African learning continued until the 16th century under the rule of Askia Daoud. Following Daoud’s death, however, a civil war ensued and several cities were taken over in a war known as the Battle of Tondibi. This led to the end of the great African Kingdom. The Portuguese were the first country to embark upon the African slave trade beginning around 1562. The practice of slavery grew substantially from 1646 to 1790. The West Coast of Africa also know as the Sudan, had three major empires, Ghana (790-1240), Mali (1240 – 1600) and Songhai (670 – 1591). African tribal wars produced captives which became a bartering resource for trade with the Europeans. Other persons who entered into the slave trade were often kidnapped by both Black and White hunters. The Main terms of barter often included glass beads, whiskey, and guns. The rising demand for sugar, cotton, coffee and tobacco in Europe increased the demand for slaves. Spain, France, Holland and England were in competition for cheap labour which was needed to work on their plantations in the New World. The slave trade became quite lucrative and in 1672, the Royal African company was formed by King Charles II of England and became the most successful and wealthiest shipper of Human slaves to the Americas. The Slaves were so valuable to the open market they came to be referred to as “Black Gold”. Homework due Monday: page 88 12.1 A-D Slavery was never a new concept in Africa. The local society maintained acceptable forms of slavery that indeed served a purpose; whether social, economic or political; and keep order in community that by some was deemed primitive. In cases where parents were unable to take care of themselves and or children, persons would sell themselves into slavery, typically this case applied if there were a famine. Owning a debt that could not be reasonably paid of often resulted in slavery. A person would be contracted in slavery for a period time that would be equal to the debt. Criminals could be sentenced to slavery for committing serious offenses or as so sentenced by a ruler or judge. Lastly, the element of war was a continued cause for enslavement. African societies were typically feudal and an attack on a kingdom or tribe often resulted in prisoners of war, in this case then became slave of the attacking villages. It was through this last method that created opportunities for the European to encourage Africans to convert such a reasonable and traditional method of justice and reason into the economic program that led to the largest Diaspora of any group of people. Please check the following link for more insight into the African Diaspora: http://moadsf.org/salon/exhibits/slave_narrativ es/flash.php The implementation of the African Slave trade in 1502, completed transformed the concept of traditional slavery into an economic process that served to provide cheap labour for developing plantations. At this time, the value of Africans changed from human life to a commodity with a trade worth the equivalence of glass, whiskey or guns. Guns became one of the most desired forms of barter for slaves, and Europeans could use the trade of weapons to encourage one African Village to wage war on another in order to acquire slaves. African rulers often allowed greed to guide the decisions to wage war and would lead attacks on smaller villages simply to acquire prisoners of war. Not only did kingdoms become wealthy with the exotic trade items, but the king would gain a substantial income from the taxes of the trade as well. The impact of this new form of slavery was far reaching than could have been anticipated. The majority of the persons taken in the slave raids were young strong men. Through the removal of the young men in the villages the following resulted: Skilled Craftsmen: There was a loss of skilled craftsmen in areas like weaving and ironwork. This impact was made easily unnoticed due to the vast importation of cheap cookware and European cloths. Leaders: With many men being removed from the villages, women were forced to take leadership roles to fill the gaps in family life and politics. Imbalanced population: The most obvious impact of the loss of the men was the imbalance in the population, as family were left without husbands and father, and society without, male companionship for many females. Identify the efforts of Europeans to encourage the acquisition of slaves? How would many Kings respond to the desire to trade more slaves? Identify and describe three societal impacts of the vast slave trade in West Africa. Why were the interests of the Dutch and Portuguese in the Slave Trade delayed? Watch the following: After the trade that destined an African to life as a slave, he or she, in groups would be marched to the coast in a group coffle to other slaves. Slaves that were purchase by companies that had trading forts also known as factories, were made to wait there until a ship that would take them to their destiny arrived. The “merchandise” would be inspected by the resident doctor and if approved and considered healthy, would be branded with the crest of their country to whom they now belonged. Other merchant ships who did not have the luxury of forts took their cargo immediately. Describe the two ways that slaves