THE HISTORY OF A PLACE WHERE YOU LIVE - PowerPoint by qvf10731

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									THE HISTORY OF A PLACE
    WHERE YOU LIVE
  The History of a Place Where You Live

Name of Project: The History of a place where you live.

Goal Of The Project: we would like to know about the
history of your place.

Type Of Writing Requested: We would like to receive the
information about the history of places where you live in
the form of articles and photos.
    The History of a Place Where You Live
•   Description Of What You Are Looking For From Other Schools:

•   We would like to receive the information about the history of places where you live
    now. We would be most grateful if you could include the following

•   History of the places-
     – When was your town founded?
     – How was it founded?
     – Who founded your town (city)?
     – Did your city ( town ) have another name in the past?

•   Photos (old photos of your city and modern photos)

•   We would like to get the information about famous people who has ever lived in your
    city (town). What are they famous for?

•   We would gladly receive any number of submissions from each school.
                                      Novosibirsk


                                                     Novosibirsk

•   One of the largest cities of Russia, Novosibirsk is the administrative center of Novosibirsk province in the Russian
    Republic. Located on the Ob River in Siberia, the city is known both for industrial production and for its educational
    and scientific research facilities.
•   The city has an extreme continental climate with a severe winter. The average winter temperature is 3° F (–16° C),
    but the temperature has been known to drop to –58° F (–50° C). In early winter very strong and bitterly cold winds
    are common. The highest summer temperatures reach 99° F (37° C), and frequently there are torrential
    thunderstorms and hailstorms.
•   Novosibirsk's central position on the Trans-Siberian Railway has been a key factor in the city's rapid growth and
    development into one of Russia's foremost manufacturing centers. The major industries are metallurgy and
    engineering. During the 1960s and 1970s the chemical industry developed rapidly, producing synthetic resin,
    plastics, and pharmaceutical goods. Other industries are primarily concerned with consumer goods—furniture,
    pianos, shoes, textiles, knitwear, and foodstuffs.
•   The city is the principal Siberian cultural and educational center. It has six theaters, including an imposing opera
    and ballet theater that seats 2,000; the Red Torch Drama Theater; a children's theater; and a circus. There are
    botanical gardens, an art gallery, four museums, and a symphony orchestra. The State Public Scientific and
    Technical Library of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. was one of the copyright libraries of the former
    Soviet Union. The library's collection includes more than 5 million books and there are reading rooms that seat
    1,000. The city is also a publishing center.
                                     Novosibirsk


                                                     Novosibirsk

•   One of the most remarkable developments of Novosibirsk is the satellite town of Akademgorodok (Academic Town)
    15 miles (25 kilometers) south of the city. It houses Novosibirsk State University, most of the 22 specialist research
    institutes maintained by the Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Medical Sciences, and the Siberian branches of
    the All-Union Agricultural Academy. This concentration of scientific research workers and teachers of higher
    education has attracted international attention. Akademgorodok is regarded as a prototype for academic settlements
    that have been planned or proposed for St. Petersburg, Vladivostok, and other Russian cities.
•   Novosibirsk began as an offspring of the Trans-Siberian Railway. In 1891 a small village was chosen as the site for a
    railroad bridge over the Ob River. As work on the bridge progressed, a new settlement grew nearby. It was known as
    Gusekva, or Aleksandrovsky, until 1895, when it was renamed Novonikolayevsk in honor of Czar Nicholas II.
•   Transshipment and river trade developed quickly, and the population grew steadily. Near the end of the 1917
    Russian Revolution, the town was occupied by the Red Army. It was renamed Novosibirsk, or New Siberia, in 1925.
•   The opening of the mineral and timber wealth of Siberia brought about further rapid development. The completion in
    the early 1930s of the Turkestan-Siberian Railway, which provided a direct link with Tashkent and Central Asia, was
    a major factor in Novosibirsk's eventual rank as the Soviet Union's ninth largest city. Many large new factories were
    established as a result of this railroad connection. Population approximately 2100000.

