Designing and Implementing e-Government Strategy by enk60739


									Designing and Implementing
e-Government Strategy

        Deepak Bhatia

   E-government – brief introduction
   E-government strategy – components
   Case study – e-Bharat
   What does all of this mean for the
    World Bank

     Why e-government?
                                                       “Everyone else is doing
                                                          it, so its probably
                         “Its hype”
                                                        important and useful”

                                                                      “We don’t want to
“We think it will provide faster, more
                                                                    fall behind all others”
 convenient government services”

“We think it will reduce costs for                       ”We think it will reduce costs for
individuals and businesses to deal                       government (reduced data entry
with government”                                         costs, lower error rates)”

                                                                   “We think it will
         ”To reduce corruption                                        improve
         and fight poverty”                                           process”

                                                         ”We need to reach out to a broader
         ”We think it’s a tool for transformation of            part of population”
         public administration from bureaucracy to
         service provider”
           So what is E-Government?
   E-government is very simply about applying
    information and communication technology
    to all aspects of a government‟s business
    where it makes sense to improve efficiency
    and effectiveness in the achievement of
    policy and program outcomes

        So why an E-Government strategy?
   To pursue real economic development goals not just “technology
   To create the right policy and institutional frameworks from the start.
   To maximize effectiveness of ICT initiatives within Government.
   To manage the increasing costs of I&IT in government
   To generate savings by applying I&IT in backend processes or other
    programmatic areas
   To map path from pilot experiments to sustainable, scalable systems
   To design technology architecture (infrastructure, data, standards)
    for the public sector
   To integrate organizational silos and deliver citizen services through
    common channels.

What is an e-government strategy?

1.   Conceptual framework
2.   Business case
3.   Implementation Process
4.   Measurement of results

           Conceptual Framework for E-Government
Dimensions                  Outputs                  Goals
 Leadership             •Legal Framework,           TRANSPA-
                        •ICT Policies - Standards   RENCY

                    Connectivity & Data
Resource Dev.
                    Processing infrastructure        SERVICE
   Policy &
 Institutional      Institutional Infrastructure
                    for Service Delivery
                    Client-Oriented Service
 Technology         Applications

                    Back-End Government
  Financing         Applications
  Making a business case for E-Government

a. Defining worthwhile goals

b. Demonstrating financial feasibility
   and sustainability

d. Developing incentive scheme

     Business Case: Goals

   To extend the reach of government services
   To promote equal access to government services
   To increase constituency satisfaction with
    government services
       in particular: to reduce transaction costs for
       Survey of citizens in Ontario indicated that
        citizens want – timeliness of response and right
        outcome (right information or completed
   To reduce government costs
        Business Case: Financial Feasibility

   Incremental investment financing– Justified by public goods nature
    of outputs or market failures related to infrastructure-type investments.
    For example, it is clear that there will be no competition for providing
    training to public servants unless the government pays. The same
    about the CSC infrastructure; unless government is willing to provide
    some seed capital and selective operational subsidies the private sector
    will not deploy the centers needed.

   Cost sharing with business _ through PPPs based on real user fees
    or shadow transaction fees.

   Redirection of line ministry HRD and ITC budgets.

   Savings accrued over time from BPR, automation and outsourcing of
    client interface. Important to note that in initial stages costs to
    government may not be reduced (multiple channels, significant uptake)

Business Case: Incentives

   Individuals: skills upgrading,
    professional development, increased
    autonomy, international exposure

   Departments: Increased budgetary
    control, organizational visibility,
    economic rewards, e.g. share of
    profits/savings, etc.

      E-Government Strategy: Process (1)

•   Define vision and goals
•   Set up high level leadership task force

•   Ensure consistency with economic
    development priorities
•   Assess status quo and
•   Secure political support

•   Establish stakeholder participation
    mechanisms (including demand)
       E-Government Strategy: Process (2)

•   Put in place e-govt. management framework

•   Assess priority needs for government services

•   Secure funding

•   Establish partnerships with private sector,
    where feasible

•   Design technical, data sharing, and service
    delivery infrastructure.

