BGCSE History Theme IV by qvf10731

VIEWS: 49 PAGES: 44

									Topics:
•Africa before the coming of Europeans
•Kingdoms of West Africa
•Plantation Life in the Bahamas
•Resistance and Revolt Passive and Active
   Ancient Ghana, is not quiet the same as the current
    African nation of Ghana. In fact it lies about 400miles
    west of modern Ghana.
   Ancient Ghana encompasses what is not Northern
    Senegal and Southern Mauritania.
   History depicts that the ruler of this great African
    kingdom were the Soninke people, who were led by
    Dingha Cisse.
   The kingdom was able to build its power and wealth
    from the gold in its region, the introduction of the camel
    and this advancements in its Sahara trade.
 Ancient is said to have had some of the richest gold
  mines on earth.
 This mines were conveniently located near the banks
  of the Senegal river, which extended the access to
  trade.
 The Soninke people also sold slaves , salt and copper
  in exchange for textiles.
 They were able to build with their riches a capital city
  known as Kumbi Saleh at the edge of the Sahara, and
  due to its located it quickly became one of the most
  important terminals on the southern trade route.
 The next great African Kingdom in succession to
  Ghana is Ancient Mali.
 The kingdoms of Ancient Ghana and Mali shared a
  number of features but were distinctly different in
  government and order.
 Mali’s ruler converted to Islam and the country did
  so as well, as the religion spread throughout Africa.
 Mali and Ghana were similar because the
  geographical borders of Mali encompassed Ghana
  as a rose as one of the feudal territories that rose
  after the fall of Ghana to fill the void.
   The rulers of Mali controlled the Niger River and the cities
    that lie on its bank.
   The kingdom became a major trade route as well as one for
    travel and became the central artery for commerce for both
    the west and Northern African trade routes.
   Mali’s control of the river and these important cities allowed
    it to flourish into a most powerful and wealthy state.
   In addition, Mali maintained trade and military power.
   This feudal state required the support of a militia to maintain
    the king’s inherited position.
   The ability of the king to maintain his wealth and power
    effectively depended very much on the military power.
   Starting in the 14th century, the king of Mali began to wildly
    spend his kingdom’s wealth, this weakened its power and
    allowed infiltration of outside forces.
   These forces attacked until the came to surface.
   The kingdom split into three realms with a Sultan heading
    each, all claiming to be the king of Mali.
   In addition to this move, the military leaders , themselves, also
    claimed to be independent leaders.
   During its success Mali boasted a conquer of Timbuktu and a
    thriving economy and culture filled with both traditional
    African customs combined with Islamic practices.
 Songhai was doomed to be the next great African kingdom in
  western Africa.
 The kingdom had been increasing its wealth and influence over
  the western Sudan area.
 Around 1464, Sonni Ali-Ber became king of Songhay.
 He was an able and ambitious ruler but he was not popular with
  his subjects.
 A few months after his death, one of his generals seized the
  throne and adopted the support of the people.
 The accepted ruler of Songhai became Askia Mohammed.
 Unlike his predecessor , Askia Mohammed paid great attention
  to education and religion which contributed to the thriving city.
 Askia Mohammed created the largest and wealthiest of all
  kingdoms of the Sudan.
   He had a well administered states the best and most
    organized the region had ever seen, as it was stable and
    efficient.
   Songhai is best credited with building the University of
    Sankore.
   Scholars came from all around to attend the institution
    known for its advancements in Muslim learning.
   This period in African learning continued until the 16th
    century under the rule of Askia Daoud.
   Following Daoud’s death, however, a civil war ensued and
    several cities were taken over in a war known as the Battle of
    Tondibi.
   This led to the end of the great African Kingdom.
 The Portuguese were the first country to embark upon the
  African slave trade beginning around 1562.
 The practice of slavery grew substantially from 1646 to 1790.
 The West Coast of Africa also know as the Sudan, had three
  major empires, Ghana (790-1240), Mali (1240 – 1600) and
  Songhai (670 – 1591).
 African tribal wars produced captives which became a bartering
  resource for trade with the Europeans.
 Other persons who entered into the slave trade were often
  kidnapped by both Black and White hunters.
 The Main terms of barter often included glass beads, whiskey,
  and guns.
 The rising demand for sugar, cotton, coffee and tobacco in
  Europe increased the demand for slaves.
 Spain, France, Holland and England were in competition for
  cheap labour which was needed to work on their plantations
  in the New World.