                                 Sasha Bashkeev Lyceum 130, Novosibirsk, Russia
                                     Novosibirsk


                                                   Novosibirsk

•   History of Novosibirsk.
•    Our city is very young. It had 6 names before it became Novosibirsk. We must thank Garin- Mihaylovsky. He built
    the railway bridge. Trains began to come to our city. Novosibirsk began to develop. Many plants were built in the
    city since 1941- till 1945 some of them stay in our city today. Every day Novosibirsk becomes better and better.

                                  Asya Hrushyeva Lyceum 130, Novosibirsk, Russia
                                      Novosibirsk


                                                      Novosibirsk

•   Novosibirsk was founded in 1893 as a transport knot. Aviation has become very important during the last years
    along with railway ,water and other kinds of transport. The population of the city nowadays is 1,6 million of people,
    it is the third biggest city in the country. The territory of Novosibirsk is really huge: it stretches out as long as 45
    kilometers from the West to the East.
•   Novosibirsk scientific center (Acaademgorodok) is known all over the world. This legendary city of science is
    situated on the Ob seashore. Its scientific research institutes is number of 30 and all the houses are placed among
    the forest territories that are well taken care of. There are more than 40 state and non0state universities in
    Novosibirsk.
•   The largest in the country theatre of Opera and ballet is situates on the central city square. The Novosibirsk zoo
    founded in September the 17th 1947,the zoo is one of the best zoos in the world and one of the most favored
    places to spend leisure time for citizens.
•   The Novosibirsk hydroelectric power station- is the first hydroelectric power station built on the great Siberian
    rivers.
•   I study in the lyceum by the name of Lavrentyev M. A. He was the founder of Akademgorodok and the first
    coordinator of hydrodynamics institute.
                                     Novosibirsk


                                                    Novosibirsk

•   In the Novosibirsk live more than 15000000 people . In 1893 at this place people built a bridge over the river Ob.
    A little village was founded too. 10 years passed and this village became a city. The first name of the city was
    Novonikolaevsk and in 1925 it became Novosibirsk.
•   Novosibirsk is the biggest industrial, cultural and scientific centre of Siberia.
•   There are cars building and planes building factories. There are many metal and chemical factories. There are 14
    universities where you can study. There are a lot of museums and theatres and the biggest in Siberia the theatre
    of opera and ballet.
•   In Novosibirsk there are a lot of famous people, especially in Academgorodok. In Academgorodok there are many
    scientific centers and Siberian of Russian Academy of Science. All buildings in Academgorodok are in the forest.
    That’s why air in this part of Novosibirsk is very clean. Welcome to our city.

                                 Nikita Ashihmin Lyceum 130, Novosibirsk, Russia
                                      Novosibirsk


                                                     Novosibirsk

•   Novosibirsk is located 1600 miles to the East of Moscow, in western Siberia. Novosibirsk is the largest city in
    Siberia. It’s the forth city because its population is 1.500.000 inhabitants. Novosibirsk is the third largest city in
    Russia. Novosibirsk is situated alongside the Ob. A river nearly as long as the Mississippi. The climate is
    continental in Novosibirsk. In winter it’s cold and frosty the average winter temperature is -20 , in summer it’s
    generally hot and warm. And sometimes rains. The average temperature is +20.
•   Pine and birches trees surround Novosibirsk. There are over 3/000 lakes in Novosibirsk region, including artificial
    144- mile- long reservation.
•   In 1884, the city was described by the Russian geographical Society as a huddle of Nuts. In 1893 the Trans-
    Siberian railway was extended across the river, Ob the town grew rapidly and appeared new buildings, shops,
    banks, schools, hospitals. In 1925 the city was renamed Novosibirsk, the new town of Siberia.
•   Novosibirsk is often called the capital of Siberia. In 1957, by M. Lavrentyev Academgorodok was founded. This
    academic community is situated about 30 kilometers from the city center –it is part of Novosibirsk. We can see
    nice tidy streets and prospects in Academgorodok. The names of the streets are The Golden Valley street, Pearly
    Street, Morskoy prospect. Novosibirsk state university is situated in Academgorodok. There are several museums,
    the House of Scientists ,Botanical garden. People try to keep the environment in Academgorodok clean and fresh
    and not to damage forests.