•   Prioritize projects (BPR first)
      E-Government Strategy: Process (3)

•   Develop time-bound implementation plan

•   Secure stakeholder buy-in of
    implementation plan

•   Implementation the strategy in phases

•   Measure and publicize progress

•   Evaluate results and make course
          E-Govt. Strategy: Measurement of results

                       Output Indicators
     Infrastructure
         Improvement in connectivity and data processing capacity
     Governance
         E-government management framework in place
         Policy and regulatory framework in place
     Institutional Capacity
         Geographical reach of government services
         Training imparted
         Business processes reengineered
         Number of Government systems operating at service
Note – illustrative examples – there are other measures of
capabilitiy                                                      15
         Business Case: Measurement of results
                   Impact Indicators
   Constituency satisfaction with government
    services (opinion surveys, citizen report

   Access by the poor and rural population

   Client orientation in public service
       Data sharing across information systems
       transparency of government organization to service

Example of e-government

     NEGP - E-Bharat under
       Example: NEGP - India’s e-Government
    NEGP‟s goal is the provision of improved, more convenient
    government services countrywide through on-line delivery at
    local service centers.
   NEGP is fully recognized as key part of national development
   Involves central and all state governments. Will be led
    centrally and implemented locally.
   Will be implemented over an 8-year period (FY2006-2013) at
    a cost of roughly USD 4 billion.
   To be supported by proposed USD 1 billion Bank project in
    two phases

India’s NEGP : Scope of Outputs
                    Central                  State                         Integrated
Services to   Income Tax           Land records
                                                                 Common Services Centres:
Citizens      Passport, visa and   Property registration
                                                                 Single-window public service
(G2C)         immigration           Road transport              delivery points eventually
              E-Posts              Agriculture                 reaching all the 600,000
                                    Municipalities              villages in India
                                    Panchayats                   State Wide Area Network

                                                                 SWAN: fiber optic connectivity
                                                                 up to block level
                                    Employment Exchange
                                                                 Countrywide State Data
                                                                 All India Portal
                                    Food Distribution & other
                                                                 National E-Governance
                                    welfare programs             Gateway

Services to   Excise               Commercial Taxes            EDI (customs & foreigh trade)
Business      Company affairs                                   E-BIZ
(G2B)                                                            E-Procurement

Other         National ID          Treasuries                     E-Courts
              National GIS for

India’s NEGP: Criteria for selection of

   Measurably improved citizen/business service

   Ownership by line ministry/ state department

   Acceptable BPR & change management plan

   Solutions can be rolled out in 2-4 years

   emphasis on poor & rural communities

   Use of PPP solutions

        India’s NEGP: Funding Sources

   Existing ministry budgets (3% national guideline for IT)

   Existing State funds

    Additional Central Assistance (ACA) from the central government to
    the states.

   External financing from the Bank and other donors, with harmonized
    administration procedures.

   Private financing through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)

   User charges
 India’s NEGP: Strategy for CSC Infrastructure

• To setup ICT- enabled CSCs in villages to deliver
  multiple services to the villagers

• To deliver all possible G2C services through these

• To promote public-private-partnerships (PPP) in
  ownership and operation of CSCs

• To provide government subsidies calibrated to financial
  sustainability of CSCs
    India’s NEGP: Strategy for Capacity

   Provide expert TA on project management
    and procurement

   Support BPR plans of implementing

   Finance extensive training program

   Nurture stakeholder/domain networks

Levels of Capacity Needs- at State Level

    •Policy Formulation
    •Committing Resources          Leadership & Vision
    •Taking hard decisions

P   •Preparing Roadmaps
    •Prioritization               Program Development
    •Frameworks, Guidelines
A   •Monitoring Progress
    •Inter-agency Collaboration   Program Management
    •Capacity Management

P   •Conceptualization
R   •Architecture
O                                 Project Development
    •Definition (RFP, SLA…)
C   •Bid Process Management
T   •Project Monitoring           Project Management
    •Quality Assurance
   Program Management Overall Governance
   Structure- at National level (proposed)