 The slave trade became quite lucrative and in 1672, the Royal
  African company was formed by King Charles II of England
  and became the most successful and wealthiest shipper of
  Human slaves to the Americas.
 The Slaves were so valuable to the open market they came
  to be referred to as “Black Gold”.
Homework due Monday: page 88 12.1 A-D
   Slavery was never a new concept in Africa.
    The local society maintained acceptable
    forms of slavery that indeed served a
    purpose; whether social, economic or
    political; and keep order in community that
    by some was deemed primitive.
   In cases where parents were unable to take
    care of themselves and or children, persons
    would sell themselves into slavery, typically
    this case applied if there were a famine.
 Owning a debt that could not be reasonably paid of
  often resulted in slavery. A person would be
  contracted in slavery for a period time that would be
  equal to the debt.
 Criminals could be sentenced to slavery for
  committing serious offenses or as so sentenced by a
  ruler or judge.
 Lastly, the element of war was a continued cause for
  enslavement. African societies were typically feudal
  and an attack on a kingdom or tribe often resulted
  in prisoners of war, in this case then became slave of
  the attacking villages.
 It was through this last method that created
  opportunities for the European to encourage
  Africans to convert such a reasonable and
  traditional method of justice and reason into
  the economic program that led to the largest
  Diaspora of any group of people.
 Please check the following link for more
  insight into the African Diaspora:
http://moadsf.org/salon/exhibits/slave_narrativ
  es/flash.php
 The implementation of the African Slave trade in 1502,
  completed transformed the concept of traditional
  slavery into an economic process that served to provide
  cheap labour for developing plantations. At this time,
  the value of Africans changed from human life to a
  commodity with a trade worth the equivalence of
  glass, whiskey or guns.
 Guns became one of the most desired forms of barter
  for slaves, and Europeans could use the trade of
  weapons to encourage one African Village to wage war
  on another in order to acquire slaves.
 African rulers often allowed greed to guide the
  decisions to wage war and would lead attacks on
  smaller villages simply to acquire prisoners of war.
 Not only did kingdoms become wealthy with the
  exotic trade items, but the king would gain a
  substantial income from the taxes of the trade as
  well.
 The impact of this new form of slavery was far
  reaching than could have been anticipated. The
  majority of the persons taken in the slave raids were
  young strong men.
   Through the removal of the young men in the villages the
    following resulted:
     Skilled Craftsmen: There was a loss of skilled craftsmen in areas
      like weaving and ironwork. This impact was made easily
      unnoticed due to the vast importation of cheap cookware and
      European cloths.
     Leaders: With many men being removed from the villages,
      women were forced to take leadership roles to fill the gaps in
      family life and politics.
     Imbalanced population: The most obvious impact of the loss of
      the men was the imbalance in the population, as family were left
      without husbands and father, and society without, male
      companionship for many females.
   Identify the efforts of Europeans to
    encourage the acquisition of slaves?
   How would many Kings respond to the desire
    to trade more slaves?
   Identify and describe three societal impacts
    of the vast slave trade in West Africa.
   Why were the interests of the Dutch and
    Portuguese in the Slave Trade delayed?
   Watch the following:

   After the trade that destined an African to life
    as a slave, he or she, in groups would be
    marched to the coast in a group coffle to
    other slaves.
   Slaves that were purchase by companies that
    had trading forts also known as factories,
    were made to wait there until a ship that
    would take them to their destiny arrived.
 The “merchandise” would
  be inspected by the
  resident doctor and if
  approved and considered
  healthy, would be branded
  with the crest of their
  country to whom they now
  belonged.
 Other merchant ships who
  did not have the luxury of
  forts took their cargo
  immediately.
 Describe the two ways that slaves could be acquired on the
  coast of Africa.
 What advantage and disadvantage existed from picking up
  slaves on the coast rather than having a fort?
 What advantage and disadvantage existed from being a
  slave merchant who had access to a fort?
 Describe the condition of the lower deck of the slave ship.
 What risks were posed to both slaves and sailors during the
  middle passage?
 How long was the middle passage?
 What were the most popular transshipment ports for slaves
  in the New World?
 Identify the two methods of slave sales.
 How were slaves “cleaned up” for sale?
 Why was the “Scramble” eventually
  outlawed?
 What are Osnaburg clothing?
Homework: Complete Exercise 12.5
   What circumstances
    would determine the
    size of a plantation?
     The size of the actual
      island
     The type of land or
      landscape
   African slaves were initially introduced to the West Indies
    in the 16th century by the Spanish who brought them to
    her colonies.
