Document Sample

Annual Report

                OCTOBER 2009

Annual Report


This report was printed with 100% wind generated power and ECO-Smart certified vegetable-based inks on acid-free
and elemental chlorine-free paper (ECF) certified by the Forest Stewardship Council, and contains 50 percent recycled
content including 25 percent post-consumer waste.

Front Cover: Photo by Eric Stoner, USAID
FIRE WARRIORS: Twenty-seven indigenous young people from four ethnic groups received training in fire preparedness
techniques and fire safety measures in the Capota-Jarina Kayapo Indigenous Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Back Cover: Photo by Vincent Lumbab, DAI
SETTING THE LIMITS: Members of the Pilar Municipal Marine Park in Cebu, Philippines, regularly check and replace
marker buoys damaged by wind and waves. Marine sanctuaries in the park have increased the catch of local fishermen.
          EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

          TO FOOD INSECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

          AFRICA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
           Africa Regional Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
           Central African Regional Program for the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
           USAID/East Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
           USAID/Southern Africa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
           USAID/West Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
           Democratic Republic of Congo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
           Ethiopia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
           Ghana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
           Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
           Kenya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
           Liberia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
           Madagascar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
           Malawi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
           Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
           Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
           Namibia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
           Rwanda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
           Senegal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
           Sierra Lione . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
           Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
           Tanzania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
           Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

          ASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
           Asia Regional Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
           Regional Development Mission for Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
           Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
           Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
           Cambodia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
           Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
           Lebanon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
           Nepal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
           Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

       USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                                                                                  i
                         EUROPE AND EURASIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
                           Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
                           Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

                         LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
                           LAC Regional Sustainable Development Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
                           Caribbean Regional Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
                           Central America and Mexico Regional Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
                           Bolivia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
                           Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
                           Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
                           Dominican Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
                           Ecuador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
                           El Salvador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
                           Guatemala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
                           Haiti. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
                           Honduras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
                           Jamaica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
                           Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
                           Nicaragua. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
                           Panama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
                           Paraguay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
                           Peru. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

                         CENTRALLY FUNDED PROGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
                           EGAT/NRM/Biodiversity Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
                           EGAT/NRM/Forestry Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
                           EGAT/NRM/Land Resources Management Team. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
                           EGAT/NRM/Water Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
                           EGAT/Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
                           EGAT/Environment and Science Policy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
                           DCHA/Conflict Management and Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
                           Global Health/Population and Reproductive Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
                           Tropical Forest Conservation Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

                          Biodiversity Budget. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
                          Forestry Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

   ANNEX I. DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

    Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
    Forest Cover Change in the Congo Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
    Asia and the Middle East. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
    Europe and Eurasia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
    Latin America and the Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

     Figure 1. USAID Funding for Biodiversity by Region in FY 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
     Figure 2. USAID Funding of Biodiversity Activities, 1987 to 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
     Figure 3. USAID Funding for Forestry by Region in FY 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
     Figure 4. USAID Funding of Forestry Activities, 1987 to 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

    Table 1. U.S. Government International Biodiversity Funding FY 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . .107
    Table 2. USAID Funding for Biodiversity and Forestry Programs, FY 2008 . . . . . . . . .108
    Table 3. U.S. Government International Forestry Funding, FY 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                                                                                iii
This report describes the United          The scale of biodiversity programs    All four criteria must be met for
States Agency for International           and the nature of forestry programs   programs to be eligible for dedicated
Development’s (USAID) biodiversity        managed by USAID have both            biodiversity funds. These criteria guide
conservation and forestry programs        been affected by an increase in       program design and budgeting, leading
for fiscal year (FY) 2008. It provides     dedicated funding for biodiversity.   to robust and often interdisciplinary
USAID’s partners and the public           USAID carefully assesses which        programs which recognize biodiversity
with a summary of the Agency’s            programs meet the requirements        conservation as a prerequisite to
approaches, activities, and results.      of this Congressional biodiversity    achieving development goals. In the
Since the FY 2005 edition, USAID          earmark using four key criteria:      case of forestry, sustainable forest
has reported on its biodiversity                                                management provides local jobs in
and forestry programs together            • The program must have an            logging and wood processing, brings
because of the importance of                explicit biodiversity objective;    in tax revenue and foreign investment,
forests to people, plants and wildlife.   • Activities must be identified        and can help secure resource rights
The two program areas are highly            based on an analysis of             for rural and indigenous communities.
interrelated: much of USAID’s               threats to biodiversity;            Economic growth and clear land
forestry work includes a biodiversity     • The program must monitor            tenure in turn provide incentives
conservation objective alongside            associated indicators for           for maintaining standing forests
economic growth goals, and USAID’s          biodiversity conservation; and      which can continue to provide
biodiversity efforts are often focused    • Site-based programs must            ecological services and products
on improved management and                  have the intent to positively       such as climate change mitigation,
conservation of forest ecosystems.          impact biodiversity in              freshwater, fuel wood and food.
                                            biologically significant areas.

USAID country, regional and global        The vast majority of funds were          that cut across regions or disciplines,
programs directly support forestry        distributed by USAID’s overseas          test and institutionalize innovative
and biodiversity conservation in 60       missions, as described in the chapters   approaches, and provide a variety
countries around the world. In FY         on Africa, Asia and the Middle East,     of mechanisms by which missions
2008, the Agency invested $202                                                     may work towards biodiversity
million toward biodiversity, of which     USAID programs improved                  and forestry objectives. Selected
$193.5 million was Development            management across                        results from FY 2008 activities are
Assistance (DA), exceeding the            117 million hectares, an                 highlighted on the following pages.
Congressional biodiversity earmark        area the size of Texas,
of $191.5 million.1 USAID also            California, Massachusetts
supported almost $114 million             and Vermont combined.                    1
                                                                                       The biodiversity earmark was $195
in sustainable forestry and forest                                                     million in DA funds in FY 2008, but after
conservation activities, of which         Europe and Eurasia, and Latin America        a U.S. Government-wide rescission for
89 percent included biodiversity          and the Caribbean. Remaining                 other priorities it was lowered to $193.5
objectives. These investments             funds were managed centrally from            million. Three missions reprogrammed
improved management across                USAID’s Washington headquarters              (with Congressional notification) $2
approximately 117 million hectares        to provide overall leadership,               million in biodiversity funds to address
of biologically significant area, a six    identify and share best practices            the food crisis, effectively reducing
percent increase over FY 2007.            and lessons learned, address threats         the earmark to $191.5 million.

                                                                                   PLAINS ZEBRA grazing on the Nyika
                                                                                   Plateau, Malawi.
                                                                                   PHOTO: ANDREW WATSON

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                          v
REEDBUCK IN MALAWI: Communities around Nyika National Park recently received co-management rights and are now engaged in
bee-keeping activities that contribute to their eligibility for carbon credit payments based on their forest conservation achievements.
Community-based conservation efforts have resulted in reduced poaching and recovering wildlife populations.

Africa                                          • The principle biodiversity threats              plans, such as community forests
                                                  of fire, poaching, and illegal mining            where local charcoal workers have
• Investments in infrastructure, game             in Rwanda’s Nyungwe Forest                      tripled their earnings.
  restocking, community mobilization,             National Park have been reduced
  and law enforcement are helping                 by 46 percent since USAID support             • Tourism to three protected areas
  revitalize Majete Wildlife Reserve              began in 2006, including almost 20              in Uganda’s biodiverse Albertine
  in Malawi, where 19 community-                  percent in the past year alone.                 Rift increased about 20 percent in
  based organizations co-manage                                                                   FY 2008, providing a sustainable
  the reserve with the government.              • Nature-based enterprises in                     source of revenue for improved
                                                  Kenya earned $1.27 million for                  park management and increased
• Over 70,000 indigenous shade                    rural households and four eco-                  income for local communities.
  trees were planted in Côte                      tourism agreements worth
  d’Ivoire to partially reestablish               more than $2.5 million were                   • Ten wildlife management
  natural forest cover and improve                signed between community                        associations in Tanzania attained
  management of more than 13,000                  groups and the private sector.                  user rights over wildlife
  hectares of cacao agroforestry                                                                  management areas and registered
  systems, a prerequisite to eco-               • Senegal issued a decree that                    $3 million in private sector
  friendly chocolate certification and             requires charcoal to come from                  contracts for conservation-friendly
  higher prices.                                  forests with established management             enterprises, such as ecotourism.

Asia and the
Middle East

• USAID assistance helped place
  2.4 million hectares of biologically
  significant forests under improved
  management by 20 timber
  enterprises committed to
  sustainable forestry in Indonesia,
  Malaysia, and Vietnam.

• In southern Lebanon, local
  partners are learning how to
  rehabilitate selected cedar
  reserves and other forested areas
  damaged by cluster munitions
  and related remnants of conflict.

• Local governments and private
  sector groups in the Philippines
  set up a tourist fees system
  which collected over $200,000
  in 10 months for conservation
  and management activities.

• Over 1,000 hectares of natural
  pistachio forests in Afghanistan
  now receive community protection                                                                    PHOTO: PEUN PA FOUNDATION
  from encroachers, animals, illegal         OVER 200 BIRDS were confiscated during a raid at one of the biggest illegal wildlife
  cutting and early harvesting of            markets in Thailand - Chatuchak Market in Bangkok. The USAID-supported ASEAN
                                             Wildlife Enforcement Network in Southeast Asia is improving law enforcement
  nuts, resulting in a 50 percent            throughout the region.
  increase in productivity.

• Partnerships with 25 international       Europe and Eurasia                            Latin America and
  and local NGOs are directly                                                            the Caribbean
  conserving 950,000 hectares of           • Support to the USDA Forest
  Indonesian forest, contributing to         Service facilitated transboundary           • El Salvador declared its first marine
  conservation of 40 percent of all          dialogue and cooperation on the               protected area, Los Cobanos,
  orangutans found in the country.           Russia-China border to promote                a 21,000-hectare park on the
                                             sustainable forest management                 west coast of the country.
• Support to counter illegal logging         and reduce illegal logging.
  and wildlife trade in Cambodia                                                         • Municipal water companies in
  helped forest rangers arrest 746         • USAID assisted with the                       Quito, Zamora, Tungurahua,
  suspects and bring 22 cases to             designation of the new                        Paute, and Loja will finance
  court, sending a clear message             25,000-hectare Tbilisi National               endowments that preserve
  to criminals that environmental            Park in Georgia, which was ratified            Ecuador’s forests and the clean
  laws are being enforced.                   by Parliament in FY 2008.                     and plentiful water they provide.

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                         vii
• Community foresters in
  Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere
  Reserve pilot-tested a satellite-
  based “early warning system”
  to identify areas susceptible
  to forest fires and prioritize
  patrols by local fire brigades.

• In Bolivia, USAID helped build
  more than 50 strategic alliances
  between indigenous or community
  forest operators and the private
  sector, and supported the
  allocation of 350 land titles to
  4 million hectares of forest.

                                                                                                           PHOTO: NICK HOBGOOD
• A collaboration between
  conservation organizations and           UNDERWATER BOUQUET: The Mesoamerican Reef provides critical protection
                                           for the mainland against hurricanes, and in Belize alone supports about $200 million
  micro-finance institutions helped         in annual revenue from tourism and fishing. USAID programs have improved fishing
  Mexican fishermen pursue                  policies which protect fish which eat algae and maintain healthy coral.
  alternative employment and
  thereby reduce unintended by-
  catch of the vaquita, a critically     • Protection of land rights and better         • Madagascar’s first combined forest
  endangered porpoise endemic              governance by the Awa and Cofan                carbon and biodiversity project
  to the Gulf of California.               indigenous groups are mitigating               was brought to the international
                                           conflicts and maintaining cultural              voluntary carbon market in 2008,
• An agreement with local developers       and territorial integrity despite              including a precedent-setting
  is promoting sea turtle-friendly         threats from illegal logging, coca             agreement that secures most
  development near a national wildlife     cultivation and drug trafficking                revenue from carbon sales for
  refuge on Nicaragua’s Pacific Coast.      in Colombia and Ecuador.                       the communities that live in and
                                                                                          manage the Makira watershed.
• In Brazil, 25 NGOs improved            • USAID and Johnson & Johnson
  natural resource management              launched a three-year, $3 million            Just as most FY 2008 highlights are
  and monitoring across more               initiative to promote joint health and       the result of years of prior investment,
  than 2.5 million hectares, mostly        biodiversity conservation activities,        activities during that fiscal year
  within indigenous lands.                 such as family planning to reduce            are generating results in FY 2009.
                                           population pressure on natural               For example, USAID support for
                                           resources in Kenya, Nepal, and the           community management and World
Central Programs                           Democratic Republic of Congo.                Heritage Site status in the Band-e
                                                                                        Amir region of Afghanistan culminated
• Wal-Mart, Williams-Sonoma and          • New and ongoing activities of the            in an announcement on Earth Day
  Procter & Gamble joined the              Global Conservation Program                  of 2009 (April 22) declaring Band-e
  Global Forest and Trade Network,         resulted in better management                Amir National Park, the country’s
  which connects producers of              of over 20 million hectares of               first. Prominent results like this are
  sustainably-sourced wood products        biologically significant land and             included where available throughout
  with conservation-minded                 sea, and almost 20,000 people                these pages, helping make this
  retailers and their customers.           trained in natural resources                 report the most current overview
                                           management worldwide.                        available as of October 2009.


The global economy depends heavily              marine fish stocks are overharvested.            over food shortages and rising
on the global ecology: forests and              In part, these trends have accelerated          prices put a spotlight on insecurity
other ecosystems provide us with                biodiversity loss to1000 times the              and the notion that economies and
food, water, shelter, and many other            historic rate, causing scientists to            agricultural systems must become
services that underpin livelihood               characterize the modern period as               more sustainable, using resources
and well being. Growing demand                  the sixth great extinction event. Ten           in a way that provides for future
for these ecosystem services in the             to 30 percent of mammals, birds and             generations. Global climate change
last 50 years has put a strain on               amphibians are currently threatened             and its known and predicted impacts
the natural resource base. From                 by people’s use of resources.                   underscore this point: warming
1960 to 2000, world population                                                                  temperatures and increasingly
doubled from three to six billion               Even as the global economy shows                unpredictable weather patterns
people and the global economy                   signs of recovering from the financial           threaten to erode the resource base
grew three times as fast. In the same           crisis that started in 2008, two                by affecting what we grow, where
period, food production increased               other crises threaten the resources             we fish, and where wildlife live.
five fold, water use doubled, wood               on which wealth and prosperity
harvests for paper tripled, and timber          depend: food security and global                USAID recognizes that conservation
production increased by half. Today,            climate change. By the year 2050,               and sustainable use of biological
25 percent of the surface of the earth          food production will need to double             diversity and forests is a pathway to
is cultivated, and an estimated 25              to keep pace with population and                economic and social development,
percent of commercially exploited               economic growth. Recent riots                   reducing conflict (including cross-

ISLAND IN A SEA OF… TEA? Rwanda’s Nyungwe Forest National Park is the largest remaining tract of
Afromontane forest in the world and supplies 70 percent of Rwanda’s water, making it critical for national and
regional food security and climate change mitigation.

                                        USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                           1
    border disputes) over limited                food insecurity and climate change        and resource use choices. About
    resources, and building resilience and       impacts. Successful programs around       one billion people now suffer from
    recovery from climate change and             the world are helping to maintain the     chronic hunger, with the proportion
    food security. For example, forests          ecological services and products upon     of undernourished people worldwide
    are particularly important for their         which we all depend. The Agency           rising from 16 percent in 2005 to 17
    role in removing carbon dioxide              is expanding its capacity to develop,     percent today. USAID recognizes that
    from the atmosphere and storing              manage and scale up such programs         conservation and natural resource
    carbon for long periods. Forests also        through the Development Leadership        management are critical approaches
    provide a critical service of regulating     Initiative, which is currently planning   to improving food security.
    the quality and quantity of freshwater       to add 73 new environment officers
    available to people, wildlife, industry,     to USAID’s Foreign Service. Many          Historically, intense competition
    livestock, crop irrigation, and              of these officers will have expertise      for land and resources has often
    hydropower. Upland forests and               in priority program areas like global     come at the expense of biodiversity
    coastal mangroves are tied to the            climate change, water and biodiversity.   and forest conservation. USAID’s
    health of marine ecosystems that                                                       landscape and seascape scale
    provide a major source of protein                                                      approaches allow planners and
    and livelihoods for 2.6 billion              Food security                             stakeholders to assess trade-offs
    people in developing countries.              depends on forests                        and determine appropriate and
                                                 and biodiversity                          sustainable uses of natural resources
    USAID’s leadership and experience                                                      and ecosystems. For instance,
    with biodiversity conservation               The food security crisis spotlights       conserving wetlands and riparian
    and forestry provide models for              the importance of keeping growth          vegetation maintains water supplies
    reversing, preventing or minimizing          sustainable through appropriate land      essential to agriculture, wild plants
                                                                                           and animals. Through biodiversity
                                                                                           conservation, USAID preserves wild
                                                                                           relatives of crops that are needed
                                                                                           for the regular genetic reinvigoration
                                                                                           of these cultivars. Biodiversity
                                                                                           conservation mitigates the impact
                                                                                           of invasive species that undermine
                                                                                           agricultural production, and it
                                                                                           nurtures the wild pollinators that
                                                                                           are essential to crop reproduction.

                                                                                           USAID is helping mitigate pressures
                                                                                           on the natural resource base while
                                                                                           also improving agricultural production.
                                                                                           For example, USAID has promoted
                                                                                           the cultivation of organic mangos in
                                                                                           Mexico to reduce runoff harmful to
                                                                                           coastal mangroves while increasing
                                                                                           incomes of rural producers who
                                                                                           receive higher international prices for
                                                                                           organic fruit. Other USAID solutions
                                                                    PHOTO: NICK HOBGOOD
                                                                                           include creating and supporting
SOFT CORAL like this species is commonly found attached to rocky outcroppings in Haiti.
Marine ecosystems provide much of the protein and income for 2.6 billion people in the
                                                                                           marine protected areas and no-take
developing world.                                                                          zones along coasts in Nicaragua to
                                                                                           protect young fish and invertebrates

    2        INTRODUCTION
                                                                                SRALAO TREES in Mundul Kiri,
                                                                                Cambodia provide good habitat for
                                                                                numerous species and are valuable timber.
                                                                                This community forest is threatened by
                                                                                rubber plantation owners who are now
                                                                                slowly encroaching.
                                                                                PHOTO: BORETH SUN

(as well as helping preserve non-        marketing of natural products to       floods, droughts and storms as
target species such as turtles, whales   improve management and contribute      well as rising temperatures can
and sea birds), and improving            to household food supply and           reduce agricultural yields, expand
fishing methods and policies in           revenues. For instance, USAID/         deserts, alter the ranges of disease
countries such as the Philippines        Mali works with the Peace Corps        vectors, and shift the migrations of
to prevent reef destruction, reduce      to help rural households manage        species. Development choices and
catch of non-target species, and         the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa).   options can moderate or intensify
remove regulations that encourage        Its valuable nuts are used for food    the impacts of these changes.
fishermen to overharvest.                 as well as trade to bring in much
                                         needed income, especially to women     Forests are critically important to
In the short term, food insecurity                                              alleviating climate change impacts
puts pressure on wild foods, from                                               by serving as carbon sinks and
fish and bushmeat to wild fruits and      Resilient responses                    reducing stress on ecosystems. It
plants, along with additional pressure   to climate change                      is estimated that approximately 20
to clear new land for fields and                                                 percent of annual global carbon
harvest fuelwood for cooking. USAID      Climate change affects all countries   emissions result from land-use
develops and supports approaches         and development sectors. Changes       changes to forested ecosystems.
for sustainable harvest and improved     in the frequency and force of          USAID seeks to conserve

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                   3
                                                                                                                          PHOTO: DAI

FARMER FIELD SCHOOL in East Nimba Nature reserve, Liberia. USAID’s sustainable tree crops program promotes alternative incomes
through bird and antelope friendly shade grown cocoa in the buffer areas of the reserve.

   ecosystems, especially forests, which       USAID emphasizes capacity                   land and resources, empowering
   remove carbon dioxide from the              building to support community-              communities to better manage
   atmosphere and thereby mitigate             based forest and natural resource           biodiversity and forests in the
   climate change. USAID applies               management and conservation as              face of climate impacts, and
   many approaches to conserving               approaches to conserving carbon-            positioning them to benefit from
   ecosystems, including improving             sequestering ecosystems. For                payments from carbon markets.
   protected area management,                  instance, in Makira, Madagascar,
   sustainable forest management,              USAID supports an innovative
   and reduced impact logging. In              approach to carbon marketing that           Knowledge for
   Guatemala, Indonesia, Jamaica, Russia,      sets aside the majority of benefits          resilience
   Rwanda and other countries, fire             from the sequestered forest
   control is a key strategy: fire alerts,      carbon for local communities.               As the world’s leading development
   fire management plans, alternatives          Other models for valuing and                and humanitarian agency, USAID
   to slash-and-burn agriculture, and          monetizing carbon are being                 is adept at handling crisis and
   honey collection without smoke              developed in Malawi, Uganda and             displacement and is bringing that
   have all reduced the number and             Guatemala. In Brazil and Bolivia,           expertise to bear on biodiversity
   extent of accidental forest fires.           USAID assists indigenous peoples            and natural resource management,
                                               to strengthen their rights to               as well as on the food security

   4        INTRODUCTION
and climate change crises. USAID         biodiversity but for people and           is helping assure that development
partners, from national governments      institutions. After the protracted        rests on a foundation of sound
to local communities, are increasing     rebellion in Nepal, it was discovered     management of forests and
their understanding of the               that community forestry user              biodiversity, including strengthening
connections among climate change         groups, in which USAID invested           government institutions such
and biodiversity conservation, food      heavily over the years, were a            as the Forest Development
security, natural resource management    nucleus of stability even in Maoist       Authority and helping local
and governance. This understanding       controlled zones. During the              communities to manage forests.
is yielding an emphasis on cross-        recent political crisis in Kenya, which
cutting, integrated programming          had much to do with land rights,          Evaluation and learning are central
that addresses underlying drivers        USAID carried out an analysis of          to USAID’s approach: rigorous
of resource degradation.                 how land reforms could impact             monitoring, adaptive management, and
                                         important areas for biodiversity          timely assessment are all promoted,
Knowledge of the links between           and is taking steps to help local         while lessons learned are captured
healthy and resilient ecosystems         people strengthen their rights and        to inform future efforts. As a global
and healthy institutions is expanding.   build systems for co-management           institution, USAID works to achieve
USAID has found that investments         of forests, wildlife and marine           results at wide scales – moving up
in improved governance of natural        areas. As Liberia is emerging from        from pilot projects to the national
resources pay off not only for           decades of war and unrest, USAID          level, from the national to the regional

                                                                                   FOOD FOR THOUGHT: Maintaining
                                                                                   what little forest remains in Haiti involves
                                                                                   increasing the productivity of farms so
                                                                                   people produce more food on less land,
                                                                                   such as this aquaculture and vegetable farm
                                                                                   in the northern town of Marmelade.
                                                                                   PHOTO: NICK HOBGOOD

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                         5
and global levels, and from one set            the-art approaches, models, and          guiding aspects of U.S. engagement
of innovative partners to the entire           practices and supporting NGO             in the Coral Triangle Initiative. The
conservation and development                   partners in the institutionalization     successes and lessons from regional
community. An evaluation of USAID’s            of these new approaches.                 biodiversity programs such as the
Global Conservation Program                                                             Central African Regional Program
(GCP) in 2008 found that programs              Sharing lessons promotes cross-          for the Environment (CARPE) and
like GCP can assist the learning               fertilization. Best practices in         the Initiative for Conservation in the
process by supporting long-term                developing marine protected areas        Andean Amazon (ICAA) informed
strategies, facilitating inter-institutional   were distilled from the experiences      the design of a new regional
learning and sharing of state-of-              of four GCP partners and are now         program for the Upper Guinea
                                                                                        Region of West Africa, Sustainable
                                                                                        and Thriving Environments for West
                                                                                        African Regional Development
                                                                                        (STEWARD), now being implemented
                                                                                        by the USDA Forest Service
                                                                                        and other USAID partners.

                                                                                        From one perspective, sustainably
                                                                                        managing forests and conserving
                                                                                        biodiversity are about saving
                                                                                        nature, from the tiniest of insects
                                                                                        to the most magnificent of trees,
                                                                                        often in far-off places. These are
                                                                                        also approaches to saving people,
                                                                                        preserving the essential systems that
                                                                                        provide income, nourishment, and
                                                                                        health. Improvements in economic
                                                                                        growth, governance, and dignity
                                                                                        benefit not only the millions of
                                                                                        people who participate in programs
                                                                                        but everyone who values a safe
                                                                                        and secure world with robust and
                                                                                        fair trade. The most important
                                                                                        thing saved may be time: time to
                                                                                        adjust to climate change, time to
                                                                                        rethink how food is produced, time
                                                                                        to prevent any more extinctions of
                                                                                        species still undiscovered. USAID
                                                                                        will continue to develop creative,
                                                                                        integrated biodiversity and forestry
                                                                                        programs which respond to even
                                                                                        the largest and most challenging
                                                                                        crises of the 21st century.
                                                           PHOTO: RAINFOREST ALLIANCE

    A FIRE LADDER in a forest concession in Petén, Guatemala helps managers spot and
    react to fires faster.

                                                                                    USAID country and regional programs
                                                                                    funded significant biodiversity conservation

                                                                                    and forestry activities in over 25 countries
                                                                                    throughout Africa in FY 2008.

    Africa is a continent of mighty rivers
    and stunning wildlife. In the south,
    countries along the Zambezi support      several programs
    over half the elephants on Earth,        working to
    while the swollen Congo River drains     promote
    the second largest rainforest on         sustainable
    earth, home to four kinds of great       use of these
    ape. The Mara River dividing Kenya       resources, from
    and Tanzania is crossed by one million   the mountain
    wildebeest every year, and Tano          forests of Madagascar
    River on the boundary of Ghana and       and Rwanda to the
    Côte d’Ivoire hosts some of the last,    coasts of Mozambique and Ghana.
    best primate habitat in West Africa.     Responsible logging, community
                                             forestry, law enforcement, improved
    An estimated 70 percent of Africans      agricultural methods, payments for
    depend on natural resources for          ecosystem services and ecotourism
    their livelihoods, and the richness      are just a few of the approaches
    and diversity of the continent’s         put in place to address biodiversity
    ecosystems provide global benefits.       threats driven by poor governance,
    In FY 2008, USAID supported              conflict, and food insecurity.

ELEPHANTS along the
Chobe and Zambezi
rivers, Botswana.

                                      USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                        7
Africa Regional                          design and implementation of                 BATS also implements or supports
Program                                  USAID programs, and to identify              mandatory biodiversity and
                                         emerging best practices. Activities          tropical forestry assessments in
Office of Sustainable                     include biodiversity assessments,            African countries. Chemonics
Development                              targeted analyses, and other                 and partner USDA Forest Service
                                         program development support. In              International Programs (USFS-IP)
The Office of Sustainable                 FY 2008, BATS completed two                  completed ten such assessments
Development (AFR/SD) in USAID’s          major assessments of USAID’s thirty          and two environmental threats and
Bureau for Africa provides analytical    year investment in conservation              opportunities analyses (ETOAs) in
and technical assistance to country      on the continent. Protecting Hard            2008, which guide development
programs and coordinates with            Won Ground: USAID Experience                 of USAID activities according to a
donors and partner organizations         and Prospects for Biodiversity               country’s natural assets, challenges
to promote social and economic           Conservation in Africa describes the         to sustainable and productive
development. Biodiversity activities     history, lessons learned, and future         use, and national priorities.
include support for great ape            challenges of USAID involvement
conservation, knowledge sharing          with biodiversity conservation               The Bureau for Africa funded USFS-
on natural resource management,          in Africa. USAID Support to the              IP to provide technical assistance
collaboration with U.S. conservation     Community-Based Natural Resource             on natural resource management to
organizations, and timely and
thoughtful biodiversity program
assessment and planning for USAID’s
missions in sub-Saharan Africa.

AFR/SD manages support to the
Great Apes Conservation Fund,
implemented by the U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service. In 2008,
this program distributed $2.4
million of USAID funds through
25 grants, leveraging an additional
$2.7 million of matching and in-
kind funds to directly support
great ape conservation. Activities
in FY 2008 resulted in a dramatic
                                                                                                 PHOTO: JULIE LARSEN MAHER, WCS
decline in illegal wildlife trafficking
in Cameroon, dawn-to-dusk                  GREATER APES: Years of conservation and monitoring support to the Wildlife
                                           Conservation Society by USAID’s CARPE program, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
protection of mountain gorillas            Service (facilitated by USAID’s Africa Regional Program), and other donors led to
in Rwanda’s Volcanoes National             an announcement in August 2008 that the population of western lowland gorillas in
                                           northern Republic of Congo may be as large as 125,000, nearly double the previous
Park, and reduced risk of catching         estimate.
and spreading the deadly Ebola
virus to improve both human and
wildlife health in Central Africa.       Management Program in Namibia:               missions and their partners, including
                                         LIFE Program Review examines in              numerous assessments, trainings, and
The Biodiversity Analysis and            detail the results from 15 years of          program design and implementation
Technical Support (BATS)                 investment in one of the Agency’s            activities. For example, USFS-IP
program seeks to conceptually and        most widely cited biodiversity and           supported a workshop on alternative
pragmatically link understanding of      economic growth success stories.             concession procedures and forest
biodiversity situations with sound                                                    revenue systems in Southern Sudan,

8        AFRICA
and funded local organization            Through the Environmental                 and loss of biodiversity by supporting
participation in the 16th African        Assessment Capacity Building              increased local, national, and regional
Forestry and Wildlife Commission.        (ENCAP) project, USAID supported          natural resource management capacity
USFS-IP also advised on: ecotourism      environmental reviews and country-        in the region. Conservation and
development in Nyungwe Forest,           specific training for staff and            sustainable development activities
Rwanda; water service provision          development partners on Agency            are focused in 12 high-biodiversity
to local communities in Ugandan          environmental procedures. A               landscapes, complemented by
Watersheds; regional wildfire             portion of this work supports the         national and regional information
management training for Angola           substantial biodiversity and forestry     systems and policy efforts.
and Namibia; and protected               portfolio of missions in Africa. For
area management development              example, ENCAP’s Environmental            Working with multiple partners,
in Namibia and Zambia.                   Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities     CARPE is making progress in three
                                         in Africa includes chapters on            integrated components: increasing the
The Africa Biodiversity Collaborative    community-based natural resources         area of tropical forest under improved
Group (ABCG) was co-funded               management, ecotourism, fisheries,         management; creating and deploying
by the Bureau for Africa, other          and forestry in addition to guidance      natural resource monitoring tools;
donors, and NGO members. This            on potential environmental impact         and improving the legal, regulatory
consortium of U.S. conservation          and mitigation measures from              and policy framework at national and
organizations active in Africa helps     other development sectors.                regional levels for improved forest
leverage the significant intellectual                                               governance. A “people-centered”
capital and other resources of its                                                 strategy emphasizes comprehensive
members to provide technical             Central African                           stakeholder participation in deciding
assistance in support of USAID’s         Regional Program for                      resource use priorities while creating
biodiversity conservation programs       the Environment                           institutional structures to manage
across the continent. In 2008,                                                     these large forest tracts. In this
ABCG conducted analyses and              Landscape-level Conservation              way governance is strengthened
delivered workshops on emerging          and Forest Management                     by increasing the capacity of local
infectious diseases and their impact     in the Congo Basin                        civil society, communities and
on conservation, bushmeat trade                                                    national governments to manage
in East Africa, and HIV/AIDS and         The Congo River basin includes a          natural resources more effectively.
natural resource management              massive tropical forest rich with         Reform of legislation, policies and
linkages. Two workshops focused          unique and globally important wildlife.   regulations creates a stronger
on planning for the future of            The abundance of natural resources        overall enabling framework for
biodiversity conservation. Scenario      such as water, trees, oil and minerals    reaching these conservation goals.
Planning for Biodiversity Conservation   could generate economic growth and
in Africa: Mapping Future Trends         improved well-being for the 80 million    CARPE’s approach to improving
and Interventions in the Next Ten        people residing in the region, but        tropical forest management is to
Years was held in Washington,            conflict, corruption, and other factors    create large-scale land use plans which
DC to identify drivers of change         have interfered with development.         establish resources rules and use rights
and to map trends. Scanning the          Communities continue to rely on           for three general types of “macro-
Horizon: The Future of Biodiversity      subsistence agriculture and forest        zones,” which are further subdivided
in Africa in the Face of Change, was     products, including wildlife, for food    into “micro-zones.” In each zone
held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,         and income, creating an unsustainable     a systematic analysis of threats and
and focused on elaborating an            situation that threatens biodiversity     corresponding management actions is
African perspective on biodiversity      and human welfare. USAID’s Central        used to reconcile conservation goals
conservation and identifying specific     African Regional Program for the          with a variety of forest uses such
recommendations for USAID,               Environment (CARPE) is dedicated to       as farming, forestry and hunting.
ABCG partners and other groups.          reducing the rate of forest degradation

                                   USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                 9
  DEFORESTATION TRACKER: USAID/CARPE supported work by NASA and the University of Maryland to map forest cover change in the
  Congo basin from 2000 to 2005. Satellite data reveal deforestation (shown in red) was highest in northern and eastern Democratic Republic
  of Congo. CARPE focuses effort in 12 high-biodiversity landscapes (outlined in yellow).

Land use planning and management              million hectares. Another 15 million          matures, USAID is consolidating
efforts increased the total area under        hectares are extractive resource              gains by increasing the intensity
improved management by nearly 5               zones, mainly logging concessions.            and sophistication of management
million hectares, from 49.4 million           The remaining area is comprised of            in zones already identified.
hectares in 2007 to 54.1 million              various classes of protected areas.
hectares in 2008. The majority of             All together, the area of improved            Monitoring change and management
this increase is from new community           management is larger than that of             impacts is a key component of
natural resource management                   the U.S. National Forest system.              CARPE’s efforts, and substantial
zones, which now cover about 21               As the landscape planning process             accomplishments were registered in

10       AFRICA
                                         Digital and paper forest atlases           indicator species across large regions
                                         were created or updated for the            of Central African tropical forests,
                                         Central African Republic, Gabon            providing a proxy for all wildlife
                                         and the Republic of Congo, helping         and helping to manage and protect
                                         stakeholders monitor the status            biodiversity in sensitive ecological
                                         of forests and forestry operations.        areas. During recent monitoring
                                         These forest atlases verify if loggers     activities, several new plant species
                                         are limiting operations to their legally   were identified, particularly in the
                                         constituted boundaries, and report         western landscapes in Gabon and
                                         on the status of concessionaires’          Equatorial Guinea. Surveys by
                                         compliance with laws regarding             one CARPE partner suggest that
                                         development of management plans,           the population of eastern lowland
                                         the number and quantity of trees           gorillas in the Republic of Congo is
                                         harvested (by species and volume),         nearly double the previous estimate,
                                         taxes paid, type of value-added            with possibly 125,000 animals in
                                         processing and other factors that          the northern part of the country.
                                         establish legal compliance. This
                                         effort was supplemented by a               CARPE uses a comprehensive
                                         new Forest Transparency Initiative,        planning and management system
                                         which is summarizing and publishing        to integrate land use planning and
                                         information on logging for the             biodiversity monitoring with legal,
                                         entire region, both in printed form        regulatory and policy strengthening
                                         and through a public Web site.             programs in order to support
                                                                                    biodiversity conservation at all levels.
                                         Logging, mining, large and small-          At the national level, CARPE partners,
                                         scale agriculture and climate change       in consultation with governments,
                                         are among the many contributors            civil society, international partners
                                         to deforestation in Central                and community members, analyze
                                         Africa. In 2008, an important new          weaknesses in the policy environment
                                         methodology using satellite remote         related to forest management
                                         sensing imagery was adapted to             and then develop a landscape-
                                         map forest cover change over the           specific action plan to address these
                                         entire Congo basin from 2000               weaknesses. To date, national reform
                                         to 2005. This technology is now            efforts have led to seven major new
                                         being used by resource managers            environmental and conservation
                                         to focus on trouble spots where            laws enacted and implemented,
                                         forest habitat loss is most dramatic.      with numerous new regulatory
                                                                                    drafts under legal review. CARPE
                                         During 2008, a standardized basin-         support also helped complete the
2008. Forest atlases for monitoring      wide methodology for surveying large       conversion of logging titles in the
illegal logging, maps tracking           mammals was adopted by CARPE’s             Democratic Republic of Congo from
deforestation, and large mammal          partners. Data are presently being         the old law to the modern 2002
surveys are improving forest and         collated to create geographically-         forest code which involved cancelling
biodiversity management, informing       referenced baseline information which      of over 100 existing logging titles.
new policies, and feeding into           will be published in the next State of
the State of the Forest report, a        the Forest report scheduled for late       At the regional level, the legal
collaborative effort of the Congo        2009. These data will include the          framework and capacity to enforce
Basin Forest Partnership.                abundance and distribution of key          environmental legislation and policy

                                   USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                     11
were substantially strengthened
when the Central African Forestry
Commission (COMIFAC) adopted
the State of the Forest report as their
official system to monitor indicators
for forest management. COMIFAC
has a mandate to coordinate the
monitoring of activities aimed
at implementing the Yaoundé
Declaration of 1999, a catalytic
consensus statement which asserted
the role of ecosystem conservation
for development in the region and still                                                               PHOTO: MICHIEL TERELLEN
shapes USAID investment priorities.         THE HIPPOPOTAMUS is a keystone species along the Mara River and other freshwater
                                            ecosystems in East Africa.
Internationally, the Secretariat of
the Ramsar Convention to Protect
Wetlands formally recognized Lac          to the goals of the partnership, which     In FY 2008, TWB-MRB made major
(Lake) Tumba in DRC as a Ramsar           exceeded $200 million in 2008.             advances towards improving and
wetland in 2008. When linked                                                         harmonizing river basin management
with the adjoining and previously                                                    practices and policies to ensure that
approved Lac Télé in Republic of          USAID/East Africa                          sufficient flows of clean water are
Congo, this comprises the largest                                                    available to serve a variety of needs,
Ramsar site in the world. The             Water for Biodiversity in                  especially biodiversity. The program
announcement reflects DRC’s                the Mara River Basin                       worked closely with the East Africa
renewed commitment to undertake                                                      Community’s Lake Victoria Basin
specific protection measures which         The Mara River basin is a critical         Commission to put in place policies
were begun under the Lac Télé –           transboundary ecosystem that               and cross-boundary agreements that
Lac Tumba landscape program.              supports vast numbers of wildlife,         will ensure improved management
                                          including the world-famous                 of the basin over the long term.
CARPE achievements have generated         migration from Serengeti National
great excitement in the region            Park to Masai Mara Reserve. The            Three major agreements
and interest by the international         Mara River is the backbone of              formulated among key stakeholders
community, a principal goal of the        the wildlife tourism industry in           will steer future natural resource
United States when it launched the        both Tanzania and Kenya, but the           management activities in the Mara
Congo Basin Forest Partnership            flow of the river is threatened             River basin. One allowed for the
(CBFP) in 2002. USAID/CARPE               by increasing upstream water               establishment of technical advisory
continues to be the primary vehicle       abstraction, erratic rainfall and          committees in the basin, bringing
for U.S. engagement in CBFP, a            worsening water pollution. The             together key sectors from Kenya
collaboration among more than 20          diminished quantity and quality of         and Tanzania including forestry,
countries and dozens of NGOs,             water threatens biodiversity, human        water, agriculture and fishing. A
international organizations and           health and economic growth.                second established a transboundary
others. Success can be measured           USAID/East Africa initiated the            water users forum to coordinate
through the indicators in the State       program Transboundary Water                water use in the basin. The third
of the Forest report, but also in the     for Biodiversity in the Masai Mara         agreement detailed terms for
ever-increasing financial commitments      River Basin (TWB-MRB) in 2006              conducting a basin-wide strategic
from both public and private sources      in response to upstream threats.           environmental assessment.