                                              NEGAP Strategy Setting

National e-Governance
   Advisory Board                                   Cabinet/ CCEA
   (Chairman MCIT)

                                Programme                                 Project Approval

   Working Group                 Apex Committee                  Finance
 (Chairman Secy DIT)                                           Committee

                                                                   Project Owners
      Programme Secretariat                                   (Central Line Ministries
                                                                / State Government)
      Program Management Unit

                                                            Sub-Program            Project
                                                            Committees           Committees

Proposed Institutional Framework – at State

                 State Government

                 State eGov Council (CM)

                State Apex Committee (CS)


          SeMT                    DeMT

   Sourcing Capacities - Options
            Role           Task                    Source of Capacity
                                                   Within Govt.   Outside
Council     Leadership &   Policy Formulation
            Vision                                    50%          50%
                           Resource Commitment

Apex        Program        eGov Roadmap
Committee   Development    Prioritization
                                                      75%          25%

SeMT                       Guidelines
            Program         Monitoring Progress
            Management                               30-50%
                                                     (tech +      50-70%
                           Capacity Management

            Project        Conceptualization
DeMT        Development    Architecture

            Project        Bid Process                            50%
            Management     Management
                           Project Monitoring

                           Quality Assurance
Implications for the World Bank

     But is our client interested?
   Strategic intent of a Government is signaled by:

       Formally expressed interest
       Active planning: documents are available and have
        been discussed internally; ICT deployment is a part of
        PRSPs; e-readiness assessment done e.g. through an
        Infodev grant
       Established government agency for ICT development
       Strategy implementation already started

      Bank ICT Assistance Strategy

   Assistance must be country-specific depending on
    government commitment and country e-readiness.

   Given high risk of ICT investments, a careful
    implementation strategy is a must

   For laggard countries, target ‘low hanging fruit’ projects
    with high visibility, quick impact and easy implementation.

   For more advanced countries—i.e. have already
    implemented pilots-- the Bank can help in scaling up
    those systems that best fit within the CAS

   In the Bank , all types of public sector projects, have e-Gov in them
                                                    Improve administration structure
                                                    and processes, civil service
                                                    performance, public expenditure
                                                    management de-concentration ,
                                         Gov???     revenue collection and
                                         Really??   accountability mechanisms.
      Institutional Reform and
      Capacity Building Projects         ?
Enhance efficiency of the
Government‟s decision-making                                   Trade facilitation and market
process for public procurement and                             access
Documentation flow.

                                                               Lay groundwork for
                                                               effective health sector
              Administration                                   policy making &
              Capacity                                         monitoring
              Building Projects

                                                    Supports improving the legal &
                       Civil Service Reform and     regulatory framework for public
                            Modernization           financial management and new
                                                    Integrated IFMIS
       Why is this important for the Bank?

   Conservatively more than 50% of our projects involve
    significant investments in ICT

   Most ICT project components involve e-Government

   Several countries envisioning comprehensive projects: e-
    Lanka, India‟s e-Bharat, e-Vietnam, e-Ghana, e-Peru

   Several regions working on an ICT strategy (SAR, EAP)

   Most of our clients are investing in this area
    anyway, it is better the Bank has a strategy to
    manage that investment and get better/wider
    impact from it                                          32
Who provides this support?

   ISG – e-government practice – applications,
    e-government strategies
   GICT – telecom, policy, infrastructure, e-
   Legal - legal frameworks
   WBI – client training, distance learning
   Regional units – AFTQK, ECSPE
   Sectors – for domain knowledge especially

     Closing thoughts

A country’s e-government strategy will need to be
   calibrated to the country's situation in terms of

   PC & Internet penetration, (adequate technological
   software development capabilities available locally,
   literacy levels (both conventional & IT),
   economic level (ability to pay),
   Legal framework
   languages prevalent, etc.
   preparedness and commitment of political,
    administrative and technical leadership.

      And Finally
   E-Govt is a multi year commitment. Even if technology can
    be rapidly implemented organizational change takes time
    and use patterns change even more slowly.

