World History Geography Curriculum Guide

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					         EL MONTE

World History / Geography
      Curriculum Guide
           June 2009

   Content Specialists Members:

           Jeff Eastridge
          Bill Bertonneau
            Chris Lewis
         Alberto Velazquez
           Sara Quezada
                 El Monte Union High School District

                       World History / Geography

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS


 • Year at a Glance – Curricular Map

 • Power Standards – Unwrapped
 • Academic Vocabulary
 • Expected Learning Results
 • Skills
 • Concepts

  • Timelines – Pre and Post Tests
  • CFBA Flow Chart
  • Protocols

  • Open Invitation
  • Teaching / Learning Strategies Form
  • Instruction – Effective Teaching Strategies
    o Nine Essential Instructional Strategies (MARZANO)
    o Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)
    o SDAIE Instructional Strategies
    o Bloom’s “New” Taxonomy
    o Writing Multiple - Choice Questions that Demand Critical Thinking
                                                                                                                June 2008

                                               World History--10th Grade
                                                       Curricular Map

1st Grading Period                         2nd Grading Period                       3rd Grading Period

10.1 The influence of Greek and Roman      10.3 The Industrial Revolution and its   10.4 New Imperialism worldwide.
philosophy and Judaism & Christianity to   effects in Europe, Americas, and Asia.   (3 weeks)
the development of Western political       (5 weeks)
thought. (2 weeks)                                                                  Ch 11
                                                                                    Ch 12
10.2 Revolutions around the World          10.4 New Imperialism worldwide .
(4 weeks)                                  (1 week)

Chapters                                   10.3
10.1―Prologue & Ch 6―2 weeks               Chapters 9, Ch 10 sec 1 & sec 4―6 wk
10.2―Ch.7 & 8―4 weeks

4th Grading Period                         5th Grading Period                       6th Grading Period

10.5 & 10.6 Causes & Effects of WWI        10.7 Rise of Totalitarian Governments    10.9 Developments in post-war world
Ch 13                                      Ch 15, sec 3 & 4                         Ch 17 sec 3, 4, & 5

10.7 Rise of Totalitarian Governments      10.8 Causes & Consequences of WWII       10.10
Ch 14 & Ch 15, sec 1 & 2                   Ch 16                                    Ch 18 sec. 2-4 & Ch. 19

                                           10.9 Developments in post-war world
                                           Ch 17 sec 1 & 2
                          World History/Geography
                            Power Standards - Unwrapped

10.1 The influence of Greek and Roman philosophy and Judaism &
       Christianity to the development of Western political thought (2 weeks)

Concepts/Vocabulary                            Skills
Direct democracy                                  • Evaluate
Representative government (republic)
                                                  • Interpret
Monarchy                                          • Compare
Due process of law                                • Trace

Expected Learning Results:

   1. Evaluate the advances of Greek and Roman philosophy in promoting the ideals of
   2. Evaluate the limitations of Greek and Roman philosophy in promoting the ideals of

Essay Question:
Name and explain 2 Greek and Roman contributions to Western democracy.

June 2008
                            World History/Geography
                              Power Standards - Unwrapped

10.2 Revolutions around the World (4 weeks)

Concepts/ Vocabulary                           Skills
Enlightenment                                  Compare the political ideas of Locke,
Philosophes                                    Rousseau, and Montesquieu.
Separation of Powers
Inalienable Rights                             Trace, analyze, and compare the causes and
Congress of Vienna                             effects of revolutions in France, England &
Nationalism                                    the Americas.

                                               Identify key elements of Nationalism, which
                                               are loyalty to one country, culture,
                                               language, common ancestry, and history.

Expected Learning Results:
   1. Analyze how the Enlightenment caused revolutions in Western Europe and in the
      Americas challenging divine right.
   2. Compare the ideas of Locke, Rousseau, & Montesquieu and their influence
      democratic revolutions.
   3. Evaluate the effects of democratic revolutions and the conservative backlash to
      these revolutions.


   Political Cartoon Analysis (French Revolution) Analyze the critique of French society
   conveyed in the political cartoon.

Essay Question:
Explain how Locke’s philosophy influenced democratic revolutions.

June 2008
                              World History/Geography
                                 Power Standards - Unwrapped

10.3 The Industrial Revolution and its effects in Europe, Americas, and Asia
     (6 weeks)

Concepts/Vocabulary                                Skills
Factors of production                              Analyze why England was the first country
Urbanization                                       to industrialize
Capitalism                                         Trace the development of technological
Communism                                          innovations during industrial revolution to
Social classes                                     the present day

                                                   Explain the effects of the industrial
                                                   revolution on the “haves” and “have nots”

                                                   Compare capitalism, socialism, and

                                                   Compare the philosophies of Adam Smith
                                                   and Karl Marx

                                                   Differentiate features in works of art by
                                                   romantics, realists, and impressionists

Expected Learning Results:

   1. Analyze the positive and negative effects to industrialization.
   2. Explain how economic, political and social changes contributed to the rise of
      industrial nations around world.


   Political Cartoon Analysis (Industrial Revolution) Analyze the creitque of factory
   owners conveyed in the political cartoon.

Essay Questions:
Explain the effects of industrialization on the “haves.”
Explain the effects of industrialization on the “have nots.”

June 2008
                              World History/Geography
                                Power Standards - Unwrapped

10.4    New Imperialism worldwide (4 weeks)

Concepts/Vocabulary                               Skills
Imperialism                                       Explain the link between industrialization
Social Darwinism                                  and colonization.
                                                  Explain the effects of colonization from both
                                                  colonizer and colonized perspective.

                                                  Analyze the causes and consequences of new
                                                  imperialism globally.

Expected Learning Results:
   1. Evaluate how the rise of industry created a need for industrialized nations to exploit
      non-industrial regions.
   2. Compare the effects of new imperialism for the colonized and the colonizers.


   Political Cartoon Analysis (New Imperialism) Analyze the critique of imperialism
   conveyed in the political cartoon.

Essay Question:
Explain why there was a need for industrialized countries to exploit the non-industrialized
regions around the world.

                               The Real “White Man’s Burden”
                                     By Ernest Crosby
                                New York Times (Feb. 15, 1899).

                               Take up the White Man’s burden;
                                   To you who thus succeed
                                  In civilizing savage hoards
                                   They owe a debt, indeed;
                                Concessions, pensions, salaries,
                                    And privilege and right,
                            With oustretched hands you raise to bless
                                   Grab everything in sight.
                               Take up the White Man’s burden,
                                   And if you write in verse,
June 2008
                            World History/Geography
                             Power Standards – Unwrapped

                                 Flatter your Nation’s vices
                              And strive to make them worse.
                             Then learn that if with pious words
                                You ornament each phrase,
                              In a world of canting hypocrites
                                 This kind of business pays.

10.5 Students analyze the causes and course of The First World War

Concepts/Vocabulary                            Skills
Militarism                                     Identify the countries that made up Triple
Powder Keg of Europe                           Alliance and Triple Entente.
Schlieffen Plan
Triple Alliance                                Summarize the events that caused WWI.
Central Powers
Trench Warfare                                 Describe the reaction to Austria’s
Kaiser Wihelm II                               declaration of war.
Eastern Front                                  Summarize the military events on Western
Triple Entente                                 and Eastern Fronts.
Western Front

Expected Learning Results:
   1. Analyze the causes of World War I including the pre-existing alliances, rise of
      Nationalism, militarism, and imperialism.
   2. Evaluate the significance of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.

Essay Question:
Explain the main causes of First World War. What nations became dominant forced in Europe?