could be acquired on the coast of Africa. What advantage and disadvantage existed from picking up slaves on the coast rather than having a fort? What advantage and disadvantage existed from being a slave merchant who had access to a fort? Describe the condition of the lower deck of the slave ship. What risks were posed to both slaves and sailors during the middle passage? How long was the middle passage? What were the most popular transshipment ports for slaves in the New World? Identify the two methods of slave sales. How were slaves “cleaned up” for sale? Why was the “Scramble” eventually outlawed? What are Osnaburg clothing? Homework: Complete Exercise 12.5 What circumstances would determine the size of a plantation? The size of the actual island The type of land or landscape African slaves were initially introduced to the West Indies in the 16th century by the Spanish who brought them to her colonies. The life of these slaves is said to be very difficult but the introduction to the difficult life was the journey through the Middle passage, which was the route from Africa to the West Indies, a period which lead to many deaths. Few slave ships actually came to the Bahamas so most of the slaves found on the island were brought from Bermuda and Jamaica by their owners. Slaves ships began entry into the Bahamas after the settlement of the Loyalist in 1783. This need arose out of the development of the cotton industry on the islands. The actual treatment of individual slaves heavily depended on the owners. However, there is a general belief that slave in the Bahamas were treated better than slaves found any where else in the Caribbean. No form of treatment compensated for the loss of freedom and many slaves attempted escape, especially the field slaves who were often treated worse than house slaves. The number of recorded slave revolts in the Bahamas is quite small. The reasons for these vary ; Having to be moved from one island to another Shortage of food and clothing Frustration with bondage Sympathy for other slaves being punished There are a number of recorded revolts in the history of slavery in the Bahamas. The first of which was recorded in Abaco in 1787. The reported incident involved several Negros who lived on the outskirts of the Abaco settlements terrorizing their white counterparts with muskets and other weaponry. The basis behind the revolt was that many of the Africans tough that they had been free. Lord Dunmore, who was governor at the time, went to the islands and granted amnesty to all negroes for the restoration of peace and return to work. Thos who could prove their freedom were declared free. The most serious of slave revolts on plantation of Lord John Rolle, baron of Stevenson in Exuma, an absentee planter. The first of the three revolts in 1829, 1833 and 1834, was lead by a slave called Pompey. Some slaves had been notified that they would be moving to Cat Island within two weeks. This time was insufficient for them to sell their cattle and they could not be transported with them, nor reap their recently planted crops. Many of whom simply refused. Forty-four slaves hid into the bushes for five weeks and them stole the master’s boat, which they took to Nassau, to complain to the Governor. Prior to achieving this goal, the slaves were arrested, placed on trial and convicted of deserting their plantations. The second revolt occurred after s number of the slaves acquire fire arms and refused to work. This revolt too was unsuccessful as the arms were confiscated and the slaves were forced to return to work. During 1834, troops had to be sent to plantations on three separate occasions to control the slaves. Another account of a slave rebellion occurred on the Farquharson plantation on Watling's island. The incident occurred between James, Farquharson’s son and a slave named Alick. Alick opposed to the poor treatment of his wife and brother. His brazen efforts were resented by James and he began beating Alick, who then retaliated and had to be stopped by another slave. A rebellion consisting of 55 other slaves who empathized with Alick ensued and muting continued through the next day, filled with slaves armed with clubs and sticks. On Jospeh Hunter’s Plantation in Cat Island, a slave named Dick as attacked his master by firing a gun at him. Consequently he was hanged; however, the six other slaves who supported his efforts we allowed to go free. The Governor feared that punishing all the slaves would result in a full scale revolt on the island. In 1833, on the plantation of William Johnson, several slaves were informed that they were free and as a result refused to work. A group of about 20 men had to sent to island to discipline the slaves and maintain order. It was found that the actual basis of the revolt was that the slave had not been supplied with food and clothing. 1. How many recorded revolts have been noted for the Bahamas? 2. What was the primary nature of such revolts? 3. What was the nature of Rebellion on: 1. Farquharson's plantation 2. Lord Rolle’s plantation (first one) 3. Johnson’s plantation 4. Who was the governor of the Bahamas for most of the rebellions? 5. How is the population distribution affect the treatment of slaves in the Bahamas? 