                               Stasy Rubtsova ―A‖ Lyceum 130, Novosibirsk, Russia
                                           Karachi
•   School Name:IISAR Foundation School, Karachi, Pakistan
•   Co-ordinator : Sarwat Alam
•   Project Name : History of a place where you live
•   Students of Class VIII: Bilal Naseem, Asif Hashmi, Junaid Malik, Mubashir Rasool, Waqas Waseem,
    Yumna Ahmed



•   The History of my City Karachi

•   HISTORY OF THE PLACE
•   When was your town founded?
•   It is not specifically known when Karachi was founded. It was from the beginning that Karachi was in the Indus
    reign. Then, centuries after the Indus settlement were known as Debel. The only exact date we have is when
    Muhammad-bin-Qasim led his conquering in 712 AD. The whole Sindh was then a Muslim reign.
                                            Karachi
•   Who founded your town?
•   One of the oldest civilizations, Indus Valley civilization spread all over the Sindh, a province of Pakistan. Karachi
    was one of the settlements of the same civilization. Karachi has been reincarnated quite some time, first as a part
    of the Indus settlement and then on. It is very hard to tell one founder also. Actually, it has seen many founders,
    Indus civilization, Hindus, Muhammad-bin-Qasim and Kolachi According to legend; the city started its life as a
    fishing settlement where a fisherwoman by the name of Mai Kolachi had residence. Her unmatched singing and
    dancing talent attracted quite people. The village later grew out of this settlement was known as ―Kolachi-jo-Goth‖
    (The Village of Kolachi in Sindhi). It became the centre of all activity for the British Raj (British Rule) and then
    Pakistan. The particular name Kolachi was customized to made the name Karachi itself.

•   Did your city have another name in the past?
•   It had many names in the past. It had different names according to different timelines. It was
    known as Krokola to ancient Greeks. To Arabs it was known as Debel. In the British rule, it had
    different names. It was known as Kolachi-jo-Goth then Kolachi and then Karachi
                                            Karachi
•   Who founded your town?
•   One of the oldest civilizations, Indus Valley civilization spread all over the Sindh, a province of Pakistan. Karachi
    was one of the settlements of the same civilization. Karachi has been reincarnated quite some time, first as a part
    of the Indus settlement and then on. It is very hard to tell one founder also. Actually, it has seen many founders,
    Indus civilization, Hindus, Muhammad-bin-Qasim and Kolachi According to legend; the city started its life as a
    fishing settlement where a fisherwoman by the name of Mai Kolachi had residence. Her unmatched singing and
    dancing talent attracted quite people. The village later grew out of this settlement was known as ―Kolachi-jo-Goth‖
    (The Village of Kolachi in Sindhi). It became the centre of all activity for the British Raj (British Rule) and then
    Pakistan. The particular name Kolachi was customized to made the name Karachi itself.
•   Did your city have another name in the past?
•   It had many names in the past. It had different names according to different timelines. It was known as Krokola to
    ancient Greeks. To Arabs it was known as Debel. In the British rule, it had different names. It was known as
    Kolachi-jo-Goth then Kolachi and then Karachi
•   FAMOUS PEOPLE OF OUR PLACE
•    Muhammad Ali Jinnah “Quaid-e-Azam”
•   Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a Muslim politician and leader of All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan. He
    served as our first Governor-General of Pakistan. In Pakistan, we know him as Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader)
    Baba-e-Qaum (Father of the Nation). His birth and death anniversaries are holidays in our country Pakistan. He is
    one true great leader of our nation. He was born and died in Karachi. Today his mausoleum stands in Karachi as a
    symbol of our nation. The mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Jinnah is the landmark of our city, Karachi.
                                           Karachi
Karachi