June 2008
                             World History/Geography
                               Power Standards - Unwrapped

10.6 Students analyze the effects of The First World War

Concepts/Vocabulary                              Skills
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare                   Describe how the war spread globally.
Total War
Armistice                                        Analyze the effects of war at home and
Self-determination                               aboard.
Woodrow Wilson                                   Describe Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace.
Treaty of Versailles
Progaganda                                       Identify the purpose of League of Nations.
Georges Clemenceau
League of Nations
Fourteen Points

Expected Learning Results:
   1.   Evaluate the political, social, and economic effects of WWI.
   2.   Evaluate the positives and negatives of Treaty of Versailles.
   3.   Evaluate the geographic changes of pre-WWI to post-WWI.

Essay Question:
Analyze the political, social, and economic effects of World War I.

June 2008
                              World History/Geography
                                Power Standards - Unwrapped

10.7 Students analyze the rise of totalitarian government after World War I

Concepts/Vocabulary                               Skills
Proletariat                                       Explain the social unrest that paved the way
Soviet                                            for the end of Czavist rule.
Great Purge
Fascism                                           Summarize the Bolshevik Revolution and its
Japanese Militants                                outcome.
Communist Party                                   Describe Stalin’s transformation of USSR.
Command Economy
Lenin                                             Summarize Mao Zedong’s rise to power in
Joseph Stalin                                     China.
5 Year Plan
Benito Mussolini                                  Describe the goals of Adolf Hitler for
Rasputin                                          Germany.
Collective Farm                                   Describe how Mussolini gained popularity
Adolf Hitler                                      in Italy.
Provisional Government
Mao Zedong                                        Identify the goals of Japanese militarists.
Jiang Jieshi
Long March
Mein Kampf

Expected Learning Results:

   1. Evaluate Lenin’s reforms and Stalin’s rise.
   2. Analyze the combination of traits used to create totalitarian governments by Joseph
      Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Japanese militarists.

Essay Question:
Analyze the positive and negative effects living under a totalitarian government for the
    • a factory worker
    • a government official
    • a young child in school

June 2008
                             World History/Geography
                                Power Standards - Unwrapped

10.8 Students analyze the causes and consequences is World War II

Concepts/Vocabulary                              Skills
Great Depression                                 Map Allies and Axis powers.
Pearl Harbor
Nuremberg Trials                                 Describe and evaluate the success of Hitler’s
Inflation                                        Blitzkrieg.
Battle of Midway
Demilitarization                                 Summarize the Allied Battle Strategy in the
Nonaggression Pact                               Pacific and North Africa.
Douglas MacArthur
Blitzkrieg                                       Trace the course of persecution of Jews by
Battle of Britain                                Nazis.
Winston Churchill                                Identify efforts made on the home front.
Battle of Guadalcanal
Erwin Rommel
Atlantic Charter
“Final Solution”
Axis Powers
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of the Bulge

Expected Learning Results:

   1.   Evaluate the events that led to war.
   2.   Analyze the conflicts in the Mediterranean, Eastern Front, Battle of Britain, and
        fall of France.
   3.   Evaluate the effects of U.S. aid to Allies.
   4.   Evaluate how Japanese expansion led to war with Allies in Asia and how the Allies
        were able to stop Japanese expansion.

Essay Question:
Analyze the political, economic, and social effects of World War II.
June 2008

   CFBA #           Pre Test          Post Test                Notes
                     Date               Date
CFBA #1         Sept. 4, 2009     Oct. 16, 2009

CFBA #2         Oct. 19, 2009     Nov. 24, 2009

CFBA #3         Nov. 30, 2009     Jan. 20-22, 2010

CFBA #4         Jan. 26, 2010     March 5, 2010

CFBA #5         March 8, 2010     April 30, 2010

CFBA #6         May 3, 2010       June 14-16, 2010

Pre-tests and Post-tests should be given within 1 day of the above date to
accommodate block scheduling.

Scanning of Pre-tests should be done within 2 days of the above date.

Scanning of Post-tests should be done within 5 days of the above date
(weekends counted).
          Common Formative Benchmark Assessment
               (CFBA) Process / Flow Chart

CA Standards            Content Specialists             Power                  Year-at-a-glance
       +                 work as teams to             Standards                    overview            CFBAs created
CA Framework              identify Power             “Unwrapped”               6 – 6 week terms          by content
       +                    Standards                                             with general         specialists and
  CA Blueprint                                                                      themes             reviewed by all
      of                                                                          “Curriculum            members of
                                                   Skills:      Concepts:                             specialists group
 Item Analysis                                                                       Map”
                                                 Procedural     Declarative                              (draft form)
                                                 Knowledge      Knowledge

Draft assessments         Specialists share          CFBA test items will         CFBA will be           CFBA will be
  are reviewed by         suggestions from              be reviewed by         e-mailed to district    reviewed using
    site teachers          content peers.            specialists to identify   office (Liz Alonso)    current criteria at
 in corresponding        Discussion will take         New Bloom’s level.         once they have        the end of each
  courses (using          place by content              Revisions will be        been finalized:      school year and
criteria) and input /    specialists as to the        made as necessary         final draft will be    revisions made
    suggestions          merit of suggestions         to maintain integrity     accessible for all       accordingly.
    collected by        and when appropriate,            of assessment              teachers.
     specialists         revisions to CFBAs                 process.
                            will be made.
                                                                                   August 4, 2009

                     Testing Protocols for District-Wide
              Common Formative Benchmark Assessments (CFBAs)
District Distribution: Copies of the CFBAs will be produced at the district and sent to the
Content Specialists at each site.

Site Distribution:
    • Content Specialists will distribute the necessary copies of the test to each teacher
       in an envelope
    • Content Specialists will provide a copy of “Cover Sheet for Common Formative
       Benchmark Assessments (CFBAs)”.
    • Edusoft answer documents (pre identified) will be produced at the site
    • Content Specialist will employ proper security measures to account for all tests
       distributed and collected

Collection: Return envelope to Content Specialist by 3:20 PM on date of test

Administration: Teachers will follow the protocols on the “Cover Sheet for Common
Formative Benchmark Assessments (CFBAs)”and Guidelines for Teachers:
Administration and Scoring.

Scoring: The Edusoft answer documents will be scanned as stated on assessment timeline.
Once scanned, the teacher scanning the documents will have access to the results through

Data Analysis: In order to discuss student achievement during the late start collaboration
period, the content specialists should produce the following Edusoft reports:

   •   Under “Report Builder” create a report that shows the data for each teacher
            o Once after the pre-test (with % of students in each performance level)
            o Once after the post-test that reports the pre-test results along side of
                the post-test results for analysis (with % of students in each
       performance level for both the pre and post tests).
   •   Item Analysis Report under the Item Analysis tab on Edusoft for the CFBA
   •   Work with the API to provide a report that compares all the sites’ data for each of
       the CFBAs

A copy of each of the reports should be shared with the API.

Feedback/Intervention: Teachers make adjustments in strategies/activities based on data.
These adjustments in strategies will occur at the sites as well as at the district level
(Content Specialists’ meetings).
                                                                                  August 4, 2009

Guidelines for Teachers: Administration and Scoring

   •   Testing materials will be distributed by Content Specialists.
   •   Teachers should give no reading comprehension or vocabulary support.
       (Don’t answer questions about the questions on the test.)
   •   Classroom design should maintain integrity of the test. (No answers or help on
       posters on walls, straight rows, appropriate space for independent work, etc.)
   •   Materials should be distributed and collected (pre-identified answer documents)
       employing proper security measures (count all test and answer documents)
   •   Student clerks or helpers should not be allowed to handle test materials or return
       them to the Content Specialist.
   •   All materials should be returned to the Content Specialist department by the end
       of the day (3:20 PM).
   •   Edusoft documents should be scanned within 48 hours of test administration by
       individual teachers.
The following document is a copy of the cover sheet for
the Common Formative Assessments. A copy of the
cover sheet should be given to each teacher with their
copies of the assessments.

Be aware that the cover sheet says that the teachers are to
return the tests to you at the end of the test day. Be
prepared to keep these assessments secure in a locked file
or storage cabinet. If you do not have a secure storage
area, please speak to your administration.