6. What does the term marronage mean? 7. On which island was the first of maroon rebellions noted? 8. What was the relationship of Maroons in Jamaica with the colony after 1739? 9. The attempted removal Captain Caskell from Trelawney caused which event in Jamaican history? 10. 500 slaves who were said to have not replied to the General Walpole of Jamaica in a timely manner were subsequently sent to which two places as punishment? What is the difference between Maroons and Bush Negroes? The location, Bush Negroes was the name developed for Maroons living in Suriname and Guyana What is the difference between a revolt and a rebellion? A rebellion consists of passive resistance and active resistance to instructions or simply running away from duties or owners A revolt is an active demonstration that usually involves some form of violence. Which groups of African slaves were most likely to lead a revolt or rebellion? Slaves that were African born and had experienced freedom were most likely to start or participate in a revolt or rebellion. In which years did the Bush Negroes gain the same validation as the Jamaican maroons? 1761 and 1767 What was one of the downfalls of raids on Maroons and Bush Negros Villages? The slaves that were taken on the raids to find Bush Negroes learned the path into the villages and were able to runaway back to them. In which year was Tacky’s rebellion and what was the nature? 1760, he plotted to kill all whites and make Jamaica a Black colony. What was the result of this rebellion? It was unsuccessful 1. When did Cuffy’s rebellion begin? February 1963 2. From which tribe was Cuffy? Ashanti 3. What was the nature of Cuffy’s rebellion? The slaves had been under the ownership of many absentee planters who had left them in the care of cruel caretakers and were not given provision in a timely manners . The slaves under Cuffy’s leadership turned this into a quest for freedom. 4. What was self-acclaimed role did Cuffy carry? Governor of the Slaves 5. When did the rebellion end? October 1763 6. In which colony did this Rebellion occur? Guyana 7. What was Cuffy’s fate? He committed suicide 1. Who was Sam Sharp? A slave Baptist deacon 2. What inside connection did he have in Jamaican politics? He had a relative who worked in the printery who had access to document to and from the assembly. 3. In which colony did this rebellion occur? Jamaica 4. What was outcome of the rebellion? The rebellion and Sam Sharp was executed. 5. On which date did the rebellion begin? December 27, 1831 6. What was the other name given to this rebellion? The Baptist 1. When did the slavery in Haiti begin in relation to the British islands? It began later in 1789 2. What impact did France’s late entry into the Sugar industry have on the beginning of slavery? They had to import slaves directly from Africa to work on the Plantations These slaves had to be seasoned quickly which led to harsher conditions The combination of new slaves and harsh conditions led to a hostile environment 3. The wealth of the colony was based on the rich absentee planters but who was responsible for law-making? The French law which was passed down from France and carried out by a few colonial officials on the islands. 4. In which year is the island develop its local assemblies? 1787 5. Which group of persons were most likely to support the Royal officials on the islands Poor whites or petits blancs 6. What limitations were placed on free coloureds? 7. Identify the cause of the divisions of groups on St. Domingue? 8. What was the term used for the ancient form of a French parliament? 9. What was the nature of the meeting held by the middle-class in 1789? 10. What is the basic idea behind the “Declaration of Rights of man”? 11. When did the revolutionary wars between France and her neighbours begin and end? 12. Which groups was acknowledged as the most important of France’s revolutionary leaders? 13. During what years had Napoleon maintained control of France? 14. And in what capacities? When did the Napoleonic wars begin and end? Sometime around 1769, a single storey building, Vendue House was constructed on Bay street opposite George Street. This building became the scene of many slave auctions as well as the site of sales for cattle and other imported goods. The typical slave was sold for about $200 - $300, the range depended on the age and sex of the slave. Despite the slave of slaves in the Bahamas not picked up until the late 1700’s, slave regulations in the colony had been established as early as 1723. These first regulations were devised to limit and control slaves, rather than protect them. The slave movements were heavily controlled, and their side “jobs” were restricted. Their homes could be searched for weapons without cause, as they were not allowed to purchase weapons. Additionally be punished for speaking abruptly to a white person. There was only one clause in the entire document that attempted to protect the slaves. It forbade the masters to burn, cut or maim the slaves in any way; however, this rule was loosely enforced and the punishments were light. There were four extra clauses added to the regulations in 1725, one of which allowed the slaves to participate in religious ceremonies.
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