    General InformationProvinceSindhLocation24°51′36″N, 67°00′36″EAltitude8 metres AMSLArea3,527 km_Calling
    code021Time zonePST (UTC+5)No. of Towns18Population9,339,023 1998Estimate11,969,284 [1]
    2006density3,394 persons/km_GovernmentCity Mayor (Nazim)Syed Mustafa KamalNo. of Union
    Councils178Karachi is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan, sometimes
                                      ‫ر‬
    known as the City of Quaid (‫ ,)قائد ِ_ش‬after Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder of Pakistan. It is located on the coast
    of the Arabian Sea in southeastern Pakistan, northwest of the Indus Delta. The city is the financial and commercial
    centre as well as the largest port of Pakistan.
•   The site of an ancient community of fishing villages, the modern port-city of Karachi was developed by authorities of
    the British Raj in the 19th century. Upon the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the city was selected to become the
    national capital, and was exposed to a massive influx of immigrants from India, which radically expanded the city's
    population and transformed the demographics and economy. Karachi has faced major infrastructural and socio-
    economic challenges, but modern industries and businesses have developed in the city, and the population
    expanded even after the capital was moved to Islamabad in August 1960.
•   Karachi is ethnically and religiously a diverse city in the nation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Karachi witnessed a
    major influx of refugees from the war in Afghanistan, and increasing political and sectarian violence between the
    Punjabi and Sindhi communities, and the Mohajirs (descendants of immigrants from India). The intervention of the
    Pakistani army and martial law scarred the city, but a national economic boom in the early 21st century has resulted
    in economic growth and prosperity for the city. As of 2006 Karachi has an estimated population of 11.5 million,
    making it the second largest city in the world.
                                            Karachi
Karachi

    The area of Karachi has been known to the ancient Greeks by many names. Krokola, the place where Alexander
    the Great camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia after his campaign in the Indus valley; 'Morontobara' port
    (probably the modern Manora Island near the Karachi harbor), from where Alexander's admiral Nearchus sailed for
    back home; and Barbarikon, a sea port of the Indo-Greek Bactrian kingdom. It was also known as the port of Debal
    to the Arabs, from where Muhammad Bin Qasim led his conquering force into South Asia in 712AD. According to
    the British historian Eliot, parts of city of Karachi and the island of Manora constituted the city of Debal.
•   According to legend however, the present city started its life as a fishing settlement where a fisherwoman by the
    name of Mai Kolachee took up residence and started a family. The village that later grew out of this settlement was
    known as Kolachi-jo-Goth (The Village of Kolachi in Sindhi). By the late 1700’s this village started trading across the
    sea with Muscat and the Persian Gulf region which led to its gaining importance. A small fort was constructed for its
    protection, armed with cannons imported from Muscat. The fort had two main gateways: one facing the sea, known
    as Khara Darwaaza (Brackish Gate) and the other facing the adjoining Lyari river known as the Meetha Darwaaza
    (Sweet Gate). The location of these gates corresponds to the present-day city localities of Khaaradar (Khārā Dar)
    and Meethadar (Mī_hā Dar) respectively.
•   In 1795, the village became a domain of the Talpur rulers of Sindh. A small factory was opened by the British in
    September 1799, but was closed down within a year. After sending a couple of exploratory missions to the area, the
    British East India Company conquered the town on February 3rd, 1839. The village was later annexed to the British
    Indian Empire when the province of Sindh was conquered by Charles Napier in 1843. Kolachi was added along with
    the rest of Sindh to the jurisdiction of the Bombay Presidency.
•   Saint Patrick's Cathedral
                                           Karachi
Karachi

    The British realized its importance as a military cantonment and a port for exporting the produce of the Indus basin,
    and rapidly developed its harbor for shipping. The foundations of a city municipal government were laid down and
    infrastructure development was undertaken. New businesses started opening up and the population of the town
    started rising rapidly. Karachi quickly turned into a city, making true the famous quote by Napier who is known to
    have said: Would that I could come again to see you in your grandeur!
•   In 1857, the First Indian War for Independence broke out in the sub-continent and the 21st Native Infantry stationed
    in Karachi declared allegiance to revolters, joining their cause on September 10, 1857. However, the British were
    rapidly able to reassert their control over Karachi and defeat the uprising.
•   In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent from India to England when a direct telegraph connection was laid
    down between Karachi and London. In 1878, the city was connected to the rest of British India by railway line.
    Public building projects such as the Frere Hall (1865) and the Empress Market (1890) were undertaken. In 1876,
    Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, was born in the city, which by now had become a bustling city with
    railroad, churches, mosques, courthouses, markets, paved streets and a magnificent harbor. By 1899 Karachi had
    become the largest wheat exporting port in the East (Feldman 1970:57). The population of the city had also risen to
    about 105,000 inhabitants by the end of the 19th century and was a cosmopolitan mix of Indian Hindus and
    Muslims, European traders, Parsis, Iranians, Lebanese, and Goan merchants. By the turn of the century, the city
    faced street congestion, which led to India’s first tramway system being laid down in 1900.
•   Frere Hall - a prime example of colonial architecture built during the British Raj
                                           Karachi
Karachi