12      AFRICA
An initial Environmental Flow             dependent on the good practices of          major river basins, each shared by
Assessment (EFA) was completed            economically disadvantaged water            two or more countries. USAID’s
with full participation of the            users in the upper catchment.               regional program in Southern
Ministries of Water in Kenya and                                                      Africa focuses on biodiversity
Tanzania to determine the flows            USAID support has leveraged                 conservation in the Okavango River
within the Mara. The results have         funding from other donors in the            basin through improved capacity for
been incorporated into the draft          basin including Norway, Sweden              management and sustainable use
Catchment Management Strategy for         and the World Bank, forming                 of natural resources within Angola,
the Lake Victoria South Catchment         an integrated Mara River Basin              Namibia, and Botswana. The lack
(LVSC). This strategy details the         Management Initiative. This has             of institutional capacity within the
legally enforceable environmental         facilitated the formation of numerous       Southern African Development
flow that must be maintained in rivers     local Water Users` Associations             Community (SADC), financial
under the jurisdiction of the LVSC        to enhance the governance and               and other resource constraints
Office. This represents an important       management of the river.                    facing a fledgling Okavango
step in maintaining biodiversity for                                                  River Basin Water Commission
rivers that dry up due to dams used                                                   (OKACOM), and a general lack of
for irrigation and drinking water.        USAID/Southern                              environmental awareness in the
                                          Africa                                      upper watershed are continued
A Strategic Environmental                                                             challenges for the basin.
Assessment (SEA) was conducted            Biodiversity Conservation
under the auspices of the Lake            through Improved River                      USAID/Southern Africa is working
Victoria Basin Commission to inform       Basin Management                            to strengthen OKACOM so it can
the ongoing process to establish                                                      better coordinate and oversee
a formal Integrated River Basin           Water scarcity severely threatens           research on sustainable use of
Management Plan. The assessment           freshwater ecosystems and is                natural resources, while conserving
is currently under review. Following      regarded as one of southern                 valuable biodiversity and ecological
on from this, a Biodiversity Action       Africa’s most pressing development          systems. Training, research, and
Plan will ensure that issues related to   challenges. Seventy percent of              planning activities in collaboration
biodiversity in the basin have been       the region’s surface water is in 15         with SADC and OKACOM have
considered and incorporated into
the legally recognized EFA and SEA.

TWB-MRB also conducted
detailed assessments on the costs
of conservation and management
interventions in the upper
catchment, and on the willingness
of water users to participate in a
payment for ecosystem services
(PES) scheme. Studies in the lower
basin to quantify the dependencies
of downstream users and to
investigate their willingness to
participate in the PES have been
                                                                                                        PHOTO: MICHIEL TERELLEN
initiated. The Mara River basin is
uniquely suited for PES because             FIGHTING OSTRICHES in the Namib-Naukluft Rand nature reserve in southwest
                                            Namibia. USAID/Southern Africa currently focuses conservation efforts on the
relatively better-off water users in        Okavango River basin in northeast Namibia, southeast Angola and northern Botswana.
the mid and lower basin are highly

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                         13
helped institutionalize mechanisms        while enhancing coordination through    manage cross-cutting issues affecting
to assess transboundary water             the SADC Water Strategy Reference       the Upper Guinean Ecosystem.
and biodiversity issues, resolve          Group. In FY 2008, the program
disputes, and share data to promote       organized a Second Annual River         Two biodiversity programs initiated
improved watershed management             Basin Organization workshop. The        in 2007 continued assisting
and biodiversity protection in            event generated a 100-day action        governments and communities to
ecologically important areas.             plan that is assisting OKACOM and       harmonize policies and improve
                                          other river basin organizations in      management of select transboundary
Mission support in FY 2008 assisted       the development and improved            areas. One program works in
with identifying areas of high            management of transboundary             Guinea and Sierra Leone and the
biodiversity in the Kavango region of     resources within the region.            other in the Tano River basin (on
the Okavango basin, and produced                                                  the boundary between Ghana and
field guides for larger tree species       Multinational cooperation is            Côte d’Ivoire). Both programs seek
and mammals within southeastern           essential to conserving biodiversity    to improve forest management
Angola. In southeastern Kuando            while meeting present and               through community-based enterprise
Kubango province of Angola, USAID         future development needs.               development initiatives, and increased
supported delineation of wetlands         Continued USAID assistance              participation in management
and other environmental and               will help all the Okavango basin        by individuals who understand
geographic features, and funded           countries benefit from a unique          resource use and management
an assessment of the protected            environment with sustainable            in each ecosystem. Ancillary
area status of the area with              income earning opportunities.           objectives include strengthening local
recommendations for revisions.                                                    government and civil society capacity
Participatory approaches to                                                       in natural resource management,
conservation included: an exchange        USAID/West Africa                       enterprise development and conflict
visit of Namibian San peoples to                                                  management, and establishing a
Angola; consultations with remote         Natural Resource                        system to effectively monitor the
communities; zoning with SADC             Management                              flow and value of natural resources.
members along the Kumbilo                 Without Borders
Wetland System; and community                                                     The Sierra Leone and Guinea
fire management training.                  In West Africa, destruction of the      program, implemented by the World
                                          natural resource base is advancing      Agroforestry Center (ICRAF),
Building women’s capacity in              more rapidly than in most other         conducted an analysis of biodiversity
conservation activities and               parts of the world. National            threats and a field inventory of 217
approaches helps ensure sustainable,      boundaries administratively divide      tree, mammal, and bird species in
long-term management of natural           key biodiversity and natural resource   Guinea’s Madina Oula forest and
resources within the basin. Over          areas, but policies on one side of      Soyah and Pinsili classified (state)
the last year, 21 women were              the border often adversely impact       forests, and Sierra Leone’s Outamba-
trained in mitigating conflict between     conservation on the other side.         Kilimi National Park in the extreme
farmers and elephants by using            Governments in the region have          north of that country. The program
live chili peppers as crop barriers       shown their commitment to solving       developed tools for education and
which also provide a marketable           transboundary environmental             implementation of management plans
commodity. Women were also                issues by meeting to analyze the        for forest reserves and classified
trained in methods of conducting          problems and develop possible           forests. ICRAF also supported
vegetation and mammal surveys to          solutions related to governance and     the formation of two forest co-
monitor changes in flora and fauna.        management of forest ecosystems.        management committees with
                                          USAID/West Africa supports this         600 members, which were formed
The Agency has engaged other              commitment with programs that help      after 63 local authorities trained
donors in nearly all program activities                                           60 communities in participatory

14      AFRICA
                                                                                      on terrestrial animals as well: when
                                                                                      local fish are scarce, prices go up,
                                                                                      leading to a higher demand for
                                                                                      bushmeat which decimates wildlife
                                                                                      populations. To start addressing
                                                                                      these issues, a USAID program
                                                                                      related to coastal ecosystems in
                                                                                      Gambia and Senegal will be launched
                                                                                      in 2009. It will compile baseline
                                                                                      information on the current type
                                                                                      and scale of fishery practices, major
                                                                                      threats to sustainable management of
                                                                                      fisheries resources, critical breeding
                                                                                      grounds and other needs for
                                                                                      ecosystem-based management, and
                                                                                      the economics of coastal resource
                                                           PHOTO: USAID/WEST AFRICA
                                                                                      use. Specific targets will be set for
AN AERIAL PHOTO helps this farmer manage forests in the Nialama Classified Forest,     a reduction in illegal fishing and
Guinea. Co-management and information services are key areas of support for USAID/
West Africa.                                                                          enhanced biodiversity conservation
                                                                                      through the identification and
                                                                                      mitigation of specific threats.
forest management. The program              program completed a baseline study
strengthened national geographic            in 26 communities in the Western          In the forestry sector, USAID/West
information system capacity, geo-           Region of Ghana and the Aboisso           Africa worked through an alliance
referenced forest boundaries and            prefecture of Côte d’Ivoire that will     to support the rehabilitation of
villages to update maps, and analyzed       help measure project impact over          cocoa farms and associated natural
the influence of management                  time. CARE also trained 180 people        forest ecosystems in Côte d’Ivoire,
strategies on land use and forest           in natural resources management           while limiting the extent of forest
cover changes. ICRAF trained                and biodiversity conservation, and        clearing for new cocoa cultivation.
13 private nursery farmers and              began the process of establishing         The project helped producers
involved 300 community members in           community resource management             plant over 70,000 indigenous shade
reforestation using 16,350 seedlings        areas in seven communities.               trees (triple the number from last
on 14 hectares. An additional 31                                                      year) to partially reestablish natural
hectares were planted with co-              Perhaps the largest transboundary         forest crown cover and improve
funding from the Jane Goodall               area in the region is off the coast,      management of 13,463 hectares, a
Institute. These efforts improved           where fish have been overexploited         required step on the road to fair-
management of 129 hectares,                 for decades by foreign fishing             trade and eco-friendly chocolate
and enhanced natural resource               fleets, which encounter almost no          certification and ultimately higher
management of about 3,000 hectares.         regulation or enforcement and have        prices for cacao growers. The
                                            few incentives for operating in a         alliance trained 1,922 farmers to
The transboundary program in Ghana          sustainable manner. With fish stocks       prepare them for certification, with
and Côte d’Ivoire managed by CARE           declining, commercial and artisanal       1,745 becoming certified producers
International focuses on initiatives        West African fishermen are forced          (a five-fold increase over 2007).
that can create the framework for           to spend longer hours catching            Farmers are rapidly modifying their
improved benefits sharing, better            fewer and smaller fish, or find new         cocoa production practices and
governance, and prevention of               livelihoods altogether. Fish diversity    are not clearing new sections of
conflict in targeted high-biodiversity       and marine ecosystem health have          natural forest, thus restoring the
sites. Still in its initial phase, the      suffered, with documented impacts         biological integrity of the cocoa-

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                     15
natural forest production system.             cover in West Africa where               3,000 kilometers of paved road, most
Lessons from this successful program          USAID-supported biodiversity             people make a living from what they
are now being applied in Ghana.               programs are being implemented.          can produce and sell locally. They
                                                                                       rely heavily on natural resources and
 USAID’s West Africa Land Use                                                          ecosystem services, but often lack
 Land Cover Trends Project, which            Democratic                                incentives and structures to manage
 ended this year, demonstrated               Republic of Congo                         these for long-term sustainable use.
 that the rates, magnitudes, and
 spatial extent of human alterations         Conservation and                          Two USAID missions operate out
 of the land surface have assumed            Sustainable Agriculture                   of Kinshasa, USAID/DRC and the
 unprecedented levels. The U.S.                                                        Central African Regional Program
 Geological Survey’s (USGS)                  The Democratic Republic of Congo          for the Environment (CARPE).
 final analysis in Niger revealed             (DRC) is one of the world’s ten           Bilateral resources from the DRC
 that in the 15 years since the              most biodiverse countries and             mission complement and build upon
 central government reversed a               the only home to two great apes,          CARPE’s expertise by promoting
 law forbidding individuals from             the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and             sound policies and incorporating
 using trees on their own land               the eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla      improved natural resource
 (removing any incentive to plant            beringei graueri), among many other       management and environmental
 or maintain trees), re-greening             endemic species. DRC contains over        sustainability into economic growth
 has occurred on over five million            half of the vast Congo basin forest,      activities. Programs are focused on
 hectares, mostly through natural            about 130 million hectares virtually      conserving the use of trees in tropical
 regeneration of dry forest and              untouched by large-scale forestry         production systems, increasing
 scrubland. A new program with               or mining operations. With almost         overall forest cover, reducing soil
 USGS will help monitor forest               70 million residents and less than        erosion and water degradation
                                                                                       caused by shifting cultivation (slash
                                                                                       and burn) practices, and maintaining
                                                                                       and improving biodiversity habitat.

                                                                                       With CARPE managing conservation
                                                                                       efforts in the region, USAID/DRC
                                                                                       made only minor investments until
                                                                                       now. In 2006 and 2007, the bilateral
                                                                                       mission supported a public-private
                                                                                       partnership designed to implement
                                                                                       an economic reintegration,
                                                                                       biodiversity conservation, and
                                                                                       community recovery scheme. The
                                                                                       program provided support to
                                                                                       communities receiving internally
                                                                                       displaced persons, returnees to
                                                                                       areas abandoned due to activities
                                                                                       of unsanctioned militias (rebels),
                                                                                       and disadvantaged people in the
                                                                                       Tshuapa, Lulonga and Maringa
                                                            PHOTO: NICK HOBGOOD, DAI   River ecological zones.
 A PAINTED REED FROG (Hyperolius viridiflavus) near Lake Karavia on the outskirts
 of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pollution in the waterways negatively    A new USAID/DRC program is
 impacts the frogs and can signal problems for people.
                                                                                       currently under development that

16      AFRICA
                                                                                          sustainability. This community-
                                                                                          based program will capitalize
                                                                                          on Ethiopia’s extensive and rich
                                                                                          biodiversity, unique culture,
                                                                                          and history. Focusing on some
                                                                                          of Ethiopia`s most biologically
                                                                                          significant areas and associated
                                                                                          endemic species, most activities will
                                                                                          take place in national and regional
                                                                                          parks and lakes, and the buffer
                                                                                          zones that surround these areas.

                                                                                          Still in the planning phase, the
                                                                                          Ethiopian Sustainable Tourism
                                    PHOTO: CHRISTINE HICKS, COUNTERPART INTERNATIONAL     Alliance (ESTA) will strengthen
PRIORITY SETTING: National and municipal Ethiopian government officials, NGOs, and         biodiversity conservation and natural
community leaders work together during a USAID-funded Global Sustainable Tourism          resource management through
Alliance workshop to prioritize identified conservation and cultural preservation needs.
                                                                                          sustainable tourism by: facilitating
                                                                                          community mobilization efforts for
                                                                                          better use and co-management of
will promote improved agricultural            assistance by the USDA Forest               natural resources; building capacity
production and management                     Service to improve rangeland                in participatory natural resource
techniques as part of community               management policies and practices           management and sustainable tourism
land use plans, and protect                   under the Pastoralist Livelihoods           planning; and establishing community
biodiversity by reducing the rate             Initiative. Traditional pastoralist         conservation areas. ESTA will
of environmental degradation.                 institutions and the Ethiopian              support sustainable income-
This objective will be achieved               government’s own pastoralist                generating opportunities, such as
through conservation outreach and             programs were strengthened to               handicrafts, for people affected by
livelihoods strengthening including           better manage natural resources in          HIV/AIDS and promote HIV/AIDS
the increased use of sustainable and          Afar, Oromia and Somali Regions.            awareness and prevention among
high-value production, storage and            In FY 2008, thousands of hectares           those working in the tourism sector
processing alternatives for agricultural      of rangeland were rehabilitated             and in destination communities.
products at the community level.              via improved land management,
                                              controlled burns, and use of area
                                              enclosures. With the restoration            Ghana
Ethiopia                                      of fire, new and resurgent grass
                                              species are appearing in greater            Community-based
Rangeland Management and                      diversity and invasive species are          Ecotourism and Natural
Ecotourism Development                        better managed. Ecosystem-based             Resource Enterprises
                                              principles are recognized by the
Given Ethiopia’s largely rural                government and communities as key           Well-endowed with natural
population and economy, the                   to long-term rangeland management.          resources, from gold and diamonds to
largest and most critical threats to                                                      timber and chimpanzees, Ghana has
biodiversity are natural resource             USAID initiated a new ecotourism            about twice the per capita output of
degradation associated with                   program in July 2008 to create              its poorest neighbors in West Africa.
deforestation, population pressure            non-farm economic opportunities             Agriculture accounts for about
and unsustainable agricultural                while improving protected                   35 percent of GDP and employs
practices. USAID supports technical           area management and financial                about 55 percent of the work force,

                                       USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                      17
                                           of quality community ecotourism        improved livelihoods and increased
                                           destinations and encouraging private   incomes of local communities.
                                           sector participation. USAID’s
                                           Community-Based Ecotourism             In previous years, USAID completed
                                           Program (CBEP), managed by             the first biodiversity studies of the
                                           a Ghanaian NGO, builds upon            rich and previously unprotected
                                           the achievements of an earlier         Nyankamba Escarpment in the
                                           ecotourism project to promote          northern region of Ghana. This
                                           biodiversity conservation and          area is now recognized as the most
                                           enhance livelihoods. In 2008, the      important example of Guinea
                                           program supported the expansion        woodland savanna remaining in
                                           of Community Protected Areas to        Ghana. Additional components
                                           two new locations of previously        of the program included conflict
                                           unprotected lands; developed           mitigation over resource use,
                                           14 community based ecotourism          protection of natural buffers such
                                           sites and 6 wildlife conservation      as wetlands and coastal forests,
                                           sites; increased conserved             reduced pollution, and sustainable
                                           lands by 132,000 hectares; and         coastal tourism. This work was
                                           prompted a significant jump in          jointly funded by USAID and the
                     PHOTO: USAID/GHANA    domestic and foreign tourism.          Netherlands Committee of the
FUNDS RAISER: The sacred black-                                                   World Conservation Union.
and-white colobus monkeys of Boaben-       CBEP recorded a 19 percent
Fiema Monkey Sanctuary in Ghana have
been protected for generations by the      annual growth rate of visitors to      In partnership with USAID/
local community, and now income from       the various sites, thus creating an    West Africa and Coca Cola, the
tourism provides an additional incentive
for conservation. USAID supported          opportunity for small and medium       Ghana mission is also supporting
development of 14 community-based          enterprise (SME) development and       the Natural Resource Based
ecotourism sites in Ghana in 2008.
                                           income generation for the large        Enterprise (NRBE) component of
                                           population of unemployed youth         the Transboundary Area (TBA)
                                           and women. Through improved site       project. The TBA project seeks to
many on cacao plantations that             facilities, marketing and increased    promote sustainable management
literally feed the global demand for       human resource capacity to manage      of natural resources in the
chocolate. USAID/Ghana promotes            conservation destinations, local       transboundary region between
diversification of the economy to           communities are able to offer          Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, focusing
include biodiversity conservation          tourism experiences that help          on biodiversity conservation,
activities, which strengthen               finance biodiversity protection.        promotion and protection. The
natural resources management               The successes have triggered a         NRBE activity reinforces the efforts
and the tourism industry.                  great amount of interest and set       of French and Danish development
                                           the stage for a significant increase    activities in overlapping districts.
The goal of USAID’s biodiversity           in ecotourism development as a         In FY 2008, the inception year of
program is to ensure Ghana                 vehicle for SME development and        the project, NRBE conducted a
develops ecotourism experiences            poverty reduction. CBEP also           number of studies to assess the
that promote conservation,                 dramatically increased awareness       resource-base, human resource
are self-sustaining and become             of the white-necked rockfowl,          capacity, socio-economic and
competitive in the global ecotourism       one of the most endangered bird        cultural dimensions of the target
marketplace. By ensuring sustainable       species on the African continent.      area to inform strategies for
natural resource management,               The program is building sustainable    intervention, implementation,
upon which tourism depends,                bird watching enterprises that have    and monitoring and evaluation.
USAID is developing a critical mass

18       AFRICA
Support for active community
participation in project decision-          GUINEA AT A CROSSROADS
making at all levels has strengthened
the partnership and feeling of              Guinea’s current political, social, and economic climate is one of both
ownership in the beneficiary                 hope and uncertainty. The death of President Conte on December 23,
communities, an important aspect            2008, ended 24 years of one-man rule. Though the military government
of sustainable natural resource             that seized power following the President’s death has promised to hold
management. Future programming              free and fair presidential and national assembly elections, the outcome
will build on this foundation and           of the transition to civilian rule remains unclear. The country stands
provide tailor-made interventions           at a historic crossroads that will determine whether Guinea chooses
to further conservation efforts,            democratic governance or continued autocratic rule.
especially to mitigate the impact
of oil and gas exploration and              Non-humanitarian USAID bilateral assistance to Guinea is suspended
extraction in the country.                  until a new government is in place and recognized by the United
                                            States as legitimate. Regional USAID environmental activities that
                                            partially take place in Guinea are continuing for the time being.

Landscape Management                     by reforming national forest policy            The primary biodiversity goal
for Improved Livelihoods                 to decentralize the management                 of LAMIL was to enhance the
                                         of state forests, and by providing             survival of the highly threatened
Guinea’s forests are at significant       technical assistance to institute              West African chimpanzee.
risk from destructive farming            improved agriculture and forest                Guinea remains an important
practices and poor governance            management techniques.                         refuge for the species, with over
of natural resources. Among the
last strongholds for biodiversity
in coastal West Africa, Guinea’s
forest habitat is a high international
conservation priority.

In FY 2008, USAID/Guinea`s
biodiversity activities aimed to
conserve important state and
unclassified forests and encourage
sustainable use of forest products.
USAID partners assisted resource
users and government advisors
to improve the provision of
ecosystem services to target
communities. Working through
the Landscape Management for
Improved Livelihoods (LAMIL)
                                                                                                           PHOTO: TIM RESCH, USAID
activity, implemented by the World
Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF),               IRON GIANT: Despite being adjacent to the Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve, a
                                           69 square mile national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site, this area will be the
USAID conserved biodiversity by            site of a lucrative new iron mine in Guinea. The mountain has the highest grade iron
building the capacity of government        deposits in the world, and Guinea cannot afford to leave this resource undeveloped.
                                           USAID supports efforts to reduce the impact of mining on the park.
resource managers and civil society
organizations to co-manage forests,

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                            19
23,000 hectares of critical habitat   Kenya                                   variables. While wildlife numbers
designated by ICRAF in and around                                             in two peri-urban areas show
co-managed forests. This habitat      Community Conser vation,                downward trends, two years of
includes migration corridors where    Sustainable Pastoralism                 ranger-based monitoring across
communities have agreed to            and Land Rights                         eight community conservancies
refrain from agriculture and other                                            found increases in 11 key species.
activities in exchange for the co-    Kenya is renowned for its spectacular
management responsibilities and       wildlife and scenery, but pressing      Surveys for wildlife management
technical skills they have gained.    natural resource management and         were focused on habitat mapping,
Following a recent coup d’etat and    biodiversity conservation challenges    seasonal wildlife distribution, elephant
suspension of the constitution,       exist. USAID/Kenya aims to develop      mortality reports, and game counts.
LAMIL activities have taken a         and implement national conservation     According to monthly wildlife
regional approach by focusing         strategies and recovery plans for       monitoring, sightings of key species
on two new forest reserves            species of high conservation value,     increased in 2008 over counts in
straddling the border between         conserve and improve biologically       2007. An annual survey of sand
Guinea and Sierra Leone, namely       significant landscapes, replant and      grouse and guinea fowl in target
Guinea’s Madina Oula forest and       preserve native forest, and restore     community conservancies provided
the Soyah and Pinsili forests.        ecological processes on community       KWS with data on sustainable
                                      grazing lands and wildlife ranges.      off-take of these species for legal
USAID also provided USDA                                                      game-bird shooting quotas. On
Forest Service (USFS) technical       In FY 2008, USAID’s biodiversity        the coast, a framework for turtle
assistance to Guinea’s National       and forestry programs focused           monitoring, tagging, and data
Directorate of Water and Forests      on scaling up monitoring systems,       management initiated targeted
(DNEF), and together ICRAF and        improving governance and                activities for sea turtle conservation.
USFS reviewed and developed           administration systems of community     Volunteers conducted day patrols
natural resource management           based organizations to enhance          to monitor, verify and protect
procedures, disseminated              performance and the delivery of         168 turtle nests, with almost
tree and crop intensification          benefits to members, and supporting      11,000 confirmed hatchlings.
models, and empowered                 Kenya’s land reform agenda. The new
local communities to plan             Kenya Forest Service (KFS) proved       The role of community
and implement sound natural           to be a valuable partner, and Kenya     conservancies in the preservation
resource management. LAMIL            Wildlife Service (KWS) developed        of endangered species has
helped train 63 local government      an impressive integrated work plan      achieved high-level recognition
representatives to implement          in support of community wildlife        through National Species
participatory forest management       conservation, forest restoration,       Conservation Plans and
legislation in FY 2008. USAID         and key species management              Management Committees. In
also provided training to farmers     that was complementary to               FY 2008, USAID initiated
and 250 farmer associations,          USAID conservation efforts.             efforts through conservancies to
as well as ten government staff                                               safeguard the hirola, Beatragus
in integrated approaches to           USAID made a concerted effort to        hunteri, a unique, geographically
natural resource management           improve information management          isolated antelope species
including sustainable agricultural    systems to monitor trends in            historically found in northeast
techniques. By helping to             biodiversity and natural resources      Kenya and adjacent areas of
improve agricultural productivity,    management. Three databases             southwest Somalia. Community
these initiatives helped to           were developed that profile 15           conservancies also contain
relieve agricultural pressure         parameters on wildlife population       important populations of Grevy’s
on remaining natural areas,           dynamics, vegetation, tourism           zebra, lion and elephant.
thereby preserving biodiversity.      numbers and socio-economic

20      AFRICA
FOUR GIRAFFE are defining features of
this landscape in Masai Mara National
Park, Kenya.

USAID supported several species-             National Park, in order to conserve     newly-formed KFS to establish
specific conservation efforts in FY           critical wildlife dispersal areas.      management systems needed for
2008. A strategy was developed               Improved grazing management was         its transition to a ‘for-profit’ state
for the reintroduction of the                practiced on 500 hectares in the        corporation capable of managing
Rothschild giraffe, the second most          Laikipia ecosystem with the aim         public and donor funds in support
endangered subspecies, to native             of restoring the biodiversity and       of technical forestry programs.
habitat around the eastern shores            productivity of rangeland resources.
of Lake Baringo. DNA analysis                Up to 560 women were trained in         To reduce pressure on the forest
to determine the viability of small          rangeland improvement techniques.       and improve tree cover, USAID
populations of rhinoceros resulted in        Three aerial and ground vegetation      supported tree planting activities
the development of rhino recovery            monitoring assessments, undertaken      and woodlot establishment. Up to
plans for regions not part of prior          to investigate the impact of grazing    3.7 million seedlings were planted
restoration efforts. Assistance to           management on vegetation recovery       within selected riverine ecosystems,
KWS helped to formulate national             in different grazing zones, indicated   on farms and degraded forest
conservation strategies for five              that control of livestock grazing in    reserves around three biodiverse
keystone species: cheetah, lion, wild        core and buffer zones led to an         areas: Mt. Kenya, the Aberdares,
dog, sea turtles, and wild aloe.             increase in ground vegetation cover.    and Arabuko Sokoke Forest.

USAID/Kenya had several notable              Kenya’s critically threatened           Sustainable forestry was advanced
achievements related to sustainable          indigenous forests continued            through the formation and training
pastoralism. A land use master plan          receiving support through               of 12 community forest associations
was initiated on the vast wildlife and       targeted forest management              (CFAs) which paved the way for
livestock ranges adjacent to Nairobi         activities. USAID assisted the          participatory forest management

                                        USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                21
with KFS in state forest reserves.       revenues of $1.27 million accruing        The two most important direct
KFS developed and adopted a              to rural households, including            threats to Liberia’s biodiversity and
forest management plan for the           an estimated 18,500 women.                forests are unsustainable logging and
340 km2 Mukogodo forest, and a                                                     the extensive trade in bushmeat.
CFA composed mainly of pastoralist       In terms of economic development,         Agricultural clearing and charcoal
households will negotiate a co-          four ecotourism agreements were           production are also contributing
management agreement under               initiated between communities and         to deforestation, as well as small
that umbrella in FY 2009.                the private sector worth over $2.5        lumber processing (“pit sawing”) and
                                         million. An additional $120,000           mining operations which result in the
Land tenure and property rights          came from USAID’s Livestock               unsustainable harvest of high-value
(LTPR) are not well established          Markets for Wildlife Conservation         timber species and wildlife. While
in Kenya, where there are many           program, an innovative model for          selective logging practices may not
land uses and people lacking clear       enterprise-based conservation that        extract large numbers of trees, logging
ownership or use rights. Several         helps maintain wildlife-compatible        roads attract agriculturalists and
LTPR surveys were undertaken             pastoralism in community                  hunters into the forests. Additionally,
in FY 2008, including a review of        conservancies by delivering well-         the practice of “high grading” (taking
Kenya’s draft National Land Policy,      managed cattle to market at               the largest, most robust trees) is
important for its potential to address   competitive prices. Over 600              likely contributing to overall genetic
macroeconomic and social issues          cattle were sold through the              decline in high value tree populations.
that have troubled Kenya since           program, which will be scaled-
independence. An assessment              up on four more community                 Initiated by the United States,
of LTPR in the mission’s northern        conservancies in FY 2009.                 but now a partnership of many
rangeland and coastal conservation                                                 stakeholders, LFI is working to
programs demonstrated a need                                                       improve the harvesting practices of
to formalize and strengthen the          Liberia                                   commercial logging operators in an
tenure arrangements through which                                                  effort to improve forest management
local communities establish and          Commercial Forestry,                      and protect biodiversity. Major
hold conservancies, particularly         Community Empowerment                     achievements in FY 2008 include
those operating on Trust Land.           and Conservation                          the implementation of a reformed
This is an essential building                                                      contracting process that will lead
block for securing private-sector        Liberia contains over 40 percent          to the first commercial logging
investment and for conservancies`        of the remaining Upper Guinean            operations in Liberia since the lifting
long-term sustainability.                rainforest, the largest share among       of UN Security Council timber
                                         countries in the region and,              sanctions in 2006. LFI is working
These investments in conservation        therefore, a priority for conserving      with the government of Liberia to
of Kenya’s rich biodiversity             this critically threatened ecosystem.     ensure that transparent procedures
improved natural resource                USAID support to the Liberia              and practices are followed and that
management techniques                    Forest Initiative (LFI) is working to     contracts are awarded to reputable
and brought about reforms                promote sustainable harvesting of         logging companies that follow the
in environmental and land                timber and better overall silvicultural   correct procedures for harvesting
administration laws and regulations,     practices, while the Land Rights          timber and paying government fees.
improving management in 152,630          and Community Forestry Program
hectares of biologically significant      (LRCFP) and Civilian Conservation         LRCFP is USAID/Liberia’s flagship
areas, which exceeded the mission’s      Corps (CCC) are working to                program for biodiversity conservation,
target by 20 percent. Likewise,          strengthen two protected areas.           operating in the forested counties
the performance of nature-based          LRCFP is also working in non-             of Nimba and Sinoe and around
enterprises was nearly 130 percent       protected forests outside the             one protected area, the East Nimba
greater than anticipated, with           expanding protected area network.         Nature Reserve. The goals of the

22      AFRICA
                                                                                              harvest of forest products for income
                                                                                              and job creation at the local level.

                                                                                              The establishment of a legal
                                                                                              framework that promotes
                                                                                              biodiversity conservation has
                                                                                              been a challenging but important
                                                                                              part of Liberia’s reconstruction.
                                                                                              Actual implementation of laws and
                                                                                              regulations is even more difficult.
                                                                                              Ensuring that policies are implemented
                                                                                              further requires campaigns to raise
                                                                                              awareness about new laws. Policy
                                                                                              development, law enforcement
                                                                                              support and public engagement
                                                                                              have featured prominently in both
                                                                                              LRCFP and CCC. Government
                                                                                PHOTO: DAI
                                                                                              agencies and other local partners
CHAINSAW “PITSAWING” in Senkwehn Forest, Liberia, slated to become a protected                are serious about economic
area. Logging revenue once fueled civil conflict in Liberia, and now is poised to contribute
to the country’s development. Forest degradation continues however due to artisanal           development and sustainable natural
chainsaw loggers, the modern version of traditional pit sawyers who used hand saws to         resource use and this commitment
hew lumber from logs over pits dug beneath.
                                                                                              is enabling progress to occur despite
                                                                                              implementation challenges.

program are to balance generation               livelihood opportunities in areas
of revenue for the government and               such as agriculture, livestock rearing        Madagascar
communities through sustainable                 and agro-forestry, thereby relieving
extraction of forest resources with             pressure on the park and improving            Biodiversity Conservation
better protection of the forests and            prospects for biodiversity. The               and Sustainable
the biodiversity that they harbor.              project provided training and worked          Management of Forests
The program helps Liberia’s Forest              with each community to develop
Development Authority and its                   incentive agreements to bolster               Among the world’s top three
partners design pilot community                 conservation goals. In 2008, more             environmental conservation
forestry activities which test                  than 3,000 individuals benefited from          priorities, Madagascar’s biodiversity
approaches to sustainably extracting            re-stocking of small ruminants such as        and forests are threatened by slash
and marketing timber and non-                   sheep and goats and the revitalization        and burn cultivation, illegal logging,
timber forest resources, in order               of crop production including                  wildlife trade and mining. USAID
to improve incomes and livelihoods              cassava and assorted vegetables.              has advanced the development and
for people living near forests.                                                               implementation of the Madagascar
                                                Together, LRCFP and CCC are                   National Environmental Action
Sapo National Park is Liberia’s first            providing alternatives to bushmeat            Plan since 1989, balancing support
and only national park, with important          hunting, improving logging practices,         for protected areas and forest
populations of endangered wildlife              and promoting agriculture that                stewardship with community-based
such as pygmy hippo, chimpanzee                 produces more food on less land and           natural resources management
and the Liberian mongoose. The                  reduces the need for land clearing.           and sustainable agriculture.
CCC project has been working with               In addition, LRCFP is working on
six communities that reside in and              increasing the value of standing              In FY 2008 alone, USAID assistance
around Sapo to provide alternative              forests through the sustainable               improved the management of 1.2

                                        USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                          23
million hectares of biologically-
significant land, and maintained           MADAGASCAR’S UNCERTAIN FUTURE
the low rate of deforestation in
                                          On March 17, 2009, after months of political unrest, Madagascar’s
forest corridors documented in
                                          President Ravalomanana was forced out of power by Andry Rajoelina,
FY 2007. The protected area               the former Mayor of the capital city Antananarivo. At least 135
system grew from 4.1 to 4.8 million       people were killed in protests and the takeover was internationally
hectares of biodiversity-rich habitat,    condemned as a coup d’etat. Four days later Rajoelina was installed
approaching the declared target           as the new leader of the country.
of six million hectares. USAID
                                          The Southern African Development Community (SADC) refuses
programs produced a national guide
                                          to recognize Rajoelina, and the African Union and SADC have both
for community management and              suspended Madagascar’s membership. Norway, the International
sustainable use of natural resources, a   Monetary Fund and other donors have frozen funding, while the
refined protected area planning tool,      United States has suspended all non-humanitarian assistance.
and a new protected area evaluation       Internationally mediated talks broke down in June, but a power-
system to be adopted by the               sharing deal signed in August brought Rajoelina, Ravalomanana and
government of Madagascar. Nearly          other opposition parties together for the first time since political
2,000 people participated in training     violence began in January 2009. They pledged to work towards an
                                          interim government, put an end to months of political violence, and
and capacity building in community-
                                          hold fresh elections within 15 months.
based natural resource management,
forest fire management, and                What does this mean for the Malagasy people and their natural
economic valorization of natural          resources? Reports from the countryside and ports indicate that
resources. More than 200 users            illegal logging and exports of trees and wildlife have risen due to
registered to receive forest fire alerts   decreased local enforcement. Hundreds of precious rosewood
                                          trees are being harvested daily, bringing a criminal element into
by email through an automated
                                          local communities and removing a valuable source of future national
satellite-based fire monitoring system.
                                          revenue. Hunting of lemurs for food and export of tortoises for
                                          medicine have both increased dramatically since the crisis began.
New species are discovered each           Nature-based tourism has all but stopped on the island, forcing many
year in Madagascar and become             small and medium businesses to shut down.
immediate conservation priorities,
                                          With lawlessness up and incomes down, some people are embracing
underscoring the need for more
                                          open-access to resources, while others are using newspapers to
protected areas and community
                                          decry wildlife poaching and promote sustainable forestry. And, some
participation in conservation. In         community natural resource management groups once supported by
FY 2008, scientists reported an           USAID are staying vigilant to outsiders. Madagascar remains a high
unknown species of the mouse lemur,       conservation priority and USAID is anxious to resume biodiversity
the world’s smallest primate, as well     programs when the suspension is lifted. In the meantime, the
as a previously undescribed 40-foot       mission maintains some level of engagement with rural communities
tall palm with 15-foot fan leaves         at the frontlines of illegal exploitation through partners involved in
– the largest palm in the country.        humanitarian relief programs supported by the Agency and others.
USAID supported conservation              In 2008, USAID took stock of 18 years of support for biodiversity
priority-setting exercises which          conservation and natural resource management, both to plan for
finalized the spatial configuration         new programs and recommend priorities for the government of
of the protected area system, and         Madagascar. Best practices and lessons learned were integrated
laid the groundwork for creating          into Madagascar’s new 15-year National Environmental Action
new marine protected areas                Plan process, called the Sector Wide Approach (SWAP). While
                                          most institutional reform of the Ministry of Environment was
(MPAs) through the development
                                          realized before the coup, only time will tell if the interim or future
of a national manual for MPA
                                          administrations will follow the SWAP process and implement the
design, establishment of a marine         procedures, regulations and laws developed with USAID assistance.
biodiversity database, and inclusion of

24      AFRICA
BLEEDING AWAY: Deforestation and land
degradation from slash and burn agriculture
result in accelerated erosion of Madagascar’s
priceless soil. Here, the Betsiboka River
runs red with sediments eroded from the
surrounding landscape.

MPAs in the proposed amendment                  and local communities, and these     Developing sustainable finance
of the national protected areas                 were pilot tested in two regions.    mechanisms for conservation is a
law. Nearly one million hectares of             Management plans were approved       critical issue for the government.
additional MPAs were proposed.                  for more than 32,000 hectares        In FY 2008, the mission supported
                                                of plantation forests, decreasing    the design of a sustainable financing
In FY 2008, USAID supported                     pressure on highly-threatened        strategy for all environmental
government reform of the forestry               remaining natural forests.           actions in Madagascar. New
sector through restructuring                                                         financial mechanisms including
and revitalizing public forestry                The program moved forward with       debt relief, carbon credits, and
institutions and promoting key forest           national, regional, and communal     ecotourism concession fees were
management legislation. The law                 forest zoning which facilitated a    analyzed and incorporated into
on infractions, penalties and fines              more harmonized, sustainable land    the government of Madagascar’s
in the forest sector was revised,               use planning approach for forest     business plan. USAID also worked
and a manual on law enforcement                 resources. USAID also facilitated    with the government to identify
procedures and management                       the development of community         possible tourism concessions and
systems for production forests                  forest management sites known        develop guidance for selecting
was finalized. An improved legal                 as KoloAla. To date, over two        and contracting concessions.
framework created mechanisms                    million hectares of forest in four   Two new regional forestry
and procedures for allocating                   regions have an approved forest      commissions drafted by-laws which
long-term production forest                     zoning plan, of which 418,000        now guide and operationalize
management rights to companies                  hectares are KoloAla forests.        cost recovery mechanisms for a

                                        USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT               25
                                                                                               soil recovery. This combination
                                                                                               of factors causes widespread
                                                                                               environmental degradation, including
                                                                                               severe deforestation, soil depletion,
                                                                                               water source contamination
                                                                                               and loss of biodiversity.

                                                                                               USAID/Malawi provided training
                                                                                               and technical assistance to
                                                                                               communities, extension staff
                                                                                               and district forest officials on
                                                                                               natural resource management
                                                                                               practices; promoted continued
                                                                                               decentralization of natural resource
                                                                                               management; and, helped increase
                                                                                               sales of natural resource-based
                                                                                               products by rural households.
                                                                                               Additionally, USAID partners
                                                            PHOTO: ANDREW TOBIASON, USAID      supported the establishment of
                                                                                               community-based institutions to
SEEING IS BELIEVING: USAID-supported farmer field schools and cooperatives in
Madagascar demonstrate alternatives to slash and burn agriculture, such as this corn field in   manage natural resources through
eastern Madagascar planted with a live mulch groundcover. Live mulch produces three times as   co-management agreements,
many ears as a neighboring field planted on newly cleared land, and the same land can be used
again and again, conserving forest.                                                            carbon sequestration projects
                                                                                               through avoided deforestation,
                                                                                               public awareness activities, and
    forestry fund that supports local              as a source of forest management            sound stewardship of the wildlife
    sustainable forest management.                 and reforestation funds.                    reserves, national parks and forests.