If you have any questions or concerns, please call me at
ext. 4433.

Thank you for all your efforts to promote increased
student achievement.


                          Cover Sheet for Benchmarks/CFBAs
Thank you for administering this exam. In order to make this process go smoothly,
please use the following guidelines:

Preparation of testing area:

Cover informational posters and displays in the room that could be used to directly
answer or influence students.

Arrange seats into straight rows, if possible, or be sure to seat students in a manner
conductive to testing.

No food or drink, besides water bottles, allowed in the room.

Testing Materials:

You are provided:
         The assessments (students are NOT to write on this, all work must be
              completed on answer document(s)). Some essay questions may have
              been distributed and given prior to the multiple choice portion of the test.
              Directions for the essay portion will be with the essay, if applicable.

           Edusoft Answer Document(s): produced prior to the test

Tests are secure materials and are not to be handled by Teacher Assistants, or other


Assessments are un-timed (within 1 period), however, please begin the assessment at
the beginning of your class-time. Students will finish at different times; please have an
assignment or activity for students to complete when they finish.

Please circulate while the test is being administered.

Do not answer questions about test items, you may clarify directions only. If asked for
additional help, please give student encouragement and walk away.

Materials should be distributed and collected in an orderly method-plan ahead.

Collection and scoring:

All materials should be returned to the Content Specialist Department by the end of the test day;
3:20 pm. Each teacher should scan their answer documents on Edusoft. If an essay question was
given prior to the test, the score should be entered on the answer document before scanning. If
assistance is needed, contact your content specialist.

Script to read to students for the Pre-Test:

You are about to take an assessment on information that may or may not be new to you.
As your teacher, I need to know what you know in order to plan for class.

Please do the best you can, but do not worry about not knowing some of the answers
because it has not been presented in class yet. It is our expectation that by the end of the
unit, you will be able to demonstrate your proficiency on this material. Only answer
questions based on what you know. On this assessment it is better to leave blank the
questions that you do not know rather than to guess.

This is an un-timed test within the period. Please do the best that you can. When you
finish, please complete the following: (teacher will provide the assignment or):

Please stay in your seat. All materials will be collected from you.

Script to read to students for the Post-Test:

You are about to take an assessment on information that has been presented to you in class.
This is your time to prove what you have learned in this class.

Please do the best you can.

This is an un-timed test within the period. Please do the best that you can. When you finish,
please complete the following: (teacher will provide the quiet activity):

Please stay in your seat. All materials will be collected from you.
                                                                                       Nov. 1, 2007

                          El Monte Union High School District


The District has established the following beliefs that serve to guide the construction,
implementation and follow-up activities for common and interim assessments.

   •   The assessments must be carefully aligned to the content identified in the curricular
       calendar and measure what students have been asked to learn.

   •   The assessment questions must be individually analyzed to ensure that they are clear,
       focused, agreed-upon, reliable and valid assessments that accurately measure a specific
       curriculum standard.

   •   Each assessment must have a designated level of performance for determining

   •   The assessment results must be able to identify students who are in need of immediate
       intervention for those who have not attained proficiency.

   •   The data when analyzed at the class and department level should provide questions that
       need to be discussed by department members so that insights are learned to improve the
       quality of student learning.

   •   After each assessment poor questions should be replaced to ensure that the assessments
       are being continually improved and refined.

   •   Assessment results must be tracked from year to year so that each department has a
       longitudinal record of past performance to adequately gauge the level of student learning
       from year to year.

To: All Staff

To contribute your “Best Teaching and
Learning Strategies” by:

providing hard copies to your Content
Specialist for a department binder

            BEST PRACTICES
     Teaching and Learning Strategies
                  in the
    El Monte Union High School District
                                       Teaching and Learning Strategies

Course: _____________________________           Grading Period: ________          Standard(s): ________________________

Key Terminology:

Week #   # Hours   Teaching Strategies                    Learning Strategies                    Resources
                   (what the teacher will do)             (what the students will do)
                         Nine Essential Instructional Strategies

Researchers at Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) have identified nine
instructional strategies that are most likely to improve student achievement across all content areas and
across all grade levels. These strategies are explained in the book Classroom Instruction That Works by
Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jane Pollock.

1. Identifying similarities and differences
2. Summarizing and note taking
3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
4. Homework and practice
5. Nonlinguistic representations
6. Cooperative learning
7. Setting objectives and providing feedback
8. Generating and testing hypotheses
9. Cues, questions, and advance organizers

The following is an overview of the research behind these strategies as well as some practical applications
for the classroom.

1. Identifying Similarities and Differences

The ability to break a concept into its similar and dissimilar characteristics allows students to understand
(and often solve) complex problems by analyzing them in a more simple way. Teachers can either directly
present similarities and differences, accompanied by deep discussion and inquiry, or simply ask students to
identify similarities and differences on their own. While teacher-directed activities focus on identifying
specific items, student-directed activities encourage variation and broaden understanding, research shows.
Research also notes that graphic forms are a good way to represent similarities and differences.


    •   Use Venn diagrams or charts to compare and classify items.
    •   Engage students in comparing, classifying, and creating metaphors and analogies.

2. Summarizing and Note Taking

These skills promote greater comprehension by asking students to analyze a subject to expose what’s
essential and then put it in their own words. According to research, this requires substituting, deleting, and
keeping some things and having an awareness of the basic structure of the information presented.


    •   Provide a set of rules for creating a summary.
    •   When summarizing, ask students to question what is unclear, clarify those questions, and then
        predict what will happen next in the text.

Research shows that taking more notes is better than fewer notes, though verbatim note taking is ineffective
because it does not allow time to process the information. Teachers should encourage and give time for
review and revision of notes; notes can be the best study guides for tests.

    •   Use teacher-prepared notes.
    •   Stick to a consistent format for notes, although students can refine the notes as necessary.

3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

Effort and recognition speak to the attitudes and beliefs of students, and teachers must show the connection
between effort and achievement. Research shows that although not all students realize the importance of
effort, they can learn to change their beliefs to emphasize effort.


    •   Share stories about people who succeeded by not giving up.
    •   Have students keep a log of their weekly efforts and achievements, reflect on it periodically, and
        even mathematically analyze the data.

According to research, recognition is most effective if it is contingent on the achievement of a certain
standard. Also, symbolic recognition works better than tangible rewards.


    •   Find ways to personalize recognition. Give awards for individual accomplishments.
    •   “Pause, Prompt, Praise.” If a student is struggling, pause to discuss the problem, then prompt with
        specific suggestions to help her improve. If the student’s performance improves as a result, offer

4. Homework and Practice

Homework provides students with the opportunity to extend their learning outside the classroom. However,
research shows that the amount of homework assigned should vary by grade level and that parent
involvement should be minimal. Teachers should explain the purpose of homework to both the student and
the parent or guardian, and teachers should try to give feedback on all homework assigned.


    •   Establish a homework policy with advice-such as keeping a consistent schedule, setting, and time
        limit-that parents and students may not have considered.
    •   Tell students if homework is for practice or preparation for upcoming units.
    •   Maximize the effectiveness of feedback by varying the way it is delivered.

Research shows that students should adapt skills while they’re learning them. Speed and accuracy are key
indicators of the effectiveness of practice.


        •   Assign timed quizzes for homework and have students report on their speed and accuracy.
        •   Focus practice on difficult concepts and set aside time to accommodate practice periods.
5. Nonlinguistic Representations

According to research, knowledge is stored in two forms: linguistic and visual. The more students use both
forms in the classroom, the more opportunity they have to achieve. Recently, use of nonlinguistic
representation has proven to not only stimulate but also increase brain activity.


    •   Incorporate words and images using symbols to represent relationships.
    •   Use physical models and physical movement to represent information.

