Introduction to World Cultures and Geography

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Introduction to World Cultures and Geography Powered By Docstoc
					                                     Introduction to
                                     World Cultures
                                     and Geography
                                        Strategies for Taking Standardized Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S1
                                                Strategies for Studying Social Studies . . . . . . . . . . . S2
                                           PART 1
                                                Test-Taking Strategies and Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . S6
                                           PART 2
                                        Rand-McNally World Atlas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1
                                        Geography Skills Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


                         Chapter Welcome to the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                                     FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
                              1      READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
                  Asia               Section 1 The World at Your Fingertips . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               .   .   17
        Europe                         Citizenship in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   21
 North
America                                Interdisciplinary Challenge Investigate Your World . . . . . . .               .   .   22
                                     Section 2 Many Regions, Many Cultures. . . . . . . . . . . . .                   .   .   24
               Africa
      South                          SKILLBUILDER Reading a Time Zone Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   27
     America
                  Australia            Literature Connections “The Giant Kuafu Chases the Sun”
               Antarctica                 CHINESE FOLK TALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . . 28

                         Chapter The Geographer’s World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                                     FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
                              2      READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
                                     Section 1 The Five Themes of Geography . . . . . . . . . . . .                   .   .   35
                                       Citizenship in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   39
                                     SKILLBUILDER Reading Latitude and Longitude . . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   41
                                       Linking Past and Present The Legacy of World Exploration                       .   .   42
                                       Technology: 2000 A Map of Earth in 3-D . . . . . . . . . . . . .               .   .   44
                                     Section 2 The Geographer’s Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45




vi
               Europe, Russia, and
               the Independent
               Republics
                 Unit Atlas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


Chapter Western Europe: Its Land and
   3    Early History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
               FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
               READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
               Section 1 A Land of Varied Riches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
               Section 2 Ancient Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
               SKILLBUILDER Making a Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
               Section 3 Ancient Rome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
               Section 4 Time of Change: The Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Chapter The Growth of New Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
        FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
   4    READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
               Section 1 Renaissance Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
               Section 2 Traders, Explorers, and Colonists . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
               SKILLBUILDER Researching Topics on the Internet . . . . . . . . . 106
               Section 3 The Age of Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
               Section 4 The Russian Empire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
                Technology: 1781 James Watt’s Double-Action
                  Steam Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Chapter Europe: War and Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
        FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
   5    READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
               Section 1 European Empires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           . . . . 123
               Section 2 Europe at War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          . . . . 127
               SKILLBUILDER Reading a Political Cartoon . . . . . . . . . .             . . . . 133
                 Literature Connections “Fionn Mac Cumhail and the
                    Giant’s Causeway,” retold by Una Leavy IRISH LEGEND                 . . . . 134
               Section 3 The Soviet Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           . . . . 136
                     continued from page vii


       Chapter Modern Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
               FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
          6    READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
                     Section 1 Eastern Europe Under Communism . .                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   147
                     SKILLBUILDER Using an Electronic Card Catalog . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   153
                     Section 2 Eastern Europe and Russia . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   154
                     Section 3 The European Union . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   161
                       Linking Past and Present The Legacy of Europe .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   166

       Chapter Europe Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
               FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
          7    READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
                     Section 1 The United Kingdom . . . . . . . . .           . . . . . . . . . . . 173
                     Section 2 Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . . . . . . . . . . 178
                       Interdisciplinary Challenge Spend a Day in
                         Renaissance Florence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   182
                     Section 3 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   184
                     Section 4 Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   188
                     SKILLBUILDER Making an Outline . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   192
                     Section 5 Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   193




viii
              North Africa and
              Southwest Asia
                 Unit Atlas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202


Chapter North Africa and Southwest Asia:
   8    Place and Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
              FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
              READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
              Section 1 Physical Geography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
              Section 2 Ancient Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent . . 217
              SKILLBUILDER Comparing Climate and Vegetation Maps . . . . . 222
              Section 3 Ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   223
               Citizenship in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   225
               Technology: 6500 B.C. The Potter’s Wheel .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   228
              Section 4 Birthplace of Three Religions .                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   229
              Section 5 Muslim Empires . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   234

Chapter North Africa and Southwest
  9     Asia Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
              FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
              READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
              Section 1 A Troubled Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
              SKILLBUILDER Reading a Historical Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
              Section 2 Resources and Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               . . . . . 249
               Interdisciplinary Challenge Explain the Pyramids
                  of Ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   . . . . . 254
              Section 3 Egypt Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          . . . . . 256
               Literature Connections “Thread by Thread” by
                  Bracha Serri YEMENITE POETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         . . . . . 262
              Section 4 Israel Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           . . . . . 264
               Citizenship in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       . . . . . 266
               Linking Past and Present The Legacy of North Africa
                  and Southwest Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       . . . . . 268
              Section 5 Turkey Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           . . . . . 270




                                                                                                                                 ix
                      Africa South of
                      the Sahara
                         Unit Atlas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278


    Chapter Africa South of the Sahara:
      10 Geography and History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
                      FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
                      READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
                      Section 1 The Geography of Africa South of the Sahara .                        .   .   291
                        Citizenship in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   294
                      Section 2 African Cultures and Empires . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   296
                      Section 3 The Impact of Colonialism on African Life . . .                      .   .   301
                      SKILLBUILDER Interpreting a Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   306
                      Section 4 The Road to Independence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
                       Technology: 1100 House of Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311