    Carbon markets offer a major                                                               Through the Community
    opportunity for tropical countries             Malawi                                      Partnerships for Sustainable
    to address climate change while                                                            Resource Management in Malawi
    advancing their rural development              Natural Resources                           (COMPASS II) project, implemented
    and biodiversity conservation                  Management and                              by DAI, over 7,500 community
    agendas. Two pilot projects                    Biodiversity Conservation                   members were trained in
    provided approaches to modeling                                                            community-based natural resource
    carbon offsets and channeling                  Malawi is one of southern Africa’s          management (CBNRM), almost half
    revenue from carbon markets to                 most biodiverse countries, with many        of them women. Approximately
    rural communities. Following a                 endemic species. Wood, wildlife,            91,600 participating households
    national workshop on Reducing                  fish, and other natural resources are        gained either directly or indirectly
    Emissions from Deforestation and               critical for rural households’ income       from COMPASS II supported
    Degradation (REDD) in April 2008,              and food security, especially during        activities through the end of FY
    USAID supported the government                 years of poor harvests. Efforts to          2008. As a result of these efforts,
    in developing its national REDD                conserve forests and biodiversity           105,000 hectares were placed
    strategy. The program provided                 are hampered by Malawi’s high               under improved natural resource
    capacity building for the government           birthrate, a subsistence agriculture        management and a total of 386,000
    and local associations to engage with          economy, over-dependence on                 hectares under biodiversity
    and capitalize on carbon markets               wood for fuel, and land holdings            conservation. Following these
                                                   too small for fallow fields and              achievements, USAID helped

    26        AFRICA
transfer authority to manage             Parks and Wildlife to reinvigorate          in the collaborative management
natural resources to communities,        the area as a tourist destination,          of MWR, representing a total
conducted management skills              thereby benefiting local people.             population of 130,000 people
training for community members,                                                      in 146 villages surrounding the
and identified opportunities for          Surrounding communities have                reserve. Additionally, a 130 km
locals to profit from sustainable         welcomed the restoration of                 perimeter elephant-proof fence
utilization of natural resources         Majete and have benefited from               was completed, and community
while safeguarding biodiversity.         the income generating activities            resource maps and a GIS system
                                         introduced by the project, including        for all 19 CBOs were created.
USAID efforts to combine                 beekeeping, mushroom production,
conservation with small-scale            and rabbit farming. The project has         In 2008, about 885 animals were
commercialization has contributed        supported the start-up of several           translocated from Malawi’s Liwonde
to communities now viewing               community-based organizations by            and Lengwe National Parks to
forests and parks as resources           providing assistance with drafting          Majete, including elephants, buffalo
for investment rather than as            constitutions, registering with local       and warthogs. After two years
public goods ripe for unfettered         authorities, and paying legal fees.         of project implementation, the
extraction and exploitation. Natural     A total of 19 community based               reserve has more than 1,897 animals
resource-based enterprises have          organizations (CBOs) were engaged           including 70 elephants. The animal
emerged as “social fences” which
discourage unsustainable practices
such as deforestation, burning, and
encroachment. Conservation has
also reduced environmental and
economic vulnerability to climate
change impacts as communities
find value in protecting the forests.
In FY 2008, roughly 86 tons of
honey were sold in the formal
market, pumping about 22 million
Malawian kwacha (MK) back
into rural areas, while another
MK 1 million was earned from
the sale of 20 tons of baobab
products. The total cumulative
revenue received by households
participating in CBNRM activities
was approximately US$1.3 million.

Through a public-private partnership
with African Parks, USAID is helping
revitalize Majete Wildlife Reserve
(MWR) in southern Malawi with
investments in infrastructure,
game restocking, community
                                                                                                 PHOTO: ANDREW WATSON, DAI
mobilization and protection of
areas of environmental significance.        SERVAL in Nyika National Park in northern Malawi. USAID-supported community-
                                           based conservation efforts around Nyika have resulted in reduced poaching and
This partnership works closely             recovering populations of threatened species.
with the Department of National

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                    27
                                                                                         DOGON DANCERS in the village
                                                                                         of Tele, Mali, are part of the cultural
                                                                                         allure for tourists whose spending
                                                                                         also contributes to biodiversity
                                                                                         conservation goals.
                                                                                         PHOTO: PASCAL LANGULLON,
                                                                                         SOLIMAR INTERNATIONAL

population is steadily increasing      sources, particularly for Malawi’s        Mali
and there are reduced incidences       peri-urban areas, received renewed
of wild bushfires and poaching.         attention as part of climate              Sustainable Enterprises and
                                       change mitigation activities.             Community Management
In collaboration with the Department                                             of Agroforestry Parklands
of Forestry and Department of Parks    USAID supports a variety of
and Wildlife, USAID began assisting    other conservation efforts,               Mali is a landlocked country with
communities in 2008 to develop         including development of national         varied climate and geography,
carbon sequestration projects by       standards and guidelines for              from subtropical forests in the
implementing forest management         forest management, training and           south to a portion of the Sahara
and conservation activities, which     technical assistance to district forest   desert in the north. Extensive
reduce carbon emissions. Payments      officials, participatory resource          agroforestry parklands host
for avoided deforestation through      assessment, and devolution of             roughly 50 woody species in
voluntary carbon markets will          authority to sign co-management           mixed farmland, fallow and
go to communities in two pilot         agreements. About 200 such                pastoral areas. Mali is also home
sites: Mukwazi Forest Reserve          agreements are in place to enable         to “Dogon Country,” named for
and a block within Nyika National      communities and Departments to            the people that reside there and
Park. Ongoing efforts to promote       co-manage the country’s various           their unique architectural and
woodlot establishment and              protected areas and prevent further       artistic traditions. The Cliff of
alternatives to charcoal as energy     deforestation and habitat loss.           Bandiagara in Dogon Country

28      AFRICA
is a World Heritage Site and              plants from nurseries and three        Over 4,000 hectares were placed
popular tourist destination due to        hotels in Bandiagara made cash         under improved natural resource
its cultural and biological value.        contributions toward the purchase      management in FY 2008, primarily
                                          of seedlings. USAID also launched      through the drafting and passing
USAID is spearheading an                  a dune fixation program campaign        of agreements with nine villages to
integrated approach to natural            via radio shows in all cercles of      pursue assisted natural regeneration;
resource management, forest-              Dogon country. In response,            improvement of shea tree parkland;
based enterprises and ecotourism          youth and nursery associations in      and rehabilitation of rock lines and
to promote environment and                Kanikombole organized rotating         water channels to minimize erosion
biodiversity conservation at              teams to collect and plant Euphorbia   and flooding. Approximately
grassroots and institutional levels.      (a genus of native, protected          230,000 people have benefited from
Local authorities, NGOs, and              tree) in selected dunes.               increased economic benefits due
community leaders are involved                                                   to improved NRM activities related
in conservation and sustainable           A USAID-sponsored ecotourism           to shea, such as shea nuts and shea
enterprise development in the             route is being developed by            butter production and marketing.
Mopti region, where conservation of       the Academy for Educational
Dogon Country’s unique ecosystem          Development and partners in
is achieved through a participatory       the Global Sustainable Tourism         Mozambique
and interdisciplinary approach.           Alliance (GSTA) that highlights the
The program is working with the           unique ecosystems of the area          Conservation through
Dogon traditional leadership, the         including a large forest, an area      Public-Private Partnerships
Bara Hogon, to regenerate and             that harbors the endemic and
sustainably manage woodlands              threatened ronier palm, a watering     Biodiversity loss in Mozambique can
and other important habitats              ground for migratory elephants,        be broadly linked to several indirect
in common property areas.                 and an “oasis” in the semi-arid        threats: poverty and population
                                          terrain where water flows year-         dynamics, food insecurity, low public
During this past year, collaborative      round and sacred crocodiles are        awareness, lack of coordination
efforts included the establishment        found. GSTA partners worked with       and harmonization of legislation,
of plant nurseries in three villages      communities to remove or control       insufficient capacity to implement
for species such as Acacia albida,        two aggressive exotic plants, Pistia   even current laws, little political
Borssus eathiopum and Nere. USAID         stratiodies and Typha angustifoila,    interest in environmental issues,
partners also promoted the use            which negatively impact crocodile,     and absence of funding mechanisms
of fuel-efficient stoves to reduce         bird, amphibian and fish populations    to support conservation. All of
demand for wood and charcoal              in the waterways of Dogon country.     these factors result in a failure to
derived from natural forests, and                                                address direct threats such as habitat
delivered several workshops to            USAID/Mali’s NRM activities            fragmentation and deforestation,
raise awareness of biodiversity           supported the training of almost       harmful agricultural practices, soil
issues. Course evaluations                1,500 forestry agents, NGO             depletion and erosion, pollution and
indicated that many workshop              staff and local beneficiaries in        waste disposal, and overexploitation
participants were surprised to learn      natural resource management and        of coastal and marine resources.
the importance of biodiversity            biodiversity conservation. Among
conservation for their community.         these were guides trained to           USAID biodiversity activities
                                          provide tourists with information on   in Mozambique conserve and
Eight villages participated in            local biodiversity, and community      restore both terrestrial and aquatic
tree planting efforts in FY 2008,         members who learned about how          ecosystems. Through community
adding 945 trees to the cercles           to conserve biodiversity both within   development, education and
(counties) of Bandiagara and              natural areas and on farmland.         empowerment, and natural resource
Bankass. Local NGOs contributed                                                  management, USAID is working to

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT           29
                                                                                     Through a GDA with the Carr
                                                                                     Foundation, USAID is helping re-
                                                                                     establish Gorongosa National
                                                                                     Park as one of Africa’s premier
                                                                                     ecotourism destinations. This
                                                                                     involves rehabilitation of the park to
                                                                                     increase the wildlife population and
                                                                                     various community development
                                                                                     projects around the buffer zone.
                                                                                     Activities will commence in FY 2009
                                                                                     that focus on preserving natural
                                                                                     forests on Mount Gorongosa (the
                                                                                     main watershed in the national park
                                                                                     with some of the last remaining
                                                                                     intact forests in Mozambique);
                                                                                     developing environmentally
                                                     PHOTO: CAROLINE SIMMONDS, WWF   sustainable alternatives to wildlife
MARKING THE SEA: Community members place buoys to demarcate the Zala Bank            poaching and slash and burn
Fishing Sanctuary, formally declared within Mozambique’s Quirimbas National Park.    agriculture for local communities;
                                                                                     promoting alternatives to charcoal
                                                                                     for household use; and addressing
create a national reserve on Lake            the regulatory framework that           uncontrolled burning of forest areas.
Niassa, improving management                 established the park will address
of Pemba Bay, developing a                   some of the major constraints           In a related but separate activity, the
community-managed reserve in                 relating to land ownership.             mission will bring 400 wildebeest,
the Great Limpopo Trans-frontier                                                     200 zebras, and 150 buffalos to the
Conservation Area, and helping               Quirimbas National Park is one          new Gorongosa Wildlife Sanctuary.
restore the Gorongosa National Park.         of the largest conservation areas       These introductions will be repeated
                                             in Mozambique and one of the            throughout the next five to ten years
USAID made significant                        most biologically diverse coastal       to rebuild former wildlife populations
contributions to biodiversity                areas remaining in southern             and reintroduce missing species
conservation by laying the                   Africa. Situated along Pemba            such as rhino and roan antelope.
groundwork for the establishment             bay, the area consists of 32 coral
of a new protected area on                   islands stretching from Pemba to        The Great Limpopo Trans-Frontier
Lake Niassa (a.k.a. Lake Malawi).            the Ruvuma River, and contains          Conservation program is a result of
Through a Global Development                 the greatest concentration of           a recent internationally-approved
Alliance (GDA) with the World                wildlife in the country, including      land-use plan which brings together
Wildlife Fund and the Coca-Cola              endangered dugong and sea               South Africa’s Kruger National
Company, USAID will establish a              turtles. USAID and the World            Park, Zimbabwe’s Gonarezhou
national reserve on Lake Niassa to           Wildlife Fund built a public-private    National Park, and Mozambique’s
protect the lake’s unique ecosystem,         partnership that helped establish       Limpopo National Park. In
which includes 1,000 species of              the legal framework to manage           Mozambique, USAID program
fish (mostly endemic) and rich bird           the use of the bay, founded the         support is funneled to Banhine and
life. The creation of a national             Pemba Bay Conservancy group             Zinave National Parks as well as
reserve on Lake Niassa and the               to implement this management,           surrounding lands. The core area
hinterland of the lake will protect          and produced a zoning law and           covers nearly 3.6 million hectares
the inland fishery and encourage              associated management plans.            (35,771 km2) with the broader
investment in the area, while                                                        matrix covering 100,000 km2.

30       AFRICA
In FY 2008, USAID supported               Technoserve is providing technical        policies and laws governing natural
development of a community-               assistance in sustainable forest          resources. National Development
managed reserve in the Limpopo            management and native forest              Plans, including Namibia`s Vision
Park area, assisting the community        preservation to six companies which       2030 document, now recognize the
to obtain title to land and working       will establish forestry plantations on    contribution of the Environment
with them and local authorities           heavily degraded natural forest land      Sector in general, and CBNRM in
on a management plan for the              in central and northern Mozambique.       particular, towards poverty reduction.
reserve. The African Wildlife             Each company is expected to plant
Foundation designed management            at least 5,000 hectares of trees and      A total of 52 community
and business plans and assisted           establish roughly 1,500 hectares of       conservancies were registered over
the community in zoning an area           native forest in each plantation patch.   the life of the program, covering
for the community to manage as a                                                    12.2 million hectares of land (14.7
game park. Regrettably, this project                                                percent of the country). When
encountered problems when land            Namibia                                   added to the land covered under
concessions in the area were sold to                                                national protected areas and private
a sugar cane plantation. As a result,     Improved Rural Livelihoods                commercial conservancies, the
the project was cancelled and project     through Natural                           total land area in Namibia under
materials and funds were moved            Resource Management                       conservation and biodiversity
to Banhine National Park, another                                                   management is an incredible 37.2
area demarcated for conservation.         More than 70 percent of Namibians,        percent. Conservancies increase the
                                          many living in poverty, reside in         percentage of different vegetation
Biodiversity and forest conservation      rural areas and depend upon natural       types under conservation and
are both prerequisites for and drivers    resources for their livelihoods. From     create connectivity with national
of economic growth. Through its           1992 through 2008, USAID/Namibia’s        parks for free wildlife movement.
Northern Mozambique Tourism               Living in a Finite Environment (LIFE)
project, USAID helped advance             project built the technical and           Community conservancies involve
biodiversity and forest conservation      institutional capacities of Namibian      223,620 people or nearly 13
in Cabo Delgado, Nampula, and             organizations and local communities       percent of the Namibian population.
Niassa provinces by preserving key        to implement a sustainable, nation-       About two-thirds of conservancies
environmental assets, improving           wide community-based natural              have committees with at least 25
promotion of the northern                 resource management (CBNRM)               percent female membership. The
Mozambique tourism market, and            program that impacted a large             mobilization of these communities
attracting more tourists to the region.   proportion of the population.             into representative and trained
Local interest and participation                                                    management committees has
is assured by demonstrating that          The primary approach used by the          created a grassroots democratic
ecologically responsible tourism          World Wildlife Fund to implement          process where communities can
can promote economic growth               the LIFE program was to establish         now advocate for their own needs,
and job creation while improving          community conservancies. These            such as through participation
the environment. The program              provided conditional use rights over      on Regional Land Boards.
is also working to link the Lake          wildlife and other natural resources,
Niassa reserve with the Quirimbas         including the right to retain the         In FY 2008, cumulative conservancy
National Park through a network           income from sustainable use of these      income increased by $1.4 million to
of protected areas and corridors.         resources. USAID worked with              $5.7 million, exceeding the economic
                                          residents of these areas to develop       growth target by 34 percent. Of
USAID programming also supports           business plans and community              this, joint venture lodge partnerships
forest regeneration to create jobs,       enterprises, and worked nationally        between conservancies and the
alleviate poverty and protect native      with the government to integrate          private sector generated $1,900,000,
forests. Implementing partner             community rights into national            while trophy hunting brought

                                  USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                 31
                                                                               from 154 to 180. A total of 946
                                                                               full-time and 6,227 part-time jobs
                                                                               were created through conservancies
                                                                               and their enterprises, such as
                                                                               live game and meat sales, trophy
                                                                               hunting, and wildlife tourism.

                                                                               A management-oriented monitoring
                                                                               system, known in Namibia as
                                                                               the ‘Event Book’ system, was
                                                                               introduced in all 52 of the registered
                                                                               conservancies and provides for
                                                                               systematic data collection and
                                                                               reporting on various biophysical
                                                                               indicators. This information supports
                                                                               decision-making at both local and
                                                                               national levels with regard to the
                                                                               recovery of local wildlife populations
                                                                               and the sustainable use of other
                                                                               natural resources (indigenous
                                                                               plants, forests and fish). Monitoring
                                                                               demonstrated rapid recovery of
                                                                               game populations in conservancies:
                                                                               the numbers of springbok, oryx
LESSONS LEARNED: Children in                                                   and Hartmann’s zebra increased
the Puros community of Namibia                                                 from less than 1,000 each in 1982
attend a school built by Wilderness
Safaris as part of a USAID-supported                                           to at least 175,467, 29,500, and
joint venture agreement with                                                   18,839 respectively by 2008.
Puros Conservancy. Prior to its
construction, children had to travel
more than 70 kilometers to the                                                 With conservancies on good footing,
nearest boarding school or were
taught very rudimentary levels of                                              continued support from the private
education under a tree. About two-                                             sector, strong recognition of the
thirds of the adults in the community
are employed either full-time or
                                                                               development value of CBNRM
on a seasonal basis by the Puros                                               by the national government, and
Conservancy and its enterprises.
                                                                               changes in USAID programming
PHOTO: AARON PRICE, WWF                                                        priorities, the LIFE program closed
                                                                               in June 2008. A comprehensive
                                                                               assessment of the program,
                                                                               from inception in 1992 through
in $1,014,493, both up from the         USAID assistance helped extend         completion, was conducted to
previous year. On average, 37 of        the benefits of natural resource        review USAID’s investment, capture
the most established conservancies      management to individuals and          lessons learned, highlight the major
earned $44,834 each to cover            communities through income             accomplishments and results, and
operational costs and development       generating activities created by       make recommendations for future
activities. Of these, 15 are fully      increased tourism, and by small        CBNRM efforts in Namibia. This
self-financing and seven are paying a    enterprises using natural resources.   report, available at http://pdf.
majority of their operating expenses.   In FY 2008, the number of    
                                        community enterprises increased        pdf, is a key reference for any

32       AFRICA
program working to improve rural        USAID’s program, Destination              Board) with key field equipment
livelihoods through enhanced natural    Nyungwe, supports three                   enabling park rangers to patrol
resource rights and management.         components of an integrated program       the forest and control biodiversity
                                        for biodiversity conservation,            threats. An effective park-wide
                                        ecotourism development and                radio communication network was
Rwanda                                  public health implemented by              established allowing park staff to
                                        International Resources Group and         communicate directly with one
Biodiversity Conservation               the Wildlife Conservation Society.        another for the first time anywhere
through Ecotourism                      Local populations surrounding the         in the forest. Further, GPS receivers
Development                             park are targeted for conservation        allowed rangers to record biodiversity
                                        awareness, income generation and          threat data and analyze it in a
Rwanda is the most densely              health activities to jointly accelerate   geographic information system (GIS).
populated country in sub-Saharan        rural economic growth and
Africa, with a human-dominated          improve biodiversity conservation         Conservation efforts expanded
rural landscape of villages and farms   in and around the national park.          from working primarily with park
which end abruptly at the boundaries                                              staff to include communities and
of national forests and parks.          Under the conservation component,         schools, resulting in measurable
USAID/Rwanda currently focuses          activities include strengthening          biophysical improvements in over
its biodiversity conservation effort    the management capacity of NNP,           7,000 hectares of biologically
on the Nyungwe Forest National          developing sustainable financing           significant land. The project trained
Park (NNP) and surrounding              mechanisms, expanding public              3,019 people, mostly youth and
areas, in the southwestern part         awareness campaigns, and monitoring       women, who deal with conservation
of the country. This mountain           key species, illegal activities and       challenges on a daily basis.
rainforest is a biological treasure,    ecotourism impacts. The principal
with species counts impressive by       threats of fire, poaching, and mining      To promote ecotourism, USAID
any measure: at least 75 mammals        have been reduced by 46 percent           intends to transform NNP into a
and 278 birds, 120 butterflies, 100      since the beginning of the project in     competitive tourism destination
orchids, and 200 trees, many of         2006, and by almost 20 percent in         by increasing both the number
which are endemic. Nyungwe forest       the past year. The program provided       of visits to the Park and tourism
is also the principal watershed of      the Rwandan Office of Tourism              receipts. Visitors to Rwanda's world
Rwanda, supplying 70 percent of         and National Parks (ORTPN, now            famous mountain gorillas can also
the country’s water, while feeding      tourism and conservation divisions        visit Nyungwe to track chimpanzees
both the Congo and Nile Rivers.         of the Rwanda Development                 and the other twelve species of

                                           CHOOSE YOUR OWN
                                           ADVENTURE: USAID has been
                                           promoting development of a
                                           range of accommodations around
                                           Nyungwe National Park in Rwanda,
                                           from this nearly-completed high-
                                           end lodge with a commanding view
                                           of the Park and Lake Kivu, to a
                                           community-operated tented camp
                                           at the edge of the forest, with
                                           direct access to chimp trekking,
                                           a heritage walk through Banda
                                           village, and options for sleeping in
                                           traditional houses.
                                           PHOTOS: ANDREW TOBIASON, USAID

                                 USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                33
                                                                                          The healthcare component of this
                                                                                          project is an important benefit
                                                                                          to communities around the Park
                                                                                          which are changing their activities
                                                                                          to reduce negative impacts and
                                                                                          support a growing tourism industry.
                                                                                          The program strengthens clinical
                                                                                          and community capacity to provide
                                                                                          a continuum of care for maternal
                                                                                          and child health, and promotes
                                                                                          family planning and HIV/AIDS
                                                                                          prevention. These activities address
                                                                                          long-term challenges of population
                                                                                          growth while helping local people
                                                                                          take advantage of direct and
                                                                                          indirect employment opportunities
                                                                                          which arise from ecotourism.

                                                                                           While there have been significant
                                                                                          gains in efforts to conserve and
                                                        PHOTO: ANDREW TOBIASON, USAID
                                                                                          protect natural resources since
  A HAND-UP WITH HANDICRAFTS: Women in a handicraft cooperative in Kitabi                 Nyungwe was declared a national
  village have developed a number of products, including these shopping baskets unique
  to this part of Rwanda. Sales to local people and tourists visiting nearby Nyungwe      park in 2005, important threats
  National Park are raising them up out of abject poverty and reducing their dependence   remain. Rwanda’s high population
  on subsistence agriculture and forest products.
                                                                                          density and growth rate continue
                                                                                          to fuel an unsustainable demand for
primate found there. Activities               infrastructure and accommodation            land and natural resources. USAID,
include developing Nyungwe and                facilities are in place in 2009.            working with communities, the
community ecotourism attractions,                                                         government, NGOs and the private
upgrading ecotourism infrastructures          Host country commitment has                 sector, is committed to building upon
and services, marketing Nyungwe               been strong, particularly in helping        the progress made so far in resolving
ecotourism, developing and                    to address accommodations and               the immediate and long-term
implementing pilot activities for             staffing issues. The government of           threats to Nyungwe’s biodiversity.
water provision and small–scale               Rwanda has contracted with Dubai
energy production, and identifying            World to build a luxury eco-lodge,
markets and developing businesses             and has also committed to leverage          Senegal
for natural products, arts and                private funds to set up campsites
handicrafts including honey, beeswax          near the park. Other efforts include        Community Forestry
candles, baskets and soap. Solid              increasing the number of park staff,        and Local Governance
progress is being made, as the                raising the operational budget to
number of tourists rose to 4,826,             match the new park’s infrastructural        Through community-based natural
a 23 percent increase from 2007.              requirements and developing a visitor       resource management (CBNRM)
Associated revenue also increased             interpretation center. Nature-based         and support for the associated
in this period by 119 percent,                attractions such as observation             national policy framework, USAID is
from $173,273 to $380,205. It is              towers, marsh trails, and the world’s       working to raise the incomes of rural
expected that tourism revenues will           largest canopy walkway will be              producers and local communities
increase further once planned park            complete by the end of 2009.                by increasing the amount of forest
                                                                                          land under improved, sustainable

34       AFRICA
management systems. Activities are
transforming rural communities by
developing linkages between resource
conservation, economic opportunities
and improved local governance.

USAID’s Agriculture and Natural
Resource Management program,                                                                   CHARCOAL: USAID and
locally known as Wula Nafaa                                                                    the government of Senegal
                                                                                               worked together to finalize
(Benefits from the Bush), supports                                                              a decree that requires all
community-based organizations                                                                  charcoal to come from
                                                                                               forests with established
engaged in reducing the                                                                        management plans, putting
environmental impact of natural                                                                powerful charcoal cartels
                                                                                               outside of the law and
resource exploitation. Wula                                                                    allowing many communities
Nafaa targets the dryland forests                                                              to earn higher revenues.
of southern Senegal as only two                                                                PHOTO: USAID/SENEGAL
percent of this biodiverse habitat
type is protected continent-wide.
Conservation and natural resource       exploited species of trees whose         achievement for the sustainable
management activities in 2008           survival is threatened by poor           management of natural resources in
included tree nursery development,      harvesting practices and overuse.        Senegal. Forest communities with
reforestation, and creation of                                                   approved management plans are now
forestry management plans and           Training was provided to 2,500           empowered to produce their own
local management agreements. In         beneficiaries from 16 communities         charcoal, instead of the powerful
each of these areas, the program        in resource surveillance, developing     charcoal cartel which used to exploit
made a considerable effort to           local codes and conflict management.      community forests and profit people
transfer responsibility for resource    This enabled communities to develop      mostly outside of the forest zone.
management to local communities.        forest management plans which            Local charcoal workers now earn
                                        maximize productivity, limit access      about three times what they did, and
Wula Nafaa activities established       to the forests, reduce herder-farmer     tax revenue for forest management
forest management plans for 37,800      conflicts, and establish a guard system   has increased. Over the past five
hectares of land, put 2,850,000         to ensure that forests are protected     years, USAID has worked with the
hectares under local management         and vegetation can regenerate.           national government to remove 33
agreements, and enriched community      This new approach is expected            out of a targeted 34 policy barriers
forests with an additional 500          to serve as a model for the rest         to good forest management.
sterculia trees (from which karaya      of the country and will contribute
gum is harvested) and 100 baobab        to the long-term, sustainable            Wula Nafaa promotes the active
trees (valued for their leaves, fruit   management of natural resources.         participation of women in land use
and bark). Legally recognized                                                    planning, resource management
community plans and management          The mission also continued               and advocacy. The program helped
agreements regulate access to           working to identify and remove           establish long-term links among
natural resources and identify zones    policy barriers to CBNRM. In FY          female NRM professionals, rural
to be locally protected against         2008, USAID and the government           women, and resource user groups,
threats to biodiversity. As a result    of Senegal worked together to            strengthening the overall capacity
of these plans, there is no longer      finalize an important decree that         of women entrepreneurs. For
uncontrolled access to resources.       prohibits charcoal production            example, USAID provided training
This breakthrough program is            outside of forests with established      and seedlings for a reforestation and
helping to regenerate the most          management plans. This is a major        tree nursery program that was led

                                  USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT               35
by a women and youth organization.
Women now participate fully
in village forest management
committees and trainings. The
importance of these efforts to
involve women in forest management
was underscored by the award of
a $40,000 cash prize and the title
“Woman Entrepreneur of the Year”
by the President of Senegal to a
USAID-assisted women’s enterprise
that produced, transformed and
marketed grain products.

USAID will continue to promote full
implementation of decentralization
laws that transfer resource
management authority to local
communities, and advise on policies
that promote sustainable NRM.
USAID’s new Agriculture and
NRM program will work closely
with local and national partners to
drive policy analysis and promote
policy reform, quantify policy issues
and evaluate their impact, and
actively engage institutions and
government specialists in reform.

                                                                                                       PHOTO: TIM RESCH, USAID
Sierra Leone                             A FEW GIANTS still reside in the Gola Forest of Sierra Leone. Here, a guide gives
                                         scale to a massive tree buttress.
Forest Co-management
and Better Agroforestry
                                        VOCA, which includes a natural               to implement their mandate to
 U.S. assistance in Sierra Leone        resources management (NRM)                   manage and protect forest resources.
 related to natural resources has       component with forestry and                  PAGE will support the adoption of
 focused on developing a transparent    biodiversity conservation activities.        forestry co-management in pilot
 diamond trade through the                                                           sites and nationwide, and apply a
 Kimberly Process. Once infamous        The lack of a coherent and                   value-chain approach to improve
 for its “blood diamonds,” the          coordinated NRM and conservation             incomes from agroforestry crops
 country now has a system where         policy framework is a major                  including cocoa and coffee.
 a portion of revenues benefit           constraint for both decentralized
 the wider population. In FY            governance and environmentally               PAGE is working collaboratively
 2008, Sierra Leone started the         sustainable economic development in          with the Creating an Enabling
 Promoting Agriculture, Governance      rural areas, where forestry programs         Policy Environment in Sierra Leone
 and the Environment (PAGE)             are understaffed and presently lack          (CEPESL) project, implemented
 program, implemented by ACDI/          both the resources and the capacity          by ARD, to promote the policy

36      AFRICA
and legal changes required for            other community protected forest         and Thriving Environments for West
improved resource management and          reserves. For example, PAGE is           African Regional Development
biodiversity conservation. While          directly supporting the Tacugama         (STEWARD) project implemented
CEPESL will address policy change         Chimpanzee Reserve with logistical       by USDA Forest Service, Landscape
at the national level, PAGE will pilot    and technical support that reinforces    Management for Improved
test new policies at the local level. A   their efforts to implement a             Livelihoods (LAMIL) managed by
recent national-level workshop co-        national chimpanzee survey.              ICRAF, and the Land Rights and
sponsored with the European Union                                                  Community Forest Program (LRCFP)
reviewed existing forestry and wildlife   To improve economic development,         in Liberia. More information on
policy, identified shortcomings,           PAGE will work to assess and             these programs is in the sections
and made recommendations for              improve the value chain for              of this report on USAID/West
updating Sierra Leone’s legal,            shade cocoa in Kenema, Kono              Africa, Guinea, and Liberia.
political, and regulatory framework.      and Kailahun districts. A planned
                                          baseline study of the cocoa sector
Forest co-management is a                 and other commercial species will        Sudan
proven approach to cost-effective         provide a detailed asset inventory
biodiversity conservation and is          of the existing production and           Capacity Building
presently being implemented in            opportunities for expansion.             and Landscape-Level
neighboring Guinea and Liberia.                                                    Conservation
Co-management as a practice               PAGE will also work to link shade
inherently recognizes that local          cocoa producers to niche markets         Sudan’s 22-year civil war ended in
people have knowledge about their         and new buyers who are interested        January 2005 with the signing of a
ecological environment and that they      in higher quality and environmentally    Comprehensive Peace Agreement.
are already managing their natural        sustainable chocolate in Europe and      Part of this agreement created an
resources (such as allowing certain       the United States. While creating        interim sub-national government of
forests to regenerate and deciding        new economic opportunities for           Southern Sudan and set a timetable
which size trees to cut). While Sierra    improved livelihoods through the         for elections in 2011 to determine
Leone’s communities have little access    value chain approach, PAGE will          whether Sudan will ultimately be
to markets, technology, and technical     ensure that local people preserve        one or two countries. To support
knowledge, the most challenging           their access to traditional forest       implementation of Agreement
barrier to forest co-management           products essential to their household    protocols related to the environment,
is lack of democratic governance.         economy such as charcoal, fuelwood,      USAID is promoting conflict-sensitive
Taking a partnership approach to          and fruits. PAGE will set up a simple,   natural resource management
working with local communities,           cost effective biological survey in      which provides opportunities for
government forest officers, and            key intervention zones in order          employment and income generation.
local NGOs, PAGE will work to             to monitor changes in land use           Natural resources are critical to
develop a common set of skills and        and species presence or absence          sustainable livelihoods in Southern
a platform of understanding about         during the life of the project.          Sudan but will remain a source of
decentralized forest management.                                                   conflict without effective governance.
                                          To take co-management to the
PAGE is working in cooperation            next level, PAGE is participating        In FY 2008, USAID helped create
with local stakeholders and other         in the regional Mano River               and develop governance mechanisms
projects that are already on the          Union (MRU) forum on forest              to safeguard resources while
ground, in strategic and biologically     management and conservation,             encouraging sustainable livelihoods
key areas such as the Kambui Hills        and supports and monitors the            in Southern Sudan’s diverse
forest reserve, the Eastern part          impact of the Mano River Region          ecosystems. One such mechanism
of the Outamba-Kilimi National            Forestry Initiative. PAGE is also        was an Environmental Policy
Park, the Loma Mountains, and             collaborating with the Sustainable       Task Force within the Ministry of

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT             37
                                                                                         RUNNING ORYX are among
                                                                                         the species revealed by aerial
                                                                                         surveys of the Boma-Jonglei
                                                                                         landscape of Southern Sudan.
                                                                                         PHOTO: PAUL ELKAN, WCS

Environment, Wildlife Conservation     USAID made considerable                  in Southern Sudan, and in FY 2008
and Tourism. The Task Force            investments in training, technical       the Agency provided institutional
was assembled to produce an            assistance and organizational capacity   and material support. USAID is
environmental policy to shape the      building for the conservation sector     directly supporting the training
utilization of natural resources for   in Southern Sudan. Thirty officials       of 54 forestry guards, with 16
sustainable development. USAID         from the Ministry of Agriculture         having graduated from a two-year
also collaborated with Sudanese        and Forestry received training in        course in 2008, and the remainder
counterparts to draft and revise       professional management of forest        in their first or second year.
a framework for environmental          concessions. Another 39 future
policies and guidelines.               national protected area managers         The astounding results of USAID-
                                       graduated from the Boma Wildlife         funded aerial surveys conducted
USAID contributed significant           Training Center, established with        by the Wildlife Conservation
organizational and capacity            USAID support. Almost 300                Society in 2007 inspired the
building assistance which resulted     personnel from government                Agency to launch a new program
in the formation of a cabinet-level    and civil society organizations          with them in FY 2008 which
inter-ministerial committee on         were trained in environmental            promotes environmental
natural resources management           impact assessment methods or             conservation and sustainable
for the government of Southern         administration and management            livelihoods in the Boma-Jonglei
Sudan. This committee, the             of environmental programs.               landscape. Most of the large
Natural Resource Management                                                     wildlife were discovered to be
Group, is working towards a            Forest management and                    thriving despite years of conflict,
goal of improving knowledge            conservation require a well-trained,     including huge populations of
and oversight of activities in         professional workforce. USAID            white-eared Kob, Tiang and
areas of biological significance        established the Kagelu Forestry          Mongalla gazelle whose 1.2 million
across Southern Sudan.                 Training Center a few years ago, the     animal migration is comparable to
                                       first and only institution of its kind    the annual circuit of wildebeest

38      AFRICA
and zebra in the Mara-Serengeti          assist the government and civil             land and forests. USAID works
ecosystem. The project aims to           society in Southern Sudan with              to stem biodiversity loss by
strengthen institutional capacity for    biodiversity conservation and               promoting policies, management
sustainable management of natural        sustainable natural resource use.           practices, and livelihood options
resources; develop participatory                                                     conducive to sustainable natural
land-use planning, zoning, and                                                       resource conservation.
resource management; conserve            Tanzania
biodiversity through protected                                                       USAID/Tanzania supports natural
area management, monitoring,             Targeted Landscape                          resource management in five of
and ecotourism development; and,         Conservation through a                      Tanzania’s most critical ecosystems,
improve community livelihoods.           Livelihoods Approach                        which include threatened coastal
                                                                                     areas, savannah steppe, wetlands,
Nascent institutions and                 Tanzania boasts a high diversity            and chimpanzee habitat. Effort is
capacity, policy development and         of wildlife due to its extensive            focused around protected areas on
enactment procedures, and limited        remaining natural land cover,               land used by wildlife as a corridor
infrastructure continue to pose          primarily savanna, miombo                   for migration or dispersal to new
challenges to sustainable natural        woodland and montane forest.                areas. Activities include: alerting
resource management in Southern          Economic growth relies heavily              local communities to the dangers of
Sudan. USAID completed a                 on the sustainable use of natural           unsustainable agricultural practices;
detailed environmental threats           resources, but most of the country’s        improving land tenure and property
and opportunities assessment to          population survives at a subsistence        rights; providing sustainable income
guide USAID programs as they             level with livelihoods dependent            opportunities; preparing village
move forward in FY 2009 to               on the use of wildlife, fish, grazing        land use plans; and demarcating

                                                              ELEPHANTS in Tarangire National Park, Tanzania are part of the
                                                              draw for tourism that generates $4 million in the Tarangire region
                                                              every year. USAID supports work to reduce degradation of forests
                                                              in the catchment area for Tarangire River, which is causing it to run
                                                              dry for part of the year.
                                                              PHOTO: MICHIEL TERELLEN

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                       39
areas for community-based wildlife      years the river flow has slowed or          with the private sector to co-
management, with associated by-laws.    stopped entirely during the dry            develop and benefit from sustainable
                                        season, raising concerns for the           tourism enterprises. With USAID
By the end of 2008, 5.3 million         people living alongside it and the         support, ten Wildlife Management
hectares of land were under             downstream national park, whose            Associations have attained user
improved conservation management        abundant wildlife generates about          rights, and ten more applications
in targeted areas of the Tarangire-     $4 million annually from tourism.          are awaiting approval. Additionally,
Manyara ecosystem, Ugalla                                                          women are now required to serve on
ecosystem, Greater Gombe                Since 2007, USAID has supported            each Association’s Board of Directors,
ecosystem, Ruaha-Usangu-                the African Wildlife Foundation’s          play a significant role in conservation
Rungwa ecosystem and the                work to help Kolo Hills communities        business enterprises, and work as
coastal zone. This includes areas       participate in joint forest management     village game scouts. Only six months
under co-management between             (JFM) with the Tanzanian                   after the gazettement of new WMAs
communities and government or           government, in order to protect            in 2008, $3 million in contracts
the private sector. Throughout          the forest from unauthorized users         were registered with the private
these landscapes, USAID support         and manage local use of the forest         sector, providing communities with a
has helped the government               for timber, firewood, honey, and            tangible benefit and direct incentive
make tangible gains in sustainable      other saleable forest products.            to participate in conservation.
livelihoods such that community-        Thus far the four villages of Mnenia,
based conservation and associated       Kolo, Itundwi and Kandaga have             During the past year, over 27,000
economic benefits from tourism           engaged in the JFM process through         people were trained in community-
provide incentives for protecting       introductory meetings, creation            based natural resource management
Tanzania`s unique ecosystems.           and training of Village Natural            which, along with prior investments,
                                        Resources Committees, study tours          increased economic benefits for over
One approach to community-based         among similar program sites, and           500,000 people (56 percent women)
natural resource management is a        drafting of JFM documents including        involved in sustainable conservation
watershed management program            by-laws for each program. In               business activities in priority zones.
that ensures sustainable water flow      these villages, illegal activities have    In addition to ecotourism in WMAs
to significant biodiversity areas.       decreased, cultivation and grazing         and elsewhere, conservation
For example, the Tarangire River        has been stopped, and erosion is           enterprises include seaweed farming,
is the lifeline of Tarangire National   reduced. Scaling up this activity          fish ponds, beekeeping, and specialty
Park during the dry season, but         to cover all the Kolo Hills villages       coffee cultivation and marketing.
degradation of the upstream             will contribute to the sustainability
catchment area has made the river       of the forest and Tarangire River          The mission also works to improve
run seasonally dry. The catchment       along with all the benefits to              environmental policies and legislation
includes three government and           local people and biodiversity.             at the national level. During FY
community forest reserves in the                                                   2008, a total of 187 regulations,
Kolo Hills threatened by illegal and    Another CBNRM approach is                  management plans, seminal policies,
unsustainable felling of trees for      promoted by Tanzania National Parks        and bylaws were developed with
building poles, charcoal, and new       and Wildlife (a division of the Ministry   technical assistance from USAID
land for agriculture or grazing.        of Natural Resources and Tourism,          and ultimately adopted, including
Without tree cover, soil has eroded     MNRT), which demonstrated a new            regulations under the Environmental
and forests are unable to recover,      commitment to policy reform by             Management Act, a coastal
streams and the river get clogged       expanding its Wildlife Management          management strategy, and revision
with silt, and rains sometimes          Area (WMA) program beyond the              of the 1974 Wildlife Conservation
lead to flooding downstream              pilot stage. The WMA program               Act. To help ensure that national
instead of percolating through the      allows approved community Wildlife         environmental protection policy
soil over many weeks. In recent         Management Associations to contract        is upheld at the District or local

40      AFRICA
levels, further investment is required     to sustaining economic growth,                 habitat fragmentation, pollution
to improve communication,                  supporting healthy populations, and            from petroleum and natural gas
implementation and enforcement.            conserving natural resources. USAID/           development, and overexploitation
                                           Uganda’s environment program                   of species. The mission works to
Tourism became the largest earner          focuses on reducing threats to                 reduce threats in these landscapes
of foreign exchange in Tanzania            biodiversity in important ecoregions,          through support for community-
for the first time in 2008, even as         including western Uganda’s portion             based conservation, protected area
MNRT developed burdensome                  of the highly endangered Albertine             management, sustainable tourism,
regulations to capture revenue which       Rift and northern landscapes                   economic incentives for conservation,
could ultimately reduce foreign            along the Sudan border.                        and policy development and reform.
direct investment in this important
economic sector. While working to          Threats to USAID’s target                      In the Albertine Rift, the most
bring policies in line with conservation   regions include habitat loss,                  biodiverse ecoregion in Africa,
and development goals, USAID and
its partners increased institutional
capacity for MNRT’s National Parks
and Wildlife Division and the Ministry
of Water, improved anti-poaching
networks, and strengthened land-
use planning and land tenure.