6. Cooperative Learning

Research shows that organizing students into cooperative groups yields a positive effect on overall
learning. When applying cooperative learning strategies, keep groups small and don’t overuse this strategy-
be systematic and consistent in your approach.


    •   When grouping students, consider a variety of criteria, such as common experiences or interests.
    •   Vary group sizes and objectives.
    •   Design group work around the core components of cooperative learning-positive interdependence,
        group processing, appropriate use of social skills, face-to-face interaction, and individual and
        group accountability.

7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

Setting objectives can provide students with a direction for their learning. Goals should not be too specific;
they should be easily adaptable to students’ own objectives.


    •    Set a core goal for a unit, and then encourage students to personalize that goal by identifying areas
         of interest to them. Questions like “I want to know” and “I want to know more about ….” get
         students thinking about their interests and actively involved in the goal-setting process.
    •    Use contracts to outline the specific goals that students must attain and the grade they will receive
         if they meet those goals.

Research shows that feedback generally produces positive results. Teachers can never give too much;
however, they should manage the form that feedback takes.


    •    Make sure feedback is corrective in nature; tell students how they did in relation to specific levels
         of knowledge. Rubrics are a great way to do this.
    •    Keep feedback timely and specific.
    •    Encourage students to lead feedback sessions.
8. Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Research shows that a deductive approach (using a general rule to make a prediction) to this strategy works
best. Whether a hypothesis is induced or deduced, students should clearly explain their hypotheses and


    •   Ask students to predict what would happen if an aspect of a familiar system, such as the
        government or transportation, were changed.
    •   Ask students to build something using limited resources. This task generates questions and
        hypotheses about what may or may not work.

9. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Cues, questions, and advance organizers help students use what they already know about a topic to enhance
further learning. Research shows that these tools should be highly analytical, should focus on what is
important, and are most effective when presented before a learning experience.


    •   Pause briefly after asking a question. Doing so will increase the depth of your students’ answers.
    •   Vary the style of advance organizer used: Tell a story, skim a text, or create a graphic image.
    •   There are many ways to expose students to information before they “learn” it.

Source: Adapted from Classroom Instruction That Works by R.J. Marzano, D.J. Pickering, and J.E.
Pollock, 2001, Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
          Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English
                                 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Specially designed academic instruction in English (SDAIE) is a teaching approach intended for teaching
students who are still learning English various academic content (such as social studies, science or literature)
using the English language. SDAIE requires the student possess intermediate fluency in English as well as
mastery of their native language. The instruction is carefully prepared so the student can access the English
language content supported by material in their primary language and carefully planned instruction that strives
for comprehensible input. SDAIE is a method of teaching students in English in such a manner that they gain
skills in both the subject material and in using English.

SDAIE is not an English-only submersion program where the student is dependent solely on English, nor
is it a watered down curriculum. SDAIE is an approach that seeks to teach both content and language in a
cognitively demanding environment. As such, it is an important aspect of some structured English immersion
programs. Lessons thus include both content goals and language goals for the students.

Preparing good lessons in SDAIE require awareness that the student is not a native English speaker and
avoidance of those aspects of English that might make it difficult for a person learning English as a second
language. This includes avoiding idiomatic English, which may seem natural to a native speaker but would
confuse non-native speakers.

Features of SDAIE
Low affective filter

    •   Error correction done in context through teacher modeling
    •   New teaching material introduced and presented by the teacher in a way that engages the student.

Modified speech

    •   slower speech rate
    •   clear enunciation
    •   controlled vocabulary
    •   use of cognates
    •   limited use of idiomatic speech
    •   words with double meaning defined

Contextual clues

    •   gestures and facial expressions
    •   meaning acted out
    •   color-coded materials/ graphic organizers

Multisensory experiences

    •   realia, props and manipulatives
    •   audio-visual materials
    •   hands on activities and demonstrations
    •   overhead transparencies and similar projection technologies
Comprehensible input

   •   graphic organizers (maps, charts, graphs)
   •   word banks with picture clue
   •   bulletin boards
   •   explanation of word origins (etymology)
   •   use of examples and analogies

Frequent Comprehension checks

   •   questions asked about details
   •   eliciting responses through various modalities (write on white boards, thumbs up/down, etc.)

Formative assessment

   •   confirmation checks
   •   clarification requests
   •   repetitions
   •   expansions
   •   variety of question types
   •   interaction: teacher: student student:teacher student: student group

Summative assessment

   •   mastery assessed using a variety of modalities
   •   review of main topics and key vocabulary
   •   resulting product shows mastery of key concepts and synthesis of information
   •   written assessment appropriate for intermediate/ early advanced English language learners

Appropriate lesson design

   •   student fluency level is reflected
   •   evidence of scaffolding
   •   listening and speaking activities precede reading and writing activities
   •   reading assignments include prereading, during reading, postreading activities
   •   writing activities preceded by pre-writing
   •   vocabulary emphasis
   •   use of cooperative learning groups
   •   tapping prior knowledge/ personal application
   •   appropriate pacing
   •   modeling of activities
   •   specific learning strategies or study skills are taught and modeled
   •   evidence of text adaptation
   •   emphasis on higher order critical thinking skills
   •   provision of native language support
   •   extension/ debriefing activity included


   •   rigorous core curriculum (not 'watered down')
   •   key topics organized around main themes
   •   topics appropriate to grade level
SDAIE Glossary

                           SDAIE Strategies
                A Glossary of Instructional Strategies
Anticipatory Chart - Before reading a selection, hearing a selection or viewing a video students are
asked to complete the first two sections of the chart-"What I already know about ...." and "What I would
like to find out about ...." After the information has been presented students complete the "What I
learned..." section. Responses are shared with a partner. This is also known as a KWL Chart

Anticipatory Guide - Students are given a series of statements that relate to a reading selection, lecture,
or video. Students indicate AGREE or DISAGREE. After the information has been presented, students
check to see if they were correct.

Brainstorming - Students work as a whole group with the teacher, or in small groups. Begin with a
stimulus such as a word, phrase, picture, or object and record all responses to that stimulus without
prejudgment. Prewriting or INTO strategy. The students give ideas on a topic while a recorder writes
them down. The students should be working under time pressure to create as many ideas as possible. All
ideas count; everything is recorded. More ideas can be built on the ideas of others.

Carousel Brainstorming - Each small group has a poster with a title related to the topic of the lesson.
Each group uses a different colored marker to write 4 to 5 strategies/activities that relate to their topic.
Students rotate to all the other posters, reading them and adding 2 to 3 more strategies. Students discuss
the results.

Character Matrix - In groups, students create a grid, which lists the characters horizontally on the left
and character traits vertically across the top. The students determine the traits used. Group members
decide if each character possesses each of the traits and writes "yes" or "no" in the appropriate box.

Choral Reading - Groups of students chorally present a poem, or other reading selection. One person
reads the title, author, and origin. Each person says at least one line individually. Pairs of students read
one or more lines. Three students read one or more lines. All students read an important line.

Clustering/Webbing/Mapping - Students, in a large group, small groups, or individually, begin with a
word circled in the center, then connect the word to related ideas, images, and feelings which are also
circled. Prewriting or INTO strategy.

Comprehension Check - The teacher or students read the selection aloud. Intermittently, the teacher asks
for verbal and nonverbal comprehension checks ("raise your hand", "thumbs up for 'yes' ", "thumbs down
for 'no'." The teacher uses a variety of question types: Right There, Think and Search, On My Own (See
QAR, Day One.)

Co-op Co-op - Students work in teams to complete a project. The steps are: student-centered class
discussion, selection of student study teams, team building and skill development, team topic selection,
mini-topic selection, mini-topic preparation, mini-topic presentations, preparation of team presentations,
team presentations, evaluation.                                    6/16/2008
SDAIE Glossary

Cooperative Dialogue -
1.Students number off one through four.
2.Each student pairs with another student from a different group who has the same number.
3.Following the timeline from the article that was previously read each pair writes a dialogue between two
characters in the passage.
4.Pairs are selected to present dialogues in chronological order to the class. activity is designed to be a
text "re-presentation."

