Geology of Earth and Mars
Introduction, Webquest, and
Sunshine State Standards
• Understands that heating or cooling of matter
will speed up or slow down, respectively, the
motion of the small particles within matter
and that is what causes a phase change.
• Understands the rock cycle (SC.D.18.104.22.168.1)
• Understands how the water cycle is
influenced by temperature and land features
• Fifth Grade Standard- Understands
how the surface of the Earth is
shaped by both slow processes (for
example, weathering, erosion,
deposition) and rapid, cataclysmic
events (for example, earthquakes,
tsunamis, volcanoes) (SC.D.22.214.171.124.1)
What Is Geology?
Geology is the study of rocks,
minerals, and how planets formed
once due to specific circumstances.
Geologists look at the structure (how
the rock appears, for example) and
origin (where it came from and how
it formed) of the matter.
Features of Earth
• The Earth is in a continual state of change. I
mean, it is over 4.5 billion years old and…
well, things are obviously subject to change
if they are that old. The physical features of
a planet are affected by extreme changes-
temperatures on the surface and even
below the surface.
Earth Facts You May Already
• The Earth consists of three layers, the
crust, mantle, and core. Under your feet,
the different layers of the Earth are
moving. All the layers work together.
• The core is INTENSE… full of intense heat.
• The mantle is always on the move and
causes the Earth’s plates to move.
• The crust is a very thin layer above the
mantle and core.
On Earth, there are also three types
• Igneous rocks formed from melted rock
deep inside the Earth. Could you imagine the
heat that caused these rocks to melt…?
• Sedimentary rocks formed from sand, silt,
dust particles, and even dead plants.
• Metamorphic rocks formed from rocks
that already existed, though they changed
shape because of the intense heat
Learn More About The Types of Rock!
Watch the movie above!
There is also something called the
The Rock Cycle
Go on to the next page to learn
The Rock Cycle Video
Sit back, relax, and learn about the rock cycle.
What did you learn
about the rock cycle
by watching the
Then of course we
Mars Orbiter… Explores The Surface
picture from NASA
Click on the image of Mars to
watch a movie about its physical
and geological features.
What Is Unique About Mars…
• …Is that there are so many similarities and such
large differences. For example, on one of the sites
you are visiting today, you are going to learn that
Mars is on a very similar tilt to that of Earth.
• The top of Mars also looks completely different from
its bottom. The mountains, valleys, and plains in Mars
are in its own region!
The Mars websites you will visit
today with your teammates show
you awesome images of the
planet as well as tell you about
the physical characteristics. Be
on the lookout for the largest
difference between the two
Now That You’re Ready…
Prepare for your webquest by thinking of
these very important questions!
Questions to Think About
• Do I know where mountains and valleys are
located on the Earth’s surface?
• Wbat is different about where mountains and
valleys are located on the planet Mars?
• What is the difference in temperature between
Earth and Mars? (How hot is it on Mars?)
• You may have learned this in third grade… Earth
is covered with ___% water.
• How are large features like canyons and craters
different on Earth and Mars?
Now… We Are Clicking Below
To Go To The Webquest!
This geology webquest is on our
Now That You’re Done…
We’re going to talk about the comparison
between geological features on Earth and
What Makes Earth Different
• Earth is the largest rocky planet in the
• However, geological features are
different because life thrives on Earth!
Life can even be found in the most
extreme of environments.
• Just over 70% of the Earth's surface is
covered with water, which is not the case
What Makes Mars Different
• The landscape of Mars is even more varied
than that of Earth. Craters are deeper than the
Grand Canyon, and volcanoes are taller than
some of the largest on our planet.
• The top of Mars looks completely different than
its bottom! The geological features on Mars
aren’t as spread out as those on Earth. The
northern half is covered with low flat plains
while the southern half is covered with
mountains, valleys, and highlands. Steep cliffs
can be discovered at the center of the planet.
We’ve come to the end…
any questions? Anything
else you want to share
about your discoveries
of Earth and Mars’