Policy reforms supported by USAID
over the last ten years have reached
a critical stage of implementation
to promote natural resource
management, conserve biodiversity,
and develop well-functioning civil
society and government institutions.
Building on substantial policy and field
conservation outcomes, USAID aims
to position Tanzania as a premier
ecotourism destination in Africa,
transforming rural Tanzanians into
participants and beneficiaries of well-
managed landscapes, and modernizing
conservation management to
preserve the country’s natural
heritage for future generations.

                                                                                                        PHOTO: ANDREW WATSON, DAI

Uganda                                       SPEAKING HER MIND: Uganda’s Kaseeta village forest management committee has
                                             negotiated an agreement with the National Forest Authority to manage over 3,000
                                             hectares of the Budungo Forest Reserve. Here, one of the community members
Community-based                              expresses her opinions during a meeting held at the village tree nursery. In the short
                                             term, farmers have been granted legal access to land adjacent to the forest where
Conservation and                             they are now planting tree crops that generate household income while buffering
Reforestation                                the reserve. In the long term, the community will derive economic benefits from
                                             sustainable management of timber and other forest resources. It is currently involved
                                             in developing a carbon offset scheme that will generate a regular flow of funding linked
The preservation of Uganda’s                 to community conservation efforts.
exceptional biodiversity is essential

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                              41
activities continued to focus on           Lake Albert also poses a challenge       were involved in the tree planting.
communities around protected areas         to conservation efforts, bringing        The purpose of reforestation is to
who still rely on natural resources and    large numbers of personnel, vehicles     replenish the long-term supply of
biodiversity assets but have lost access   and heavy equipment into the             wood for local fuel and building
to areas they once used. In FY 2008,       parks, disrupting wildlife and causing   material, with a near-term benefit
USAID partners assisted communities        some to leave park boundaries. As        of being able to monetize the
to improve management of 200,000           the national government weighs           benefits of removing carbon in the
hectares of land designated for            its commitment to conservation           air. A key component to this effort
local use. Communities derived             against potential oil wealth, USAID      was developing the capacity of the
economic benefits from sustainable          and its partners will continue to        National Forestry Administration
natural resource management,               work with communities to reduce          to establish carbon baselines in the
including increased incomes from           conflict and encourage hydrocarbon        target areas, develop their ability
program-supported beekeeping               companies to minimize their impact       to assess characteristics of relevant
operations and tree nurseries.             on ecosystems and communities.           agroforestry trees and model the
                                                                                    tree parameters to predict carbon
Tourism in the Albertine Rift              USAID has been a lead donor in the       reduction, and develop carbon
protected areas increased significantly     effort to reduce the effects of global   transaction management systems
in FY 2008. Murchison Falls National       warming in Uganda and internationally    for administration of carbon credit.
Park visitation increased by 15            through natural resource management      Consistent with USAID’s biodiversity
percent over 2007, while visits to the     projects. The Uganda Mission’s           and conservation efforts, a pool
mountain gorillas of Bwindi National       Productive Resource Investment for       of beneficiaries was established
Park grew by 17 percent. Chimp             Managing the Environment (PRIME)         that will benefit from income
trekking in the Budongo Forest             and the Wildlife, Landscapes and         generation while contributing to the
helped increase tourist visits by          Development for Conservation             preservation of the environment.
27 percent. This growing tourism           (WILD) projects worked with
market, supported by USAID through         communities in the Albertine Rift        The prevailing peace along the
the development of eco-lodges              and northern Uganda ecosystems to        border with Southern Sudan
and chimp habituation, provides a          establish and register reforestation     allowed USAID’s Northern Uganda
sustainable source of revenue for the      projects that mitigate climate change    Biodiversity Program to begin
government of Uganda to invest in          through carbon sequestration, reduce     mapping animal movements between
improved park management, increases        pressure on natural forests for wood,    and outside protected areas; assist
income for local communities, and          and sustain biodiversity with revenue    the Uganda Wildlife Authority with
promotes biodiversity protection.          from individuals or companies that pay   on-the-ground development of park
                                           for forest conservation through the      and resource management plans; and
Empowering communities to manage           purchase of ‘carbon credits’ to offset   identify and promote ecologically
and benefit from natural resources          their own climate change footprint.      responsible land and resource use
has significantly reduced conflict                                                    options. These activities are at
in Albertine Rift parks, but some          In FY 2008, a total of 2,230             an early stage and are expected
remains. In 2008, local herdsmen           hectares of community plantations        to rapidly expand as risks lessen
moved large herds of cattle into           were established and are being           and movement eases throughout
Queen Elizabeth National Park,             maintained with guidance from the        northern Uganda. In FY 2009, the
which the Uganda Wildlife Authority        WILD project. Local participation        mission will implement a new tourism
was not able to remove despite             was impressive: 183 schools and          promotion activity in the area.
USAID support. Expanding oil               46 community associations across
exploration along Lake Edward and          four districts of northern Uganda

42      AFRICA
ASIA AND                                                                       USAID country programs funded
                                                                               biodiversity or forestry programs in

                                                                               over a dozen countries in the Asia and
                                                                               Middle East region.

Asia’s rich biological heritage is
rapidly declining in the face of
unsustainable exploitation fueled by
rapid economic growth, insufficient
governance processes, increasing
population, and agricultural
expansion. An estimated eighty
percent of the world’s endangered
species are found in Asia, while
approximately 450 million people
in the region directly depend             The Bureau for Asia and the Near
on natural resources for their            East (ANE) was reorganized in        Asia and Middle East continue to
livelihoods. Poor governance              March 2008 into the Bureau for       share some technical support and
results in illegal logging and wildlife   Asia and the Bureau for the Middle   backstopping in Washington, and
trafficking which threaten the             East. In addition, USAID missions    this chapter covers both regions.
natural resource base, increase           in Central Asian Republics moved     Lebanon was the only Middle
conflicts, and reduce opportunities        from the Bureau for Europe and       Eastern country with relevant
for future economic growth.               Eurasia to the Bureau for Asia.      programming in FY 2008 (forestry).

                                                                                      SEAWEED FARMERS harvest a
                                                                                      sustainable marine resource in
                                                                                      PHOTO: HISWATY HAFID, DAI

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT              43
Asia Regional Program                     Management Institute. FY 2008             Through the Asia Regional
                                          funds also supported a series of          Biodiversity Conservation Program
Support for Emerging Needs                expert roundtables and an applied         (ARBCP), USAID is conserving
                                          training for USAID staff entitled         biodiversity in the Greater
The Bureau for Asia monitors              Asia’s Future: Critical Thinking for      Mekong Sub-region by establishing
new developments in forestry              a Changing Environment, which             biodiversity corridors. In FY 2008,
and biodiversity and applies this         analyzed the intersections and            RDMA worked with stakeholders
knowledge to support mission              environmental impacts of trends           in Vietnam’s Lam Dong Province to
activities across the continent. In       in climate change, food and energy        develop a Biodiversity Conservation
FY 2008, this included work with          security, and water supply, among         Action Plan, improving the
missions to develop several new           others. A theme of particular             management of 480,000 hectares
conservation programs, including          note was concern with corruption          of biologically important forest
forestry and biodiversity activities      and governance as challenges              land. Mission-supported activities
in Indonesia and Bangladesh, as           in addressing these trends. A             improved connectivity between
well as start-up assistance for the       principal recommendation was the          protected areas and increased
Coral Triangle Initiative, a six-nation   need to integrate environmental           populations of five endangered
effort for which the United States        concerns, including climate change,       plants through enrichment plantings
has pledged nearly $40 million.           across sectors and throughout             on over 1,000 hectares. RDMA
                                          the development portfolio.                also funded the establishment
Illegal logging is a key challenge                                                  and training of 28 community
in the region: it destroys valuable                                                 conservation units to protect and
forest ecosystems and the wildlife        Regional Development                      monitor forestry land in the buffer
that depends on them, undermines          Mission for Asia                          zone of Cat Tien National Park.
legitimate commerce, fuels conflict,
and has serious economic and              Wildlife Law Enforcement,                 Vietnam’s forests provide numerous
environmental consequences.               Forest Management and                     ecosystem services, from storing
The Bureau represented USAID              Seascape Conservation                     carbon to regulating rainfall and
and worked alongside the State                                                      river flows, but these services have
Department and the U.S. Trade             While protected area systems              traditionally been undervalued
Representative in negotiations            have been established in countries        and ultimately compromised.
with China on a memorandum                throughout Asia, these parks are          Through ARBCP, USAID promoted
of understanding (MOU) to                 too isolated, too small, and lack         innovative conservation finance
combat illegal logging. The Asia          adequate financial support to              mechanisms, including support
Regional Program also assisted            effectively conserve biodiversity.        for the development and issuance
with implementation of an existing        Recognizing the limitations of            of Vietnamese Prime Ministerial
MOU with Indonesia to combat              protected areas, and the need to          Decision 380, which established
illegal logging, and supported the        work across political boundaries,         the first national-level payment for
Responsible Asia Forestry and Trade       USAID’s Regional Development              ecosystem services (PES) policy
alliance managed by the Regional          Mission for Asia (RDMA) strengthens       in Southeast Asia, allowing natural
Development Mission for Asia.             regional institutions and networks        resource management costs to be
                                          to: restore ecosystem connectivity        borne by companies and individuals
In addition to technical and program      in key regional biodiversity corridors;   who use or value ecosystem
assistance to missions, 40 percent        combat illegal wildlife trafficking;       services. RDMA supported
of the Program’s resources were           improve forest management; promote        implementation of this law through
transferred to USAID/Cambodia             legal timber trade; and improve           the training of 740 government
in support of the Biodiversity and        the management of biologically            officials on PES and other topics.
Grassroots Advocacy Program               and economically important
implemented by East-West                  coastal and marine resources.

THAI AND LAO FOREST RANGERS receive training during
a two-week training course organized by USAID’s ASEAN-
Wildlife Enforcement Network Support Program.

The Association of South East Asian            long-term investigation of wildlife       from the Chinese Government and
Nations (ASEAN) is a natural partner           crime. Long-term sustainability for       NGOs to cooperate with ASEAN-
in dealing with illegal wildlife trafficking,   the network was addressed in part         WEN on wildlife enforcement.
an inherently transboundary                    through the creation of an ASEAN-
issue requiring collaboration and              WEN secretariat in Thailand.              RDMA’s Responsible Asia Forestry
coordination among many agencies                                                         and Trade (RAFT) program
and countries. RDMA’s ASEAN-                   USAID arranged for USDA Forest            increases regional timber trade
Wildlife Enforcement Network                   Service assistance to partners drafting   from legal sources, improves the
(ASEAN-WEN) Support Program                    an ASEAN-WEN sustainability plan,         sustainability of forest management
helps to protect biodiversity and              as well as a management plan that         on the ground, and strengthens
combat illegal wildlife trafficking by          focuses on better coordination with       regional cooperation on forest
assisting ASEAN Member Countries               U.S. agencies and ASEAN countries.        management and trade. During
enforce national wildlife laws and             An evaluation of the ASEAN-WEN            FY 2008, RAFT placed 2.4 million
international agreements. In FY                program conducted in 2008 endorses        hectares of biologically significant
2008, RDMA increased capacity                  the positive results of ASEAN-            forests under improved management
and awareness among almost 800                 WEN to date and recommends                regimes with 20 timber enterprises
individuals in 75 institutions, which led      increased participation of civil          in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam.
to at least 44 related enforcement             society organizations, strengthened       These forest concessions are being
actions this fiscal year. At the third          Secretariat operations, and enhanced      led through stepwise approaches to
ASEAN-WEN Annual Meeting, a                    collaboration with China to address       forest certification, which involves
Special Investigations Group was               demand-side issues. RDMA has              protecting High Conservation
formed to focus on the trade in                already begun responding to this          Value Forests and implementing
pangolins and big cats, marking the            evaluation with activities in China       Reduced Impact Logging practices,
first time member countries have                initiated in September 2008,              thereby conserving critical habitats
decided to conduct a cross-border,             including efforts to secure support       for endangered wildlife species such

                                       USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                45
as the Borneo orangutan. Through           Afghanistan                              USAID organized workshops to
RAFT’s work at the regional level,                                                  mitigate conflict due to access and
ASEAN senior forestry officials             Restoration of Rangelands                use of rangeland resources, and
agreed to explore regional timber          and Woodlands,                           assessed about 400,000 hectares of
legality standards to establish broad      Conservation of Key Areas                vulnerable rangeland for overgrazing
guidelines for countries to define                                                   and forage competition among wild
what is legal. RDMA supported this         Afghanistan’s varied geography           and domestic ungulates. Mapping of
decision by developing guidelines          supports a high diversity of plants      areas where herders release domestic
for verifying the legality and             and wildlife. Most of the national       yak, combined with collection of
sustainability of timber using chain       territory is classified as rangeland,     scat samples from wildlife and
of custody documentation (from             supporting wild ungulates and            livestock species, is leading to a
forest to furniture and each step          over 20 million head of livestock.       better understanding of competition
in between). RAFT also provided            The high mountains are still home        between domestic and wild yaks, as
forest resource conflict management         to several endangered species.           well as other animals. This information
training to stakeholders representing      However, decades of civil conflict,       will feed into a plan for managing
20 industry, government, and civil         poor management and drought              rangelands to reduce or eliminate
society institutions from six countries,   have heavily degraded much of            overgrazing which is harmful to both
and has begun work with Chinese            the remaining land, which was            biodiversity and pastoralist livelihoods.
timber buyers and processors to            forested with native pine, oak,
avoid illegal timber and lumber.           poplar, willow, pistachio and olive      The remainder of the area under
                                           trees. Restoring lost forests and        improved management comes
The newest activity supported by           protecting remaining areas of            from roughly 600,000 hectares
RDMA is the Coral Triangle Initiative      biological significance and economic      of natural resource-rich and
Support Program (CTSP), which              value through community-based            biologically significant areas. Support
aims to improve coordination               natural resource management              to the Wildlife Conservation
among the CTI partnership of               are priorities USAID shares with         Society resulted in the production
nations in the region, donors, NGOs        the Government of Afghanistan.           and adoption of a community
and the private sector. The Coral                                                   management plan for Afghanistan’s
Triangle covers the marine exclusive       In FY 2008, more than one                first National Park, Band-e Amir,
economic zones of Indonesia,               million hectares were placed             which was formally declared on
Timor-Leste, the Philippines,              under improved natural resource          Earth Day 2009. Like America’s first
Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and            management with USAID support,           national park, Yellowstone, Band-e
the Solomon Islands. It is the             exceeding the goal by over 250,000       Amir boasts both ecological and
epicenter of marine biodiversity           hectares. With insecurity increasing     aesthetic value, including habitat
on the planet, with resources that         in some areas, this is an incredible     for wolves, ibex, and the endemic
directly sustain the lives of over 120     accomplishment and one that will         Afghan snow finch, as well as six
million people. The Coral Triangle         help ensure continued sustainable        spectacular high mountain lakes.
contains over 600 coral species,           economic growth. Included in this
more than half of the world’s coral        result are over 1,000 hectares of        The United States assists the Afghan
reefs, 3,000 species of fish, and           natural pistachio forests which are      government in formulating laws
the greatest extent of mangrove            now protected by community-based         and policies that will provide both
forests anywhere. CTSP and NGO             forest management committees             the legislative and managerial base
partners aim to establish at least         who guard against encroachers and        for conservation of the important
one fully functioning seascape-scale       animals, prevent illegal cutting, and    biodiversity areas of the country.
conservation program in each               only harvest nuts when ripe. As a        With nascent government ministries
country, establishing models for           result, pistachio production increased   and departments at both national
seascape management that can be            about 50 percent in these areas.         and provincial levels, ensuring public
scaled up nationally and regionally.                                                officials have the means, knowledge

inaugurated on Earth Day 2009. High in the Hindu Kush mountains
of central Afghanistan, the park possesses six sapphire-blue lakes,
numerous streams and waterfalls, and a variety of wildlife including
ibex, wolf, and the Afghan snow finch, which may be the country’s
only endemic bird.

and ability to effectively carry out            home nurseries to 250 households,       and efficiently managing their
their environmental duties is key. In           directly targeting women in this        natural resources. The lack of
2008, USAID provided technical                  valuable economic activity. To the      skilled technicians and managers
assistance in drafting a protected              extent possible, school children are    prevents improved environmental
areas law that is now under review              given the opportunity to participate    technologies from being adopted.
by the Afghan Ministry of Justice.              in this and other project activities    With USAID support in FY 2008,
                                                that in the long run could provide      more than 5,500 professionals and
In addition to management,                      the supply of skilled advocates for     community members were trained
enforcement, and policy actions,                and practitioners of biodiversity and   in fundamentals of natural resources
USAID provided support for farm                 forest conservation. For example,       management or biodiversity
forestry activities which reduce                under the Adopt-a-School program,       conservation throughout the
pressure on natural forests. One                pupils in 80 schools were given         country, including almost 1,000
project planted more than 1.7 million           saplings to be planted around           women. USAID investments in
trees in approximately 100 hectares             the schools and their homes.            the communities and institutions
of woodlots, which will help rural                                                      of Afghanistan have made
people meet the demand for fuel                 One critical element of U.S. efforts    substantial progress in restoring
wood and construction materials                 in Afghanistan is to improve the        the country’s depleted natural
more sustainably. Community-                    ability of Afghans to understand        resources and the sustainable
based management of nurseries was               the economic benefit and social          livelihoods that depend on them.
promoted, including an expansion of             value of conserving, protecting

                                        USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                  47

Co-management of Forests
and Protected Areas

Bangladesh hosts the world’s second
largest river system, draining a million
square kilometers from China,
Nepal and India. Ninety percent of
Bangladesh’s forests and 50 percent
of its wetlands have been lost or
degraded due to heavy pressure on
dwindling arable land. Over the past
several years, USAID has responded
with innovative co-management
programs for community members                                                                                          PHOTO: USAID
and the government of Bangladesh             SHOULDERING THE BURDEN of forest management, communities in Bangladesh
in nine ecologically vulnerable areas,       co-manage protected forests by conducting patrols and other activities that keep logging
resulting in habitat restoration,            sustainable and legal.

conservation of natural resources,
and improved livelihoods. In FY 2008
a new program began expanding              project interventions and also outside        also spearheaded the formation
co-management to a national level.         freshwater and forest ecosystems.             of local and national conservation
                                           IPAC will scale-up natural resource           constituencies, involving civil society
USAID has played a pioneering role in      co-management at the policy level in          leaders, women, and youth. In the
protecting and restoring Bangladesh’s      Bangladesh by achieving recognition,          past four years, USAID income
natural resources and biodiversity in a    acceptance and integration of this            generating activities led to economic
manner that simultaneously promotes        approach by government into                   benefits for roughly 55,000 women.
income and livelihood growth for           its management tactics. IPAC is
the rural poor while introducing and       expected to result in responsible,            Over 113,000 hectares of forest
advancing good governance practices.       equitable economic growth and good            and wetlands came under improved
Co-management is a model actively          environmental governance, with work           natural resource management due
adopted by Bangladesh’s government         in more than 50 protected areas,              to NSP and IPAC, including 46,000
to work with communities in                directly benefiting 2.5 million people.        hectares of biologically significant
managing critical natural resources.                                                     land. About 32,000 hectares of the
USAID has been the prime donor             In FY 2008, through the Nishorgo              latter have already shown improved
assisting the government in developing     Support Program (NSP, also managed            biophysical conditions, as indicated by
and implementing this approach.            by IRG) for the co-management of              unchanged or increased populations
                                           forest protected areas and IPAC,              of eight indicator bird species, and
Building upon previous successes           USAID funded the training of over             reduced incidents of illegal logging.
in aquatic and forest ecosystems           6,000 Bangladesh Forest Department            Better conservation contributed
management, USAID launched the             staff and community members                   to increased economic benefits for
Integrated Protected Area Co-              to manage protected areas more                100,000 people in FY 2008 alone.
management (IPAC) Project in FY            effectively through shared authority
2008. Implemented by IRG, IPAC will        and responsibility. More than 3,000           The greatest challenge for this
work to develop a co-management            of the trainees were women, resulting         program is to ensure the sustainability
strategy that applies to all ecosystems,   in greater women’s participation in           of co-management, which requires
including those within USAID’s past        patrolling protected areas. USAID             that communities have financial

resources for conservation. To               forest for their daily needs. USAID           In FY 2008, forest rangers arrested
advance this goal, USAID facilitated         conservation efforts are aimed at             746 suspects, filed 71 cases for illegal
the establishment of a mechanism             preserving two million hectares of the        logging or wildlife trafficking (22
for the government to share park             Cardamoms and other forests from              of which were sent to court), and
fees with communities, which will            illegal logging and wildlife trafficking.      investigated 170 land clearing cases.
help finance conservation efforts and                                                       Remote sensing (satellite and/or
support eco-friendly job development.        Support from USAID/Cambodia                   aerial images) helped monitor forest
The fee-sharing program is in                strengthens government agencies’              cover and facilitated the zoning and
the final stage of approval.                  law enforcement capacity to                   demarcation of protected forest.
                                             counter illegal logging and wildlife          Forest fires declined to an average
The Ministry of Environment and              trade, raises consumer awareness              of two per day in 2008, a 95 percent
Forest is committed to expanding             to stop illegal logging and buying of         reduction from the baseline in 2002
the co-management model into a               wildlife products, and works with             of 35 fires per day. Lastly, pilot
national protected area systems              communities to develop livelihoods            nurseries reached their reforestation
strategy that represents all ecosystems      that do not result in deforestation.          target of 65,000 seedlings grown
in Bangladesh. USAID anticipates
that with IPAC support, the national
government can achieve this goal
by 2012. Over 500,000 people
are expected to benefit from
alternate income generation and
improved livelihood opportunities,
and up to 350,000 additional
hectares will be co-managed by
communities and the government.


Grassroots Advocacy,
Controlling Wildlife and
Timber Trafficking

Cambodia’s heavily forested
Cardamom mountain range is the
third largest standing rainforest
in Southeast Asia and one of the
world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots, with
2,300 plant species and at least 14
endangered animals. Biodiversity
here is threatened by forest loss and
degradation, overexploitation of key
species, and undervaluing of ecological
                                                                                                             PHOTO: BORETH SUN, DAI
services provided by forests. Asian
elephant, gaur and banteng (types of           SURROUNDED: Vines wrap the trunk of this Sralao tree in a community forest in
                                               Mundul Kiri, Cambodia. Sralao trees are valued for their timber, but the forest is
wild cattle), tiger and Asiatic black bear
                                               threatened by encroachment from neighboring rubber plantations.
are all at risk, as well as indigenous
communities who rely on the

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                            49
and planted by community members              programs focused on the orangutan        protect orangutan habitat, the mission
to improve an elephant corridor in            and its forest habitat, important        initiated formal partnerships with 25
the Southwest Cardamoms. Local                watersheds, and coral reef ecosystems.   international and local NGOs through
communities will continue to plant                                                     its grants program. Through such
2.5 million trees over the next five           The mission’s Orangutan Conservation     partnerships, the program implements
years, even though USAID support              Services Program (OCSP) primary          activities directly affecting 950,000
to the nurseries has ended.                   objective is to conserve wild            hectares of habitat and in total impacts
                                              orangutan populations and their forest   more than 3.3 million hectares,
In addition to natural resource and           habitat in Kalimantan (Indonesia’s       containing approximately 40 percent
protected area management, USAID              portion of Borneo) and Sumatra.          of orangutans found in Indonesia.
assists communities in advocating             OCSP activities implemented by           USAID support improved patrolling,
for environmental protection of land          DAI address threats at the site          provided alternative livelihoods for
and natural resource rights. Efforts          level, strengthen conservation           communities, and suppressed peat
focus on the Prey Lang Forest, the            practices, increase law enforcement,     land fires, reducing the number of
largest remaining area of lowland,            and improve spatial planning.            fire hotspots from 207 to only 15. A
dry evergreen forest in mainland                                                       National Action Plan for orangutan
Southeast Asia. In Prey Lang, an              OCSP work with national government,      conservation was adopted in 2008
estimated 600,000 people rely on              community and private sector             with the support of Indonesia’s
the forest for survival, but logging and      stakeholders resulted in several         President Yudhoyono, in which one
mining interests have the potential to        significant achievements in FY 2008. To   million hectares of Indonesia’s forest
destroy this critical, fragile, and ancient
forest habitat. USAID is preparing
the communities to manage, protect
and monitor the forest ecosystem
and its valuable biodiversity.


Natural Resource
Management and
Orangutan Conservation

Indonesia is one of only a few
“megadiverse” countries, ranked first
in the world in number of species
of mammals, palms, swallowtail
butterflies, and parrots. It contains
ten percent of the world’s flowering
plant species and has the highest
coral species richness in the region.
A high rate of forest degradation
                                                                                       A CLOWN ANENOMEFISH (Amphiprion
and deforestation combined with                                                        ocellaris), like its relative the true
poorly managed marine resources                                                        clownfish, finds safety among the stinging
                                                                                       arms of an anemone on the southern edge
has put a substantial number of
                                                                                       of the Coral Triangle near Indonesia.
species at risk of extinction. USAID
                                                                                       PHOTO: NICK HOBGOOD, DAI
conservation programs are designed
to conserve biodiversity through

previously slated for conversion to      developed by USAID were adopted
plantations will instead be managed      by several national agencies.
sustainably, protecting almost 10,000
Bornean and Sumatran orangutans.         An estimated 150 million hectares (84
                                         percent) of Indonesia was covered
USAID’s community-based field             in natural forest in 1950, but only 90
school approach has been adopted         million hectares remained in 2005.
by the Ministry of Forestry for the      Twenty million hectares of Indonesia
development of its National Model        forest were cleared in the last 15
Conservation Villages program, which     years alone, confirming one of the
is being rolled-out in national parks    highest rates of tropical forest loss
across Indonesia. This approach          in the world. In parts of Indonesia,
leverages experience from village        unsustainable oil palm plantation
leaders and local communities to         development constitutes the major
develop on-site learning activities      threat to orangutan habitat. In July
that employ a training of trainers       2008, USAID led a working group
model. These villages are intended       tasked with developing management
to be models of sustainable use and      and monitoring guidelines for High
serve a protective function in park      Conservation Value Forest (HCVF)
buffer zones. In FY 2008, 30 national    in and around oil palm plantations.
park staff received training and 132     Endorsed by the international
conservation villages were established   Roundtable on Sustainable Palm                         PHOTO: ANDREW WATSON, DAI
across the country. During the same      Oil and the Indonesian Palm Oil            HANGING ON: This Sumatran
period, several conservation campaigns   Producers Association secretariat,         orangutan (Pongo abelii) in the Bukit
were completed in communities            the working group consists of              Lowing area of Leuser National Park in
                                                                                    North Sumatra is one of fewer than 6,000
adjacent to protected areas in three     representatives from civil society,        remaining in the wild. USAID supports
provinces. These campaigns raised        private sector, and the government.        land-use planning and protected area
local awareness of and commitment                                                   management to conserve orangutans,
                                                                                    including community policing and habitat
to local conservation initiatives and    USAID’s Environmental Services             protection.
improved the conservation of nearly      Program (ESP) focuses on
6,000 hectares, the impact of which      collaborative conservation and land
continues today through conservation     rehabilitation inside and adjacent to    just outside of protected areas, such
campaigns led by a local university.     protected areas and other forest         as agroforestry and reforestation,
                                         areas of high biodiversity value,        further maintain or enhance the
USAID assisted the Government to         thereby developing a solid foundation    quality and quantity of water. A
implement 18 relevant policies that      of watershed management and              focus on water as an entry point
will have a broad impact on water        biodiversity conservation areas          for local conservation management
resources and forest protection.         across Java and northern Sumatra. In     has generated significant technical
Local government decrees were            FY 2008, activities in five provinces     and financial support from national
developed which not only codified         improved forest management on            and local government agencies as
collaborative management and             170,666 hectares of biologically         well as water utilities companies.
conservation between government,         significant land and 475,000 hectares
community groups and other               of HCVF (overlapping figures which        Commercial forestry in Indonesia
stakeholders to protect water            both include protected areas). An        is both a threat to biodiversity and
resources, but allocated funds to        additional 6,659 hectares of degraded    an opportunity for private sector
them through the formal government       land was rehabilitated to restore        engagement in conservation. OCSP
budgeting cycle. Tools and approaches    ecosystem services. Livelihoods          regularly partners with the extractive
                                         development activities in communities    industry, which has rights to exploit a

                                   USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                  51
large portion of orangutan habitat. In    Indonesia is one of six countries             income generation. Key threats
West Batang Toru Forest in northern       in the Coral Triangle, the greatest           include fire, urbanization and land
Sumatra, a plan to conserve and           collection of coral reefs and associated      use change, as well as unexploded
manage protected and commercial           marine life on the planet and the             munitions that prevent forest
forests was developed with NGOs,          conservation target of the Coral              management in some areas. Wildfires
local communities, Government             Triangle Initiative, a partnership of         are the most prominent drivers
and the private sector; a gold mine       governments, NGOs and the private             of forest cover loss in Lebanon
and a logging company working in          sector. The Coral Triangle Support            and have occurred with increased
the area have agreed to adhere to         Program assists Indonesia and other           frequency over the last few years,
the plan. In East Kalimantan, USAID       countries to improve the management           many from agricultural clearing gone
supported the Kutai National Park         of coastal and marine resources and           out of control, and others sparked by
Authority and adjacent timber             associated terrestrial ecosystems that        conflict. Fire has become a hazard
plantations to devise a plan to protect   support local livelihoods and national        to even the most resilient forests
the park and the orangutans found         economies in Coral Triangle nations.          in Lebanon, with a heavy impact
in both areas. In West Kalimantan,                                                      on the historic cedar reserves.
assessments of HCVF were made
within two timber concessions             Lebanon                                       USAID/Lebanon formed a
that are actively pursuing Forest                                                       partnership with the USDA Forest
Stewardship Council certification.         Forest Restoration and                        Service (USFS) at the end of FY
                                          Fire Management                               2008 to address the threat of fire and
Although the President of Indonesia                                                     improve forest management. USFS
has demonstrated the highest level        Lebanon’s forests are limited in              worked with officials and partners
of government commitment on               area but provide significant regional          to develop a workplan focused on
a number of environment issues,           ecological benefits for water, carbon          helping Lebanon address key threats
the private sector has lagged             storage, wildlife habitat, and rural          to forest and wildlife resources.
behind and remains the driving
force behind unsustainable natural
resource exploitation in Indonesia.
USAID/Indonesia’s Private Sector
Sustainability Facility (PSSF) is
a special initiative to improve
corporate environmental practices.
The mission plans to use the facility
to influence key private sector actors
toward responsible and sustainable
natural resource management.
PSSF may assist private companies
to take advantage of potential
financial incentives to reduce carbon
emissions from deforestation,
link with markets for certified or
environmentally friendly products,
develop greater transparency in
                                                                                                            PHOTO: PETER REISS, DAI
natural resource utilization, or
become “early adopters” of better           CONSERVING CEDARS: For the Lebanese, the cedar tree is a symbol of the hopes
                                            and aspirations of the nation. Unrestrained harvesting and uncontrolled construction
biodiversity management techniques.
                                            in cedar preserves is a source of widespread concern. Better regulation and
                                            reforestation are now successfully reversing years of mismanagement and misuse.

Nepal. These logs from a threatened khaira
tree (Acacia catechu) were confiscated from
illegal loggers with their help.

Proposed activities include: providing       conservation and promote energy          These plants will be distributed to
members of the Lebanese National             alternatives. In southern Lebanon,       municipalities across the country
Committee to Combat Forest Fires             USFS is working with local partners to   as part of a reforestation program
the opportunity to visit and learn           focus rehabilitation of selected cedar   managed by the University.
from regional and local fire command          reserves and other forested areas
centers in the United States;                impacted by cluster munitions and
conducting emergency management              related remnants of conflict in 2006.     Nepal
courses adapted to local needs for
Lebanese firefighters and volunteers;          Across the country, the Lebanon          Community Natural
helping retrofit military vehicles for        Mountain Trail Association played        Resources Governance
use as firefighting engines in remote          a critical role in helping to unify a
areas; and, assisting outreach and           diverse set of communities around        Nepal’s rugged mountains, rolling
environmental education managers             conservation and socioeconomic           plains, fertile valleys and high-
to develop communication strategies          objectives. USFS is helping the          altitude deserts comprise 118
and educational materials to                 association to develop strategies        ecosystems with approximately
improve local awareness of the               which better ensure both their           6,000 flowering plant species, 844
forests and forest protection.               long-term success as an organization     bird species, and a host of large
                                             and secure future maintenance of         mammals from the Bengal tiger and
Northern Lebanon contains most of            the mountain trail and associated        Asian elephant to bear, deer and
the country’s biodiversity and forests,      enterprises. Additionally, USFS is       monkeys. The country has made
as well as a number of economically          collaborating with researchers at        great progress towards conserving
disadvantaged communities that               the American University of Beirut’s      this biodiversity in recent years,
harvest fuel wood and other                  Agricultural Research and Education      but major threats persist, including
resources heavily. USFS is assisting         Center native tree nursery to            overexploitation of forest resources,
with an assessment of these mountain         optimize seed germination and            illegal trade in wild plant and
forests to determine the nature of           seedling production protocols to         animal products, and overgrazing.
current threats and find ways to              improve the success rate of the
support local organizations to advance       nursery’s native plant production.

                                      USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                   53
USAID/Nepal’s biodiversity and             309 issue-based campaigns at local,      those who benefit from plentiful clean
natural resource management (NRM)          regional and national levels to hold     water or climate change mitigation
program, implemented by CARE-              government and other stakeholders        pay to conserve the forest which
Nepal and other partners, works            accountable on issues related to         provides these benefits. The program
with approximately 2,000 civil society     management of natural resources.         will expand lessons and best practices
groups in six community forestry                                                    in good governance across Nepal,
program districts; three buffer zones      A number of projects were                especially at the landscape level.
of biologically significant sites (Shey     implemented for community forest
Phoksundo National Park, Langtang          users groups, including training on
National Park and Kangchenjunga            sustainable forest management,           Philippines
Conservation Area); and four urban         mobilization of anti-poaching units,
centers strategically important for        participatory biodiversity monitoring,   Local Conservation Through
policy advocacy campaigns (Nepalgunj,      community-based livestock insurance      Governance and Land Tenure
Pokhara, Itahari and Kathmandu). The       schemes, herders’ education and
program targets over 1,100 NRM             awareness programs, improvement          The Philippines is among 17 countries
groups including community forest          of snow leopard habitat maps,            on the planet which together comprise
user groups, buffer zone user groups,      construction of watch towers,            over two-thirds of the world’s
conservation area management               and support for ecotourism.              biological diversity. With thousands
groups, various committees and                                                      of islands and a unique geological
councils, forestry related women’s         Community organizations in Nepal         history, the Philippines has one of the
groups, and their federations and          are highly participatory, and marked     highest rates of mammal endemism
advocacy forums at local and national      by transparency and accountability. A    in the world, and scientists have
levels. These groups exist primarily       total of 565 groups conducted public     recognized it as the “center of the
to promote sustainable conservation,       hearings and audits of their programs,   center” of world marine biodiversity.
management and utilization of              and recovered $9,500 of misused
a specified portion of forest or            funds. USAID also reached over           The tropical forest and biodiversity
protected area buffer zone entrusted       265,000 community group members          assets of the Philippines are seriously
to them by the Government of Nepal.        (47 percent female) through various      threatened by human activities. Some
                                           types of trainings, workshops,           90,000 hectares of forest are lost
Engagement with community forest           awareness classes, and issue-based       each year and formerly productive
users’ groups has increased knowledge      advocacy campaigns focusing on           fisheries are on the brink of collapse,
and skills related to sustainable forest   sustainable forests management           threatening both subsistence fishing
harvests, active forest management,        and biodiversity conservation.           communities as well as commercial
participatory biodiversity monitoring,                                              operations. Intensification of small-
and preparation and/or renewal             USAID is expected to launch the          scale illegal logging and conversion
of forest operational plans. In            Actions for Biodiversity Conservation    of natural forests to farmland,
FY 2008, over 8,500 hectares of            (ABC) activity in FY 2009, which is      largely due to upland migration and
community forests and buffer zone          designed to conserve biodiversity        poverty, threaten both terrestrial
areas were better managed due to           in priority landscapes of Nepal          biodiversity and the livelihoods of
USAID investments, for a total of          by strengthening natural resource        over 20 million Filipinos. Degradation
49,095 hectares since 2002, one-           governance, improving sustainable        of upland forests in turn affects the
third in sites with globally significant    livelihoods and adapting to climate      dependability and quality of water
biodiversity. Community forest             change. ABC will focus on biodiversity   supply and coastal ecosystem health
user groups harvested 32,387               and climate change issues and pilot      in this archipelagic nation. Inadequate
metric tons of forest products on          cutting edge tools for financing          sanitation poses additional threats to
a sustainable basis for subsistence        community groups and protected           marine areas and costs the Philippines
or commercial trade in local and           area management, such as payments        $2 billion annually through its impact
international markets, and organized       for ecosystem services systems, where

SETTING THE LIMITS: Members of the Pilar
Municipal Marine Park in Cebu, Philippines,
regularly check and replace marker buoys damaged
by wind and waves. Marine sanctuaries in the park
have increased the catch of local fishermen.

on human health, water quality, and           managed by Tetra Tech directly            management activities. Through
loss of tourism opportunities.                contributed to these results.             collection of users’ fees, passage of
                                                                                        local ordinances, and information
USAID focuses on strengthening                EcoGov addresses specific biodiversity     campaigns, USAID is helping to
national and local governments and            threats including uncontained trash       eliminate a major source of coliform
community management capacities,              and inadequate sanitation and water       bacteria and other pathogens that
improving policies and incentives             treatment which pollute waterways         threaten the health of Sarangani Bay.
as well as nurturing political will           and ultimately marine environments.
for conservation, enhancing law               EcoGov works in more than 30               The Philippine Sanitation Alliance
enforcement, broadening the base              coastal communities within key marine     (PSA) is a public-private partnership
of environmental financing, and                biodiversity areas to reduce the          working toward conservation of
mitigating natural resource conflict.          amount of waste entering the natural      biodiversity by supporting the
                                              environment. Several approaches are       implementation of the Philippines’
In FY 2008, USAID assistance                  used, including education on proper       Clean Water Act. Interventions
led to better management of                   solid waste management, diversion         include building low-cost, low-
biologically significant areas covering        of biodegradables and recyclables         maintenance sanitation systems, and
78,343 hectares of forest lands               from dumpsites, and proper site           developing local ordinances and
and 1,965 hectares of municipal               selection and design of landfills.         national policy directives to increase
waters. Over 2,000 people                                                               knowledge and enforcement of
participated in training to improve           Working through partner Local             environmental compliance regulations
their awareness and skills related            Government Units (LGUs) and               on new construction. Through solid
to natural resource management.               private sector groups, EcoGov assists     waste management and sanitation,
Government environmental program              in the planning and construction of       LGUs have protected near shore
implementation and law enforcement            wastewater treatment and improved         corals, mangroves, and important
were strengthened by the enactment            sanitation facilities to reduce threats   freshwater habitats from further
of 51 national and local policies.            to coastal-marine resources. For          degradation while conserving
The Environmental Governance                  example, in Puerto Galera, EcoGov         charismatic marine species such as
(EcoGov) project implemented by               helped the LGU set up a tourist fees      whales, dolphins, and turtles. With
DAI and the Fisheries for Improved            system which collected over $200,000      technical assistance provided by
Sustainable Harvests (FISH) project           in 10 months for conservation and         PSA, partners are financing and

                                      USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                     55
                                                                                    environmental law enforcement
                                                                                    working group actively supported
                                                                                    efforts by the Supreme Court to
                                                                                    set up and activate 117 Special
                                                       RESTORATION in               Environmental Courts that will hear
                                                       Tungawan, Philippines.       specific environmental criminal cases.
                                                       PHOTO: MICHELLE BAIRD, DAI
                                                                                    FISH has been introducing and
                                                                                    establishing best practices in
                                                                                    fisheries management since 2003,
                                                                                    always applying participatory
                                                                                    planning and implementation to
                                                                                    promote sustainability. Community
                                                                                    management of marine protected
                                                                                    areas is one example of the successful
                                                                                    approaches put in place. The program
                                                                                    has also been monitoring fisheries
                                                                                    and related resources to establish
constructing sewage treatment             for local planning and implementation     baselines for measuring project impact,
facilities in four partner cities and     that addresses illegal logging,           as well as to better understand
sharing information through national      destructive fishing, and unmanaged         resource dynamics and exploitation
associations to scale up impact.          solid and liquid wastes. The total LGU    risks. A recent assessment of fish
                                          financial counterpart contribution is      stocks in the four target ecosystems
EcoGov’s Forest Management                almost twice the amount of EcoGov’s       found that stocks have already
component develops incentives for         investment for the year, which does       increased almost 20 percent from
improved forest management at the         not include in-kind contribution by       2004 and 2008, and fish catch per
LGU and land holder levels, working       LGUs and resource managers.               unit effort increased by more than
in conjunction with awareness                                                       26 percent during the same period.
campaigns, support for enforcement        USAID also supports local forest
mechanisms, and investment                conservation initiatives through          USAID/Philippines is now at the
promotion. The program improved           the Philippine Tropical Forest            forefront of the Coral Triangle
natural resource management on            Conservation Foundation (PTFCF),          Initiative (CTI), a multinational
more than 230,000 hectares of forest      which manages income from a debt-         partnership to conserve the planet’s
lands in FY 2008. LGUs have more          for-nature swap established under the     most biologically important marine
than doubled the award of individual      U.S. Tropical Forest Conservation Act.    resources. USAID/Philippines
property rights to upland farmers of      Combined U.S. assistance, including       supported government efforts
community-based forest organizations,     USAID, PTFCF and a partnership            to complete and adopt the CTI
from more than 240 in 2007 to             with the U.S. Department of               National Plan of Action through
about 570 in 2008. This provided          Interior, assisted Filipino government    Presidential Executive Order 797
further incentive to preserve existing    authorities in the detection of           in May 2008. This Plan of Action is
forests and generate livelihoods          illegal logging activities in Northern    consistent with the CTI Regional
activities from previously unproductive   Sierra Madre, the biggest and most        Plan of Action and captures the
and open-access forest land.              important terrestrial protected area      priority activities and commitments
                                          in the country. Thousands of illegally    of the Philippines to this important
Overall, more than 160 local              cut logs have been reported in this       collaborative effort. For more
governments at the provincial and         region, where authorities seized          information on CTI and USAID, see
municipal levels have a combined          450,000 board feet of illegal timber      the RDMA section of this report.
budget allocation of about $6.9 million   worth $180,000 in FY 2008. USAID’s

                                                                                     USAID country programs funded
                                                                                     biodiversity or forestry programs in

                                                                                     two countries in Europe and Eurasia
                                                                                     region in FY 2008.