Cooperative Graphing - This activity involves graphing information based on a survey. Each group of
four will take a survey of how many countries each has visited (or other teacher-determined information).
A bar graph is then developed. Each person in the group is responsible for one aspect of the graph, and
signs his/her name on the chart along with their area of responsibility. Jobs are: survey group members
and record results, construct the graph, write names and numbers on the graph, write title and assist with
graph construction. Each person in the group describes his/her part of the graph to the class.

Corners - Cooperative activity used to introduce a topic. The teacher poses a question or topic along with
four choices. On a 3x5 card students write their choice and the reasons for it. Students go to the corner of
the room representing their choice. In their corner, students pair up and share their reasons for selecting
that corner. The topic is discussed. For example, the corners could be labeled cone, cube, pyramid, and
sphere with information about each figure provided. Students go to the corner, learn about the figure, and
return to teach other team members.

Directed Reading-Thinking Activity This is a group activity to get students to think about the content of
a fiction or non-fiction reading selection. The steps are 1) Students predict what they will read and set
purposes for reading. 2) Students read the material. 3) Students discover if their predictions and
hypotheses are confirmed.

Famous Person Mystery - The name of a famous person, living or deceased is placed on the back of
each student. Without looking, students try to guess who the person is by asking questions that require
only yes/no answers.

Graphic Organizers - Graphic organizers are charts, graphs, or diagrams, which encourage students to
see information as a component of systems rather than isolated facts. Students may complete these as they
read or view a presentation. There are a variety of ways to use graphic organizers, including the
following: semantic word map, story chart, Venn diagram, spider map, network tree, word map, and
KWL chart. Other examples of graphic organizers are listed below.
Comparison-Contrast Matrix-Students determine similarities and differences between two people, things,
solutions, organisms stories, ideas, or cultures.
Branching Diagrams -Organization charts, hierarchical relationships systems, family trees.
Interval Graphs-Chronological order, bar graphs, parallel events, number value.
Flowcharts - Sequential events, directions, decision making, writing reports, study skills.
Matrix Diagram-Schedules, statistics, problem solving, comparisons with multiple criteria.
Fishbone Diagram-Cause and effect, timeline.                                 6/16/2008
SDAIE Glossary

Group Discussion, Stand Up and Share, and Roam the Room - After the teacher asks a question,
students discuss and report their group findings to the class. Teams can share their best answer, perhaps
on the board at the same time, or on an overhead transparency. When an individual student has something
important to share with the class, he or she stands up. When one person from each group is standing, the
teacher calls on one of these students for a response. If others have a similar response, they sit down.
Students move around the room to view the work of other teams. They return to their teams to Round
Robin share what they have learned.

Hot Topics - Students title a sheet "Hot Topics". This sheet is kept in an accessible place in their
notebooks or portfolios. Students brainstorm with the teacher on possible topics of interest related to the
content of the course. Each student writes down at least ten Hot Topics and adds to the list throughout the
year. Students occasionally choose one Hot Topic and write in depth on the topic as a class assignment or
as homework. These may be included in their portfolios.

Idea Starts -Use a prompt for writing, such as a quote, a photo, words from a vocabulary list, an article, a
poem, opening lines to a story, an unusual object, a film, or a guest speaker to get students started.

Image and Quote with Cooperative Poster - Groups of four are formed. Students read a selection. Each
chooses a quote and an image that have impact for them. Round Robin share. Groups come to consensus
on favorite image and quote. Each student takes one colored pen. With all members participating, and
each using their chosen color, they draw the group image and write the group quote on a piece of butcher
or easel paper. Each member signs the poster with his or her pen. Posters are shared with the class.

Inside-Outside Circle - Students are arranged into two equal circles, one inside the other. Students from
the smaller inside circle face those in the outer larger circle and vice versa. Students ask each other
questions about a review topic. These may be either teacher or student generated. Students from one of
the circles rotate to either the left or right. The teacher determines how many steps and in which direction.
Another question is asked and answered.

Interactive Reading Guide - Working in groups, students write down everything they know about a
reading selection topic. Then, they write three questions they want to have answered by the selection.
Each student reads a short first section silently; then students retell the information with a partner. Next,
the first ___pages (teacher's choice) are read aloud in the group, each person taking a turn to read. Then,
the group predicts four things that will be discussed in the next section. The groups finish reading the
chapter silently. Each person writes four thinking questions for a partner to answer. (Why do you think ?
Why do/did ____ ? How does ____relate to your life or experiences? Compare ____to __. What if____?
Predict _____) Papers are exchanged and answers are given to each other's questions. Finally, with a
partner, a chart or diagram is drawn to illustrate the main points of the chapter.

In-Text Questions - Students answer teacher-constructed questions about a reading selection as they read
it. Questions are designed to guide students through the reading and provide a purpose for reading.
Students preview In-Text questions first then answer them as they read the article. Students review their
answers with their small group, then share them with the whole group.

Jigsaw - 4-6 people per "home" team. Name the teams. Within each team, number off 1-4. All ones form
an "expert group," as do twos, threes, and fours. Each expert group is assigned a part to read (or do).
Experts take 15 minutes to read, take notes, discuss, and prepare presentations. Return to home teams.
Each expert takes 5 minutes to present to home team.                                   6/16/2008
SDAIE Glossary

Journals -Students keep questions and ideas in a journal. These may be used later to develop a formal
piece of writing.

Key Words Story Prediction - In their groups, students using key words listed by

Language Experience Approach - This is a reading strategy based on a common experience. The
students dictate a story to the teacher, who then records the story. The teacher then uses the reading as a
practice on word recognition, sentence patterns, and vocabulary items.

Learning Logs - Double-entry journals with quotes, summaries, notes on the left and responses reactions,
predictions, questions, or memories on the right.

Line-Ups - Line-ups can be used to improve communication and to form teams. The entire class lines up
according to a specific criteria (age, birthday, first letter of name, distance traveled to school, etc.). The
end of the line can move to the head of the line and pair up until each person has a partner. This is called
"folding the line." Teams of four members can then be formed from this line-up.

Multiple Intelligences Inventory Given a list of preference statements organized according to the eight
multiple intelligences, students place checks next to those that are true for them. By totaling the number
of checks per intelligence students are able to determine areas of strength and weakness.

Novel Ideas - Groups of four are formed. Each group member has a sheet of paper with the team name or
number in the corner. Each person writes, "We think a story/selection entitled (insert appropriate title)
might be about ..." Each person then has one minute to list what he or she thinks the story might be about.
For example, a story entitled "Eleven" might be about a football team, roll of dice, etc. Each person draws
a line. Members Round Robin share their lists. As each member shares, other members add new ideas to
their lists. Groups then take turns standing in a line and reading their possible topics for the whole group.
Topics may not be repeated. All students add new or "novel" ideas, not on their lists.

Numbered Heads Together - A 5-step cooperative structure used to review basic facts and information.
Students number off I to 4. Teacher asks a question. Students consult one another to make sure everyone
can answer the question. Teacher randomly picks a number from 1 to 4. Those students with that number
raise their hand: Teacher randomly chooses one of the groups. The group member with the previously-
selected number answers the question. After the student responds, the other teams may agree with a
thumbs up or a thumbs down hand signal. Teacher may ask another student to add to the answer if an
incomplete response is given.

Open Mind Diagram - Each person in a group of four uses a different colored marker to participate in
the poster creation. Students draw a shape of a head and, inside the head, write words, quotes from the
story, symbols and pictures. Words can be made into pictures of parts of the face.