    By 1914, Karachi had become the largest grain exporting port of the British Empire. In 1924, an aerodrome was
    built and Karachi became the main airport of entry into India. An airship mast was also built in Karachi in 1927 as
    part of the Imperial Airship Communications scheme, which was later abandoned. In 1936, Sindh was separated
    from the Bombay Presidency and Karachi was made the capital of the new province. By the time the new country of
    Pakistan was formed in 1947, Karachi had become a bustling metropolitan city with beautiful classical and colonial
    European styled buildings lining the city’s thoroughfares.
•   Karachi was chosen as the capital city of Pakistan and accommodated a huge influx of migrants and refugees to
    the newly formed country. The demographics of the city also changed drastically. However, it still maintained a
    great cultural diversity as its new inhabitants arrived from all parts of the subcontinent. In 1958, the capital of
    Pakistan was shifted from Karachi to Rawalpindi and then to Islamabad in 1960. This marked the start of a long
    period of decline in the city, owing to a lack of governmental attention and development. The 1980’s and 90’s saw
    an influx of refugees from the Afghan war into Karachi.
•   Karachi continues to be an important financial and industrial center for the country and handles most of the
    overseas trade of Pakistan and the Central Asian countries. It accounts for a large portion of the GDP of Pakistan
    and a large chunk of the country's white collar workers. Karachi's population has continued to grow and is estimated
    to have passed the 12 million mark, although official figures still show a population of around 11.5 million. The
    current economic boom in Pakistan has also resulted in a new period of resurgence in the economy of Karachi and
    a lot of new opportunities have opened up in the city. The city government is also undertaking a massive upgrading
    of the city’s infrastructure, which promises to again put Karachi into the lineup of one of the world’s greatest
    metropolitan cities.
                                        Karachi
Karachi

    Famous People

•   Muhammad Ali JinnahDecember 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948Place of birth:Karachi,
    SindhPlace of death:Karachi, PakistanMovement:Pakistan movementMajor organizations:Muslim League
•   Muhammad Ali Jinnah (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was a Muslim politician and leader of the All
    India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. He is commonly known in
    Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam and Baba-e-Qaum ("Father of the Nation.") His birth and death anniversaries are
•   national holidays in Pakistan.
                                  Cluj-Napoca

                                           History of Cluj-Napoca

•   After the Roman Empire conquered Dacia in the beginning of the 2nd century, Trajan established a legion
    base known as Napoca on a native location . Hadrian raised Napoca to the status of a municipium,
    naming it Municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napoca. during the Migrations Period Napoca was overrun and
    destroyed.
•            In the 10th century, the region was settled the Magyars (Hungarians) and became part of the
    Kingdom of Hungary. King Stephen V of Hungary encouraged the Transylvanian Saxons to colonize near
    the Roman ruins of Napoca in 1272. Their settlement received the German name Klausenburg, from the
    old word Klause meaning "mountain pass." Cluj became a free city in 1405.
•            In 1541 Cluj became part of the independent Principality of Transylvania after the Ottoman Turks
    occupied most of the Kingdom of Hungary. The city became a center for Hungarian nobility and
    intellectuals. With the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, Cluj became part of the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria.
•            After the Ausgleich (compromise) which created Austria-Hungary in 1867, Cluj and Transylvania
    were again integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary. During this time Cluj was the second most important
    city in the kingdom after Budapest, and was the seat of Kolozs County.
•   After World War I, Cluj became part of the Kingdom of Romania, along with the rest of Transylvania. In
    1940 Cluj was returned to Hungary through the Second Vienna Award, but Hungarian forces in the city
    were defeated by the Soviet and Romanian armies in October 1944. Cluj was restored to Romania by the
    Treaty of Paris in 1947.
•   The Soviets conquered Romania in 1948. Until 1974 the official Romanian name of the city was Cluj. It was
    renamed to Cluj-Napoca by the Communist government to recognize it as the site of the Roman colony
    Napoca. After the anti-communist revolution, the town kept its name.
•   I. Maniu Street: Construction of this symmetrical street was undertaken during the 19th century