   The life of these slaves is said to be very difficult but the
    introduction to the difficult life was the journey through
    the Middle passage, which was the route from Africa to
    the West Indies, a period which lead to many deaths.
   Few slave ships actually came to the Bahamas so most of
    the slaves found on the island were brought from
    Bermuda and Jamaica by their owners.
   Slaves ships began entry into the Bahamas after the
    settlement of the Loyalist in 1783.
   This need arose out of the development of the cotton
    industry on the islands.
   The actual treatment of individual slaves heavily
    depended on the owners.
 However, there is a general belief that slave in the
  Bahamas were treated better than slaves found any where
  else in the Caribbean.
 No form of treatment compensated for the loss of
  freedom and many slaves attempted escape, especially
  the field slaves who were often treated worse than house
  slaves.
 The number of recorded slave revolts in the Bahamas is
  quite small.
 The reasons for these vary ;
       Having to be moved from one island to another
       Shortage of food and clothing
       Frustration with bondage
       Sympathy for other slaves being punished
   There are a number of recorded revolts in the history
    of slavery in the Bahamas.
   The first of which was recorded in Abaco in 1787.
   The reported incident involved several Negros who
    lived on the outskirts of the Abaco settlements
    terrorizing their white counterparts with muskets and
    other weaponry.
   The basis behind the revolt was that many of the
    Africans tough that they had been free.
   Lord Dunmore, who was governor at the time, went
    to the islands and granted amnesty to all negroes for
    the restoration of peace and return to work.
   Thos who could prove their freedom were declared
    free.
   The most serious of slave revolts on plantation of Lord
    John Rolle, baron of Stevenson in Exuma, an absentee
    planter.
   The first of the three revolts in 1829, 1833 and 1834,
    was lead by a slave called Pompey.
   Some slaves had been notified that they would be
    moving to Cat Island within two weeks.
   This time was insufficient for them to sell their cattle
    and they could not be transported with them, nor
    reap their recently planted crops.
   Many of whom simply refused.
   Forty-four slaves hid into the bushes for five weeks
    and them stole the master’s boat, which they took to
    Nassau, to complain to the Governor.
   Prior to achieving this goal, the slaves were arrested,
    placed on trial and convicted of deserting their
    plantations.
   The second revolt occurred after s number of the
    slaves acquire fire arms and refused to work.
   This revolt too was unsuccessful as the arms were
    confiscated and the slaves were forced to return to
    work.
   During 1834, troops had to be sent to plantations on
    three separate occasions to control the slaves.
   Another account of a slave rebellion occurred on the
    Farquharson plantation on Watling's island.
   The incident occurred between James,
    Farquharson’s son and a slave named Alick.
   Alick opposed to the poor treatment of his wife
    and brother.
   His brazen efforts were resented by James and
    he began beating Alick, who then retaliated and
    had to be stopped by another slave.
   A rebellion consisting of 55 other slaves who
    empathized with Alick ensued and muting
    continued through the next day, filled with
    slaves armed with clubs and sticks.
   On Jospeh Hunter’s Plantation in Cat Island, a slave
    named Dick as attacked his master by firing a gun at him.
   Consequently he was hanged; however, the six other
    slaves who supported his efforts we allowed to go free.
   The Governor feared that punishing all the slaves would
    result in a full scale revolt on the island.
   In 1833, on the plantation of William Johnson, several
    slaves were informed that they were free and as a result
    refused to work.
   A group of about 20 men had to sent to island to
    discipline the slaves and maintain order.
   It was found that the actual basis of the revolt was that
    the slave had not been supplied with food and clothing.
1.    How many recorded revolts have been noted for the Bahamas?
2.    What was the primary nature of such revolts?
3.    What was the nature of Rebellion on:
     1.   Farquharson's plantation
     2.   Lord Rolle’s plantation (first one)
     3.   Johnson’s plantation
4.  Who was the governor of the Bahamas for most of the rebellions?
5.  How is the population distribution affect the treatment of slaves in the
    Bahamas?
6.  What does the term marronage mean?
7.  On which island was the first of maroon rebellions noted?
8.  What was the relationship of Maroons in Jamaica with the colony after
    1739?
9.  The attempted removal Captain Caskell from Trelawney caused which
    event in Jamaican history?
10. 500 slaves who were said to have not replied to the General Walpole of
    Jamaica in a timely manner were subsequently sent to which two places
    as punishment?