Pairs Check - Cooperative pairs work on drill and practice activities. Students have worksheets. One
student answers the first question while a second student acts as the coach. After the coach is satisfied that
the answer is correct, then roles are reversed. Then this pair can check with the other pair on the team. If
all agree, then the process continues. If they do not agree, students try one more time to figure out the
answer, or ask for help from the teacher.                                    6/16/2008
SDAIE Glossary

Pantomime-A-Tale - This technique can be used with fiction or nonfiction reading selections. Divide an
article into sections. Each group prepares their assigned section as a pantomime. There should be one
group member who reads the section, with appropriate pauses, and three members who act it out without
using words. Rehearsal is important, so allow time for it.

Pass the Picture -Each person in a group has a visual of a person. A blank sheet of paper is clipped to the
back. The teacher asks a question (e.g., "What is his/her name?"). Students write the answer in a complete
sentence on the blank paper. Students then pass the visual and the paper to the student on the right. The
teacher continues asking questions and students continue writing the answer, then passing the visual to the
right for 6-8 questions. At the end, each student will have a descriptive paragraph for each visual. Each
student takes a visual and shares it with the group while reading the final paragraph description.

Picture This - This activity is useful as a vocabulary or concept review. A blank paper is divided into
eight sections. Students draw pictures or symbols to represent words or major concepts. Students are not
to label the drawings. Students exchange papers with a partner and partners try to correctly label each
other's drawings.

Pie Graph - Using the results of the Multiple Intelligences inventory students draw a pie graph
representing how they are smart on a paper plate. Students may color, make designs, or draw symbols for
each section. Students can determine the size of each section by creating a fraction that represents each
intelligence. The total number of checks is the denominator and the number of checks for that section is
the numerator. This fraction can then be changed to a percent by dividing the numerator by the

Posters - As a BEYOND activity students create a poster in small groups. The following list describes
several types of posters that the teacher may assign.
Illustrated Timeline Tell the plot or sequence on a timeline, with pictures that depict the events.
Movie Poster Advertise the content from a lesson by creating a movie poster complete with ratings,
pictures, actors, descriptions, and comments by a critic.
Comic Strip Create a 6-paneled comic strip of the lesson content.
Image and Quote Choose an image and quote from the lesson content that are representative or important.
Poster should include a title.
Advertisement Choose an item from the lesson content and make a newspaper or magazine ad for it.

PQRST Study Strategy - Preview: Student skims the title, side headings, pictures and graphics to
identify writer's generalization. Question: Student identifies questions that the writer is going to answer
during the reading. Read: Student reads to obtain answers to the questions and takes notes. Summarize:
Student summarizes the information regarding each question posed. Test: Student tests the generalization
against the supporting information to see if the author has enough information to support the

Prediction - Students make a prediction about the subject they are about to read by selecting an answer to
a multiple-choice question.                                 6/16/2008
SDAIE Glossary

Question-Answer Relationship QAR) - This program teaches students strategies for answering
questions. It also points out the sources for different kinds of questions. Here are the three types of
Right There The answer is located directly in the reading
Think and Search The answer is "between the lines." The reader needs to analyze, make inference and/or
predict the answer based on the information in the reading.
On My Own The answer is "beyond the lines." The reader must base the answer on his/her own

Quickdrawing - Students sketch ideas that relate to a topic. Prewriting or INTO strategy.

Quickwrite - Pre-reading or pre-writing focus activity. Students are asked to respond to a question in
writing for 5 minutes. Emphasis is on getting thoughts and ideas on paper. Grammar, spelling, style not

Quickwriting -Students respond quickly to a prompt without self-editing. If students get stuck they can
repeat phrases over and over until a new idea comes to mind. Prewriting or INTO strategy.

RAFT -May be used in any content area to reinforce information and check for understanding.
Individuals or groups of students write about information that has been presented to them The teacher
determines the role of the writer, audience, format, and topic (RAFT). For example, in a science class,
students are asked to write using the following RAFT - Role of Writer Cloud; Audience Earth; Format
Weather report; Topic Explanation of upcoming thunderstorms.

Ranking and Consensus Building - Students individually rank items in a list from least important to
most important. Each group or pair comes to a consensus on the order.

Read Around Groups -After completing a writing assignment, students are divided into groups of equal
size. A group leader collects the group's papers then, in a clockwise direction, passes them to the next
group. Each member of the group receives one paper then reads it. Readers star a line they especially like.
One minute is allowed for reading and marking each paper. At signal the students pass the paper to the
person on the right. After reading the papers of one group, the group chooses one paper to read aloud to
the class. If time allows, groups may continue to pass papers until everyone has read all the papers.

Reader Response Chart - Students draw a T-chart on their paper. On the left side they write 3 interesting
quotes from the story and on the right side students respond to the quote with personal reactions,
memories, questions, compare/contrast, or something to learn more about.

Reading Circles/ Book Clubs Once students choose a book from a selection of 4 to 5 titles, they form a
group with those reading the same book. Students read and solve the teacher-designed activities that relate
to their book. The group shares with the class what they have learned from their reading.                                6/16/2008
SDAIE Glossary

Reading Guide 1. Headings Read -Around- Students take turns reading the headings of the reading
2. Prediction Chart- With their group, students choose two headings and predict what will be discussed in
those sections. Students write their answers on a prediction chart with the following labels: "Heading",
"Prediction", "Yes or No". In their groups, students take turns reading the first page aloud, and finish
reading the selection in silence. They write "yes" or "no" on the prediction chart to indicate whether or not
their predictions were correct.
5. Thinking Questions- Students write one thinking question (Why..., How..., Compare..., What if...), and
exchange papers to answer each other's questions.

Reading Log- Students complete while reading a selection. The left-hand side contains topic headings for
sections of the reading. Students are to briefly summarize each topic. On the right--hand side students
reflect on the implications of each topic.

Reciprocal Teaching - Two students work together to read a passage. Each may have a text or they may
share a text. Student A reads one paragraph aloud, then asks Student B one or two good questions. (See
QAR below.) B answers or explains why (s)he cannot. A and B discuss questions and answers. The
process is repeated in reverse.

Reflections - Students reflect, in writing, on what was learned, what was confusing, and connections of
this lesson to other lessons/other content areas/real world. Students may also reflect on their progress as a
student, what to do differently next time, or what was liked about the topic.

Round Robin - Cooperative learning structure in which team members share ideas verbally on a topic.
Group members share in order, without interruption, comment, discussion, or questions from other
members so that everyone has an opportunity to share.

Round Table - The teacher asks a question that has many possible answers. In groups, the students make
a list of possible answers by one at a time saying an answer out loud and writing it down on a piece of
paper. The paper is then passed to the next student to record another answer. The process continues until
the teacher tells the students to stop.

Same-Different - In pairs, students sit across from but different, pictures. Their job is to fill out what is
the same and what is different in their pictures, without seeing what the other sees. Each student has a
recording sheet. Students alternate recording the similarities and differences they find. One resource is
Same-Different: Holidays by Dr. Spencer Kagan, Kagan Cooperative Learning 1 (800) WEE CO-OP.

Send-A-Problem - Each student on a team makes up a review question and writes it on a 3x5 card. The
writer asks the question of the other members of the team. When everyone agrees on an answer it is
written on the back of the card. The teams then send their review questions to another team. Teams
respond by having one student read the first question. Each team member writes down an answer. Team
members then compare and discuss their answers. If they agree, they turn the card over to see if they
concur with the sending team. If not, they write their answer on the back of the card as an alternative
answer. A second student reads the next question, and so on. The stacks of cards are sent to a third, then a
fourth group until all teams have had a chance to answer all questions. When the cards return to the
senders, the teacher should provide an opportunity to discuss and clarify.                                     6/16/2008
SDAIE Glossary

Startling Statements - Students are told not to look at the startling statement (question) that they have on
their backs. They circulate asking five others to provide an estimate for an answer. After finding the
average of the five estimates provided by others, students look at their statements (questions) and write
their own estimate if they disagree with the average. Actual answers are given after the students share
estimates with the whole group.

