1840s - German and Irish immigrants

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					                                                   HIST 3881
                       IMMIGRATION AND CITIZENSHIP
                                        Wednesday, 9 November

ARGUMENT:
Prior to 1882, the United States and especially individual states actively promoted immigration in an effort to
attract labor. As the racial make-up of those workers began to shift and it became increasingly clear that those
laborers were not committed to “American ideals,” U.S. immigration laws became increasingly restrictive. The
movement of millions of people back and forth across international borders resulted in the
internationalization of many “domestic” problems, especially labor legislation and nationalist movements.



SAMPLE DECLARATION OF INTENT:
(The court clerk would fill in the blanks on a pre-printed form.)

State of Iowa In the District Court of Allamakee Col of Iowa

I Thomas Norton, aged 28 years, occupation Farmer do declare on oath that my person description is Color
White Complexion Light Height 5’ 9” Weight 175 Hair Black Eyes Hazel.


Born in County Galloway (sic) 17 Mar 1891, I now reside in Church Iowa. I emigrated to the US of America
from Queenstown Ireland on the Vessel Oceanic. My last foreign residence was Ahashcragh, Ireland. It is my
bona fide intention to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or
sovereignty and particularly to George V King of Great Britain and Ireland. I arrived at the port of New York
in the State of New York on or about the 1st of May anno domini 1914 . I am not an anarchist; I am not a
polygamist nor a believer in the practice of polygamy: and it is my intention in good faith to become a citizen
of the United States of America and to permanently reside therein:
So Help me God Signed Thomas Norton

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 10th of October 1917,
Signed Edgar Morstadt
Clerk of the District Court by B.L. Robey, Dep. Clerk
TIMELINE:

1740 - British cabinet clarifies naturalization procedure for the American colonies: you can be naturalized if
        you can prove 7 years of uninterrupted residence in a colony

1790 - U.S. Congress passes naturalization law: free white persons who have resided in the U.S. for 2 years
        can become citizens through applications to state courts

1798 - Alien Act: residency period raised to 14 years

1800 - Residency period reduced to 5 years

1820 - State Department starts keeping immigration statistics

1837 - City of New York v. Milne - U.S. Supreme Court decides that state governments have the right to set
        criteria for the suitability of immigrants and can reject arrivals who do not meet the criteria

1840s - immigrants to the U.S. are predominantly German or Irish as a result of the European political
         climate and famine, respectively

1845 - U.S. Senate report on immigration practices and abuses, looking especially at Tammany Hall in New
        York City and election fraud

1850s - Know-Nothing Party has significant political clout; wants 21-year residency requirement and the
        exclusion of Catholics from public office

1850s - California judges start declaring Chinese non-white

1855 - U.S. Customs Service now keeps immigration statistics

1855 - Castle Garden opens as immigrant processing station in New York City; in use until 1890; run by
        volunteers as they would run a private charity

1855 - California law: $50 tax on arrivals that cannot become citizens

1857 - US Supreme Court declares California tax unconstitutional

1857 - Dred Scott v. Sanford - no free blacks can have U.S. citizenship

1861 - start of Civil War - the winner will have an opportunity to significantly alter U.S. citizenship laws

1864 - Bureau of Immigration created in the Treasury Department

1864 - Republican Party platform is pro-business and pro-immigration, touting the U.S. as “the asylum of the
        oppressed of all nations”; this pro-immigration stance is also in place for the 1868 and 1872 elections

1864 - federal contract labor law in place, which allows employers to set up labor contracts prior to arrival
         and pay transportation costs of their workers; in place until 1868; protested strongly by native labor
         movement

1866 - Civil Rights Act - “all persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power,
        excluding Indians not taxed” were U.S. citizens
1867 - the task of keeping immigration statistics moves to the Bureau of Statistics in the Treasury
         Department

1868 - 14th Amendment makes 1866 Civil Rights Act a part of the Constitution; clarifies relationship between
        state and federal citizenship: there are one in the same and federal in primary

1868 - Burlingame Treaty: free migration between the U.S. and China in exchange for trade concessions in
        China

1870 - California laws introduced that exclude women who can’t prove they emigrated voluntarily
        (prostitution); later extended to men

1870 - led by Senator Charles Sumner works to pass a bill that allows Africans and Arabs and Hindus from
         Africa to become naturalized U.S. citizens

1875 - Henderson vs. Mayor of New York - U.S. Supreme Court reverses City of New York v. Milne (1837), holds
        that state immigration laws infringe on Congress’s power to regulate commerce

1880 - new treaty with China blocks ships with more than 15 Chinese landing from U.S. ports

1880s - 18 states let people vote with just first papers

1882 - first comprehensive federal immigration law; enforced by Treasury Department; states still primarily
         responsible for inspecting immigrants

1882 - Chinese Exclusion Act - no laborers can enter the U.S. for 10 years, foreign-born Chinese cannot
        obtain U.S. citizenship

1885 - Foran Act - supported by Knights of Labor; prohibits contract labor immigration

1891 - Congress creates permanent federal administration for immigration, headed by the Superintendent of
        Immigration (Treasury Department); sets minimum health qualifications and a deportation
        procedure; excludes polygamists and those with contagious diseases from entry into U.S.

1891 - Supreme Court decides that deportation is an administrative, not a criminal, proceeding, so the 14th
        amendment doesn’t apply

1892 - Ellis Island is New York’s “welcoming station”; in operation until 1932

1894 - Immigration Restriction League founded in Boston; primary goal is to require literacy tests for
        immigrants

1896 - first attempt to pass a literacy requirement for immigrants; other attempts in 1898, 1902, 1906, 1913,
         1915

1897 - U.S. District Court in Texas decides that Mexicans can be naturalized; decision based on the
        constitution of the Republic of Texas and its treaty with Mexico

1901-1904 - Insular Cases - U.S. Supreme Court decides that Filipinos and Puerto Ricans are “U.S. nationals,”
       not U.S. citizens.
1902 - Chinese Exclusion Act renewed indefinitely
1903 - anarchists, saboteurs, epileptics, and professional beggars cannot be admitted into the U.S.

1905 - Japanese and Korean Exclusion League formed in California

1906 - reformed and renamed Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization created in the new Department of
         Commerce and Labor

1907 - female U.S. citizens who marry aliens lose their US citizenship

1907 - Gentleman’s Agreement- voluntary regulation of migration by the Japanese government in exchange
        for ending segregation of Japanese students in San Francisco schools

1917 - Immigration Act - literacy test for immigrants over 16 years of age required; laborers from the “Asiatic
        Barred Zone” (India, Indochina, Afghanistan, Arabia, and East Indies, among others) are denied
        entry; non-U.S. citizens who advocate “revolution or sabotage” can be deported regardless of how
        long they have been in the U.S.

1920 - pacifists and conscientious objectors cannot become naturalized U.S. citizens; the naturalizations of
        many socialists, communists, and other radicals canceled

1922 - Supreme Court bars Japanese from citizenship

1922 - Cable Act - women’s citizenship is independent of husband; women can keep U.S. citizenship if they
        marry an alien, but alien women do not get U.S. citizenship by marrying a U.S. citizen

1924 - Johnson-Reid Act - quota system in place based on 1890 census; caps number of immigrants at
        165,000; entry visa required; people who are ineligible for citizenship cannot enter the U.S.