   E-Government offers tremendous opportunities for
    improving service delivery, efficiency and transparency in

   High risk of e-government projects require careful design

   Client countries increasingly require this type of assistance
    from the World Bank

   Finally – while e-Govt is important it is a means to an end,
    and not an end in and of itself (its about the ‘g’ and not
    the ‘e’)
      Credits – Contributors and Reviewers

    Contributors               Reviewers

   Government of India      Subhash Bhatnagar
    - DIT                    Mark Dutz
   Åke Grönlund             Tenzin Dolma
   Elisabet Rosengren
                             Joan McCalla
   Seda Pahlavooni
                             Eduardo Talero

    E-Government: Lessons of experience

   E-Government cannot perform as a substitute for
    governance reform
   E-Government must address the rural urban divide
   Manage expectations: e-government is not a magic
   Translating promises to benefits involves difficult
    organizational changes.
   There is no “one size fits all” strategy: the context
    needs to be understood
   Balance top direction and bottom up initiative
   Avoid large failures; deliver early results

E-Government: Lessons of experience

   Identify priority interventions that are capable of
    exploring a country‟s competitive advantage,
    delivering cross-cutting positive impacts
   Promote partnerships between government, private
    sector, civil society and donors
   Avoid technology focus: ensure complementary
    investment; skills, organizational innovation and
    incentives are crucial for making technology work
   Emphasize training and capacity building

         Country Experiences: UK

   Focus on improving government services for citizens
      Priority on „high impact‟ areas -
      Take-up of services must be the key driver of investment and the key performance
   Create competitive pressure
      Open up electronic delivery of government services to the private and voluntary sectors.
      Do not make exclusive contracts for front-end delivery Ð avoid private sector
      Let electronic delivery compete with traditional delivery inside government.
      Make the Internet the backbone to ESD, but allow multiple entry routes.
   Reward innovation, accept some failure
      Get going quickly, and keep learning from mistakes.
      Set ambitious goals, informed by citizen preferences.
      Begin with prototypes that can be built quickly and tested.
      Quickly scale up successful prototypes for launch.
      Be ruthless in weeding out unsuccessful government e-venture
   Push for efficiency savings
      Wherever possible ESD should substitute rather than complement traditional delivery.
      Determine the trade-off between trust and income (e.g. advertising) for each service.
     Country Experiences                            - Australia
   Agency e-government programs are more likely to be successful
       Executive-level support has been obtained from the CEO and senior
        agency staff
       Agency staff are committed to the broader concepts of e-government
       Recognition exists that people wish to deal with government through a
        variety of channels, and service delivery strategies are tailored
       Potential awareness is heightened by promoting availability of online
        programs to people
       Legislation and authentication issues have been resolved
       Confidence has been raised through electronic signatures
       Models for effective inter-agency collaboration have been built and
       Momentum is maintained through better integration of enterprise, work,
        information, application and technology architectures with and among

      Country Experiences - Canada

   Canada regularly surveys citizens and businesses about
    their attitudes and needs--more so than any other
   Canada also actively markets its E-government services.
    It advertises on TV and radio, ad in airline magazines
    and newspapers to get citizens to use its portal
   Canada, like many nations, has a national CIO, given
    the necessary muscle to drive standards and create a
    common E-government offering

        Country Experiences - Singapore

   To pull down silos, you need a big stick
       Vision of "many agencies, one government" became mantra
       The Ministry of Finance was sole authority in approving funding
        for e-government projects
       IDA managed central IT and telecom infrastructure and defined
        national policy, standards and procedures
       All e-services followed same security, electronic payment and
        data exchange mechanisms, by regulatory and policy mandate
       While Internet technology was an enabler, people made it
        happen, through strong e-leadership  Deputy prime minister
        launched the plan in 2000 "to be a leading e-government to
        better serve the nation in the digital economy."

New Zealand e-Government Architecture
Sri Lanka e-Government Architecture
India e-Government Architecture
Australia e-Government Architecture

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