Tableau - The students form a tableau of characters or scenes or concepts. The teacher directs students
regarding their positions and facial expressions. Students hold their positions in a brief tableau.

Tap-A-Word - Students practice pronouncing words or phrases by using a combination of claps, hitting
the table, and snapping the fingers.
the teacher. In Round Table style, each member uses a word from the list, in the order given, in a sentence
to create a collaborative story.

Think-Pair-Share - When asked to consider an idea or answer a question, students write their ideas on
paper (think). Each student turns to another student nearby and reads or tells his or her own responses
(pair, share). This is an oral exchange, not a reading of each other's papers.

Three Step Interview - Group participants letter off A-B-C-D. They use the following interview steps in
order to share what they have written in a quickwrite until they all have been read. Step 1: A interviews B
C interviews D Step 2: B interviews A D interviews C Step 3:A interviews C and D about B B interviews
C and D about A, C interviews A and B about D, D interviews A and B about C.

Verbalizing -Students share with a partner ideas they have on a topic. Pre-writing or INTO strategy.

Visualization - In response to a teacher prompt, students visualize in their mind a particular time or place
and concentrate on sensory images. (Tell students to "turn on the TV in their minds.")

Vocabulary Cards Each student selects a difficult vocabulary word fro the story and creates a card in the
following manner: The word and its definition in the front, and a drawing and the vocabulary word in a
sentence in the back. These cards are shared with team members, then exchanged with other groups.                                  6/16/2008
                                                      Bloom’s “New” Taxonomy

Caption: Terminology changes "The graphic is a representation of the NEW verbage associated with the long familiar Bloom's Taxonomy. Note
the change from Nouns to Verbs [e.g., Application to Applying] to describe the different levels of the taxonomy. Note that the top two levels are
essentially exchanged from the Old to the New version." (Schultz, 2005) (Evaluation moved from the top to Evaluating in the second from the top,
Synthesis moved from second on top to the top as Creating.) Source:

The new terms are defined as:

   •   Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory.
   •   Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying,
       summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.
   •   Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing.
   •   Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose
       through differentiating, organizing, and attributing.
   •   Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing.
   •   Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through
       generating, planning, or producing.

(Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 67-68)
    |Recommendations | Bloom's Taxonomy|Recalling Info | Comprehension |Application |Analysis |Synthesis
                 |Evaluation |Practical Suggest. |Techniques | Bibliography| Top | Inst. Site |

  Writing Multiple-Choice Questions that Demand Critical
Adapted from:

I. Recalling memorized information. Important Considerations
Some suggestions:
II. Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Levels
1. Recalling memorized information
2. Comprehension
3. Application
4. Analysis
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation

III. Practical Suggestions for Writing Multiple-Choice Questions
General Suggestions
Writing the Stem
Answer Options

IV. Some Techniques for Writing Multiple-Choice Items that Demand Critical Thinking
1) Premise - Consequence
2) Analogy
3) Case study
4) Incomplete Scenario
5) Problem/Solution Evaluation

V. Bibliography of Multiple-Choice Question Resources

I. Recalling memorized information.

Practical Suggestions for Writing Exams
Techniques for Creating Questions
Important Considerations What role should testing play in the learning process? How can tests
create a real dialogue between ourselves and our students about what students do and do not
understand? How can we avoid using tests to simply punish or reward cramming?

Some suggestions:

   Use frequent, small quizes and tests rather than monolithic once-or-twice per-term exams.
Give students instant feedback on their performance (for example, putting the correct answers up
                         on an overhead after all the tests are turned in.)
 Consider allowing students to take quizzes first as individuals and then the same quiz again in
Multiple-choice questions are easiest to write when there is a definitively right or wrong answer.
     Multiple-choice testing of more interpretive material should always include an appeal
 mechanism in which students can and must make a written, evidence-supported case for their

|Recommendations | Bloom's Taxonomy|Recalling Info | Comprehension |Application |Analysis
     |Synthesis |Evaluation |Practical Suggest. |Techniques | Bibliography| Top | Inst. Site |


II. Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Levels Knowledge

1. Recalling memorized information.
May involve remembering a wide range of material from specific facts to complete theories, but
all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Represents the lowest
level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain.

Learning objectives at this level: know common terms, know specific facts, know methods and
procedures, know basic concepts, know principles.
Question verbs: Define, list, state, identify, label, name, who? when? where? what?

2. Comprehension
The ability to grasp the meaning of material. Translating material from one form to another
(words to numbers), interpreting material (explaining or summarizing), estimating future trends
(predicting consequences or effects). Goes one step beyond the simple remembering of material,
and represent the lowest level of understanding.

Learning objectives at this level: understand facts and principles, interpret verbal material,
interpret charts and graphs, translate verbal material to mathematical formulae, estimate the
future consequences implied in data, justify methods and procedures.
Question verbs: Explain, predict, interpret, infer, summarize, convert, translate, give example,
account for, paraphrase x?

3. Application
The ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. Applying rules, methods,
concepts, principles, laws, and theories.

Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under

Learning objectives at this level: apply concepts and principles to new situations, apply laws
and theories to practical situations, solve mathematical problems, construct graphs and charts,
demonstrate the correct usage of a method or procedure.
Question verbs: How could x be used to y? How would you show, make use of, modify,
demonstrate, solve, or apply x to conditions y?

4. Analysis

The ability to break down material into its component parts. Identifying parts, analysis of
relationships between parts, recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning
outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because
they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material.

Learning objectives at this level: recognize unstated assumptions, recognizes logical fallacies
in reasoning, distinguish between facts and inferences, evaluate the relevancy of data, analyze
the organizational structure of a work (art, music, writing).
Question verbs: Differentiate, compare / contrast, distinguish x from y, how does x affect or
relate to y? why? how? What piece of x is missing / needed?

5. Synthesis
(by definition, synthesis cannot be assessed with multiple-choice questions.
It appears here to complete Bloom's taxonomy.) The ability to put parts together to form a new

relate to y? why? how? What piece of x is missing / needed?

This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of
operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying

Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the
formulation of new patterns or structure.
Learning objectives at this level: write a well organized paper, give a well organized speech,
write a creative short story (or poem or music), propose a plan for an experiment, integrate
learning from different areas into a plan for solving a problem, formulate a new scheme for
classifying objects (or events, or ideas).
Question verbs: Design, construct, develop, formulate, imagine, create, change, write a short
story and label the following elements:

6. Evaluation
The ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given
purpose. The judgments are to be based on definite criteria, which may be internal (organization)
or external (relevance to the purpose). The student may determine the criteria or be given them.
Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain
elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined

 Learning objectives at this level: judge the logical consistency of written material, judge the
 adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data, judge the value of a work (art, music,
 writing) by the use of internal criteria, judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by use of
                                  external standards of excellence.
 Question verbs: Justify, appraise, evaluate, judge x according to given criteria. Which option
                              would be better/preferable to party y?

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III. Practical Suggestions for Writing Multiple-Choice Questions

General Suggestions

1) Do not write the test in one day. Spread the work out over time. Questions demanding high-
level thinking take longer to craft-professional item writers often write only 3 or 4 per day. Write
one or two questions after each class, so it becomes a simple matter of assembling them into an
exam. Some teachers keep a rubber-banded stack of note cards in their desk for this purpose.

2) If students are to hand-write the letters of their chosen answers, ask them to use CAPITAL
LETTERS. The handwritten, lower-case letters "a" and "d" and "c" and "e" can be difficult to
distinguish when scoring.