The vast temperate and boreal
forests of Eastern Europe are still
home to bear and bison, leopard and
tiger. Well-managed forests provide
valuable wood and wildlife products
now and are expected to draw
tourism in the future from increasingly
affluent citizens as well as Western
Europeans seeking the wilderness
experiences available to their east.

This vision of biodiversity
conservation and thriving tourism
is threatened by illegal logging and
wildlife trafficking, oil development,        United States assists former Soviet     and environmental responsibility
pollution from growing cities, and a         states in adjusting to changing         in the public and private sectors.
lack of legislation and enforcement          economic and political circumstances,
among countries in the region. The           including growing demand for social

MT. KORYAKSY is one of 29 active volcanoes
on Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula.

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                   57
Georgia                                  $1 billion in 2015. With 13 climatic      USAID assisted with the designation
                                         zones, 40 percent forest cover, and as    of the new 25,000-hectare Tbilisi
Stronger Protected Areas for             much as 25 percent of the country         National Park, which was ratified
Biodiversity and Tourism                 planned to be designated as protected     by Parliament in FY 2008. Working
                                         areas, Georgia is well positioned to be   with the Ministry of Environment,
The Caucasus Mountains are the           a competitive ecotourism destination.     the mission strengthened visitation
traditional geographic divide between    Safeguarding and conserving Georgia’s     services through infrastructure and
Europe and Asia, with a highly           environment, biodiversity and national    interpretive trail design that will
diverse topography internationally       parks is important to achieving           serve as models for the entire park
recognized for its rich biodiversity,    these goals and reaping the benefits       system. To reinforce best practices
including a host of large predators      of a vibrant tourism economy.             in park management, USAID also
such as the wolf, brown bear and                                                   supported the development of
leopard. Georgia, like its neighbors     USAID promotes biodiversity               training programs, including in-country
with land in the Caucasus range,         conservation in natural and managed       courses as well as international study
has been heavily transformed by          ecosystems of Georgia by supporting       tours, on internal and transboundary
human activities. Rapid economic         the establishment of new national         protected areas implementation.
growth and little conservation           parks, building the institutional         Training was provided to a cadre
legislation or enforcement threatens     capacity of the national government       of local professionals in a training
remaining natural areas.                 to manage protected ecosystems,           center that USAID co-financed
                                         and enhancing regional collaboration      with Georgia. To date, management
Sustainable management of the            on protected areas. Activities            practices have been improved on
environment and natural resources is     focus principally on developing the       nearly 500,000 hectares of land in
integral to promoting Georgia as an      Ministry of Environment’s capacity to     the protected areas system with
internationally attractive destination   administer and develop the protected      USAID support. In FY 2009, a visitor
for tourists. The government’s goal      areas network, promote appropriate        center and interpretation trails will
is to create 33,000 new long-term        legislation, improve park operations,     be constructed at Tbilisi National
jobs in tourism and increase tourism     and plan and implement effective          Park, and an additional 424,108
revenue from $313 million in 2006 to     park management programs.

to forests in the Caucasus
Mountains of Georgia.

hectares is expected to be added
to the protected areas network.

Amendments to Georgia’s protected
areas legislation were developed
to increase the role of the general
public and the private sector in
the management of national parks.
These amendments are expected to
be introduced to Parliament in FY
2009, and once enacted, will establish
concession schemes for protected
areas management, as well as
promote public-private partnerships
and volunteering or cooperative
relationships with community
members. In the legislation, parks
system planning is better defined,
including how new lands enter
into the national protected areas
network. Detailed requirements for
protected area five-year management
plans are specified and the concept
of ecological corridors for animal
movement between protected areas
                                                                                                       PHOTO: LARRY GRUVER, USFS
is retained. These legislative changes
ensure more comprehensive oversight        HEAVY LIFTING: Logging operations in the Krasnoyarsk Krai in central Siberia.
                                           Krasnoyarsk is one of the most heavily forested regions in Russia.
of protected areas and promote
biodiversity conservation, harmonizing
the law with relevant legislation
which Georgia needs for potential        Peninsula in the Russian Far East,          In partnership with local authorities,
accession to the European Union.         and parts of Siberia such as Lake           USFS supported a program that
                                         Baikal and the Krasnoyarsk region.          leveraged private-sector funding
                                                                                     to engage Sakhalin residents in
Russia                                   The Russian Far East is a storehouse        resource management through
                                         of timber, fish, precious metals,            watershed councils – community-
Forest Management in Siberia             petroleum and natural gas spread            based organizations representing
and the Russian Far East                 across an area more than two-               the varied interests of a watershed’s
                                         thirds the size of the United States.       population, users, and visitors. These
Through the USDA Forest Service          The region also boasts rich and             nascent councils are expected to
(USFS) and its partners, USAID is        diverse wildlife in scenic landscapes,      implement a variety of activities
working to promote sustainable           and promises to one day become              including anti-poaching, habitat
forest management, habitat               the country’s premier ecotourism            restoration, and education.
protection for endangered species,       destination. Neighboring Siberia
protected area management, and           has its own forest and water                USAID programs target habitat
ecotourism throughout Russia             resources which are important to            protection for priority species
including the Primorye region,           the local and national economies.           in southwest Primorye such as
Sakhalin Island and the Kamchatka                                                    the endangered Amur leopard

                                   USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                      59
CAUGHT ON FILM: Only about 30 leopards remain in the Primorsky Krai region in the Russian Far East. Researchers from the Wildlife
Conservation Society use camera traps and other methods in their efforts to study and conserve this critically endangered species.

and Siberian tiger, both affected            NGOs, USFS addressed critical                Nationwide, collaborative activities
by prey depletion, poaching, and             issues related to forests and roads          with the Federal Forestry Agency
deforestation. In Kamchatka and              in the Krasnoyarsk region, and               and regional authorities focus on
Lake Baikal, funding from the private-       facilitated transboundary dialogue           fire management, climate change
sector and other organizations               and cooperation on the Russia-               mitigation, combating illegal logging,
is supporting salmon habitat                 China border in the areas of                 and forest inventory and monitoring
protection, watershed management,            sustainable forest management                at the policy level. USFS has also
ecotourism development, and                  and illegal logging. USFS is                 supported professional exchanges to
community involvement in                     exploring possibilities to expand            assist with the development of Russia’s
protected area management.                   its experience with partnerships             new national forest inventory system.
                                             in the Russian Far East and Siberia
Working in partnership with the              to other parts of the country.
regional administration and local

LATIN AMERICA AND                                                                  USAID country programs funded
                                                                                   biodiversity or forestry programs in

                                                                                   about 20 countries in Latin America
                                                                                   and the Caribbean in FY 2008.

The Latin American and Caribbean
(LAC) region includes almost half
of the world’s tropical forest and
supports a tremendous array
of biological diversity; however,
the natural resource base is
threatened by adverse trends                deforestation rates are some of the
such as habitat conversion and              highest in the world, particularly
degradation, unplanned infrastructure       in the Amazon Basin. USAID
development, low institutional              works to equip stakeholders with
capacity, illegal extraction of             information and tools to participate
resources, poor management                  in democratic decision-making, and
practices, and weak or ineffective          to better manage and benefit from
enforcement of environmental                nationally, regionally, and globally
laws and policies. Regional                 important natural resources.

THE ARCADIN ISLANDS off the western coast of Haiti
are heavily overfished but still host a diverse seabed
including these soft corals and yellow tube sponges.

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                61
THROUGH THE FOG lies an entrance to
Madidi National Park in lowland Bolivia.
The Takana indigenous community works
with the government to manage and benefit
from the portion of the park that lies in
their territory.

LAC Regional                                evaluation, as well as participation on    of natural resources; support
Sustainable                                 selection panels for awarding bids.        development of strong enabling
Development Program                                                                    legal, policy, and institutional climates;
                                            Initiative for Conservation                and expand market access for
USAID promotes development                  in the Andean Amazon                       sustainable natural resource-based
in the LAC region by addressing                                                        products. Projects in Colombia,
environmental and natural resource          The eastern slope of the Andes             Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia complement
issues that threaten to undermine           mountain range, from the altiplano to      bilateral mission activities in these
sustained economic prosperity               the Amazon, is widely acknowledged         Andean countries as well as projects
and democratic stability. The LAC           as one of the most biologically and        supported by USAID/Brazil. ICAA
Bureau’s Regional Sustainable               culturally diverse regions in the world.   is implemented through a contract
Development (LAC/RSD) program               ICAA was established in 2006 in            with International Resources Group
provides technical assistance to            order to build local capacities and        and four cooperative agreements
all missions in the region while            commitments for the conservation           with University of Florida, Rainforest
operating its own program, the              and sustainable use of biodiversity        Alliance, Wildlife Conservation Society,
Initiative for Conservation in the          and environmental services in and          and The Nature Conservancy.
Andean Amazon (ICAA). Technical             around key protected areas as well
support to the missions includes            as in indigenous territories of this       In Bolivia, ICAA-supported legal
program design, review and                  important region. Program activities       assistance resulted in the award of
                                            increase responsible management            land titles for 24,250 hectares of

the Lecos indigenous territory and
approximately 16,000 hectares of
Takana territory. Securing land
rights is an important step in
conserving biodiversity because it
allows people to manage land for
long-term sustainability rather than
short-term gain. It also mitigates
against deforestation resulting
from uncontrolled settlement
in common property land.

In northern Ecuador, ICAA played
a key role in bringing approximately
70,000 hectares under indigenous title
and management. The program is
providing training in land management
and related issues to the entities
responsible for managing the new
territories. USAID helped identify
and overcome small barriers to                                                                   PHOTO: ANDREW TOBIASON, USAID
conservation such as getting driver         RESOURCE RIGHTS: USAID supports work with several indigenous groups to
validation for indigenous park guards,      secure land rights and develop natural resource-based enterprises, from Brazil nut
                                            harvesting in Lago Valencia, Peru to community-operated ecotourism near Madidi
allowing them to monitor a larger           National Park, Bolivia.
area of the Cofan indigenous territory
and significantly improving their
ability to control threats such as land   gatherers to develop a consensus              organizations, enhance their voice
invasions, illegal mining, and illegal    management plan that ultimately               and role in decision-making, and
logging. ICAA also supports producer      strengthened the relationship                 overall promote the conservation and
groups in agroforestry production of      between Brazil nut gatherers, their           sustainable management of natural
cocoa in Ecuador, combining improved      associations, and government staff.           resources within indigenous territories.
production and income with forest-        Program investments resulted
friendly management techniques.           in the development of 37 forest
                                          management plans and more                     Caribbean Regional
In Peru, ICAA helped to slow land-        efficient management of reforestation          Program
use change by providing intensive         areas. In addition, an ICAA partner
training to groups dedicated to           continued to work with the Regional           National Investments and
natural forest management, including      Government of Madre de Dios                   Natural Assets Protection
forest inventory techniques, efficient     state to consolidate a new regional
utilization of non-timber resources,      conservation area, Lago Valencia.             USAID’s Caribbean Regional Program
and reduced impact logging. Several       The area will allow for traditional           implements biodiversity initiatives
producer groups and cooperatives          indigenous uses as well as commercial         supporting six countries, with a focus
now manage natural forests and            sustainable activities such as fishing,        on two: Antigua and Barbuda, and
agroforests for non-timber forest         ecotourism, and Brazil nut harvesting.        Dominica. The Caribbean Open
products like Brazil nuts and coffee.                                                   Trade Support Program (COTS)
ICAA partners worked closely              Late in FY 2008, ICAA launched an             commenced in 2005 with an
with Peru’s regulatory agency,            innovative small grants program that          objective to help eastern Caribbean
protected area staff, and forest          will build the capacity of indigenous         countries to succeed in an open trade

                                   USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                         63
    BRAIN CORAL is found in many
    parts of the Caribbean. At night the
    hard surface will extend soft polyps to
    feed on particles in the water.

environment in which their economic           Imperial parrots, both endemic           support in FY 2008 and prior years
futures are ultimately linked to their        parrots under threat. In addition,       led to legislation and codes of
ability to protect the rich biodiversity      land use plans were developed for        practice to reduce the environmental
endowment and fragile ecosystems.             the Pond Casse region at the request     impact of the quarry industry.
The COTS program supported                    of the Government of Dominica,
the development of policies, laws,            including guidance on reducing the       Another threat to marine life in
agreements and regulations promoting          level of encroachment into the           Dominica is sea turtle poaching
sustainable conservation of biodiverse        Morne Trois Piton National Park,         on beaches during nesting season.
areas in the two island nations.              a World Heritage Site, and future        USAID supported a pilot activity
During 2008 the program exceeded              development options and delineation      in 2006 which showed that local
its target with 8,100 hectares being          of park buffer zone boundaries.          communities could be mobilized
brought under improved management,                                                     for conservation, and continues to
primarily the result of a coordinated         One of the biggest threats to critical   support a national, non-invasive
effort and increased support by               marine habitats in Dominica is           sea turtle research and monitoring
the government of Dominica.                   pollution and sedimentation from         program implemented in collaboration
                                              sand and stone quarries. COTS            with the tourism industry and coastal
In Dominica, COTS helped establish            continued support for a program          communities near nesting beaches.
a management plan for the Morne               started in 2006 to institute both        The sea turtle project improves both
Diablotin National Park that includes         environmental management systems         conservation of a threatened species
specific actions to improve the                for the quarry industry and changes      and revenue from ecotourism.
habitats of the Red-necked and                in environmental policy. USAID

USAID supported the conservation              awareness about biodiversity, and       and law enforcement sectors, more
of the Codrington Lagoon on the               increase private sector participation   than twice the number in 2007.
island of Barbuda, recently declared          in biodiversity conservation. The
a national park for its biological            program supports the regionally-        Funding was provided to the
importance to 170 species of                  validated Caribbean Challenge,          Central American Environment and
birds, and its economic importance            which has a target of having at least   Development Commission (CCAD)
as a breeding ground for several              20 percent of Caribbean nations’        to support policy development
types of fish and lobsters. Through            coastal and marine territory under      in the region and help institutions
COTS, two key threats to the                  protected status by the year 2020.      adhere to CAFTA-DR regulations.
lagoon’s unique biodiversity were                                                     CCAD supports implementation
addressed. First, communities                                                         and enforcement of multilateral
rehabilitated dunes where two                 Central America                         environmental agreements including
breaches threatened the ecology               and Mexico Regional                     the Convention on International Trade
of the lagoon, using sand trapping            Program                                 in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna
fences and mangrove plantings                                                         and Flora (CITES), and is developing
which can easily be maintained or             Watershed Conservation                  indicators that will help monitor
repeated. Second, COTS helped                 and Sustainable Fisheries               enforcement actions for conserving
draft a first development and                                                          biodiversity. In addition, CCAD is
management plan for the lagoon to             The Central America and Mexico          developing guidelines and procedures
make the park fully operational and           Regional Program (E-CAM) supports       for determining environmental
facilitate long-term conservation.            many activities that help countries     damages, which will be instrumental
                                              in the region meet environmental        in remedying harm committed to
Demand for organic medicinal                  standards of the United States -        natural resources and biodiversity
plants and herbal teas has grown in           Central America - Dominican Republic    throughout Central America.
Dominica and throughout the world,            Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-
leading to unsustainable harvests of          DR). In the areas of biodiversity and   The Environmental and Labor
wild plants from natural ecosystems.          forestry, USAID advanced CAFTA-         Excellence Program works to
COTS supports the Kalinago Heritage           DR policy change and training           strengthen environmental law
Society’s efforts to propagate plants         objectives, supported improved          training for the judiciary, Ministries
in greenhouses, curtailing demand             management and conservation of          of Environment and Agriculture, and
on wild plants, while ensuring the            two transboundary watersheds, and       non-governmental organizations
quality and quantity of tea and herbal        worked with NASA and a regional         to improve the understanding and
medicine the market requires. This            partner, Water Center for the           application of conservation laws and
also provides economic opportunities          Humid Tropics of Latin America and      international agreements including
for the poorest of Dominicans, Carib          Caribbean (CATHALAC), to improve        CITES. This involves developing
people also known as Kalinagos.               modeling of climate change impacts      sustainable environmental and labor
                                              on biodiversity. E-CAM activities       standards for lobster fisheries and
USAID initiated the Protecting                improve the enabling environment and    developing market-based partnerships
the Eastern Caribbean Region’s                national capacity for conservation of   to implement sustainable lobster
Biodiversity (PERB) program in 2008,          high biodiversity areas including the   fishing in the biodiverse Mesoamerican
providing 24 months of support                Mesoamerican biological corridor and    Barrier Reef. Work by CCAD and
for conservation of biodiversity              the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. In       implementing partner Chemonics
in six countries in the eastern               2008, programs collectively provided    helped improve 25 environmental
Caribbean. PERB aims to improve               capacity building to over 3,000         laws, policies, agreements or
legislative processes, increase areas         government, municipal, private sector   regulations in CAFTA-DR countries.
under protected management, build             and NGO representatives from the
management capacity at a number of            environment, agriculture, tourism,      One of E-CAM’s largest programs,
biologically significant sites, raise public   academic, industrial, customs, police   Conservation of Central American

                                      USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT               65
Watersheds, is implementing seven             standards in southern Belize. USAID         agricultural areas. USAID supported
land use plans and four protected             partners provide technical assistance       development of new revenue
area plans in two biodiverse                  for sustainable forest management           generating schemes with the private
transboundary watersheds: Cahuita-            in the buffer zones of protected            sector worth almost $500,000 to help
La Amistad-Rio Cañas-Bocas del                areas with significant biodiversity in       conserve protected areas and buffer
Toro watershed on the Costa Rica-             Guatemala, and best management              zones. Along with marine recreation
Panama border, and the Gulf of                practices for agriculture and forestry      best management practices to protect
Honduras watershed, which includes            in Costa Rica and Panama. Training          endangered dolphin populations and
Belize, Guatemala and Honduras.               workshops are being developed               threatened coral reef ecosystems,
Ongoing work is strengthening                 on several topics including: forest         these USAID interventions
management mechanisms for                     certification as a tool to promote           improved management of roughly
critically endangered leatherback             best management practices in                428,000 hectares of land and sea.
turtles in one of the region’s most           forest plantations (Guatemala),
important nesting areas, developing           implementing phytosanitary                  Through an agreement with NASA,
best practices for lobster fisheries,          monitoring plans required for               E-CAM utilized the Regional
strengthening management and                  timber export (Guatemala), and              Visualization and Monitoring System
financial systems for protected areas          community-based forest enterprise           (SERVIR) to develop a digital atlas
in Guatemala, Honduras and Panama,            development and sustainable forest          of the Dominican Republic’s natural
and developing regional trainings in          management (southern Belize).               resources, a system for predicting
wildlife management with a special                                                        and alerting people to forest fires,
emphasis on endangered species.               In FY 2008, the regional watersheds         and high resolution topographic
                                              program helped agribusinesses               maps that proved vital in responding
Through the forestry component of             in Central America and Mexico               to the back-to-back hurricanes
the watersheds program, USAID is              reduce the use of chemicals by              that hit the island of Hispaniola in
promoting responsible management              700 tons, leading to cost savings           2008. In addition, an assessment
of community broadleaf forest as well         of over $800,000 and improved               of the potential impacts of climate
as natural pine forest certification           environmental management of                 change on biodiversity in the
                                                                                          Mesoamerican biodiversity corridor
                                                                                          identified species and ecosystems
                                                                                          most at risk. NASA will build on this
                                                                                          foundation to update the key regional
                                                                                          datasets in the SERVIR geographic
                                                                                          information system including water
                                                                                          availability and quality, ecosystems,
                                                                                          protected areas, and changes in
                                                                                          carbon stock, all of which provide
                                                                                          useful biodiversity information for
                                                                                          decision makers. NASA will also
                                                                                          prepare and disseminate regional
                                                                                          reports on historic trends in forest
                                                                                          fires, sea surface temperature, and
                                                                                          land cover change that will aid
                                                                                          governments and NGOs in their
                                                                  PHOTO: JOSÉ COCOZZA     biodiversity conservation efforts.
  FARM IN THE FOREST: Agricultural fields in the Reventazón River valley near Orosi,
  Costa Rica are surrounded by forested hills and mountains. USAID/ECAM partners          A new USAID program under
  provide technical assistance in agriculture and forestry in Costa Rica and Panama, as
  well as land use planning along the Costa Rica-Panama border.                           development aims to reduce key
                                                                                          threats to priority coastal and marine

                                                                                                    PHOTO: ANDREW TOBIASON, USAID

SACRED LAKE: USAID launched a new program in 2008 to reduce threats to biodiversity in and around the Bolivian portion of Lake
Titicaca through public awareness, environmental monitoring and improved governance initiatives.

resources of Central America. The           any country. Twenty-two national             and national chains of production, and
program will address unsustainable          and numerous departmental and                receive fair compensation for their
fishing and coastal development using        municipal protected areas have been          products and services. Specifically,
an ecosystem approach that promotes         established to conserve this natural         USAID helped build 52 strategic
secure access to resources and fosters      heritage, from the Andes Mountains           alliances between indigenous or
market-based mechanisms. Work               to the Amazon basin. Threats include         community forest operators and the
will focus on building institutional        lack of clear land tenure, insufficient       private sector, supported allocation
capacity for effective monitoring and       and inadequate local participation           of 350 titles to 4,000,000 hectares
enforcement of coastal and marine           in and benefits from protected area           of forest lands, assisted 60 wood
resource policies with an emphasis          and natural resource management,             processing companies to become
on environmental compliance.                weak democratic governance                   more efficient in their operations,
                                            structures and policies, and extractive      and provided support to community
                                            industries (especially mining and            forestry operations that led to a 50
Bolivia                                     hydrocarbon development).                    percent increase in family income
                                                                                         generated from forestry activities.
Sustainable Forestry                        USAID/Bolivia’s forestry program             Monitoring and evaluation in forests
and Landscape-Scale                         promotes management planning and             indicates there has been little negative
Conservation                                independent certification of some             impact on biodiversity within test
                                            of Bolivia’s most biodiverse regions.        plots, and that deforestation rates
Few countries in the world possess          One of the main goals is to increase         are lower in managed forests.
as great a diversity of ecosystems as       benefits to communities from forest
Bolivia. Tropical forest ecosystems         resources within the framework               The mission’s flagship biodiversity
cover almost 50 percent of the              of the country’s existing Forestry           conservation program continued
country and given its relatively small      Law. USAID’s efforts in FY 2008              working at the landscape scale to
population, Bolivia has the largest         strengthened indigenous communities’         conserve the biologically significant
amount of forest per capita of              ability to participate in local, regional,   Amboro-Madidi corridor in the

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                       67
Bolivian Amazon. The approach of           (a city of one million people).            increasingly encroached on these
this Landscape Conservation Program,       Environmental monitoring, public           natural resources, and deforestation
implemented by Conservation                awareness, community engagement            remains a major challenge.
International and other partners, is to    in clean-up activities, and improved       Macroeconomic factors such as
generate incentives for municipalities     governance will all be important           commodity prices and economic
and communities to manage natural          components of this initiative.             incentives make it more attractive to
resources sustainably. In FY 2008,                                                    clear forests for agriculture and cattle
USAID supported strategic land use         While the overall outlook for              ranching than to keep them intact.
planning for seven municipalities and      conservation is good, during the
two indigenous territories, which          coming year a number of issues             USAID/Brazil’s environment program
will serve as the basis for future         will have important implications           is designed to complement federal,
conservation and sustainable use           for the future management of               state and municipal conservation
efforts in this region. Conservation       biodiversity and tropical forests,         on public lands through capacity
gains from 2007 were maintained, and       and will help define the range of           building, improved land management
the total area of biological significance   actions needed. Bolivia is moving          inside and outside of protected
under improved management                  toward departmental autonomy,              areas, and sustainable income
increased almost 500,000 hectares          empowering and including                   opportunities. Together, USAID and
due to the implementation of best          indigenous and other marginalized          the Government of Brazil are working
practices in two large certified forest     social groups in political processes,      to slow and reverse deforestation,
management areas in the department         and bringing renewable natural             and thereby conserve biodiversity
of Santa Cruz, as well as success          resources into the political debate.       while reducing carbon emissions, a
in overcoming prior setbacks to            USAID will continue to work with           major driver of global climate change.
management in the Apolobamba               municipalities and communities
integrated management area.                (including indigenous ones) on             In FY 2008, USAID focused its
                                           conservation and management in             conservation efforts on the
USAID/Bolivia initiated a new              the field, while engaging with an           southwestern Brazilian Amazon, a sub-
program in FY 2008 to conserve             evolving set of stakeholders at the        region particularly rich in biodiversity
biodiversity in Lake Titicaca and the      national and departmental levels           that has recently faced major threats
surrounding high plateau. Titicaca                                                    such as conflict over land rights,
is the largest freshwater lake in                                                     deforestation, illegal logging, and
South America and the highest of           Brazil                                     mining. New infrastructure projects
the world’s large lakes. Straddling                                                   are stimulating land occupation and
the border between Bolivia and             Sustainable Forest                         production in the region, making it
Peru, the “Sacred Lake” was the            Management through                         more difficult to slow the advance
spiritual center of the Incan Empire       Capacity Building                          of the deforestation frontier. A
and is today a designated Ramsar           and Markets                                weak regulatory framework for
wetland. It is also geologically                                                      land tenure is a serious constraint
ancient, which combined with a             Brazil features a wide range of climatic   to environmentally sustainable
unique geography has resulted in           zones and ecosystems including a           development of this region. USAID-
globally important biodiversity in the     large swath of the Amazon basin, the       supported activities have addressed
lake and surrounding area. USAID’s         world’s largest contiguous tropical        these threats by promoting natural
activity aims to reduce threats            rainforest and home to diverse             resources management and protecting
negatively impacting key biodiversity      species, many of which are found           indigenous peoples’ land rights.
targets of the lake and associated         nowhere else. Over one-third of the
rivers, including contamination from       Brazilian Amazon has been set aside        The Communities and Markets
near-shore activities, and industrial      as parks and reserves, but even that is    activity led by World Wildlife Fund
and domestic pollution emanating           not sufficient to guarantee the health      helped eight member organizations
from urban areas such as El Alto           of the forest. Human activities have       increase sustainable production,

                                                                                                             PHOTO: ERIC STONER, USAID

FIRE WARRIORS: Twenty-seven indigenous young people from four ethnic groups in the Xingu River basin received training in fire
preparedness techniques and fire safety measures during a two-week field course inside the Capota-Jarina Kayapó Indigenous Reserve in
Mato Grosso, Brazil.

marketing, and trade of natural              multiple-use forest management                of the State of Amazonas, within
resource-based products and                  within their territory, including             seven focal municipalities: Humaita,
services. For example, one project           participatory mapping. As a result, a         Apui, Manicore, Novo Aripuana, Boca
facilitated access to markets for            complete reserve land management              do Acre, Labrea and Canutama.
sustainable forest products made             plan was prepared by Metareila,
by local cooperatives of small rural         the Surui Indigenous Association.             USAID partner Amazon Institute
producers living in and around forest                                                      of People and the Environment
areas, earning them nearly $60,000           A new consortium known as                     (IMAZON, in Portuguese) helped
in revenue. Using financial incentives,       FORTIS focused on strengthening               the Brazilian Forest Service evaluate
this activity improved management            local institutions involved in forest         deforestation associated with
of 1,556,469 hectares in FY 2008.            conservation and sustainable                  population pressures in the Jamari
                                             use of natural resources. This                National Forest, and supported
The Partnership for Indigenous               consortium promotes social justice            public action against illegal logging
Conservation, a joint initiative             and sustainable livelihoods in the            and land clearing. USAID supported
of NGOs Kaninde and Amazon                   Brazilian Amazon, and improved                efforts of another partner in large-
Conservation Team, assisted the              environmental monitoring of                   scale forest conservation, the USDA
Surui indigenous people to learn             landscapes in the southern portion            Forest Service, which provided

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                            69
technical assistance to their Brazilian
counterparts in areas such as forest
inventory and systems analysis, forest
administration and fire management.
Working in partnership with State
of Mato Grosso’s environmental
secretariat, these and other partners
conducted an assessment of existing
systems for controlling and monitoring
forest management plans in Mato
Grosso. At the request of the
environmental secretariat of the
State of Pará, IMAZON established a
training course for state environment
technicians in monitoring logging
activities with satellite images.

Overall in FY 2008, the mission
environment program supported
25 NGOs which improved natural
resource management and monitoring
across more than 2.5 million hectares,
mostly within indigenous lands in the
Amazonian State of Pará. Mission
partners provided training in
sustainable agricultural production,
community forest management, natural
resources management, biodiversity
conservation, and community
development for over 1,000 people,
and leveraged over $1,400,000
from other donors and partners to
                                                                                                    PHOTO: ANDREW TOBIASON, USAID
undertake complementary activities.
                                            THE WALKING TREE is common to the Andean Amazon lowlands including those
                                            in Colombia. The tree is supported far above spiny roots (shown here) which move
                                            towards precious sunlight when neighboring trees fall and leave gaps in the canopy.
                                          must overcome poverty, weak                   parks, and promote governance
Sustainable Development                   governance, and few economic                  and sustainability in buffer zones.
and Stronger National Parks               development opportunities, which
                                          are root causes of biodiversity loss          Forestry contributes less than
Colombia is one of the top ten            as well as drivers of conflict, illicit        0.5 percent of GDP even though
most biodiverse countries in the          crop production and narcotics                 more than half of Colombia is
world, but a growing population and       trafficking which undermine natural            covered in natural forest. USAID’s
an expanding agricultural frontier        resource management efforts.                  Increased Investments for Sustainable
threaten this natural endowment, with     USAID/Colombia’s environment                  Alternative Development program
roughly 30 percent of Colombia’s          program works to improve forest               (MIDAS, in Spanish) works to develop
biodiversity lost in recent decades.      management as a foundation for                the forestry sector using a three-
Conservation efforts in Colombia          economic growth, strengthen national          pronged approach: establishing quality

commercial timber plantations on        7,600 families living in and around           program is to ensure that targeted
degraded lands; working with two        protected areas received assistance           protected areas and their surrounding
rubber associations and a regional      under these two programs.                     communities are linked to income-
government to develop rubber                                                          generating sectors and conservation
plantations in the “rubber corridor”    A new protected areas program                 practices that can contribute to
of north-central Andean valleys         was launched in early FY 2009 using           economic and ecological sustainability
(from nurseries to grafting and         FY 2008 funds. This $11 million,              when USAID assistance ends.
planting trees); and promoting wider    three-year program is working
implementation of agroforestry          from the ground up, collaborating
practices, such as intercropping of     with the Fondo Patrimonio Natural             Dominican Republic
eucalyptus with cash crops (beans,      (FPN), the National Parks Unit,
corn, cassava, etc.) or grazing         entities of the National System               Institutional Capacity
areas. All three approaches involve     of Protected Areas (SINAP), and               Building for Environmental
alliances among small farmers and       local communities to strengthen               Protection
commercial wood enterprises, which      governance and sustainability in
co-own the wood produced at             protected areas and buffer zones.             Comprising about two-thirds of
harvest time. Forest projects are       The program’s overall objective is to         the island of Hispanola and several
being implemented in areas prone        build the institutional capacity and          surrounding islands, the Dominican
to illicit economies or where illicit   governance of Colombia’s protected            Republic has rich living resources
crops have been eradicated; they        areas for long-term environmental             that support two of its main sources
bring farmers back to the formal        conservation, community and                   of income: agriculture and tourism.
economy, restore attachment to the      cultural preservation, and improved           Unmanaged agricultural development
land, and promote the creation of       livelihoods. A key component of the           is polluting rivers and eventually
small farmers associations. Capacity
building is built into each project,
particularly related to environmental
agricultural practices, community
organization, and forest management
planning. The forestry component
of the MIDAS project is expected to
create approximately 21,000 forestry
sector jobs and develop 67,500
hectares of new forest plantations.

Two USAID/Colombia biodiversity
programs ended in FY 2008: a
buffer zones program implemented
by the Pan-American Development
Foundation and a national parks
strengthening program managed
by a Colombian NGO affiliated
with the National Park Unit. Both
programs have been successful in
protecting vulnerable environmental                                                                     PHOTO: NICK HOBGOOD, DAI
areas, defending indigenous cultures,     PINK TIPPED ANEMONE (Condylactis gigantea) from the north coast of Dominican
strengthening institutions, and           Republic. The stinging tentacles of this anemone often serve as a protective home for
                                          small cleaner shrimp.
shielding sensitive protected areas
from coca production. Approximately

                                  USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                           71
marine zones, and threatening fisheries   Agreement (CAFTA-DR), a portion            participants were exposed to the
and tourism. Deforestation makes         of which is related to biodiversity        idea of conservation areas as the
runoff worse, and frequent tropical      conservation. In FY 2008, ten new          “natural capital” for sustainable
storms and hurricanes exacerbate         municipal environmental ordinances         tourism, and the concept of co-
the problem. USAID assistance to         were drafted and approved, addressing      management whereby civil society
the government and communities           biodiversity threats related to logging    collaborates with the Dominican
focuses on policy development and        controls, reforestation promotion,         Government in the management of
better management of watersheds,         protected area management (including       natural resources for the benefit of
coasts and marine areas.                 co-management between government           both. As a result of the workshops,
                                         and communities), and training for         the DSTA program is proposing to
USAID/Dominican Republic continued       local government personnel on              develop co-management agreements,
assistance to the Secretariat of the     compliance with the Convention on          business plans, and conservation
Environment and Natural Resources        International Trade in Endangered          plans for all five protected areas.
(SEMARENA) and civil society groups      Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES).
through the Improved Policies for                                                   In July, DSTA partner The Nature
Environmental Protection (IPEP)          USAID worked closely with farmers          Conservancy (TNC) and SEMARENA
program. With IPEP technical and         in three micro-watersheds to establish     completed an analysis of the capacity
financial support, SEMARENA               functioning watershed management           of the protected areas system,
signed a regulation on environmental     committees responsible for addressing      revealing that protected area
enforcement with accompanying            biodiversity threats of deforestation      managers lack experience and
instruments for assessing damages        and pesticide runoff into rivers. In the   expertise for effective management,
and assigning fines for environmental     Tireo micro-watershed, within the          especially in the area of ecotourism.
infractions. IPEP also assisted          buffer zone of the Madre de las Aguas      A major focus of the DSTA Program
SEMARENA with the preparation            region which includes five national         will be to improve understanding
of procedures to handle information      parks, the watershed committee             among key staff regarding the potential
requests and environmental               organized itself into a formally           ecological, economic and social
complaints, and provided                 recognized NGO. A watershed                benefits of sustainable tourism, as
environmental enforcement training       management plan was prepared and           well as potential impacts and how to
to them and the Environmental            implemented, and native tree seedlings     mitigate them. DSTA partners will
Attorney General’s Office.                provided by SEMARENA were                  also assist community groups to build
                                         planted along the river as a buffer to     capacity in areas such as sustainable
In marine environmental policy, the      protect and restore the native biota.      use of natural resources, ecotourism,
mission worked with the Secretariat                                                 participatory action research,
of Coastal and Marine Resources and      USAID’s Dominican Republic                 and institutional development.
other entities to draft two marine       Sustainable Tourism Alliance (DSTA)
biodiversity laws which are being        prioritizes protected area management      Several DSTA activities planned in
reviewed by the nation’s congress.       in three national parks, the marine        2008 will take place in 2009 with
The government also approved a           sanctuaries of Estero Hondo and            FY 2008 funds, such as evaluating
strategic plan, developed with USAID     Samana, and the Lower Yuna River           the impacts of cruise ships and
support, for the Jaragua-Bahoruca-       Mangroves. DSTA completed an               whale-watching vessels on marine
Enriquillo Biosphere Reserve.            assessment, design and stakeholder         mammals in Samaná Bay, establishing
                                         coordination phase, which involved         “voluntourism” opportunities to
USAID supported training workshops       nine regional workshops where              observe nesting and care of sea
through IPEP for municipal officials on   308 participants, including 101            turtles in Parque Nacional del Este,
the implementation and enforcement       women, mapped out the context              and providing management and
of environmental compliance under        of sustainable tourism and helped          leadership training to administrators,
Chapter 17 of the Central America        identify and assess over 1,400 natural     supervisors, and park rangers.
– Dominican Republic Free Trade          and cultural resources. Workshop

USAID is just beginning work with
Indiana University on a new marine
protected areas activity designed
to protect coral reefs and preserve
the recently discovered Captain
Kidd shipwreck off Catalina Island
in the eastern Dominican Republic,
along with three other underwater
preserves in the country. These
“Living Underwater Museums”
will protect precious corals and
other threatened biodiversity in
the surrounding reef systems.