    Chapter Western and Central Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
                    GEOGRAPHY .
      11 FOCUS ONSOCIAL STUDIES. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 315
            READING                                                                                         316
                      Section 1 History and Political Change . . . . .                  . . . . . . . . . 317
                        Citizenship in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       . . . . . . . . . 320
                        Linking Past and Present The Legacy of Africa
                          South of the Sahara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       . . . . . . . . . 322
                      Section 2 Economies and Cultures . . . . . . . .                  . . . . . . . . . 324
                      SKILLBUILDER Drawing Conclusions . . . . . . . . . .              . . . . . . . . . 329
                      Section 3 Nigeria Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330


    Chapter Eastern and Southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
                    GEOGRAPHY .
      12 FOCUS ONSOCIAL STUDIES. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 337
            READING                                                                                         338
                      Section 1 History and Governments. . . . . . . . .                   . . . . . . . . 339
                        Interdisciplinary Challenge Discover the Source
                           of the Nile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . . . . . . . . 344
                      Section 2 Economies and Cultures . . . . . . . . .                   . . . . . . . . 346
                      SKILLBUILDER Reading a Satellite Image. . . . . . . .                . . . . . . . . 351
                        Literature Connections “My Father’s Farm,” by
                           Isaac Olaleye NIGERIAN POETRY . . . . . . . . . . . .           . . . . . . . . 352
                      Section 3 South Africa Today . . . . . . . . . . . . .               . . . . . . . . 354
                      Section 4 Kenya Today. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             . . . . . . . . 358




x
                  Southern Asia
                     Unit Atlas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366


Chapter Southern Asia: Place and Times . . . . . . . . . 374
                GEOGRAPHY .
  13 FOCUS ONSOCIAL STUDIES. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 375
        READING                                                                                         376
                  Section 1 Physical Geography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
                  Section 2 Ancient India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
                  SKILLBUILDER Reading an Elevation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
                  Section 3 Ancient Crossroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392


Chapter India and Its Neighbors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
                GEOGRAPHY .
  14 FOCUS ONSOCIAL STUDIES. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 401
        READING                                                                                         402
                  Section 1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   403
                    Technology: 750 B.C. Qanats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   408
                  Section 2 Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   409
                    Linking Past and Present The Legacy of Southern Asia                         .   .   .   .   414
                  Section 3 Economies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .   416
                  Section 4 The Culture of India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   420
                  SKILLBUILDER Understanding Point of View. . . . . . . . . .                    .   .   .   .   424
                  Section 5 Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
                   Literature Connections “The Sandstorm,” from
                      Shabanu: Daughter of the Wind by Suzanne Fisher Staples
                      REALISTIC FICTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432



Chapter Southeast Asia Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
                GEOGRAPHY .
  15 FOCUS ONSOCIAL STUDIES. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 435
        READING                                                                                         436
                  Section 1 History and Governments. . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   437
                    Citizenship in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   441
                    Interdisciplinary Challenge Tour the Ganges River .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   442
                  Section 2 Economies and Cultures . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   444
                  SKILLBUILDER Distinguishing Fact from Opinion . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   448
                  Section 3 Vietnam Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449




                                                                                                                       xi
                        East Asia, Australia, and
                        the Pacific Islands
                           Unit Atlas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458


      Chapter East Asia, Australia, and
        16 the Pacific Islands: Land and History                                                         . . . 466
                        FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
                        READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
                        Section 1 Physical Geography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      . 469
                        Section 2 Ancient China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    . 475
                        SKILLBUILDER Creating a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     . 481
                          Literature Connections “War Wounds,” from Echoes
                             of the White Giraffe by Sook Nyul Choi REALISTIC FICTION .                          .   482
                        Section 3 Ancient Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    .   484
                          Citizenship in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   485
                          Technology: 2009 Three Gorges Dam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        .   489

      Chapter China and Its Neighbors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
                      GEOGRAPHY .
        17 FOCUS ONSOCIAL STUDIES. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 493
              READING                                                                                         494
                        Section 1 Establishing Modern China . . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   495
                          Interdisciplinary Challenge Visit the Forbidden City .                 .   .   .   .   .   500
                        Section 2 The Governments of East Asia . . . . . . . .                   .   .   .   .   .   502
                        Section 3 The Economies of East Asia . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   506
                        Section 4 The Cultures of East Asia . . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .   .   510
                        Section 5 Establishing Modern Japan . . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   516
                        SKILLBUILDER Reading a Population Density Map . . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   521




xii
Chapter Australia, New Zealand, and
  18 the Pacific Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
            FOCUS ON GEOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
            READING SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
            Section 1 History and Governments. . . . . . . . . . .                 . . . . . . 527
            Section 2 Economies and Cultures . . . . . . . . . . .                 . . . . . . 531
            SKILLBUILDER Using Primary Sources . . . . . . . . . . . .             . . . . . . 535
              Linking Past and Present The Legacy of East Asia,
                Australia, and the Pacific Islands . . . . . . . . . . . .         . . . . . . 536

            C THE WAR ON TERRORISM                    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US2
            ENGLISH GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R2
            SPANISH GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R13
            INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R25




                                                                                                        xiii