Writing the Stem

1) Phrase stems as clearly as possible-confusing questions can generate wrong answers
from students who do understand the material.
For example, a confusing stem like: "According to Tuckman's model, groups develop through
several stages over time. Furthermore, it contradicts Poole's activity-track model which has
groups switching among several different linear sequences. Which of the following is not one of
the stages identified in Tuckman's model?" could be cleaned up to read: "Tuckman's model of
group development includes: [Select all that apply]"

2) Avoid extra language in the stem.
Some think extraneous details make a question more complex. However, they most often just
add to the students' reading time. This reduces the number of questions you can put on a test,
therefore reducing the reliability of the test. For example, in the Tuckman question above, the
information on Poole's model had nothing to do with the information sought by the question.

 3) Include any language in the stem that you would have to repeat in each answer option.
   For example, a stem such as "Biology is defined as the scientific study of:" keeps you from
          having to repeat "is the scientific study of" at the beginning of each option.

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Answer Options

1) Avoid lifting phrases directly from text or lecture. This becomes a simple recall activity for
the student. Use new language as frequently as possible.
2) Most literature recommends writing the correct answer before writing the distracters. This
makes sure you pay enough attention to formulating the one clearly correct answer.
3) Answer options should be about the same length and parallel in grammatical structure.
Too much detail or different grammatical structure can give the answer away.

For example, the specificity and grammatical structure of the first option here are dead give-

The term "side effect" of a drug:
a) refers to any action of a drug in the body other than the one the doctor wanted to drug to have.
b) is the chain effect of a drug.
c) additionally benefits the drug.

4) Limit the number of answer options. Research shows that three-choice items are about as
effective as four-choice items. Four choice items are the most popular, and never give more than
five alternatives.

5) Distracters must be incorrect, but plausible. If you can, include among the distracters
options that contain common errors. Students will then be motivated to listen to your
explanations of why those options are incorrect.
6) To make distracters more plausible, use words that should be familiar to students.

7) If a recognizable key word appears in the correct answer, it should appear in some or all of the
distracters as well. Don't let a verbal clue decrease the accuracy of your exam.

For example, someone with no biology background would not have to think very hard to make a
correct guess on this question:

Every organism is made of cells and every cell comes from another cell. This is the:
a) Relativity Theory
b) Evolution Theory
c) Heat Theory
d) Cell Theory

8) Help students see crucial words in the question.

For example: "Which of the following is NOT an explicit norm?" Likewise, when you ask a
similarly-worded question about two different things, always highlight the difference between
the questions.

9) It is often difficult to come up with 3 or 4 plausible distracters, and teachers will sometimes
add some that are not plausible, or even humorous. Be careful.

If it is too easy to eliminate one or two options, then the question loses much of its measurement
value. If energy or time is limited and you must come up with one more distracter, consider
either offering a true statement that does not answer the question and/or a jargon-ridden option
that is meaningless to someone who understands the concept.

10) Use Rarely:

 Extreme words like "all," "always" and "never" (generally a wrong answer). Vague words or
         phrases like "usually," "typically" and "may be" (generally a correct answer).
        "All of the above" - eliminating one distracter immediately eliminates this, too.
 "None of the above" - use only when the correct answer can be absolutely correct, such as in
math, grammar, historical dates, geography, etc.. Do not use with negatively-stated stems, as the
 resulting double-negative is confusing. Studies do show that using "None of the above" does
 make a question more difficult, and is a better choice when the alternative is a weak distracter.

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IV. Some Techniques for Writing Multiple-Choice Items that Demand Critical

1) Premise - Consequence
Students must identify the correct outcome of a given circumstance.

Example: If nominal gross national product (GNP) increases at a rate of 10% per year and the
GNP deflator increases at 8% per year, then real GNP:
a) Remains constant.
b) Rises by 10%.
c) Falls by 8%.
d) Rises by 2%.

Note: To increase the difficulty, provide more than one premise.

2) Analogy
Students must map the relationship between two items into a different context:

Example: E-mail is to an unmoderated listserv as office hours are to:
a) Class lecture.
b) Class discussion.
c) Review sessions.
d) Tutorials.

3) Case study A single, well-written paragraph can provide material for several follow-up
2) Alice, Barbara, and Charles own a small business: the Chock-Full-o-Goodness Cookie
Company. Because Charles has many outside commitments and Barbara has a few, Alice tends
to be most in touch with the daily operations of Chock-Full-o-Goodness. As a result, when
financial decisions come down to a vote at their monthly meeting, they have decided that Alice
gets 8 votes, Barbara gets 7, and Charles gets 2-with 9 being required to make the decision.

According to minimum-resource coalition theory, who is most likely to be courted for their vote?

a) Alice
b) Barbara
c) Charles
d) No trend toward any specific person.

3) In the scenario in question 2, according to minimum-power coalition theory, who is most
likely to be courted for their vote?

a) Alice
b) Barbara
c) Charles
d) No trend toward any specific person.
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4) Incomplete Scenario
Students must respond to what is missing or needs to be changed within a provided scenario.

Note: when using a graph or image, try to lay it out differently than how the students have seen
it. This is equivalent to using new language to present a familiar concept and prevents students
from using rote memorization to answer the question.

For example, the diagram below may originally have been split left to right instead of top to
bottom, and this diagram may not be as detailed as the diagram they saw in the book.)

Example: Use the diagram below to answer the following questions.
1) What belongs in the empty box in the upper right corner of the diagram?
a) Hardware devices
b) Client Services for Netware
c) Logon Process
d) Gateway Services for Netware

2) If the Applications resided below the heavy black line, they would:
a) be open to hackers on the network.
b) compete with the OS for memory.
c) be preemptively multi-tasked.
d) launch in individual NTVDMs.

5) Problem/Solution Evaluation Student are presented a problem and a proposed solution. They
must then evaluate the proposed solution based upon criteria provided.

Example: A student was asked the following question: "Briefly list and explain the various
stages of the creative process."
As an answer, this student wrote the following:
"The creative process is believed to take place in five stages, in the following order: orientation,
when the problem must be identified and defined, preparation, when all the possible information
about the problem is collected, incubation, when no solution seems in sight and the person is
often busy with other tasks, illumination, when the person experiences a general idea of how to
arrive at a solution to the problem, and finally verification, when the person determines whether
the solution is the right one for the problem."

How would you judge this student' s answer?
a) EXCELLENT (all stages correct in the right order with clear and correct explanations)
b) GOOD (all stages correct in the right order, but the explanations are not as clear as they
should be)
c) MEDIOCRE (one or two stages are missing OR the stages are in the wrong order, OR the
explanations are not clear OR the explanations are irrelevant)
d) UNACCEPTABLE (more than two stages are missing AND the order is incorrect AND the
explanations are not clear AND/OR they are irrelevant)

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V. Bibliography of Multiple-Choice Question Resources


Bloom, Benjamin B. (Ed.) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: the classification of
educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners 1st Ed. New York:
Longmans, Green, 1956.
Davis, Barbara Gross. Tools for Teaching San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993.
Erickson, Bette LaSere and Diane Weltner Strommer. Teaching College Freshmen San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991.
Jacobs, Lucy Cheser and Clinton I. Chase. Developing and Using Tests Effectively: A Guide for
Faculty San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992.
McKeachie, Wilbert. Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and
University Teachers (9th Ed.) Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.
Miller, Harry G., Reed G. Williams, and Thomas M Haldyna. Beyond Facts: Objective Ways to
Measure Thinking Englewood Cliffs: Educational Technology Publications, 1978.


Clegg, Victoria L. and William E. Cashin. "Improving Multiple-Choice Tests." Idea Paper #16,
Center for Faculty Evaluation and Development, Kansas State University, 1986.
Fuhrman, Miriam. "Developing Good Multiple-Choice Tests and Test Questions." Journal of
Geoscience Education 44 (1996): 379-384.
Johnson, Janice K. ". . . Or None of the Above." The Science Teacher 56.2 (1989) 57-61.

University of Capetown's Guide to Designing and Managing Multiple Choice Questions An
excellent site from which much of our workshop material was adapt.