Ecuador                                                                                         PHOTOS: SUSANA ESCANDÓN, FONAG

                                            COMMUNITIES AROUND ECUADOR’S CAYAMBE-COCA RESERVE have moved
Protection of Indigenous                    their cattle from delicate high-altitude grasslands where they are prone to predation
                                            by Andean bear to more sustainable lowland grazing managed with fences (above).
Land and Rights                             Some families opted for livestock requiring less land such as guinea pigs (below), or
                                            have gained employment as park guards.
Protected areas and indigenous lands
cover one-third of Ecuador and
are home to some of the world’s
richest biodiversity, as well as many
of the country’s poorest people.
Overhunting is reducing wildlife
populations, and valuable timber is
exploited without attention to good
forest management. USAID funds
are directed toward protecting large
areas of contiguous habitat and
creating benefits for people through
economic activities that reduce
pressure on forest resources and
build local support for conservation.

Ecuador has one of the highest
deforestation rates in Latin America,
resulting in significant carbon emissions.
Climate change vulnerability and
adaptation is also an important issue,
as many of Ecuador’s population
centers rely on receding alpine
glaciers and high-elevation grasslands
for their water supply. In FY 2008,
work with lowland indigenous groups
in the Amazon Basin and on the
Pacific Coast improved management

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                           73
of more than 540,000 hectares of           and livelihoods, and promoted             Park and the Ecological Reserves of
tropical forests by establishing secure    women as park guards. Financial           Chimborazo and Manglares Churute.
ownership and access rights to land,       support for improved management           In the Galapagos National Park, the
clear boundaries, and participatory        practices and sustainable enterprises     Alliance supported preparation of
surveillance systems. A watershed          reduced threats to biodiversity           legal and contracting documents and
conservation activity worked with          and improved water quality.               trained park staff in new procedures,
municipal water companies to pay                                                     resulting in a new tourism concession
the costs for putting high-value           Indigenous communities are key            model for the islands. ESTA also
watersheds under better management,        partners for conservation in Ecuador.     assisted residents of the Cayambe-
conserving alpine grasslands while         In 2008, USAID worked through the         Coca reserve with capacity building
securing the water supply. In addition,    Wildlife Conservation Society to help     for tourism marketing and services,
the program helped Machalilla              several indigenous groups engage in       providing benefits for their current
National Park implement new                beekeeping, handicrafts, ecotourism,      businesses and preparing them
planning and monitoring methods that       and agroforestry activities, leading      for new investments in 2009.
are controlling ecosystem damage           people to value the standing forest
from tourism. All together, USAID          and thereby conserve biodiversity.        A new coastal and lowland program
supported improved management              The Waorani Indigenous Women’s            will begin in late 2009, in which field
of 660,000 hectares of critical            Association is providing $46,900          conservation in three large tropical
ecosystems in Ecuador this year.           in counterpart funding for work           forest areas bordering the Pacific
                                           developing and marketing handicrafts,     Ocean will be tied to improvements
To improve the financial sustainability     strengthening their organization,         in national level policies. The program
of protected areas, USAID supported        and expanding membership to new           will build long-term partnerships
replication of the Quito Water             Waorani communities. With USAID           among local organizations and
Fund (FONAG), in which water               support, Awa indigenous groups            the public and private sectors to
users pay into an endowment fund           are implementing an Ecuadorian-           improve the conservation and
for conserving the forests which           Colombian Strategic Plan, including       sustainability of natural resources and
provide clean and abundant water.          strengthening of cultural identity        the livelihoods of local residents.
Watersheds critical to municipal           through language training and
water companies in Quito, Zamora,          environmental education. Preparation
Tungurahua, Paute, and Loja have           has begun on a similar strategic plan     El Salvador
leveraged nearly $1 million in seed        for the Cofan indigenous group.
capital, established technical operating                                             Management and
units, and began new programs              USAID improved coordination               Conservation of
in environmental education, park           between the Ministries of Environment     Critical Watersheds
guard systems, and conservation            and Tourism through the Ecuadorian
planning to complement USAID               Sustainable Tourism Alliance (ESTA).      El Salvador’s important natural areas
programming. Natural resource              This public-private partnership aims      have been neglected, degraded and
management activities in the same          to increase economic benefits to           overexploited for decades. Even in
watersheds brought economic benefits        local communities from sustainable        recent times, many protected areas
to almost 9,000 people engaged in          tourism in and around protected areas,    existed only on paper or were poorly
activities such as organic farming, milk   and provide income alternatives to        administered. Ministry of Environment
production, sustainable medicinal plant    more destructive livelihoods which        (MARN) resources have been too
harvests, and guinea pig ranching, all     threaten biodiversity. Tourism revenue    limited for effective management,
of which can be more profitable than        also supports local conservation          and private land owners have not
destructive livestock grazing. Women       strategies. ESTA is advancing the         had incentives to better manage
are the targeted beneficiaries of           operation of community-based              their lands. Since late 2006, USAID
income-producing activities that have      tourism through improvements to           has supported the Government of
helped 40 families to improve nutrition    visitor facilities in Cotopaxi National   El Salvador in the consolidation and

HISTORY IN THE MAKING: USAID assistance helped delimit the
boundaries of El Salvador’s first marine and coastal natural protected
area, Los Cobanos, on the western coast of the country. In a process
that lasted almost a year and a half, milestones were placed along the
perimeter of the terrestrial portion and four bright yellow 3.5-meter high
oceanic buoys were anchored to 1.6-ton concrete blocks in the corners
of the marine zone.

effective management of Salvadoran              and will help the Government             The private sector has learned
protected areas and natural resources.          determine the exact borders of these     to manage complex certification
                                                protected areas. In Los Volcanes         requirements and the Government
Efforts are focused on two critical             National Park, delimitation and          has increased ownership and
watersheds identified as MARN                    declaration is complete for Izalco       capacity for environmental
biodiversity priorities: Rio Grande             Volcano, covering 1,600 hectares. El     management. To achieve
in Sonsonate and El Imposible in                Salvador also declared its first marine   sustainability, USAID/El Salvador
Barra de Santiago, both part of the             protected area, Los Cobanos, on          has been training trainers from
Mesoamerican biological corridor                the western coast of the country.        local government, NGOs, and
where critically endangered species             Los Cobanos is 21,312 hectares           Peace Corps; building the capacity
occur. Activities include biodiversity          of which 97 percent is underwater,       of coffee exporter technical
inventories, monitoring of birds in             featuring several coral reefs unique     staff; strengthening local tourism
biological corridors, and shade-                to the Central American region.          committees; and sharing successful
grown coffee certification. USAID                                                         approaches with other donors
is also supporting conservation of              USAID has leveraged contributions        and government offices. USAID
the Hawksbill sea turtle, which favors          and cost-sharing for conservation,       has assisted over 900 coffee
El Salvador’s beaches over others               while payments for ecosystem             producers to date, including 235
for nesting in the eastern Pacific,              services programs have far surpassed     women, to achieve specialist coffee
with campaigns to reduce local                  the original goal of $100,000. The       certification. Almost 300 private
consumption of turtle eggs.                     Government has invested $3 million,      farms and coffee processing plants
                                                while coffee farmers, small-scale        in the targeted watersheds have
USAID has helped the Ministry of                farmers of other products, and           been certified, bringing improved
Environment incorporate 57 new                  local stakeholders have invested         management to more than 10,000
areas into the National Protected               more than $400,000 of their own          hectares of agroforestry systems.
Natural Areas System. Topographic               funds in measures to conserve
work is now 50 percent complete                 soil, water, and biodiversity.

                                        USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                  75
Guatemala                                 The Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR)         ecological integrity, helping pinpoint
                                          is the largest protected area in the     where forest cover is declining due to
Sustainable Enterprises                   department of Petén, with dense          logging or land conversion, especially
and Forestry Certification                 forests teaming with life and valuable   around Mayan archaeological sites of
                                          timber, which also provide ecosystem     interest to tourists. In order to ensure
Combined with neighboring areas           services such as climate change          that the various monitoring systems
in Mexico and Belize, Guatemala’s         mitigation. The forest is under threat   are coordinated and complementary,
tropical forest is the largest in         from drug smuggling, trafficking in       the U.S. helped establish a
Mesoamerica and hosts a diversity         wildlife and cultural artifacts, and     biological monitoring roundtable of
of species. Economic growth               fires set to facilitate hunting and       organizations working in the MBR.
and poverty reduction require             farming which subsequently rage out
sustainable management and                of control. In 2008, USAID helped        The MBR includes areas of
conservation of the nation’s forests      community foresters address the          working forest where rights to use
and rich biodiversity in the face         forest fire threat by pilot testing       forest resources are allocated to
of numerous threats. USAID/               a satellite early warning system         communities or companies. Several
Guatemala is working with rural           to identify areas susceptible to         community concessions received
enterprises in the forestry and           burning and prioritize prevention        USAID support to improve revenue
tourism sectors to ensure that            efforts. With USAID support, locally     from sustainable forestry including
investments are made and managed          established fire brigades conducted       extraction of timber and non-timber
in an environmentally sustainable         149 patrols and maintained over          forest products. The volume of
way, often by harnessing the              150 kilometers of fire breaks and         harvest in these concessions has
financial incentives for conservation      forestry concession boundaries.          increased more than 50 percent, with
provided by international markets                                                  4.12 million board feet of certified
that demand certified and                  USAID also supported the                 and “in process of certification”
environmentally friendly products,        development of systems for               forest products sold for $5.8
services, and destinations.               monitoring and evaluating the area’s     million in FY 2008. An evaluation
                                                                                   of the forestry concessions in the
                                                                                   MBR found that they restrain the
                                                                                   expansion of agriculture by local
                                                                                   people who now benefit from and
                                                                                   increasingly appreciate the long-
                                                                                   term value of standing forest over
                                                                                   the short-term gains available from
                                                                                   additional low-productivity farmland.

                                                                                   More than 3,700 people improved
                                                                                   their economic welfare from
                                                                                   sustainable forestry activities, including
                                                                                   hundreds of women who mostly
                                                                                   earned incomes from processing
                                                                                   non-timber forest products.
                                                                                   Activities initiated in the Alta Verapaz
                                                                                   department increased incomes for
                                                                                   more than 1,000 people, a number
                                              PHOTO: COUNTERPART INTERNATIONAL     likely to rise because more than
  BIRDER’S PARADISE: USAID is supporting efforts to improve management of the      5,000 families are involved in the
  Maya Biosphere Reserve in Péten, Guatemala, known as a premier birdwatching      sustainable resource management
                                                                                   and conservation activities there.

The USAID-supported Community            ecosystem services initiatives for the    One CAFTA-DR activity helped
Forestry Enterprise Organization         MBR. Rainforest Alliance, USAID’s         develop community-based hunting
(FORESCOM) began an alliance with        main partner in the forestry sector in    tours in the MBR targeting the
a construction business and increased    Guatemala, initiated “GuateCarbon”        wild Ocellated turkey (Melleagris
sales of lesser-known species for        to establish a transparent and cost-      ocellata) in an ecologically-appropriate
decking and flooring. It also supported   effective scheme for monetizing           manner. The program maintains a
the Verapaces Cooperative Federation     the value of avoided deforestation.       manageable number of male turkeys
(FEDECOVERA) of 28 cooperatives          Nearly 500,000 hectares of forest are     while providing an important revenue
to obtain sustainable certification for   currently undergoing independent          stream to the community. The 2008
454 hectares of pine. FEDECOVERA         third-party certification for carbon       harvest season resulted in 35 visitors
develops value-added timber products     sequestration value. Individuals and      (hunters) who harvested 58 adult
like pallets and bed components          entities participating in the voluntary   male turkeys and generated net
from small diameter pines which          carbon market will soon be able to        incomes worth $66,850, not including
had no market two years ago.             purchase carbon offsets in the MBR to     tips, handicraft sales and personal
                                         finance maintenance of the standing        donations. Continued wildlife
Xate (pronounced “sha-tay”)              forest and thereby reduce greenhouse      monitoring has shown that Ocellated
is a palm of the Mesoamerican            gas emissions. Estimates suggest          turkey and other species populations
forest understory used in flower          the certification and management           are stable or improving due to the
arrangements and Palm Sunday             of this amount of Maya forest             fact that incidental hunting has been
celebrations in the United States        could avoid emissions of at least 50      reduced as community members
and elsewhere. With USAID                million tons of carbon dioxide over       become engaged in camp preparation
assistance, MBR communities learned      20 years. At about $5 a ton that          and other aspects of trophy hunting.
to sustainably manage the xate           could generate $250 million dollars,
harvest and have doubled their           an important source of sustainable        Guatemala’s diverse biodiversity,
earnings selling directly to large       financing for managing the reserve.        rich archaeological sites and colorful
buyers. In 2008, over 21,000 xate                                                  indigenous products make tourism
bunches sold for $222,815. USAID         One of the biggest threats to             the country’s largest foreign exchange
helped the community concessions         biological diversity is lack of           earner. With U.S. assistance in FY
become the world’s first source of        enforcement of environmental              2008, almost 2,500 people (44
certified xate, with 189,294 hectares     regulations, policies and procedures.     percent women) received increased
certified in 2008. Along with half a      To address this, USAID strengthens        economic benefits by providing
million hectares of certified forest      the Ministry of Environment to            lodging, guiding and food services for
managed for timber, nearly 700,000       implement and ensure compliance           sustainable tourism. Working together
hectares of the Péten forest was         with the Central America - Dominican      with Guatemalan NGO Alianza
put under improved management.           Republic Free Trade Agreement             Verde, USAID partner Counterpart
USAID’s program in the MBR is a          (CAFTA-DR), which includes penalties      International has been promoting
model for what can be achieved           associated with environmental             sustainable tourism certification
for gender equity with biodiversity      regulations. USAID supported              in Guatemala, with 65 Sustainable
conservation funds: women from           development of an environmental           Tourism Green Deal certificates
various communities now have             justice board and trained legal           awarded between 2007 and 2008.
business and management skills,          officers who deal in these areas. The      USAID also participated in an
new sources of employment (such          mission also provided assistance to       initiative of the National Geographic
as xate sorting and selection), and      the Government of Guatemala in            Society, national government, and
greater access to resources and          evaluating and promoting new options      the private sector to develop a
positions within their communities.      for diversifying Guatemalan exports       Geotourism Map Guide that highlights
                                         to the United States, focusing on         culture, folklore, archaeology, natural
USAID also supported technical           biological resources which are an         resources, textiles and handicrafts.
assistance to develop payments for       untapped source of sustainable wealth.

                                  USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                 77
through denuded hillsides in Haiti. USAID
is working to promote hillside stabilization
and natural resource management in two
of Haiti’s vulnerable watersheds, Limbé and

Haiti                                          natural resource-based livelihoods     wetland zones are harvested for
                                               and expanding Haitian capacity         construction poles or charcoal
Economic Development for                       for biodiversity conservation.         despite government interdictions.
a Sustainable Environment                                                             The coastal zone of Limbé receives
                                               In FY 2008, USAID began the            excessive amounts of sediment from
Environmental degradation in Haiti             Economic Development for a             the Limbé River and its tributaries
is a major threat to biodiversity, and         Sustainable Environment (DEED)         because of substantial deforestation
continues to destroy productive                project, a watershed development       in the upper watershed. Fish stocks
infrastructure, stagnates rural                program to promote economic            in both of these coastal areas are
economies, and leads to catastrophic           development, hillside stabilization,   decreasing because of unsustainable
flooding. Reducing and controlling              and sustainable natural resource       fishing practices, constituting a
environmental degradation has long             management in two of Haiti’s           serious threat to ecosystems and the
been a priority for the government             vulnerable watersheds, Limbé and       livelihoods of fishing communities.
of Haiti, and has become the focus             Montrouis. The marine and coastal      These areas have high potential
of increased urgency following floods           zones of these watersheds are          for beach tourism and ecotourism,
during the 2008 hurricane season.              habitat for diverse endangered         but only if threats are addressed.
The objective of U.S. assistance is to         species including marine turtles
improve government and community               and manatees, however coral reefs      The DEED project provides technical
management of biologically significant          are continuously being mined for       assistance in habitat and biodiversity
terrestrial, coastal, and marine habitats      cement and other building materials,   conservation and promotes
by promoting more sustainable                  and two important mangrove and         alternative livelihoods among local

stakeholders, especially fishermen.          a stark reminder to all Haitians that       wildlife poaching, and pollution from
In 2008, DEED worked closely with           conservation and good natural               pesticides, fertilizers, untreated solid
the Limbé and Montrouis watershed           resource management are critical            waste and untreated wastewater
communities to design participatory         components of disaster prevention.          all negatively impact this natural
land use maps, establish conservation                                                   heritage. Low government capacity,
and biodiversity priorities, and identify   The United States has taken a               weak laws and enforcement,
economic development options. A             leadership position among other             widespread poverty, and a reliance
management plan for over 8,000              donors in watershed management in           on fuelwood for energy collectively
hectares was designed and will be           Haiti and heads a donor coordination        reduce prospects for addressing
implemented in each sub-watershed           group for watershed investments.            the causes of biodiversity loss.
with the active involvement of              USAID has worked closely with the
farmers, producer groups, and local         government of Haiti and local officials      USAID’s Integrated Watershed
government officials. A public-              to improve their capacity to lead on        Resources Management (MIRA,
private partnership with hotel and          environmental issues, and will continue     in Spanish) program continues to
restaurants owners in Cap-Haitien           to expand Haiti’s ability to design,        support the adoption of economic,
(near Limbé) is under discussion in         direct, and coordinate efforts to           scientific, institutional, and social
order to develop a historical and           improve environmental management.           processes that strengthen natural
natural walk on the Islet of Limbé,                                                     resources management. Working
which features a colonial fortification                                                  at the landscape level, the program
and habitat for the endangered              Honduras                                    integrates watershed and protected
rhinoceros iguana. The DEED                                                             areas conservation with sustainable
program has increased stakeholder           Integrated Watershed                        economic activities, such as
knowledge of and support for                Resources Management                        sustainable agriculture, community-
improved land-use and management                                                        based ecotourism, and small-scale
practices that will positively impact       Like other countries in Central             conservation enterprises which give
long-term economic well-being.              America, Honduras hosts high levels         biodiversity and forest resources
                                            of biodiversity. Forest cover loss,         greater value at the local level.
As a result of the disastrous hurricane
season, both the Limbé and Montrouis
watersheds suffered damage to
road and agriculture infrastructure,
and crops and livestock were lost.
When USAID shifted its attention
to work on damage assessment
and a concerted recovery program,
some critical activities aimed at local
capacity building in natural resource
management, governance and income
generating activities were postponed.
Even so, DEED trained about 600
participants in community mapping
and planning, sustainable agricultural
production, and other approaches
to reducing impacts on biodiversity.
The USAID food aid program trained
                                                                                                        PHOTO: USAID/HONDURAS
an additional 700 people in natural
resource management. The hurricanes           TREE NURSERIES help reforest priority micro-watersheds that link to ecotourism
                                              destinations along Honduras’ north coast.
and tropical storms of 2008 offered

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                         79
USAID partners in government            response committees, early warning       initiatives promoting sustainable
and civil society have undergone        systems, weather monitoring, risk        enterprises and agricultural
notable institutional strengthening     mapping and evacuation plans,            practices that create opportunities
to support these efforts. This          the North Coast weathered the            for the rural poor while achieving
year MIRA trained nearly 3,800          2008 hurricane season without            biodiversity conservation.
people on topics such as disaster       loss of life and a marked reduction
prevention and response, watershed      in flooding and landslides.               USAID/Jamaica`s Protected Area
management and conservation,                                                     and Rural Enterprises project
strengthening of ecotourism             With USAID assistance, USDA              (PARE), with technical assistance
services, and micro-enterprise          Forest Service specialists provided      from the USDA Forest Service,
development. Over half of the           technical assistance and training        partnered with The Nature
trainers were women who play            in environmental interpretation          Conservancy, Forestry Department
active roles in the social, economic,   for visitors centers and trails          and others on several activities. For
and environmental processes in their    in key protected areas, and              example, PARE helped develop
communities. At the national level,     updated norms and regulations            Flagstaff Heritage Tours and Trails,
MIRA supported the creation of a        for wildlife and protected-areas         a model for community tourism
national authority to more closely      management. In a separate activity,      which demonstrated some of
monitor and respond to illegal          environmental education modules          the critical aspects of effective
trafficking of plants and animals.       for primary grades were validated        and sustainable enterprises,
                                        and incorporated into the national       including well-defined leadership
USAID began the implementation          school curriculum. These measures        and management arrangements,
phase for management of 18              increase knowledge and awareness         clear land ownership and rights,
priority micro-watersheds that are      of biodiversity among Hondurans,         and private sector involvement.
linked with key protected areas         and connect conservation with
and ecotourism destinations on          economic development.                    Forests are threatened from the
Honduras’ biodiverse north coast,                                                inside by small agricultural clearings
covering 84,130 hectares. Activities                                             and invasive species. In FY 2008,
included reforestation, expanding       Jamaica                                  6,200 native tree seedlings were
the use of fuel-efficient stoves,                                                 planted in the Blue and John Crow
and promoting community-based           Natural Assets Managed                   Mountains National Park (BJCMNP)
projects as economic alternatives       for Rural Development                    to seal openings made by encroachers
to illegal logging. In the Pico         and Sustainable Growth                   and rehabilitate 15 hectares of
Bonito National Park, the program                                                forest. Overall, PARE improved
assisted in the creation of the         Ranked fifth among islands in terms       management on approximately
Cangrejal Trail, a route connecting     of endemic plants, Jamaica also          8,755 hectares of biodiverse lands
six community-based ecotourism          harbors species of snails, terrestrial   in BJCMNP through enforcement,
initiatives which contribute to park    crabs, amphibians, reptiles, and birds   reforestation and invasive species
management while serving tourists.      found nowhere else. Jamaica’s            removal activities in partnership
                                        forests are the main repositories        with the Jamaica Conservation
Improvements in management of           of biodiversity, but more than 20        and Development Trust (JCDT).
protected areas strengthened their      percent of land in forest reserves
role as buffers against extreme         has been impacted by agriculture         PARE conducted an assessment of
weather events that cause most          and other human activities,              opportunities and constraints in the
natural disasters in Honduras.          resulting in habitat destruction and     Jamaican cocoa value chain, from
Combined with ongoing disaster          fragmentation. Forest reserves           production to marketing, which
mitigation activities such as the       and associated conservation              determined that changes in the
creation of 79 community emergency      areas are priority sites for USAID       current regulatory and management

                                                                                     the series of posters in over 10
                                                                                     community meetings held to
                                                                                     sensitize buffer zone communities
                                                                                     on the risk of fires to their
                                                                                     livelihoods and natural resources.
                                                                                     In Cockpit Country, forestry
                                                                                     and fire prevention officers
                                                                                     trained in bush fire awareness
                                                                                     developed plans and delivered
                                                                                     awareness sessions to over 15
                                                                                     communities around the reserve.

                                                                                     Certain components of USAID’s
                                                                                     JA FARMS agriculture program
                                                                                     complement PARE’s biodiversity
                                                    PHOTO: KIMBERLY FLOWERS, USAID   conservation and natural resource
  SIMPLE GREENHOUSES like this one help Jamaican farmers make use of otherwise       management objectives. In FY
  unproductive land, even former mining sites, and thereby reduce pressure on        2008, JA FARMS addressed
  remaining natural forests.
                                                                                     unsustainable agricultural practices
                                                                                     by introducing small farmers
framework for the sector, along            benefits for communities and               to low cost, hurricane-resistant
with significant capital inflows from        private land owners. Fire is              greenhouse technology for
local and international investors,         one of the primary threats to             growing high-value vegetables
will be needed if the sector is to         Jamaica’s forests, often associated       as an alternative to traditional
contribute to economic growth              with clearing land for agriculture.       slash-and-burn agriculture in
and biodiversity conservation. In          A USAID assessment of fire                 385 hectares of biologically
other areas, micro-propagation             causes established that there             important land. The program also
and commercial scale production            was low awareness among rural             demonstrated the successful use of
of select endemic medicinal                communities on the impact                 protected agriculture (greenhouses
plants reduced the threat of               of fires on the environment.               and the like) on otherwise
unsustainable wild harvesting.             Likewise there were few public            unproductive mined lands, again
And, USAID support helped                  awareness tools available to              to reduce pressure on natural
reduce mortality and improve               convey this message. PARE                 forests. USAID interventions led
growth rates for endemic Jamaican          partnered with the public and             to 113 farmers and processors
Iguana hatchlings being reared in          private sector to disseminate             adopting new technologies or
captivity for release to the wild.         public awareness messages                 management practices, while
                                           under the Think Before You                211 people received increased
The USDA Forest Service                    Burn campaign developed in                economic benefits derived from
conducted two strategic forest             2007. Campaign messages were              sustainable natural resources
management planning workshops,             disseminated through posters,             management. To scale up these
and in collaboration with Jamaica’s        bumper stickers, billboards,              approaches, a reference manual on
Forestry Department they                   brochures and school curriculum           best practices and lessons learned
drafted a 2008–2013 Strategic              aids. In BJMNP, park rangers              in protected agriculture was
National Forest Management Plan            distributed fire prevention and            completed for use and distribution
focused on maintaining ecological          awareness posters in communities          by the Ministry of Agriculture.
integrity by defining forest access         found to have high fire danger
rights and socio-economic                  ratings. The rangers also used

                                      USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                 81
                                                                                                                PHOTO: IVANA FERTZIGER, DAI

NEW OPPORTUNITIES: Fishermen pack fish while pelicans look on in Mexico’s Marismas Nacionales, a mangrove system stretching
nearly 200,000 hectares across the Pacific states of Nayarit and Sinaloa, soon to be declared a protected area. Further north in the Gulf of
California, USAID partners are helping fishermen pursue alternative employment and thereby reduce unintended bycatch of the vaquita, a
critically endangered porpoise found nowhere else.

Mexico                                         on wildfire prevention and fire                   increased its budget for forest fire
                                               management to mitigate the impact               management from $4.5 million
Private Sector Initiatives                     of fires on human lives, natural                 in 1998 to $27.6 million in 2008,
and Capacity Building                          ecosystems and U.S. border states,              and a forest fire alert system
for Conservation                               enabling Mexico to move from                    was established that integrates
                                               basic firefighting to an integrated               the efforts of communities,
With flora and fauna typical of                 fire management approach.                        NGOs and government. U.S.
North or Central America and                                                                   assistance also contributed to the
many species found nowhere                     Forest fires represent a growing                 professionalization of forest fire
else, Mexico has been ranked the               threat to forest resources and                  management training through
fourth most biodiverse country                 to the conservation of Mexico’s                 the Mexican Forest Commission
in the world. USAID has worked                 biodiversity. USAID worked with                 (CONAFOR). Despite local
since 1995 to improve natural                  the USDA Forest Service, the                    customs, especially in indigenous
resource management, promote                   government of Mexico, NGOs,                     communities, the project is working
effective watershed management,                and communities to reduce                       to increase the participation of
and develop sustainable economic               the incidence of fire through a                  women in rural areas, where
opportunities for rural communities            comprehensive national, state                   fire fighting and management
in high biodiversity areas. In 1998            and local capacity building                     has been a traditionally
the United States began a program              program. The government                         male-dominated activity.

Recognizing biodiversity protection       These include: studies on the use of   Nicaragua
as a cross-cutting theme, USAID           payment for environmental services
also focused its economic growth          (PES) systems as mechanisms            Biological Monitoring
activities on geographic areas of         to pay communities in critical         and Sustainable Forest
biological significance. Access to         ecosystems for careful management      Certification
financial services, such as loans for      of natural resources; resource
micro-, small- and medium-sized           materials developed to educate         Nicaragua has an ecologically rich
enterprises, savings plans, and           and inform Mexican legislators on      and fragile environment. High levels
insurance, can help rural families        important environmental issues;        of biological diversity and distinct
prosper in ways that benefit or            and a new program to improve           terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are
do no harm to the environment.            the transparency of environmental      the basis for the country’s ecological
For example, USAID promoted               policy decision making.                and economic wealth. Protecting
collaboration among Conservation                                                 these resources from the threats
International, local NGO Lazos del        During 2008, USAID’s TIES              of natural disasters and human
Mar, and a Mexican microfinance            (Training, Internships, Exchanges      encroachment is critical for sustainable
institution, which is helping protect     and Scholarships) program              economic development. USAID
the vaquita, a porpoise endemic to        began funding two U.S.-Mexican         biodiversity and forestry programs
the upper Gulf of California and          university partnerships to address     support many of Nicaragua’s priorities
currently at risk of extinction. The      biodiversity conservation. Florida     for the environment, including
program reduces the direct threat         International University and the       watershed protection, global climate
of unsustainable fish harvesting           National Polytechnic Institute of      change mitigation and adaptation,
practices by providing microfinance        Mexico will work on protected          and improved forest management.
loans for alternative livelihoods.        areas and coffee farms in Oaxaca
                                          and Chiapas. Michigan Technological    USAID/Nicaragua’s environmental
In the Usumacinta Basin of Chiapas        University, the Technological          portfolio focuses on sustainable
State, conservation of marine             Institute of the Oaxaca Valley, and    tourism and agroforestry. Other
environments was advanced                 the Southern Border College will       activities fall under the four main
through an analysis of constraints        enhance capacity for sustainable       themes of the Environmental
to growing and marketing organic          forest management and PES              Cooperative Agreement of the
mangos in Chiapas. Studies have           mechanisms in Oaxaca and Chiapas.      Central America - Dominican
documented that fertilizer and                                                   Republic Free Trade Agreement
pesticide pollution from mango            FY 2008 was the final year for          (CAFTA-DR): institutional
production in the upper watershed         USAID/Mexico’s community-              strengthening for the application
is an identified threat to 150,000         oriented approach to sustainable       and effective enforcement of
hectares, roughly 17 percent              management of natural resources        environmental laws; biodiversity
of Mexico’s coastal mangroves,            and conservation. Starting in          and conservation; market-based
which serve as nurseries for fish,         FY 2009, USAID will launch             conservation; and improved private
crustaceans and coastal birds. The        a Mexican Competitiveness              sector environmental performance.
cultivation of organic mangos             Program, building on other
reduces runoff harmful to coastal         ongoing initiatives in enterprise-     With assistance from the USDA
mangroves while increasing incomes        based conservation. The new            Forest Service and other partners,
of rural producers receiving higher       program asserts that biodiversity      the mission supported a number
international prices for organic fruit.   protection is essential to economic    of efforts to improve the capacity
                                          growth in the short and long           of Nicaragua to collect, analyze,
Other initiatives were designed           term, and will reinforce this link     and monitor scientific information.
to maximize synergies between             with demonstration projects at         In one project, species-specific
natural resource management and           sites selected in part based on        protocols were developed for
private sector competitiveness.           their biodiversity significance.        monitoring bats and birds as proxies

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT              83
TURTLE NURSERY: An agreement made with local                                       and technical assistance to local
developers in 2008 promotes sea turtle-friendly
development along Nicaragua’s Pacific coast.                                        communities so that they can play a
                                                                                   greater role in management plans for
                                                                                   protected areas, reaching over 1,500
                                                                                   people in FY 2008. USAID developed
                                                                                   a public use plan for the Dantali
                                                                                   El Diablo Protected Area which
                                                                                   supports tourism and economic
                                                                                   opportunities for communities
                                                                                   while protecting the environment.
                                                                                   The Forest Service is also assisting
                                                                                   small and medium enterprises to
                                                                                   develop new business and increase
                                                                                   opportunities for providing services
                                                                                   to national and international tourists.

for overall biodiversity, and training     degradation by improving productivity
was provided in their use. USAID           on lands already under cultivation      Panama
engaged with private landowners            and by increasing the economic value
to allow data collection on their          of timber and tree crops through        Watershed Conservation
lands, and established biodiversity        conservation certification. Forestry     in the Canal Zone
monitoring plots for representative        and agroforestry activities support
bird and bat species in two private        the development and implementation      The Panama Canal watershed
reserves and three public reserves. A      of sustainable management plans         has important tropical forests
separate project continued a series        for forests, and link communities       with rich biodiversity threatened
of trainings and workshops for field        to wood processors interested in        by unsustainable and unplanned
biologists and park rangers, who are       marketing certified forest products.     agricultural development. USAID
now certified to conduct scientifically      Forestry and protected areas projects   supports forest protection and
sound and quantitative monitoring          resulted in over 26,500 hectares        sustainable use of non-timber forest
efforts throughout Central America.        of biological significant land being     products to maintain ecosystem
                                           sustainably managed, including third-   health and water quality, with efforts
USAID/Nicaragua facilitated six            party certified forest. Agroforestry     focused on seven sub-watersheds in
agreements between conservation            promotion resulted in an additional     the Panama Canal Watershed and the
NGOs and private landowners                1,500 hectares of coffee and            Soberanía and Chagres National Parks.
in critical watersheds to ensure           2,308 hectares of cocoa receiving
long-term biodiversity protection.         eco-friendly certification. In the       Reforestation and planting of native
An agreement signed with local             areas affected by Hurricane Felix,      trees is being supported through
developers promotes sea turtle-            USAID supported the controlled          the establishment of plantation and
friendly development near a national       harvest of salvage timber to help       agroforestry systems on cattle farms.
Wildlife Refuge and at coastal             communities in reconstruction as        Useful as live fencing, windbreaks,
drainages of critical watersheds           well as economic development.           and shade, trees help conserve soil
on Nicaragua’s Pacific Coast.                                                       and make habitat more suitable for
                                           Tourism activities are building         birds and monkeys passing through
Work by USAID partner Rainforest           networks of responsible tourism         farms. USAID provided training and
Alliance led to improvements in            service providers, including tour       technical assistance to a network of
forest management, agroforestry            operators and communities in            eight community nurseries responsible
and sustainable agriculture which are      protected areas. The USDA               for collecting seeds of native trees,
helping slow forest destruction and        Forest Service is providing training    protecting seedling trees, producing

plants, and establishing forestry         best practices. USAID promoted               Building on previous progress
plantations of species. In FY 2008,       reforestation with trees that provide        through USAID assistance, a group of
the nurseries collectively produced       fruit or timber, and encouraged              entrepreneurs were trained in new
90,000 seedlings and are on their         excluding agricultural activities from       techniques for designing, building, and
way towards meeting a demand              steep slopes to conserve soil.               selling furniture and other products, all
for more than 200,000 trees.                                                           made from readily-available bamboo
                                          An environmental incentives program          planted by a USAID project five years
USAID supported the development           offers support to obtain land titles,        ago. Small agricultural producers in
of strategies to protect 2,000 hectares   develop farm planning, receive               the target sub-watersheds, which
of deciduous and semi-deciduous           technical assistance and training,           in the past lacked contacts with
forest inside the Chagres National        and participate in a payment for             markets and sold their products in
Park, an important ecosystem type         ecosystem services (PES) scheme. If          local community markets, completed
underrepresented in Panama’s              the environmental incentive program          their first commercial transaction
protected areas system. Threatened        proves to be an effective tool to            with a grocery store chain.
by unregulated extraction and             foster sustainable development in
fires, USAID worked with local             the Panama Canal Watershed, it               With USAID assistance,
communities to monitor the forest         could serve as a model for other             environmental governance and
and provide environmental education.      critical watersheds in Panama.               advocacy were strengthened among
The mission also supported 15                                                          a variety of stakeholders. For
small producers in areas neighboring      Support for sustainable enterprises          example, a group of environmental
these forests, who implemented            advances common objectives                   NGOs developed a five-year
best management practices in              in watershed management and                  national Environmental Agenda
agroforestry systems, reforestation,      biodiversity conservation. Several           for presentation to the 2009
and sustainable agriculture.              environmentally-friendly businesses          Panamanian presidential candidates.
                                          were strengthened through training in        Two watershed management
Another activity helped develop           business plans, financial management,         councils were established covering
action plans to establish a biological    technical issues, and marketing              target geographic areas in the
corridor between the Soberanía and        strategies. These businesses created         Panama Canal Watershed, with each
Chagres National Parks and improve        full-time jobs and closed important          council completing action plans for
the viability of species in the long      commercial deals for future sales.           their sub-watersheds. USAID also
term. The plans were incorporated
into the national natural resource
management strategy being pursued
by the Inter-institutional Commission
for the Panama Canal Watershed.

USAID and the Panama Canal
Authority (PCA) partnered to
finance activities in the watershed,
starting with 13 demonstration
activities. These promoted efficiency
in protected areas management,
sustainable resource use, and strong
environmental governance. The PCA
initiated an environmental incentive                                                                       PHOTO: USAID/PANAMA

program in a group of pilot sub-            CATTLE RANCHES around Chagres National Park in Panama are becoming
watersheds, and aims to develop             conservation partners by agreeing to develop plantations and agroforestry systems
                                            that use native trees.
plans for each farmer willing to adopt

                                   USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                         85
supported the development of                    addressing social and environmental          In the policy arena many new
policy proposals to adapt existing              issues and is a valuable partner.            regulations, laws and by-laws were
forestry policy in order to provide                                                          promoted by local partner Instituto
greater coherence in the legislation.           Deforestation is a priority issue for        de Derecho y Economía Ambiental
                                                the Ministry of Environment, and             (IDEA) with USAID support.
USAID supported the National                    a new deforestation moratorium               Some regulations update the
Environmental Authority (ANAM)                  of five years is planned for the              Environmental Protection Act, while
in the dissemination of legislation             country. With USAID assistance               others promote the independence
related to illegal uses of the forest,          a prior moratorium (the “Zero                of the Environment Secretariat
principally through the design of an            Deforestation Law”) resulted in a            (SEAM). IDEA continued
environmental regulation containing             92.5 percent reduction in the rate of        providing technical assistance and
diverse environmental legislation               land clearance in FY 2008 compared           encouraging transparency and
including legal provisions related to           to the rate reported for Paraguay            citizen participation in congressional
forest management. USAID also                   by the Food and Agriculture                  commissions. They also supported
provided training to 38 judges and              Organization in 2002. Paraguay’s             the preparation of regulatory
prosecutors in the application of the           Minister of Environment has started          by-laws for the newly created
penal legislation for environmental             new activities to fight corruption            Forestry Institute (Instituto Forestal
crimes, including crimes related to             and increase transparency within             Nacional - INFONA), which
illegal logging. A training course              the Ministry, and has prioritized            replaced the former Forest Service.
in environmental administrative                 efforts to combat illegal logging,
procedures was developed and                    especially by squatters who claim            A campaign for the reforestation
offered, benefitting 105 ANAM                    forested areas and sell timber for           of the Atlantic Forest has had a
officers tasked with the application             which they have no legal rights.             major impact on local communities.
of environmental regulations related                                                         Important achievements include
to illegal logging. A public awareness
campaign promoted behavior changes
to address illegal forest activities, illegal
hunting, and burning of natural forests.