•   By Copoeru Armin,
    International School Cluj, Romania
                                            Tehran

Tehran is situated near the ruins of the ancient city of Rayy on the southern flanks of the Elborz Mountain
where they fall away to the central plain of Iran. It is reported that Karím Khán of the Zand dynasty intended to
make Tehran his capital in the eighteenth century but then chose Shiraz instead. The town itself was of no size
or importance until it was made the capital of Iran by the Qájár dynasty in 1200/1786. The traditional province
of Tehran includes also the important Bábí-Bahá'í communities of Sangsar and Shahmírzád to the east and
Qumm to the south.
                                               Tehran

•   History of Tehran
•   Tehran which today ranks among the large cities of the world, is historically a newcomer among Iran's ancient
    cities. The oldest record mentioning Tehran, is the book of "tArikhe baghdAd" (Baghdad's History), written in 14
    volumes by, Abu-Bakr Ahmad-ibn Ali-ibn SAbet, also known as "khatibe baghdAdi".
•   Khatib, who died in the latter part of 11th century A.D., in his biography of Mohammed-ibn-HammAd, calls him Abi
    AbdollAh HAfeze TehrAniye RAzi. Before this, we do not find any mention of Tehran in any written document; after
    this some scant mentions of Tehran are made in connection with its affluent agricultural products, specially its
    pomegranates. The first geographer who writes attentively about Tehran, is ShahAb-od-din Abu AbdollAh
    (Yaghoote Hamavi), who lived around 13th century A.D. In his book Mo'jam-ol-BoldAn he writes;
•   "Tehran is one of the villages of Rey with rebellious inhabitants. They not only disregard their governors, but are in
    constant clashes amongst themselves, to the extent that the inhabitants of its twelve quarters cannot visit one
    another."
•   He adds that the TehrAnis lived in underground dwellings. His writings have been confirmed by the other
    geographers of the same period. The onset of the destruction of Rey, first by sectarian schisms and fanaticism in
    the 12th century, followed by its annihilation in the catastrophic sack by the Mongols in the year 1220 A.D., gave
    Tehran an opportunity for development and increased its population. Finally in the second half of the 16th century,
    this green village attracted the attention of Shah TahmAsb I, the Safavid King, who ordered that ramparts be
    constructed around it (1553 A.D.). From that time Tehran acquired the status of a city and grew systematically.
    The length of these ramparts was about 6000 paces, and included 114 forts and four gates; these were:
•   The shah abdol azim gate ...darvAze shAb dol azim
•   The doolAb gate ...darvAze doolAb
•   The shemirAn gate ...darvAze shemroon
•   The qazvin gate ...darvAze qazvin
•   Shah AbbAs who set out in the year
                                               Tehran