 What is the difference between Maroons and Bush Negroes?
   The location, Bush Negroes was the name developed for Maroons
    living in Suriname and Guyana
 What is the difference between a revolt and a rebellion?
   A rebellion consists of passive resistance and active resistance to
    instructions or simply running away from duties or owners
   A revolt is an active demonstration that usually involves some form
    of violence.
 Which groups of African slaves were most likely to lead a revolt or
  rebellion?
   Slaves that were African born and had experienced freedom were
    most likely to start or participate in a revolt or rebellion.
   In which years did the Bush Negroes gain the same
    validation as the Jamaican maroons?
     1761 and 1767
   What was one of the downfalls of raids on Maroons and
    Bush Negros Villages?
     The slaves that were taken on the raids to find Bush Negroes
      learned the path into the villages and were able to runaway
      back to them.
   In which year was Tacky’s rebellion and what was the
    nature?
     1760, he plotted to kill all whites and make Jamaica a Black
      colony.
   What was the result of this rebellion?
     It was unsuccessful
1.       When did Cuffy’s rebellion begin?
           February 1963
2.       From which tribe was Cuffy?
           Ashanti
3.       What was the nature of Cuffy’s rebellion?
           The slaves had been under the ownership of many absentee
            planters who had left them in the care of cruel caretakers and were
            not given provision in a timely manners . The slaves under Cuffy’s
            leadership turned this into a quest for freedom.
4.       What was self-acclaimed role did Cuffy carry?
           Governor of the Slaves
5.       When did the rebellion end?
           October 1763
6.       In which colony did this Rebellion occur?
          Guyana
7.       What was Cuffy’s fate?
          He committed suicide
1.       Who was Sam Sharp?
          A slave Baptist deacon
2.       What inside connection did he have in Jamaican politics?
          He had a relative who worked in the printery who had access
           to document to and from the assembly.
3.       In which colony did this rebellion occur?
          Jamaica
4.       What was outcome of the rebellion?
          The rebellion and Sam Sharp was executed.
5.       On which date did the rebellion begin?
          December 27, 1831
6.       What was the other name given to this rebellion?
          The Baptist
1.       When did the slavery in Haiti begin in relation to
         the British islands?
          It began later in 1789
2.       What impact did France’s late entry into the Sugar
         industry have on the beginning of slavery?
          They had to import slaves directly from Africa to work on
           the Plantations
          These slaves had to be seasoned quickly which led to
           harsher conditions
          The combination of new slaves and harsh conditions led
           to a hostile environment
3.       The wealth of the colony was based on the rich
         absentee planters but who was responsible for
         law-making?
          The French law which was passed down from France and
           carried out by a few colonial officials on the islands.
4.       In which year is the island develop its local
         assemblies?
          1787
5.       Which group of persons were most likely to
         support the Royal officials on the islands
          Poor whites or petits blancs
6. What limitations were placed on free coloureds?
7. Identify the cause of the divisions of groups on St.
   Domingue?
8. What was the term used for the ancient form of a
   French parliament?
9. What was the nature of the meeting held by the
   middle-class in 1789?
10. What is the basic idea behind the “Declaration of
     Rights of man”?
11. When did the revolutionary wars between France
     and her neighbours begin and end?
12. Which groups was acknowledged as the
    most important of France’s revolutionary
    leaders?
13. During what years had Napoleon
    maintained control of France?
14. And in what capacities?
    When did the Napoleonic wars begin and
    end?
   Sometime around 1769, a single storey building,
    Vendue House was constructed on Bay street
    opposite George Street.
   This building became the scene of many slave
    auctions as well as the site of sales for cattle and other
    imported goods.
   The typical slave was sold for about $200 - $300, the
    range depended on the age and sex of the slave.
   Despite the slave of slaves in the Bahamas not picked
    up until the late 1700’s, slave regulations in the colony
    had been established as early as 1723.
   These first regulations were devised to limit and
    control slaves, rather than protect them.
   The slave movements were heavily controlled, and
    their side “jobs” were restricted.
   Their homes could be searched for weapons without
    cause, as they were not allowed to purchase weapons.
   Additionally be punished for speaking abruptly to a
    white person.
   There was only one clause in the entire document that
    attempted to protect the slaves.
   It forbade the masters to burn, cut or maim the slaves
    in any way; however, this rule was loosely enforced
    and the punishments were light.
   There were four extra clauses added to the
    regulations in 1725, one of which allowed the slaves to
    participate in religious ceremonies.

								
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