Environmental Policy
Development and Law
Enforcement Support

Biodiversity and other natural
resources in Paraguay are depleted
by unsustainable and illegal activities
in national parks and other areas.
USAID/Paraguay works to reduce
these threats by promoting public-
private partnerships for conservation,
creating environmental regulations                                                                        PHOTO: WORLD WILDLIFE FUND
and policies at all levels, and providing         EXPLOSIVE GROWTH in the soybean market over the last several years led to
technical assistance to government                major conversion of forests into cropland for soybean production in Paraguay and
                                                  other countries. The government of Paraguay is planning to implement a five-year
authorities. The new administration               moratorium on deforestation.
in the country is committed to

giving legal title for Caazapa           in a rural part of San Pedro                   through trade-led growth and
National Park to SEAM, and the           while reducing the dependency                  biodiversity conservation. In
implementation of a project in           of local communities on forest                 2008, USAID helped Peru
nearby sawmills to detect illegal        products for their livelihoods.                establish trade-based incentives
logging. In the San Rafael National                                                     for conservation and sustainable
Park, USAID supported a successful                                                      management of natural resources
fire awareness campaign resulting         Peru                                           and reduced illicit activities
in a very low occurrence of fires                                                        that harm the environment.
in comparison with previous              Forestry Sector Reform and                     The program strengthened
years. A project working with            Incentives for Conservation                    the capacity of environmental
40 rural women from three                                                               authorities at the national
communities involves planting            Peru contains some of the most                 and local levels and improved
native medicinal plants, which           biologically diverse ecosystems                environmental management to
will increase incomes and avoid          in the world. Poverty and illegal              meet international commitments.
unsustainable and illegal exploitation   logging are major threats to
of these forest products.                habitat in the Peruvian Amazon,                USAID supported the Government
                                         where USAID’s environment                      of Peru in bringing its environmental
USAID continues strengthening and        program works to reduce poverty                management systems into compliance
promoting protection of national
parks and private reserves. New             STEEP SLOPES only offer partial
areas have been created while               defense against logging and slash and
                                            burn agriculture in Peru’s portion of the
others are in the process of being          Andean Amazon.
declared, and some conservation
                                            PHOTO: HANNAH FAIRBANK, USAID
measures were applied throughout
the protected areas system. USAID
through World Wildlife Fund
(WWF) assisted a group of private
protected areas owners to form
an association. WWF and the
association then consolidated efforts
to defend private protected areas
from squatters and land invasions,
promote eco-friendly activities
and an awareness campaign in the
media, and publicize the objectives
of the association and its purpose.

In 2008, a public-private partnership
with Evensen Dodge International
and local partner Fundacion Moises
Bertoni (FMB) provided grants and
loans for long-term environmental
projects, drawing down a Green
Fund established in 2007. A
new partnership with FMB and a
local commodities producer with
investors from different countries
will work to decrease poverty

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                  87
with the Peru Trade Promotion                         of activities using non-renewable                       123,000 hectares expected to
Agreement (PTPA). For example,                        resources, and allocating permits for                   be certified in early FY 2009.
in May 2008 Peru created its first                     tourism operators in protected areas.
Environment Ministry (MINAM),                         Technical assistance was provided                       The development of environmentally
and subsequently issued four new                      to more than 2,000 protected area                       sustainable forestry businesses
laws and regulations to improve the                   buffer zone community members                           in these certified forests reduces
management of natural resources.                      on the sustainable use of natural                       large-scale deforestation, thereby
One of the laws established the                       resources and market connections                        maintaining an effective form of
Forestry Supervisory Office as                         for forest products including                           carbon sequestration and reducing
an autonomous entity under the                        ornamental fish, Brazil nuts, and                        greenhouse gas emissions from the
Prime Minister’s Office, which will                    various plants used in clothing and                     burning of forests. USAID’s program
substantially elevate the profile and                  handicrafts. USAID also trained                         is showing that certified forestry
stature of forest management in Peru.                 253 community representatives and                       management provides a credible
The Government also promulgated                       micro-entrepreneurs on issues such                      incentive to manage forest sustainably.
detailed and comprehensive                            as ecotourism, natural resources                        Internationally certified forests increase
regulations for the Forestry and                      management and conflict resolution.                      legal trade and provide income
Wildlife Law, a necessary first step                                                                           and jobs for poor and indigenous
for managing and protecting these                     USAID continued efforts to                              people through increased market
important resources.1 Regulations                     facilitate market linkages for                          access for Peruvian forest products.
established the system to approve                     logging companies and indigenous
the management plans for sustainable                  communities that obtain international                   USAID’s Strengthening
use of Brazil nuts in Bahuaja Sonene                  certification from their management                      Environmental Management to
National Park and Tambopata                           of forest concessions. Certification                     Address Priority Problems (STEM)
National Reserve, two of the most                     of sustainable forest management                        activity continued working with
biodiverse areas in the world. Brazil                 increases the selling price of forest                   Peruvian institutions to enhance
nuts are a prime source of income                     products, which in turn creates an                      oversight and monitoring of forest
for families living near Tambopata                    incentive to protect forest resources                   concessions and further refine and
reserve, among the principal stewards                 and combat illegal logging. As part                     implement national environmental
of Peru’s rich forest resources.                      of the international certification                       management policies, especially for
                                                      process, USAID-funded experts                           protected areas. The most recent
The protected area oversight role                     from INRENA evaluated 179,700                           mission initiative for protected areas
of the former National Institute of                   hectares of forestry concessions.                       was formalized in late FY 2008,
Natural Resources (INRENA) has                        This review covered five private                         when USAID agreed to a public-
been absorbed by MINAM under                          sector forest concessions and two                       private partnership with the Chicago
its National Service for Protected                    native communities with forest use                      Field Museum, the MacArthur
Areas (SERNANP). USAID’s support                      permits. In FY 2008, nearly 50,000                      Foundation, the Moore Foundation,
to modernize and strengthen                           hectares were certified, bringing the                    and the Center for Conservation,
INRENA’s capacity to manage                           three-year total to 653,632 hectares.                   Investigation, and Management of
protected areas is continued under                    On September 30, USAID entered                          Natural Areas (CIMA), a local NGO,
SERNANP. For the first time, park                      into a public-private partnership                       to protect the vast biological diversity
management monitoring data                            which provided support to the                           of the Cordillera Azul National
can be entered online. USAID                          World Wildlife Fund to strengthen                       Park and ensure sustained funding
trained 35 officials (46 percent                       and expand forest certification in the                   for its long-term management.
women) in automated cartography,                      Amazon region, with an additional
environmental impact assessment

1.   Although the Forestry and Wildlife Law was repealed in response to Amazon native communities’ claims that they were not consulted (per ILO Convention 169
     on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples), the GOP and representatives of the communities have set up a working group to draft a new Forestry and Wildlife Law which
     they will present to the Peruvian Congress in October 2009.

EGAT/NRM/                                     planning to design and evaluation, the   including meetings of the UN
Biodiversity Team                             Team’s biodiversity specialists act as   Convention on Biological Diversity,
                                              a bridge between Washington and          the UN Convention to Combat
Global Biodiversity                           the field, and between EGAT and           Desertification, and the Consultative
Conservation                                  regional bureaus. In FY 2008, staff      Group on Biological Diversity.
                                              provided direct assistance to several    The Team also provides frequent
USAID’s Biodiversity Team, in                 missions including Ecuador, Jamaica,     support to other federal agencies
the Office of Natural Resources                Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Namibia, Panama,   working on issues or in places that
Management (NRM) of the Bureau                Philippines, the Regional Development    complement USAID efforts, including
for Economic Growth and Trade                 Mission for Asia (Laos and Thailand),    the Department of State and the
(EGAT), supports Agency biodiversity          Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, and        U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
conservation objectives at many               provided other forms of backstopping,
levels. Their primary responsibility          U.S. partner coordination or virtual     In addition to advising missions,
is to assist missions in programming          support to numerous other missions.      bureaus and U.S. government
activities which advance the                                                           agencies, the Team manages its own
biodiversity goals for a country              The Biodiversity Team provides           programs in order to promote
or region, while adhering to the              technical leadership in many             innovation and new approaches
requirements of the Congressional             forums for sharing conservation          to biodiversity conservation. The
biodiversity earmark. From program            information and best practices,          Global Conservation Program

SABLE ANTELOPE are found in wooded savannas in many parts of Southern
and East Africa. A variety of teams and offices in USAID headquarters
manage biodiversity programs in this range, including landscape-scale
conservation in Tanzania, conservation-friendly agriculture in Zambia, and a
program to scale up CBNRM work throughout Southern Africa.

                                      USAID’ BIODIVERSITY ONSERVATIO AND FORE
                                                                            FORESTRY PROGRAMS 2009 REPORT
                                                                                      RO        2009 REPORT                 89
                                                                                                                   PHOTO: ENRIC SALA, WCS

NASSAU GROUPER SPAWNING: Global Conservation Program support to the Wildlife Conservation Society contributed to an increase
in the population of the endangered Nassau grouper in Glover’s Reef, Belize, from 800 fish in 2007 to 1,150 fish in 2008. New laws
announced in April 2009 will protect beneficial algae grazers such as parrotfish, limit the catch of grouper, ban spear fishing in all marine
reserves, and add no-fishing zones in two marine reserves.

(GCP), initiated in 1999, is the team’s        a project could address the underlying         conservation friendly enterprises
largest initiative and one of USAID’s          conditions that promote it, such as            such as ecotourism, strengthened
flagship conservation programs. GCP             lack of domestic protein sources, few          environmental policy and legal
supports site-based conservation               economic alternatives, insufficient law         frameworks, and community training
by six organizations in 22 countries,          enforcement and lack of awareness              and capacity-building. Across the
as well as a number of learning                among poachers about the immediate             18 active GCP sites, new and
activities which foster collaboration          and long-term consequences, from               ongoing activities have resulted
among partners and advance                     a fine or imprisonment to foregone              in over 20 million hectares of
knowledge and best practices in the            opportunities for sustainable                  biologically significant area coming
field of biodiversity conservation.             hunting or wildlife tourism.                   under improved management and
The program focuses on achieving                                                              almost 20,000 people trained in
landscape-level conservation results in        GCP partners support a number                  natural resources management
some of the world’s most biodiverse            of activities that contribute to               (including at least 6,000 women).
areas. GCP applies a threats-based             biodiversity conservation, including           Highlights from FY 2008 include:
approach, where specific actions are            community-based natural resource
tailored to directly address barriers          management, improved protected                 • WWF efforts in East Africa and
to conservation. For example, if               area management, integrated                      years of advocacy for sustainable
wildlife poaching is the overall threat,       landscape and seascape planning,                 fisheries management led to the

  signing of a historic declaration             increase in the local population of    totaling more than $150 million
  on illegal unregulated and                    the endangered Nassau grouper.         have been funded and managed
  unreported fishing for coastal                 New laws announced in April 2009       primarily by USAID missions.
  countries of the Southern African             will protect beneficial algae grazers
  Development Community.                        such as parrotfish, limit the catch     The Biodiversity Team also supports
                                                of grouper, ban spear fishing in all    the Business and Biodiversity
• Work by EnterpriseWorks/                      marine reserves, and add no-fishing     Offsets Program (BBOP) through
  VITA with community-based                     zones in two marine reserves.          a cooperative agreement with
  forest management groups in the                                                      Conservation International, in
  Philippines brought a cumulative            GCP partners apply principles of         partnership with Forest Trends. BBOP
  312,000 hectares into effective             adaptive management at their sites,      helps industries and nations plan for
  management, exceeding the                   whereby monitoring and evaluation        “no net loss” of biodiversity from
  target due to successfully linking          of project indicators informs decision   extractive activities through improved
  landscape level planning with               making and advises project managers      industry practices and policy change.
  provincial multi-sector task forces.        on where to focus attention and          In 2008, USAID supported efforts
                                              when to adjust course. Partners also     with a platinum mine in South Africa
• Madagascar’s flat-tailed tortoise            tackle challenges through explicit       and a nickel mine in Madagascar. Work
  has maintained a stable population          learning activities which document       in Madagascar led to reforestation
  over the last four years and will           lessons for themselves and the           of a buffer zone to prevent logging
  soon be better protected from               wider conservation community.            of primary forest, and resulted in
  deforestation and the pet trade             For example, four of the partners        temporary protected status for the
  across 75 percent of its range in the       participated in a learning activity on   offset site. BBOP tools, guidelines,
  new Menabe-Antimena protected               designing and implementing networks      discussion documents, and reference
  area developed with assistance              of marine protected areas, resulting     materials are being expanded, refined
  from Conservation International.            in a report that is informing the        and widely disseminated through
                                              development of the Coral Triangle        its Web site, bbop.forest-trends.
• The Nature Conservancy                      Initiative. GCP was itself evaluated     org, which responds to the growing
  and local partners completed                in 2008 to determine the program’s       interest in biodiversity offsets.
  scientific and participatory                 impact on the practice of large-
  conservation action plans for five           scale conservation. The evaluation       USAID continued to support the
  marine protected areas in the               suggests that GCP has been effective     Life on the Edge program of Flora
  Mesoamerican Reef, including                in addressing several factors limiting   and Fauna International (FFI), which
  two in Mexico and one each in               conservation at program sites            develops rapid response mechanisms
  Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras.            worldwide, and has changed the way       in the wake of unforeseen threats,
                                              some of the largest NGOs approach        natural disasters and conflicts. In
• The African Wildlife Foundation             conservation. Both reports are           FY 2008, the program continued to
  made progress toward establishing a         available at       develop an effective methodology
  67,500 acre conservancy in the West                                                  for the multi-partner Rapid Response
  Chyullu area of the Imbirikani Group        In addition to the centrally-managed     Facility to assist UNESCO World
  Ranch, Kenya, where revenue from            activities which advance broad           Heritage Sites in crisis. Draft
  ecotourism and other conservation           conservation objectives, the Global      guidelines are in review which draw
  enterprises will be distributed to          Conservation Program is also a           on partnership lessons garnered
  landowners in accordance with               mechanism whereby other USAID            from FFI’s work in post-conflict
  the number of acres they own.               operating units can develop their        and post-disaster areas of Mount
                                              own stand-alone agreements               Nimba in Guinea, the Cardamom
• Wildlife Conservation Society               with any of the six GCP partners,        Mountains of Cambodia, Sapo
  activities in Glover’s Reef, Belize,        consistent with the overall program      National Park in Liberia, the Golden
  contributed to a 45 percent                 objectives. To date, 55 agreements       Stream Watershed Preserve in

                                         USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT            91
Belize, and Aceh Province of Sumatra,
Indonesia. The guidelines are being
tested in a pilot phase with rapid
response to several natural disasters
in order to help first responders
address the short- and long-term
needs of people and the biological
resources on which they depend.

FY 2008 saw the launch of the first
environment and natural resources
management (ENRM) training course
for USAID staff, developed by the
Biodiversity Team and colleagues
in the NRM and Environment and
Science Policy offices. A five-day                                                                      PHOTO: BAMBANG WAHYUDI, TNC

course took place in Panama City,            MONO CABLE at Belayan River Timber Concession, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Panama in July 2008 and attracted a          Reduced Impact Logging includes concepts as simple as using a cable to remove felled
                                             trees from forests, which decreases the need for roads and is less damaging to remaining
diverse audience of environmental            roots and undergrowth than tractors.
officers from the Latin American
and Caribbean region. Subsequent
courses have been offered in               and forest conservation are the               have committed to increase the
Pretoria, South Africa (April 2009)        foundation for economic growth and            proportion of wood products that
and Washington, DC (July 2009).            poverty reduction in many rural areas,        originate from credibly certified
The course has been adapted                where more than one billion of the            forests in their supply chains and to
into both a one-day overview for           world’s poorest populations derive            phase out unknown and unwanted
Foreign Service officers in training        food, medicine, fuel, and construction        wood sources for their brands in
and a distance learning course. For        materials from forests. Forests also          the United States and Canada.
more information, see the Land             provide ecosystem services like
Resources Management Team                  mitigation of climate change and              With the three new corporations,
section on the CK2C program.               regulation of water quality and supply.       GFTN membership increased to
                                                                                         84 companies managing over 27
                                           In FY 2008, the Forestry Team                 million hectares of forests, with
EGAT/NRM/                                  continued its support of the                  nearly 90 percent of these forests
Forestry Team                              Sustainable Forest Products Global            now under effective management.
                                           Alliance (SFPGA), a public-private            Through SFPGA these companies
Sustainable Forest                         partnership that works to reward              have come together to share
Management                                 sustainable forest management in the          experiences and methods in
                                           global marketplace. SFPGA works               examining supply chains, working
Forestry and biodiversity conservation     closely with the Global Forest and            with their suppliers, and improving
are inextricably linked because of the     Trade Network (GFTN), a World                 sourcing and procurement policies
role forests play as the primary habitat   Wildlife Fund initiative that links wood      for all wood and paper products.
for many species. USAID’s Forestry         buyers with sustainably managed               By the end of FY 2008, GFTN had
Team manages a portfolio of programs       forests. In FY 2008, three new                generated 183 market linkages
which reflect this relationship,            corporate members joined GFTN:                worth an estimated $80 million.
promoting better forest management         Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Williams-
in areas with high biodiversity value.     Sonoma, Inc., and Procter & Gamble.           An interagency agreement with
Sustainable forestry, agro-forestry,       By joining GFTN, these companies              the USDA Forest Service (USFS)

provides training, analysis and          global carbon emissions, spurring          EGAT/NRM/
technical assistance to USAID            a series of international policy           Land Resources
missions and partners and improves       negotiations designed to reduce            Management Team
forest conservation in at least          this contributor to climate change.
37 countries worldwide. For              The Forestry Team continued to             Conservation Innovations for
example, USFS and its partners           prepare the Agency for work in             Improved Policy and Practice
helped conduct a remote sensing          this new policy environment by
assessment of the 224,000 hectare        co-funding short courses with the          USAID’s Land Resources Management
Jamari National Forest in Brazil,        Global Climate Change team that            (LRM) Team works to ensure that land
and provided extensive training to       will build capacity within missions        use is mutually beneficial for people
the newly-created Environment            and partners to understand the             and biodiversity. The team supports
Rangers of Jordan. In Asia, USFS         complex and varied technical topics        technical assistance and training
conducted several workshops,             related to forests and climate             in sustainable natural resources
training activities and study tours      change. Training courses held in           management; empowerment of local
involving participants and sites         Bangkok, Pretoria, and Washington,         people with rights to use and benefit
in eight countries. Support by           DC provided both broad and in-             from forests, fish, water and wildlife;
USFS is detailed throughout              depth analyses of the technical and        and conservation-based enterprises
this report, including programs          policy issues related to reducing          which provide economic incentives for
in Mexico, Tanzania, Liberia,            emissions from deforestation               good stewardship. Most LRM team
Namibia, Lebanon, Russia and             and forest degradation, forest             efforts apply the “Nature, Wealth and
countries in Central Africa.             carbon measurement and                     Power” framework, an approach to
                                         accounting techniques, and                 improving conservation, economic
The Forestry Team provides technical     volunteer and mandatory                    growth, and governance through
leadership on forest issues and often    carbon exchange markets.                   natural resource management.
represents the U.S. Government in
its policy work with other nations,      Looking forward, the Forestry Team         Lack of secure resource rights and
international organizations and          is developing two new public-private       land tenure can lead to conflicts
donors. In FY 2008, staff played a       partnerships that will address global      when different groups compete
leading role on the U.S. Delegation      market opportunities, governance,          for the use of natural resources,
to the International Tropical Timber     and management issues for forest           especially where there is open
Organization (ITTO), a 45-nation         products and ecosystem services,           access to a resource that many
institution that sets policies and       including carbon sequestration.            groups use, but none control. Lack
standards for production and trade       Working with the private sector,           of secure rights also diminishes
of tropical wood. The Department         communities, and other stakeholders,       people’s incentives to make long-
of State negotiates tropical forest      USAID will develop models of               term investments in land resources.
policies and programs through            sustainable production driven by           Poor management and overuse
ITTO and invited USAID to serve          improved supply chain management,          often result in resource degradation,
on an ITTO Expert Panel for              transparency, and new demands for          leading to an economically and
Project Appraisal and represent          measurement and monitoring. The            ecologically unsustainable situation.
the U.S. at pre-negotiation in Accra,    programs are intended to improve           USAID is working to address land
Ghana. USAID strongly influenced          livelihoods by enhancing participation     resource overexploitation through
the development of new thematic          in markets, controlling illegal logging,   the Property Rights and Resource
programs for the organization and        and building a strong foundation           Governance (PRRG) program, a
helped produce Biodiversity Guidelines   for generating revenue from                five-year initiative started in 2007.
for Tropical Timber Producing Forests.   payments for ecosystem services.           The program provides practical tools,
                                                                                    training and technical assistance to
Forest destruction and degradation                                                  U.S. Government staff and decision
account for 20 to 30 percent of                                                     makers in developing countries

                                   USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT               93
in order to address land tenure          operations for which tourists pay            2008, CK2C supported stock-taking
and resource rights issues.              higher rates. In Mali, GSTA works            assessments to determine the long-
                                         in the Cliff of Bandiagara (land of          term impacts of USAID natural
PRRG is improving resource               the Dogons) World Heritage Site              resource management programs
management and protection in several     to develop tourism as a financial             which have closed. Where impacts
African countries. Following a land      incentive to local communities to            were positive, CK2C worked to
tenure and property rights training      reduce the threat of deforestation.          remove barriers to scale up similar
course in 2007, Kenyan participants                                                   activities and impacts. The work
developed a new program for the          Another LRM initiative, Capitalizing         has led to increased awareness of
Kibodo Trust in the Lamu district
of coastal Kenya to strengthen
property rights for hunter-gatherers
and fishing communities and help
protect biodiversity in two fragile
parks (see DCHA/CMM section of
this report for more on Kibodo). The
same training course inspired two
new programs in Southern Sudan:
one focused on developing land
law and policy for natural resource
management; and the second
focused on strengthening resource
rights to protect fragile biodiversity
areas. PRRG also resulted in three
different programs that integrate
property rights and biodiversity
conservation in Central African
Republic, Uganda and Liberia.

The LRM Team’s Global Sustainable
Tourism Alliance (GSTA)
provides USAID missions with
expertise for designing tourism                                                  PHOTO: RON HOFF, WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY

projects that include biodiversity         GIANT IBIS: USAID’s TransLinks activity supports community-based ecotourism in
conservation objectives. GSTA              Cambodia and has put in place a system that pays residents to protect the nests of
                                           endangered birds, including the Giant Ibis and the White-shouldered Ibis. Through
is currently active in Ecuador, the        ecotourism and conservation payments, incomes in five villages have almost doubled.
Dominican Republic, Mali, Ethiopia,
Montenegro, and Albania. In 2008,
The Nature Conservancy, a GSTA           Knowledge, Connecting Communities            how on-farm forest management
partner, helped communities              (CK2C) is implemented by DAI                 in the Sahel of West Africa benefits
near protected areas in Ecuador          and promotes best practices in               soil health and biodiversity and
build tourism-related business           management of land, water, forest and        reverses desertification. A course
activities without compromising          biological resources; provides web-          was launched in Panama for USAID
biodiversity conservation goals.         based tools that improve networking          environmental program staff
In the Dominican Republic, the           and communication between local              working in the Latin America and
Alliance promoted environmental          communities and resource managers;           Caribbean region, with subsequent
sustainability standards among local     and delivers training for USAID staff        offerings in South Africa and
hotels to demonstrate eco-friendly       managing environment programs. In            Washington, DC in FY 2009. The

next training course is scheduled for         of American Geographers’ My                 resource use. The program offers
early FY 2010 in the Philippines.             Community, Our Earth initiative             research, capacity building, and
                                              to build the capacity of African            technical assistance to promote
As part of its Geographic                     university students to apply                outcomes related to payments for
Information for Sustainable                   geospatial information technologies         ecosystem services (PES). Activities
Development program, the                      to biodiversity issues. This capacity       complement current USAID-funded
LRM team continued to support                 building activity is available to 15        biodiversity projects in over 20
SERVIR, an earth observation,                 member countries of SERVIR-                 sites globally. In FY 2008, TransLinks
monitoring and visualization system           Africa in east and southern Africa.         completed 18 research activities
                                                                                          and five case studies at select sites.
                                                                                          Two new methodological tools on
                                                                                          PES and natural product market
                                                                                          assessments were also developed.
                                                                                          TransLinks trained more than
                                                                                          1,200 people in natural resources
                                                                                          management, nearly double the goal,
                                                                                          of whom 38 percent were women.

                                                                                          TransLinks supports community-
                                                                                          based ecotourism in the Tmatboey
                                                                                          community in Cambodia, with a
                                                                                          system that pays residents to protect
                                                                                          the nests of critically endangered
                                                                                          birds, including the Giant Ibis and the
                                                                                          White-shouldered Ibis, both prized by
                                                                                          bird watchers. Through ecotourism
                                                                                          and conservation payments,
                                                                                          incomes in five villages have almost
                                                                                          doubled. In addition to the Wild Asia
                                                                                          Responsible Tourism Award in 2007,
                                                                                          the project received two international
                                                                                          awards in 2008 - an Equator Prize
                                                  PHOTO: WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY    and a World Bank Development
NICE RICE: In 2009, TransLinks introduced wildlife-friendly Ibis riceTM to a suite of     Marketplace Award. Another WCS/
conservation enterprises in Tmatbuoy, Cambodia. This branded product of sustainable       TransLinks program brought the
wetlands agriculture will be sold at a premium to environmentally conscious restaurants
and consumers, bringing landscape-scale habitat protection to the program.                first combined forest carbon and
                                                                                          biodiversity project in Madagascar to
                                                                                          the international voluntary carbon
established through an inter-agency           More than 300 students from 12              market in 2008. This includes a
agreement between USAID and                   countries applied to participate.           precedent-setting agreement with
NASA. SERVIR supports online                                                              the government in which most of
mapping, web-based geospatial                 TransLinks, a cooperative agreement         the revenue from carbon sales go
data sharing, and decision-support            between USAID and the Wildlife              to the communities that live in and
tools that address issues related             Conservation Society (WCS),                 manage the Makira watershed.
to biodiversity, climate, disasters,          was developed to promote an
ecosystems, health, water, and                integrated approach to strengthening        Initiated in FY 2008, the Southern
weather. In 2008, SERVIR                      governance, poverty alleviation,            Africa Conservation Partnership
partnered with the Association                conservation, and sustainable               was created to scale up community-

                                       USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                   95
based natural resource management
(CBNRM) impacts produced by
conservation investments made over
the last 25 years. Partnership efforts,
implemented by the World Wildlife
Fund, center on wildlife conservancies
and other biodiversity-focused
CBNRM projects in Southern Africa.
The partnership will consolidate
examples of successful outcomes
and lessons learned throughout
the region, and use them to engage
decision makers in discussions
about how CBNRM can be used                                                                  PHOTO: WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY
to address national priorities for          THE SPINY LOBSTER fishery reform project of USAID’s Global Fish Alliance will focus
improved resource management.               on the Bay Islands and off-shore waters of Honduras and Nicaragua, noted for their
                                            outstanding marine biodiversity and part of the globally significant Mesoamerican Reef.
                                            The activity promotes an ecosystem-based approach to fishing through the use of fishing
                                            reserves and market-based approaches to management reform. The lobster fishery is
                                            extremely important as an export product and will be used as a “hook” for engaging
EGAT/NRM/                                   stakeholders in fishery reform.
Water Team

Conservation of Coastal                   three biologically significant areas.            jewelry and half-pearl culture
and Freshwater Resources                                                                  initiatives are paying dividends to
                                          • In Nicaragua’s Padre Ramos and                many local women, improving their
USAID’s Water Team provides                 Estero Real estuaries, biodiversity           quality of life and reinforcing their
expertise on issues as diverse as           is threatened by poor water                   commitment to conservation.
drinking water and irrigation, coral        circulation due to sedimentation
reef conservation, and sanitation           and poorly constructed shrimp              • In the Cojimies estuary of Ecuador,
systems. The team manages                   ponds, water pollution and the loss          a nesting site for several species
three programs that support                 of mangrove forests. SUCCESS                 of sea turtles, the local fishery
biodiversity objectives through             is linking biodiversity protection,          is in decline due to overfishing,
sustainable management of marine            health, environmental quality,               excessive logging and resulting
and freshwater resources.                   and good business practices by               sedimentation, and conversion of
                                            developing aquaculture, providing            mangrove forests to shrimp ponds.
The Sustainable Coastal Communities         national and international niche             Local communities are improving
and Ecosystems (SUCCESS)                    marketing of local natural products          the environment and their welfare
program strengthens community-              such as fruits and “organic” shrimp,         through reforestation and eco-
based natural resources governance          and encouraging adoption of                  friendly livelihoods activities, such
efforts in order to influence                best practices for mariculture.              as use of the native chame fish,
policies at the provincial, national,                                                    home gardening, and beekeeping.
and regional scales. Livelihood           • On the Fumba Peninsula of
and enterprise development are              Zanzibar in Tanzania, a zoning             In the freshwater sector, USAID’s
features of all interventions to            scheme with three seasonal no-             Global Water for Sustainability
ensure sustainability beyond the life       take areas was established to              (GLOWS) program works to increase
of USAID investment. In FY 2008,            address cockle overharvesting,             social, economic, and environmental
SUCCESS improved management                 threatening a valuable food and            benefits from healthy aquatic
across 222,000 hectares (151,000            income source. Coral, fish and              ecosystems and sustainable water
marine and 71,000 terrestrial) in           other marine life benefit, while            resources management through

improved governance, field research,           species of plants and was recently
information management, and                   declared one of India’s Important
capacity building in three biologically       Bird Areas by BirdLife International.
important field sites. For the life
of the project, GLOWS expects to            The newly launched Global Fish
achieve improved management in              Alliance aims to implement a holistic
approximately 2.23 million hectares.        approach to fisheries reform through
                                            partnership with private industry,
• In the Pastaza River basin in             governments, and civil society.
  the upper Amazon, GLOWS                   Overfishing, destructive fishing and
  facilitated water forums on major         unsound aquaculture have been
  water challenges and cooperative          identified as major threats to marine
  solutions; supported the Yungani          and freshwater biodiversity, and urgent
  Fishers Committee of the lower            reform of fishing and aquacultural
  Pastaza with fish catch monitoring,        practices is needed to counter these
  overfishing vigilance committees,          threats. The Alliance is led by AED
  and detailed technical training; and      and includes eight other partners from     PHOTO: DR. KASSAHUN ZEWDIE,
  collaborated to identify key entry        the private sector, NGO community,         ETHIOPIAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL
  points in oil and gas concessions         and USG. Objectives are to: design
  whereby indigenous organizations          and replicate a global public-private
  can take legal action if their cultural   partnership model that promotes
  or environmental rights are violated.     aquatic biodiversity conservation,         NATURAL DEFENSE: Parthenium
                                            sustainable fisheries management, and       (above) is a highly invasive species
                                                                                       accidentally introduced to East and
• In the Mara river corridor in             secure livelihoods; pilot the model with   Southern Africa from the Neotropics.
  Kenya and Tanzania, GLOWS                 an initial focus on reforming the spiny    It reduces the yield of all major crops,
                                                                                       competes with native biodiversity
  initiated discussions with Barrick        lobster fishery in Central America;         including preferred pasture species, and
  Gold Corporation to work with             provide training to USAID staff on the     taints the milk and meat of livestock
                                                                                       that consume it, reducing their value.
  communities to improve livelihoods        design, management and evaluation of       Parthenium also causes respiratory
  and reduce pressures on the               sustainable fisheries programs; provide     and skin problems in humans. Two
                                                                                       natural enemies are being tested at
  Serengeti National Park; conducted        knowledge management and learning          a quarantine facility in South Africa,
  water quality monitoring to improve       opportunities for USAID and Alliance       including the beetle Zygogramma
                                                                                       bicolorata (below).
  understanding of the threats to           partners; provide access to information
  the health of aquatic ecosystems;         and communication technology that
  and supported students from               could be used for fishery reform;
  Kenya to study the causes of land         and, provide Missions with access to       PHOTO: DR. ANDREW MCCONNACHIE,
                                                                                       PLANT PROTECTION RESEARCH INSTITUTE,
  degradation in the basin and best         the expertise of Alliance partners.        SOUTH AFRICA
  practices for its remediation.

• In India’s Wakal River basin, GLOWS       EGAT/Agriculture
  conducted campaigns in 14 villages
  to diffuse integrated water resource      Collaborative Research
  management concepts among                 Support Programs
  community-based organizations,
  NGOs, universities, local governing       USAID’s Office of Agriculture
  bodies, and the general public,           supports and manages two
  laying the groundwork for more            Collaborative Research Support
  transformative interventions.             Programs (CRSPs) with
  The basin harbors hundreds of             biodiversity components: the

                                     USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                    97
Integrated Pest Management              of Parthenium in Africa, followed by      game-based economic opportunities
(IPM) CRSP and the Sustainable          road surveys in Ethiopia, Uganda,         possible. Researchers are studying
Agriculture and Natural Resources       Botswana, Swaziland and South             how to scale-up COMACO within
Management (SANREM) CRSP.               Africa to map the actual distribution.    Zambia and across southern Africa.
                                        An IPM approach involving screening
IPM is the study and application of     and testing for natural enemies           Indiana University, International
pest management methods which           should effectively and sustainably        Food Policy Research Institute,
minimize the use of pesticides          curb the biological, health and           Center for International Forestry
through a better understanding and      financial impacts of Parthenium.           Research and the Kenya Forestry
manipulation of pest ecology. For                                                 Research Institute are implementing a
example, encouraging beneficial          The SANREM CRSP conducts                  SANREM project reviewing how well
insects, introducing natural            research, institutional development,      decentralization and property rights
predators, or growing different         and training in sustainable agriculture   reform policies achieve sustainable
plants together or in succession        and natural resources management          NRM to conserve biodiversity
helps keep pest populations             (NRM). Active research in FY              and improve local livelihoods. This
manageable. USAID support to the        2008 included on-going work to            research collects and analyzes data
IPM CRSP in FY 2008 addressed           identify best practices in sustainable    from Uganda, Kenya, Mexico, and
biodiversity in two programs.           agriculture, and five long-term awards     Bolivia to identify the institutional
                                        addressing comparative research           conditions and interactions that will
In Ecuador, the IPM CRSP conducted      with activities in ten countries.         deliver benefits equitably to local
biodiversity monitoring, beginning                                                people while sustaining biological
with an assessment of the impacts       SANREM partners Cornell                   resources. During FY 2008, a
of the cacao, plantain and naranjilla   University and Wildlife Conservation      National Advisory Committee was
cropping system on biodiversity.        Society continued developing a            established in each country, and 396
This cropping system reduces soil       participatory socioeconomic model         men and 213 women community
erosion, decreases the need for         for food security and biodiversity        members and researchers were
pesticide, increases income, and        conservation in Southern Africa via       trained in tree and soil management,
should enhance biodiversity in avian    Community Markets for Conservation        as well as research methods.
migratory corridors and buffer          (COMACO), a market-driven
zones near rainforest habitats. The     approach to conservation in Zambia.
IPM package has stabilized the          COMACO improves returns on                EGAT/Environment
cropping system and reduced the         agricultural investment by helping        and Science
need for frequent use of pesticides.    farmers receive competitive prices        Policy Office
                                        for their products, by marketing
IPM CRSP researchers also worked        products as “wildlife friendly,” and      Natural Resources and
to develop an approach to manage        by storing harvests and selling when      Climate Change Research
Parthenium, a highly invasive species   demand is highest. In FY 2008,
in East and Southern Africa that        almost 4,000 women and over 3,000         The Office of Environment and
reduces the yield of all major crops,   men were trained in conservation          Science Policy (ESP) provides two
competes with preferred pasture         farming practices to improve              lines of support for biodiversity
species, and when consumed              production while reducing impacts         conservation and forestry: funding
by domestic animals, taints their       on wildlife. In addition, 14 village      for applied research by centers in the
milk and meat, reducing their           hunting representatives and former        Consultative Group on International
value. It causes respiratory and        poachers were trained to become           Agricultural Research (CGIAR),
dermatitis problems in humans, and      safari hunting monitoring scouts.         and the development of carbon
outcompetes native plants, reducing     COMACO market incentives foster           accounting tools which provide
biodiversity. The CRSP used a model     sustainable agricultural practices and    additional incentives to protect
to predict the potential distribution   reduce bushmeat hunting, making           and sustainably manage forests. In

                                                                                estimated 400 critically endangered
                                                                                Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii).
                                                                                The program explored options for
                                                                                improved protection of orangutan
                                                                                habitat as well as sustainable
                                                                                economic alternatives for local
                                                                                communities in Batang Toru. Working
                                                                                with community members, ICRAF
                                                                                helped to identify the socio-economic
                                                                                threats and opportunities of local
                                                                                livelihood systems, macro-economic
                                                                                development, and markets. In
                                                                                2008, land use and land cover in
                                                                                the project area was mapped, and a
                                                    RESEARCH ON CACAO           community-led strategy to develop
                                                    in West Africa reveals      sustainable alternatives to destructive
                                                    that when grown as part
                                                    of a complex agroforestry   forest activities was designed.
                                                    system with fruit and
                                                    timber trees, this main
                                                    ingredient in chocolate     The International Center for Tropical
                                                    can provide habitat for     Agriculture (CIAT) studied the
                                                    numerous species.
                                                                                challenges to managing ecosystems
                                                    PHOTO: NICK HOBGOOD, DAI
                                                                                sustainably for poverty reduction in
                                                                                the Amazon. CIAT found that certain
                                                                                incentives promoted conservation
                                                                                effectively, such as tax exemptions
                                                                                and payments to members of
                                                                                communities who help stave off
                                                                                deforestation. Furthermore, engaging
                                                                                local communities in conservation
                                                                                enterprises, such as ecotourism
                                                                                and product certification, can boost
FY 2008, 13 of the 15 CGIAR              management. It was found that          incomes while simultaneously
centers contributed to biodiversity      improving agricultural productivity,   safeguarding the forest.
objectives, at least three of which      market access and local governance
advanced knowledge in forestry and       is an effective way to empower         The WorldFish Center has introduced
agroforestry. Highlights from some       communities and generate               a new Lessons Learned and Best
CGIAR centers are included below.        enthusiasm for joint management        Practices Toolkit for researchers and
                                         schemes. Communities now               resource managers to gain tips about
The Center for International             monitor illegal hunting activities,    proven strategies and mistakes to
Forestry Research (CIFOR) program        which has reduced poaching and         avoid in coral reef management. The
worked to develop community              brought back several species that      toolkit offers access to technical
forest co-management guidelines          had disappeared from forest areas.     reports, projects summaries, and
in Guinea. CIFOR was able to                                                    other practical information about
help forest communities and              The World Agroforestry Centre          coral reef management in eight
government officials test institutional   (ICRAF) worked to develop an           key areas, such as program design,
arrangements that may be more            orangutan habitat protection program   community participation, policy
effective than the current local         in the Batang Toru Watershed of        development, monitoring approaches
level policies for natural resource      northern Sumatra, home to an           and capacity building. The material is

                                   USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT             99
available through a Web site (http://     can count them towards their                DCHA / Conflict where individuals      efforts to mitigate climate change.         Management and
involved in coral reef management         By using USAID’s carbon calculator,         Mitigation
can share ideas and experiences.          USAID missions and their partners
                                          are developing the awareness,               Conflict and Environment
The International Institute of Tropical   skills, and data systems needed
Agriculture (IITA) Sustainable Tree       for the more detailed accounting            Scarce or contested natural resources
Crops Program conducted research          that would be required for future           are often at the root of civil conflict,
on the biodiversity of smallholder        potential carbon offset markets.            and funds from valuable minerals and
cocoa production systems in the main      In combination with governance              forests have played a role in financing
cocoa regions of West Africa. Cocoa       strengthening and reform, land-             wars. Poor management of natural
systems in West Africa range from         use planning, and a package                 resources increases poverty and
no-shade mono-specific systems to          of livelihood diversifications,              limits opportunities for economic
complex cocoa-fruit-timber-medicine       accurate carbon accounting can              growth, creating a situation where
agroforestry systems with biodiversity    help bring in additional revenue            any political solution can take hold
values nearly equivalent to secondary     to justify and encourage forest             no matter how short-sighted or
forest. Results highlight the need to     conservation. For example, in               authoritarian. In contrast, good
save remaining protected areas from       Indonesia, USAID’s Orangutan                management can prevent or minimize
encroachment by cocoa producers.          Conservation Support Program                divisiveness and violence; progressive
                                          works in peat swamp forests with            forest management practices, in
EGAT/ESP’s Carbon Reporting               the highest carbon contents in the          particular, are creating wealth and
Initiative developed methodologies to     world. Through carbon accounting,           bringing stability to previously war-
geographically model deforestation        local partners will be able to argue        torn regions. USAID’s Office of
risk and thus threats to biodiversity     that government of Indonesia                Conflict Management and Mitigation
habitat and sources of greenhouse gas     climate change mitigation projects          (CMM) recognizes these relationships
emissions from deforestation. For the     should be in orangutan habitat.             and in FY 2008 supported peace-
past two years, the Carbon Reporting
Initiative worked to incorporate these
methodologies into a user-friendly
web-based forest carbon calculator.
In FY 2008, the carbon calculator
was used for the first time by USAID
missions as part of their annual global
climate change reporting. Users
enter the location, geographic size
and type of forest sector activity and
the calculator provides a scientifically
rigorous estimate of the amount of
carbon dioxide emissions avoided
or sequestered through that activity
during the year. Experiences in
using the tool by missions in Brazil,
Ecuador, and the Philippines led
to insights that continue to guide                                                                                 PHOTO: DAI
modifications and improvements.              A FAIR TRADE: Wildlife poachers turn in their weapons at Queen Elizabeth National
                                            park, Uganda. More money is now made from USAID’s Arabica coffee program than
                                            through poaching.
Carbon accounting adds policy
value to forests because countries

through-conservation programs in              livelihoods and reduce conflict over          livelihoods of these communities,
the indigenous lands of northern              scarce resources in and around               thereby reducing pressure on the
Ecuador and southern Colombia,                reserves of the Kibodo (Kiunga               biological reserves in the region.
and land rights for biodiversity              Marine National Reserve, Boni
management in Colombia and Kenya.             Forest Reserve and Dodori National
                                              Reserve) area in northeastern coastal        Global Health /
Through the Integrated Management             Kenya bordering Somalia. Working             Population and
in Indigenous Lands Program, USAID            with two historically marginalized           Reproductive Health
supports the Awa and Waorani                  ethnic groups – the Boni and the
indigenous groups to secure their             Bajuni – the project aims to redress         Population, Health and
territories, strengthen their institutions,   long-standing grievances over                the Environment
improve their livelihoods, and sustain        the ownership of and access to
the long term conservation of their           scarce resources that will reduce            Healthy people and healthy
lands and cultures. The program               conflict and improve and diversify            environments are inextricably
works with the Cofan and Awa
indigenous groups of northern
Ecuador and southern Colombia to
mitigate actual and potential conflict
by maintaining the integrity of their
cultures and their territories in the
face of threats from illegal logging, coca
cultivation, trafficking, displacement
and illegal settlements. Activities
link current programs in Ecuador
with work in southern Colombia
to improve governance, territorial
control, and resource management.