•   History of Tehran
•   Shah AbbAs who set out in the year 1589 A.D., to KhorAsAn to quell the attack of Abdol Mo'men KhAne Uzbak,
    stopped on his way in Tehran, where he fell ill. This prevented him from reaching KhorAsAn in time and as a result
    Abdol Mo'men KhAn, looted Mashad, killing a large number of its citizens. It has been mentioned by some sources
    that for this reason Shah AbbAs felt a distaste for Tehran.
•   Notwithstanding this, he ordered the planting of a grove of birch trees which later became the Arg of TehrAn.
    Pietro Della Valle, the Italian traveler who was in Iran in the years 1617/1623 A.D. called Tehran "the birch city",
    and wrote that if two people held hands they still could not encircle the trunks of these trees.
•   During the declining years of the Safavid rule a building was erected close to the birch grove on the orders of Shah
    Safi II, and Shah SoltAn Hossein spent some time there at the end of his reign. After the fall of the Safavids, the
    AfghAns occupied TehrAn along with other Iranian cities and chose to reside in the TehrAn Arg. After their defeat
    by NAder Shah, they looted TehrAn before they fled, killing a large number of its citizens.
•   During the reign of NAder Shah little attention was paid to TehrAn. Later Karim KhAne Zand, in his war against
    Mohammad Hassan Khane Qajar, chose TehrAn as his military headquarters and the gathering center of his
    soldiers. He was the first who thought of making TehrAn his capital. The plan reached the stage where in the year
    1758 A.D. offices and a harem were built within the Arg which was surrounded by ramparts and moats. The plan
    to make TehrAn the capital, first thought of by the Zands, was carried out by Agha Mohammad KhAne Qajar, who
    in the year 1785 A.D., proclaimed it his capital and bestowed on it the title of DAr ol KhelAfeh (the house of the
    caliphate). During the reign of Fathali Shahe Qajar, TehrAn developed gradually, new buildings were erected and
    the population increased.
•   Nonetheless, TehrAn was not a city fit to be the capital. Apart from the royal buildings, dwellings were bad and
    lacking most urban necessities. Alleys were narrow, dusty and dark in the heat of summer, and full of mud-filled
    potholes in winter. All travelers and political envoys described this and expressed their dissatisfaction. During the
    reigns of Mohammad Shahe Qajar and his son NAser-Oddin Shah new developments and buildings slowly
    appeared and the first planned development was in the year 1867 A.D....
                                Johannesburg

                                             History of Johannesburg
                                                 Faith Namsemon

•   Johannesburg. A land bursting with color and resources. The beat and rhythm of an outstanding nation.
    Blossoming with various cultures. But Johannesburg wasn’t like this in the past…
•   Thousands of years ago the area around and in Johannesburg and in it was inhabited by herds of hunter
    gatherers. The roamed freely searching for fruits, roots and hunting animals.
•   But the peace didn’t last for long. Soon the Dutch made a rest stop at the tip of South Africa and claimed to have
    ―discovered South Africa‖. The hunter gatherers and the Dutch settlers were peaceful at first. But then the Dutch
    wanted to make these hunter gathers their slaves. The hunter gathers protested, they didn’t comprehend why they
    couldn’t share the land.
•   The disagreement between the two sides resulted in feuds that lasted for several decades. But soon the Dutch
    claimed their victory. The land was then calm once more.
•   Then an astonishing discovery was made when a very profitable element was mined in the Witwatersrand Reef.
    This element was gold. The world was suddenly in frenzy for everyone was trying to make their way to
    Johannesburg. A suddenly wealthy area.
•   Thus due to this discovery Johannesburg was established in 1866. The population of Johannesburg increased
    dramatically thanks to the gold.
•   Johannesburg now currently forms part of Gauteng and is today the core of education and entertainment for all of
    Africa.
                                 Johannesburg

                                              History of Johannesburg
                                                  Faith Namsemon


•   Just over 100 years ago, the economic and industrial centre of South Africa today was an endless untouched
    savannah. This changed very fast when the first gold was found in 1886. The news spread like wildfire and the
    area experienced an unprecedented gold rush. The government sent two deputies, who founded a little settlement
    and named it after the first name they both had in common, Johannesburg. Three years later the place was the
    biggest town in the country. By 1875 almost 100,000 people lived in Johannesburg and the mines employed more
    than 75,000 workers.
•   Black people from the reservations were forced to work in the mines. The men had to do that for at least a year.
    During this time they were separated from their wives and children and were living under inhumane conditions in
    the so-called "hostels". To stay emotionally in contact with their home and their culture, many of the men started to
    practice their traditional dances. In the course of the years these performances of the mine dancers also became
    part of the weekend entertainment for many whites in Johannesburg.
•   Black people from the reservations were forced to work in the mines. The men had to do that for at least a year.
    During this time they were separated from their wives and children and were living under inhumane conditions in
    the so-called "hostels". To stay emotionally in contact with their home and their culture, many of the men started to
    practice their traditional dances. In the course of the years these performances of the mine dancers also became
    part of the weekend entertainment for many whites in Johannesburg.

								
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