In Colombia, CMM promoted
conflict mitigation and reconciliation
through dialogue between indigenous
groups and local, regional and
national actors, as well as among
indigenous organizations. One
objective was to resolve conflicts
without threatening indigenous
representation of their constituencies,
or their ability to consolidate and
manage their territories. To this
end, the program is mitigating inter-
ethnic conflicts through the use
of constitutional protections of
indigenous land rights and effective
                                                                                                         PHOTO: CARA HONZAK, WWF
governance in ecologically and
                                                LOW TECH, HIGH IMPACT: USAID support has introduced a fuel-saving wood
culturally significant locations.                stove technology to this village in the spiny forest region of southwest Madagascar,
                                                where a local villager demonstrates how the stoves are constructed. Less firewood
                                                means more forest habitat for lemurs and tortoises, and also more time for women to
CMM is also supporting activities               undertake child-care and farming.
to protect biodiversity, improve

                                      USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                        101
linked: forests regulate the quality
and quantity of water used for
agriculture, cooking and bathing,
while mangroves and coral reefs are
nurseries for fish that feed billions.
Likewise, disease prevention and good
nutrition contribute to economic
growth and reduce overexploitation
of wildlife and trees. The Global
Health Bureau’s Office of Population
and Reproductive Health (PRH)
recognizes and addresses these
linkages through its Population, Health,
and Environment (PHE) program.
PHE projects seek to improve access
to family planning and related health
services while helping communities
conserve wildlife and other biological
resources, simultaneously improving
health, protecting environments,
and enhancing livelihoods.

BALANCED, a new project initiated
in 2008, aims to advance wider
use of integrated PHE approaches
worldwide by building capacity for
program implementation, developing
and sharing knowledge and tools,
and implementing field activities in
areas of high biodiversity. During
2008, the BALANCED project
trained 61 individuals in PHE
approaches, developed a central
Web site, and integrated family
planning and reproductive health into
the Tanzania Coastal Management
Project in Saadani National Park.

USAID continued to support
the Jane Goodall Institute’s (JGI)
innovative approach to community-
centered conservation in the Graueri
Landscape, in eastern Democratic
Republic of Congo. The program
links natural resource conservation
and family planning service delivery
to sustainable development activities
prioritized by the community.

                                                  Communities have already
                                                  contributed land to a network of
                                                  community forest reserves linking the
                                                  national parks of Maiko and Kahuzi
                                                  Biega, a UNESCO world heritage
                                                  site and habitat for important species
                                                  such as the eastern lowland gorilla,
                                                  chimpanzee, forest elephant, and
                                                  okapi. JGI supported health centers
                                                  and clinics that serve a population of
                                                  570,000 in and around the landscape.

                                                  In 2008, USAID’s Office of Population
                                                  and Reproductive Health and Johnson
                                                  & Johnson joined together to support
                                                  the Population, Health, Environment
                                                  Alliance, a new three-year, $3 million
                                                  public-private partnership. Through
                                                  the Alliance, World Wildlife Fund
                                                  received support to initiate health and
A GOOD DEAL FOR ORANGUTANS: The                   biodiversity conservation projects in
United States and Indonesia signed the largest    the Terai Arc Landscape in Nepal, the
TFCA agreement in the history of the Act on
June 30, 2009, cancelling nearly $30 million      Salonga-Lukenie-Sankuru Landscape
in Indonesian debt in exchange for forest         in the Democratic Republic of Congo,
protection on the island of Sumatra, home
to endangered tigers, elephants, rhinos and       and the Kiunga Marine National
orangutan.                                        Reserve in Kenya. Thousands of
This is the first TFCA agreement with              rural community members bordering
Indonesia, which has one of the fastest           protected areas in these three
deforestation rates in the world. Annual
fires set to clear carbon-rich peat forest, in     nations will benefit from activities
conjunction with draining and clearing for        that include family planning, obstetric
agriculture use, is so extensive that Indonesia
is the world’s third-largest emitter of carbon    health, and HIV/AIDS education
dioxide, behind industrial polluters United       together with community-based
States and China.
                                                  natural resource management
Under the deal, Indonesia will redirect           and conservation education.
payment of about $30 million into a trust
over eight years instead of repaying it to
the United States. The trust will then issue
grants for conservation efforts in 13 forest
areas of Sumatra. Conservation International
                                                  Tropical Forest
and the local NGO partner Yayasan                 Conservation Act
Keanekaragaman Hayati Indonesia (KEHATI)
each helped organize the deal and contributed
$1 million towards reducing the debt.             Debt-for-Nature
In the Bukit Lawang area of Leuser National
Park in North Sumatra, it is estimated that
fewer than 6,000 Sumatran orangutans              The Tropical Forest Conservation
remain in the wild. USAID projects continue
to support orangutan conservation efforts         Act (TFCA) was enacted in 1998 to
focused on improved land-use planning,            offer eligible developing countries
protected area management including
community policing, and habitat protection.       options to relieve debt owed the U.S.
                                                  Government while generating funds
                                                  in local currency to support tropical

forest conservation activities. In      Nature Conservancy, Conservation          in beneficiary countries. The debt
addition to forest conservation and     International and the World Wildlife      swap agreements with the three
debt relief, TFCA strengthens civil     Fund have contributed an additional       U.S. NGOs could contribute
society by creating local foundations   $12.1 million to eight of these           to conservation and improved
that support small grants to NGOs       agreements, enabling more debt to         management of up to 50 million acres
and local communities. The program      be treated and in turn generating         of high-value tropical forests in Latin
also offers a unique opportunity for    more funds for conservation. The          America, including several national
public-private partnerships. To date,   local “TFCA Funds” have awarded           parks and other protected areas.
the majority of TFCA agreements         257 grants and otherwise invested
have included funds raised by U.S.-     in protected area activities totaling     As this report went to press, USAID,
based conservation organizations.       nearly $26 million, including over $7.9   State Department and Treasury
                                        million in 2008 alone. The collective     Department finalized negotiations on
As of December 2008, approximately      balance accumulated thus far in           a TFCA agreement with Indonesia
$115 million in congressionally         these local accounts is about $37         in collaboration with Conservation
appropriated funds were used to         million in grants accounts and $14.6      International and local NGO
conclude 14 TFCA debt-for-nature        million in endowment accounts.            partner Yayasan Keanekaragaman
agreements with 12 countries:                                                     Hayati Indonesia (KEHATI) that will
Bangladesh, Belize, Botswana,           By 2017, the TFCA programs will           generate much-needed funds for
Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador,      together have generated more              forest conservation on the biodiverse
Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama (two         than $188 million for grants and          and threatened island of Sumatra.
agreements), Paraguay, Peru (two        projects to help protect and
agreements), and the Philippines. The   sustainably manage tropical forests

Biodiversity Budget                          greater one-horned rhinoceros in             for biodiversity conservation in
                                             Nepal. Indonesia and the Philippines,        FY 2008. Well over half of these
Analysis of FY 2008                          both global hotspots for conservation,       funds supported regional and
                                             account for about half of biodiversity       bilateral programs in Amazon basin
USAID provided more financial                 expenditures in FY 2008.                     countries. The LAC Bureau also
support to biodiversity conservation                                                      made large investments in Central
activities in FY 2008 than in any            Only one mission in the Europe and           America and the Caribbean.
previous year. Central, regional             Eurasia region reported biodiversity
and bilateral programs provided              programming, totaling $70,000.               Centrally funded programs
$202 million for work in Africa,             USAID/ Georgia’s funding was                 supported more than $23 million
Asia, Europe and Eurasia, and                leveraged well to help establish a           in biodiversity activities, about 12
Latin America and the Caribbean,             new protected area in the Caucasus.          percent of USAID expenditures
of which $193.5 million were                                                              overall. Central programs test
Development Assistance (DA) funds.           Bilateral and regional missions in           innovative approaches and collect
                                             Latin America and the Caribbean              and disseminate best practices in
The Africa Bureau provided $69               distributed almost $66 million               conservation. They also support
million for biodiversity conservation
through four regional programs, 16           Figure 1. USAID Funding for Biodiversity by Region in FY 2008*
country programs and initiatives
managed out of Washington. About
one-quarter of these funds supported
biodiversity conservation and forest
management in the Congo Basin,
including support to the Great Ape
Conservation Fund administered
by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service with input from USAID.

Over $43 million (21 percent) of
biodiversity conservation funding was
programmed for Asia by country and
regional programs. USAID supported
activities to address wildlife trafficking,
illegal logging, coral reef protection
and recovery, and conservation of
endangered wildlife like the Sumatran
orangutan in Indonesia and the               * Amounts shown here are from all accounts (DA, ESF, FSA and GHCS)

                                      USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                      105
                                                                                                 In 1986, Sections 118 and 119 of
   THE BIODIVERSITY CODE                                                                         the Foreign Assistance Act were
   USAID carefully assesses which programs meet the requirements                                 amended, which placed a greater
   of the Congressional biodiversity earmark, using four key criteria:                           emphasis on tropical forests and
                                                                                                 endangered species conservation
   ■ The program must have an explicit biodiversity objective;                                   in U.S. foreign assistance. The FY
   ■ Activities must be identified based on an                                                    1986 Appropriations Act also
     analysis of threats to biodiversity;                                                        incorporated a $1 million directive
   ■ The program must monitor associated indicators                                              for Biodiversity Conservation,
     for biodiversity conservation; and                                                          which began a long-term trend
   ■ Site-based programs must have the intent to positively                                      of increased USAID investment
     impact biodiversity in biologically significant areas.                                       in conservation activities.

   These criteria allow the Agency to fully track its biodiversity                               By the 1990s, USAID investments in
   conservation programs, including those which also address other                               biodiversity conservation expanded
   key development issues, rather than considering only a narrow                                 to more than $60 million annually, at
   slice of biodiversity programs. At the same time, the criteria                                times exceeding $90 million. Since
   are sufficiently rigorous that programs which only incidentally or                             1997, USAID support for biodiversity
   indirectly address biodiversity conservation issues are excluded.                             programs has steadily increased
                                                                                                 with new Congressional directives.

activities which address a certain              Budget trends                                    In FY 2004, Congress created
theme (reducing conflict, enhancing                                                               a biodiversity earmark of $155
conservation-health linkages),                  USAID has supported biodiversity                 million, to come from Develop-
promote a certain approach (such                conservation activities for more                 ment Assistance (DA) funds. That
as landscape-level conservation),               than three decades, even before                  earmark increased to $165.5
and/or operate on a global level,               the term ‘biodiversity’ was coined.              million for FY 2005 through FY
even in USAID non-presence                      During the early 1970s there was a               2007, or $163.8 million after a
countries due to the regional or                focus on conserving natural forests,             rescission for other USG priorities.
transboundary nature of biodiversity.           primarily through mission funds.                 The earmark is increasing almost

Figure 2. USAID Funding of Biodiversity Conservation Activities, 1987 – 2008*

* All funding accounts displayed. Disaggregated figures for DA and non-DA funding are only available from FY 2001 onward.

Table 1. U.S. Government International Biodiversity Funding, FY 2008*

Program or Funding Type                        USG Department or Agency                    FY 2007 Funding for Biodiversity
                                                                                           Conservation (US$ millions)
Biodiversity Conservation Activities           U.S. Agency for International Development                 202.10
Global Environment Facility                    U.S. Department of Treasury                                 81.00
Tropical Forest Conservation Act               U.S. Department of Treasury                                 20.00
International Affairs Division                 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service                              11.60
Multinational Species Conservation Funds       U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service                               8.00
Office of International Programs                U.S. Forest Service                                          7.51.
International Conservation Programs            U.S. Department of State                                     6.55
Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service                               4.50
International Program                          U.S. National Park Service                                   0.88
                                               TOTAL                                                     342.03

$30 million in FY 2008 to $195                In FY 2008, almost 20 percent of the         – managed activities accounting
million ($191.5 million after                 biodiversity earmark was allocated           for another 20 percent. These
rescission and diversion of funds             to four ‘megadiverse’ countries:             programs helped protect the largest
for food crises). New language                Brazil, Indonesia, Madagascar and            concentration of western lowland
from Congress allows the                      the Philippines. Three large regional        gorillas on Earth, began a six-nation
biodiversity earmark to be met                programs – Central Africa Regional           effort to conserve the “center of
with funds from any account, not              Program for the Environment                  the center” for marine biodiversity
just DA funds, starting in FY 2009.           (CARPE), Regional Development                in the Coral Triangle, and supported
                                              Mission for Asia (RDMA), and LAC-            sustainable management of dozens of
Since FY 2005, the Agency has                 RSD’s Initiative for Conservation            indigenous territories on the eastern
engaged in an annual strategic                of the Andean Amazon (ICAA)                  slopes of the Andes mountains.
budgeting process intended to
align biodiversity funding with                                                                            BOEHM’S BEE-EATER
global priorities for biodiversity                                                                         in Lengwe National
                                                                                                           Park in the Shire Valley
conservation. The allocation of                                                                            of southern Malawi.
the biodiversity earmark is based
on a participatory process that                                                                            ANDREW WATSON, DAI
ranks countries on a scale from
one (highest) to four (lowest)
using various biodiversity criteria,
including species richness, threat
level, and habitat intactness. This
strategy and a strict biodiversity
definition ensure that all
biodiversity-earmarked funds
support well-designed activities
in high-priority locations. In FY
2008 the earmark amount was
exceeded by about $2 million, with
$193.5 million in DA funds and
$202 million from all accounts.

                                       USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                     107
Table 2. USAID Funding for Biodiversity and Forestry Programs, FY 2008

                                                                                       FY 2008        FY 2008        Forestry        Type
                                                                                       Biodiversity   Forestry       Overlap with    of
 Program Name               Program Description                                        Funding in US$ Funding in US$ Biodiversity    Funds*
                            TOTAL FUNDING IN FY 2008                                    $201,960,196   $113,666,268   $105,945,467   ALL
                            TOTAL FUNDING IN FY 2008 (DA funds only)                    $193,537,934   $105,905,768   $100,584,967   DA
                            TOTAL TROPICAL FOREST FUNDING IN FY 2008                                   $106,055,768   $102,334,967   ALL

 Africa Regional            Office of Sustainable Development                               3,413,000      3,163,000      3,000,000   DA
 Central Africa Regional Landscape-level Conservation and Forest Management in the
                                                                                          15,000,000     15,000,000     15,000,000   DA
 Program for Environment Congo Basin
 East Africa Regional       Water for Biodiversity in the Mara River Basin                   456,500              0              0   DA
 Southern Africa Regional   Conservation through Improved River Basin Management           2,234,087              0              0   DA
 West Africa Regional       Natural Resouces Management without Borders                    2,000,000      2,000,000      2,000,000   DA
 Dem. Republic of Congo     Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture                       2,000,000      2,000,000      2,000,000   DA
 Ethiopia                   Rangeland Management and Ecotourism Development                  750,000              0              0   DA
 Ghana                      Community-based Ecotourism and Enterprises                     1,000,000              0              0   DA
 Guinea1                    Landscape Management for Improved Livelihoods                  1,000,000      1,000,000      1,000,000   DA
 Kenya                      Sustainable Pastoralism and Community Land Rights              5,713,100      2,381,227      1,869,326   DA
 Liberia                    Commercial Forestry and Community Conservation                 2,000,000      2,000,000      2,000,000   DA
 Madagascar2                Conservation and Sustainable Forestry                          7,300,000      6,223,734      6,223,734   DA
 Malawi                     Biodiversity and Natural Resources Conservation                3,500,000      1,464,000      1,464,000   DA
 Mali                       Sustainable Enterprises and Community Management                 650,000        380,900         80,900   DA
 Mozambique                 Conservation through Public-Private Partnerships               2,034,000        444,276        178,376   DA
 Namibia3                   Improved Rural Livelihoods through NRM                                 0              0              0   n/a
 Rwanda                     Conservation through Ecotourism Development                    1,500,000      1,500,000      1,500,000   DA
 Senegal                    Community Forestry and Local Governance                        2,000,000      1,802,000      1,802,000   DA
 Sierra Leone               Forest Co-management and Better Agroforestry                   1,000,000        800,000        800,000   DA
 Sudan                      Capacity Building and Landscape-Level Conservation             5,000,000              0              0   DA
 Tanzania                   Landscape Conservation through Livelihoods Approach            4,977,614        584,000        584,000   DA
 Uganda                     Community-based Conservation and Reforestation                 5,500,000      1,500,000      1,500,000   DA
                            Africa Total                                                 $69,028,301    $42,243,137    $41,002,336
                            Africa Total DA                                              $69,028,301    $42,243,137    $41,002,336

 Asia Regional              Support for Emerging Conservation Needs                        1,500,000        975,000        975,000   DA
 Regional Development       Wildlife Law Enforcement, Forest Management and Seascape
                                                                                          11,060,000      2,560,000      2,560,000   DA
 Mission for Asia           Conservation
 Afghanistan                Woodlands Restoration and Conservation                                 0      3,000,000              0   DA
 Bangladesh                 Co-management of Forests and Protected Areas                   5,000,000      2,500,000      2,500,000   DA
 Cambodia                   Grassroots Advocacy and Controlling Wildlife Trade             1,000,000      1,000,000      1,000,000   DA
 China5                     Wildlife Law Enforcement and Forest Management                 1,000,000        600,000        600,000   DA
 Indonesia                  Forest Management and Orangutan Conservation                  10,500,000      8,500,000      8,500,000   DA
 Lebanon                    Forest Restoration and Fire Management                                 0        500,000              0   ESF
 Nepal                      Community Governance of Natural Resources                      3,000,000      3,000,000      3,000,000   DA
                                                                                          10,409,000      2,546,575      2,546,575   DA
 Philippines                Local Conservation through Governance and Land Tenure
                                                                                              50,000              0              0   ESF
                            Asia and the Middle East Total                               $43,519,000    $25,181,575    $21,681,575
                            Asia and the Middle East Total DA                            $43,469,000    $24,681,575    $21,681,575

 Georgia                    Protected Areas for Biodiversity and Tourism                     70,000         10,500         10,500    FSA
 Russia                     Forest Management in Siberia and the Russian Far East                 0        500,000              0    FSA
                            Europe and Eurasia Total                                        $70,000       $510,500        $10,500
                            Europe and Eurasia Total DA                                          $0             $0             $0

Table 2. USAID Funding for Biodiversity and Forestry Programs, FY 2008 continued

                                                                                          FY 2008        FY 2008        Forestry             Type
                                                                                          Biodiversity   Forestry       Overlap with         of
    Program Name              Program Description                                         Funding in US$ Funding in US$ Biodiversity         Funds*
    LAC Regional              Initiative for Conservation in the Andean Amazon               11,517,528         3,907,337        3,907,337   DA
    Caribbean Regional        National Investments and Natural Assets Protection              2,000,000                 0                0   DA
    Central America and
                              Watershed Conservation and Sustainable Fisheries                 3,230,500          440,504         440,504    DA
    Mexico Regional
    Bolivia                   Landscape Conservation and Sustainable Forestry                  4,877,974        1,703,400        1,703,400   DA
    Brazil                    Sustainable Forest Management and Market Access                  9,500,000        8,748,378        8,648,378   DA
    Colombia                  Sustainable Development and Stronger National Parks              5,000,000        6,400,000        5,000,000   ESF
    Dominican Republic        Capacity Building for Environmental Protection                   1,500,000          750,000          750,000   DA
    Ecuador                   Protection of Indigenous Land and Rights                         5,000,000        1,865,000        1,865,000   DA
    El Salvador               Management and Conservation of Watersheds                        2,243,144                0                0   DA
    Guatemala                 Sustainable Enterprises and Forestry Certification                3,000,000         1740000         1,510,000   DA
    Haiti                     Economic Development for a Sustainable Environment              2,000,000           750,000         750,000    DA
    Honduras                  Integrated Watershed Resources Management                       3,180,421           700,000         350,000    DA
    Jamaica                   Natural Assets Managed for Sustainable Growth                   1,276,000           330,717         330,717    DA
    Mexico                    Partnerships and Capacity Building for Conservation             4,260,000         1,353,256       1,353,256    DA
    Nicaragua                 Biological Monitoring and Sustainable Forest Certification       1,070,682         1,070,682       1,070,682    DA
    Panama                    Watershed Conservation in the Canal Zone                        2,180,000         2,180,000       2,180,000    DA
    Paraguay                  Policy Development and Law Enforcement                          1,000,000           264,000         264,000    DA
    Peru                      Forestry Sector Reform and Incentives for Conservation          3,040,000         3,040,000       3,040,000    DA
                              Latin America and the Caribbean Total                         $65,876,249       $35,243,274     $33,163,274
                              Latin America and the Caribbean Total DA                      $60,876,249       $28,843,274     $28,163,274
    EGAT Bureau
    NRM - Biodiversity Team Global Biodiversity Conservation                                   5,044,781        2,168,880        2,168,880   DA
    NRM - Forestry Team     Sustainable Forest Management                                      3,017,395        3,017,395        3,017,395   DA
    NRM - Land Resources
                              Conservation Innovations for Improved Policy and Practice        4,897,284        2,234,326        2,234,326   DA
    Management Team
    NRM - Water and
                              Conservation of Coastal and Freshwater Resources                 1,141,026                0               0    DA
    Coastal Resources Team
    Agriculture Office         Collaborative Research Support Programs                           668,862           227,180         227,180    DA
    Environment and Science
                              Natural Resources and Climate Change Research                    5,000,000        2,200,000        1,800,000   DA
    Policy Office
    Other Central Bureaus
    Democracy, Conflict and                                                                      395,036           290,000         290,000    DA
                              Conflict and Environment
    Humanitarian Assistance                                                                   1,149,262           350,000         350,000    ESF
    Global Health             Population, Health and Environment Program                      2,153,000                 0               0    GHCS
                              Centrally Funded Biodiversity Programs Total                  $23,466,646       $10,487,782     $10,087,782
                              Centrally Funded Biodiversity Programs Total DA               $20,164,384       $10,137,782      $9,737,782

*      Development Assistance (DA), Economic Support Fund (ESF), FREEDOM Support Act (FSA), Global Health and Child Survival (GHCS)
1.     Guinea experienced a coup d’etat and a suspension in USAID environment funding, however most activities continued through the USAID/West
       Africa regional mission. A small portion of funds will be held for programming when the suspension is lifted.
2.     Madagascar experienced a coup d’etat and a suspension in USAID environment funding. Several activities already scheduled to close in FY 2009
       did so on an expedited schedule. A small portion of funds will be held for programming when the suspension is lifted.
3.     USAID/Namibia continued activities in FY 2008 using FY 2007 funds, but no new funds were committed for biodiversity or forestry.
4.     In March 2008, halfway through the fiscal year, the Bureau for Asia and the Near East (ANE) was split into the Bureau for Asia and the Bureau
       for the Middle East. Budgets and report narratives are combined because they were combined at the start of the reporting period and continue
       to share some technical support and backstopping in Washington. Lebanon was the only Middle Eastern country with relevant programming in
       FY 2008 (forestry).
5.     Program implementation in China started late in FY 2008 in collaboration with the Regional Development Mission for Asia; activities are
       described in the RDMA section of the Asia and the Middle East chapter.

                                                USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                              109
Forestry Budget                            Middle East supported $500,000 of            for more efficient milling, USAID
                                           work in Lebanon (the two bureaus             provided funds to a wide range
Analysis of FY 2008                        were combined at the start of this           of activities involving stakeholders
                                           reporting period). Most missions in          of every variety. About half of
USAID supported almost $114                Asia had large forestry programs in          LAC forestry support was for
million in forestry activities in FY       the range of $3 million in FY 2008,          initiatives in the Andean Amazon
2008, the highest level of investment      however Indonesia alone represents           managed from Washington
since 1995 and the third highest since     over one-third of the total, for their       and bilateral missions in Bolivia,
reporting began in 1987. The vast          programs to conserve orangutan               Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
majority ($106.1 million) of work          habitat and reduce illegal logging.          Another quarter of LAC funds
occurred in tropical countries or had                                                   went to Brazil, which contains the
a focus on tropical forests. Forestry      Europe and Eurasia have huge                 majority of the Amazon basin as
includes a range of economic growth        forest resources but few USAID               well as dwindling coastal forests.
and biodiversity conservation efforts,     forestry programs. Of the Bureau’s
including protection of natural forests,   $510,500 forestry investment,                USAID centrally funded programs
sustainable management of forests          $500,000 is for work in Russia to            supported $10.5 million in forestry
for timber and non-timber forest           improve forest management in                 work around the world. The EGAT
products, reforestation of degraded        Siberia and the Russian Far East.            Natural Resources Management
lands, the use of woodlots and                                                          Office managed the bulk of these
agroforestry to reduce pressure on         Latin America and the Caribbean              activities and provided technical
natural forests, and research and          (LAC) programs supported $35.2               assistance to Missions and
capacity building activities which         million in forestry activities in            international leadership via the
help communities and governments           FY 2008, about 31 percent of all             Forestry Team, in collaboration with
benefit from markets for ecosystem          forestry funding. From policy and            the USDA Forest Service. The
services and certified forest products.     awareness initiatives which restored         Forestry Team continued its support
                                           indigenous land and forest use               for the Sustainable Forest Products
The largest share of forestry support      rights, to training and equipment            Global Alliance, and about half
was provided by Africa regional and
country programs, which managed            Figure 3. USAID Funding for Forestry by Region in FY 2008*
$42.2 million (38 percent) of total
USAID forestry expenditures.
Of this funding, about half went
to the Central African Regional
Program for the Environment
(CARPE) and the Madagascar
mission. CARPE promotes forest
conservation, sustainable forestry,
and control of illegal logging in the
second largest rainforest on Earth,
while in Madagascar USAID has
invested heavily in protecting the
last remaining eastern rainforests
from slash and burn agriculture.

The Bureau for Asia received
$24.7 million of overall forestry
spending and the Bureau for the
                                           * Amounts shown here are from all accounts (DA, ESF, FSA and GHCS)

of the Biodiversity Team’s Global                  Budget trends                                 a one-time Congressional decision
Conservation Program supported                                                                   in 2003 to appropriate $20 million
forest management, conservation or                 Forest management and conservation            in TFCA funds directly to USAID).
sustainability certification. The ESP               has been an important part of                 From 2004 to 2007, forestry funding
and Agriculture Offices collectively                USAID’s mandate since 1986,                   hovered around $100 million.
funded over $2.4 million in applied                when Section 118 of the Foreign
forestry research by universities and              Assistance Act was enacted and                FY 2008 forestry investments
international research institutes.                 the importance of tropical forests            increased dramatically over the
                                                   to development was formally                   previous year largely due to a $30
Because of its leadership in                       recognized. In the late 1980s and             million increase in the biodiversity
international forestry, USAID hosts                early 1990s, USAID investments                earmark. $100.6 million of Agency-
the Secretariat of the Tropical                    in forestry activities increased              supported forestry work – 95
Forest Conservation Act (TFCA),                    substantially, reflecting increased            percent - met the requirements of
which finances debt-for-nature                      awareness of the environmental                the Congressional earmark. The
agreements as described at the                     importance of tropical forests.               relatively high levels of funding
end of the Centrally Funded                                                                      observed in the last several years
Programs section of this report.                   In the late 1990s, forestry                   reflect increased USAID support
TFCA funds are appropriated                        expenditures declined from an all-            for biodiversity activities in forests,
directly to and managed by the                     time high of $130 million in 1995 to          including community and indigenous
Department of the Treasury, with                   less than half that, on par with the          forest management in the Amazon
the exception of FY 2003 when                      level of investment a decade earlier          basin, combating illegal logging in
TFCA funds were appropriated                       (or less, adjusting for inflation). This       Southeast Asia, landscape planning and
to USAID and then transferred to                   was primarily due to USAID budget             protected areas in the Congo Basin
Treasury (not the spike in funding                 cuts, but also in part because Agency         and Madagascar, sustainable forestry
for this year in Table 1). TFCA is                 priorities shifted. From 2000 to 2003,        certification in Central America,
not listed in the biodiversity and                 forestry funding averaged about               and reforestation and agroforestry
forestry budget table for FY 2008.                 $85 million per year (adjusting for           in West Africa and Central Asia.

Figure 4. USAID Funding of Forestry Activities, 1987 to 2008*

* Figures for tropical and non-tropical forestry funding were disaggregated beginning in 2005.

                                          USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                     111
Table 3. U.S. Government International Forestry Funding, FY 2008*

                                                                                           FY 2008 Funding for Forestry and
 Program or Funding Type                       USG Department or Agency
                                                                                           Forest Conservation (US$ millions)
 Forestry Activities                           U.S. Agency for International Development                 113.7
 Tropical Forest Conservation Act              U.S. Department of Treasury                                20
 Office of International Programs               U.S. Forest Service                                         7.5
                                               TOTAL                                                    141.2

* This list is not necessarily comprehensive

The need for forestry investments              wildlife communities downstream,            climate change mitigation; new
will remain high into the future,              including marine and estuarine              measures of “avoided deforestation”
as forests once valued only for                areas. Forests are also habitat to          emphasize the value of maintaining
firewood or lumber are increasingly             globally important biodiversity             standing forests rather than adding
recognized for their full suite of             including locally important plants and      to carbon emissions that contribute
ecosystem services. Forests store              wildlife. Perhaps the most publicized       to global climate change.
and clean water for human and                  ecosystem service of forests is

                                                                                                   WORKING ELEPHANTS are
                                                                                                   used for law enforcement,
                                                                                                   forest management and
                                                                                                   tourism in the Bardia district
                                                                                                   of Nepal, where USAID
                                                                                                   supports landscape-scale
                                                                                                   PHOTO: DREW CRANDALL, WWF


Key Issues

The most important definitions related to this report are those which determine if a program or activity meets the
USAID definitions for Biodiversity or Tropical Forests, according to Agency Operational Plan and Performance Reporting

Biodiversity Key Issue
This Key Issue cuts across Functional Objectives and meets a Congressional Earmark. Activities have biodiversity
conservation as an explicit objective in natural and managed terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In addition, activities are
identified through an analysis of the threats to biodiversity and have associated indicators for biodiversity conservation.
Activities may be site-based or not site specific, such as policy level initiatives. Any site-based work is implemented
in biologically significant areas. Ex situ conservation of wild species, and their germplasm, may also be included when
explicitly linked to biodiversity conservation.

Tropical Forests Key Issue*
This Key Issue provides input to an annual reporting requirement to Congress. Activities aimed at the conservation and
sustainable management of forests growing in tropical regions as well as the use of trees in tropical production systems
which increase forest cover and improve soil and water functions or other ecosystem services, while contributing
to economic growth. Activities include research, analysis, and capacity building to improve planning, protection, and
management of natural forests and related benefits including timber, non-timber forest products, wildlife and ecosystems
services such as carbon sequestration; rehabilitation of degraded or deforested lands through reforestation or
aforestation; establishment of woodlots and agroforestry systems which reduce pressure on forests though alternative
livelihoods; and interventions related to processing, trade and markets that have a positive impact on forests. Targeted
sites may range from small scale management units to larger scale trans-boundary watersheds and landscapes.

*   Non-tropical forestry is described in this report for the countries of Afghanistan, China, Georgia, Lebanon, Nepal, and Russia. Activities
    meet the Tropical Forests definition except they do not take place in tropical regions.

                                    USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                                    113
Glossary of Terms

Adaptive Management
Adaptive management emphasizes designing, implementing and monitoring project activities in a way that helps people
learn more about complex ecological and social systems, which in turn can help them to make better choices and design
more effective interventions. Adaptive management provides a framework to experimentally test assumptions, adapt
project activities, and learn from project impacts.

Forestry that combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable,
healthy, and sustainable land use systems.

The cultivation of aquatic plants or marine or freshwater food fish or shellfish, such as oysters, clams, salmon, and trout,
under controlled conditions.

Short for “biological diversity,” it is the variety and variability of life, including the diversity of genes within species, the
diversity of species, the diversity of communities and ecosystems, and the diversity of ecological processes.

Buffer zone
An area adjacent to a protected area on which land use is partially restricted. This gives an added layer of protection to
the protected area while providing benefits to neighboring rural communities.

Carbon sink
An area that absorbs more carbon than it releases. Carbon sinks can be found in forests, soils, and the oceans. Carbon
sinks help regulate climate by reducing the release of CO2, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The process
or service of absorbing carbon is known as carbon sequestration.

An independent, third-party assurance that a forest or forestry/agroforestry operation meets the responsibility standards
set by a certification program. Companies apply voluntarily, and the government plays no direct role in the certification
process. Timber from forests and forestry operations certified as ‘sustainable’ can command a higher price in the
marketplace. Coffee or chocolate from a certified agroforestry operation can be sold for more money because it meets
social (eg. “fair trade” chocolate) and/or environmental (eg. “organic” or “shade grown” coffee) responsibility standards
important to consumers.

A specific type of community-based natural resource management in which communities or community groups share
responsibility for managing a protected area or other clearly designated resources (forest, freshwater or marine fishery,
etc.) with a local or national government entity.

Community-based natural resource management
A management and governance structure in which the communities that use or benefit from a resource are directly
involved in its management. CBNRM activities may include sustainable resource exploitation, support for small
enterprises which rely on the resource (eg. tourism or crafts), enforcement, and benefits sharing.

Ecological Corridor
Corridors are linear landscape elements that may function as habitat, dispersal/movement conduits, or barriers for
various organisms and other non-living landscape elements (e.g., nutrients, water, etc.).

A dynamic system of interactions among all of the species inhabiting an area and the non-living, physical environment.
Ecosystems vary spatially and change with time, and no ecosystem is closed with respect to exchanges of organisms,
matter, and energy. Priority areas or sites for conservation exist within ecosystems.

Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people.

Endemic species
A species that is native to only one geographic area of the world.

Environmental service (Ecosystem Service)
An ecological process from which humans benefit. For instance, forests provide several key environmental services
such as providing clean water and regulating climate. Financial incentives to conserve the natural resource base
required by ecological processes are collectively known as Payments for Ecosystem Services or Payments for
Environmental Services (PES).

Forest concession
The award of forest harvesting rights to individuals, private companies and/or communities. In practice, the geographic
area in which forest exploitation rights are granted to a concessionaire for a certain period of time.

Land tenure and property rights
Land tenure is historically the right to hold and use land on behalf of the State (or the Crown), but today it effectively
means ownership and is frequently preceded by the word secure. Secure land tenure is ownership with formal title,
and protection from taking by the State or other entity without due process and just compensation. Property rights in
the natural resources context are assurances that an owner can use or transfer use of trees, fish, wildlife, water or other
resources as they see fit, within the bounds of the law and without causing undue hardship on others.

Landscape (Ecoregion)
A relatively large unit of land or water, sometimes known as an ecoregion, that contains a distinct assemblage of natural
communities sharing a majority of species, dynamics and environmental conditions. Landscapes may also be defined by
a set of common threats or opportunities, the ranges of particular focus species, or other factors, but generally are not
limited by political or protected area boundaries.

Landscape scale conservation
A conservation approach in which activities are planned and managed for an entire ecosystem, watershed or other
natural unit based on biodiversity priorities and ecological, social and political factors. Landscape scale conservation
emphasizes threat assessment and planning across many development sectors.

The cultivation of marine organisms in their natural habitats, usually for commercial purposes.

                                USAID’S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY PROGRAMS | 2009 REPORT                      115
A small-scale business, often owner-operated with few employees.

Nature, Wealth and Power
An approach or framework for achieving successful natural resource management, developed over many years by
USAID and partners and formally articulated in a report in 2002. The “Nature, Wealth and Power” approach involves
an explicit consideration of the environment, economic flows and governance structures when planning or assessing a
natural resource management program.

Non-timber forest product
Any organic material other than timber that is extracted from forests for human use.

Protected area
An area of land and/or sea dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and
associated cultural resources, and that is managed through legal or other effective means (IUCN World Commission on
Protected Areas).

Reduced Impact Logging
A method of harvesting trees with minimal residual damage and degradation of a forest site, which is achieved through
the careful planning and design of the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages of timber production.

Slash and burn agriculture
A farming practice by which forests or woodlands are cut or burned to clear land for agriculture and add nutrient-rich
ash to soil. This practice is also known as shifting cultivation, because poor tropical soil farmed in this way has only a few
years of productivity before farmers must move on to other plots of land.

Management of the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet the needs of resource uses.

Sustainable development
Development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development). Sustainable development activities are carried out
such that natural resources are not depleted and therefore are available for future use.

Sustainable forest management
Management regimes applied to forestland that maintain the productive and renewal capacities as well as the genetic,
species, and ecological diversity of forest ecosystems (USDA Forest Service).

Watershed (Basin, Catchment)
All these terms describe the land area from which surface water runoff drains into a stream, channel, lake, reservoir, or
other body of water. The terms are sometimes used interchangeably, as they all refer to the surface hydrologic system.
However, ‘basin’ generally refers to a much larger geographic area than watershed, usually the drainage surface of a major
river or lake system. While ‘watershed’ is used in some places to describe entire river basins, it is most often used to
describe smaller sub-basins or micro-basins draining to secondary or tertiary streams or tributaries. The term ‘watershed
management’ also often has a connotation of traditional soil and water conservation activities in some regions (as
opposed to the more comprehensive IWRM). Catchment is a term in more common usage in Africa, Australia, and
Europe, and can describe drainage basins or watersheds of many different sizes.

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