Black-and-White Film Processing

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Black-and-White Film Processing Powered By Docstoc
					                       Black-and-White Film Processing
Student Objectives:
   1. The student should be able to properly follow black-and-white printmaking
       procedures
   2. The student will be able to evaluate the quality of the negatives

Before beginning you must:
   1. Practice loading film onto a film reel using old or outdated film (you can
       never practice too much.)
   2. Carefully read and follow instructions before processing the film.

Safety Awareness:
   1. Measure all chemicals below face level to avoid splashing liquids.
   2. If you do get chemicals into you eyes, mouth, etc. wash them out
       immediately and inform the teacher.
   3. Store chemicals in appropriate containers. Preferably glass or plastic
       bottles (avoid mental containers).
   4. Be careful and do not play around in darkroom/classroom

Film Processing Equipment:
    1. You will need:
       a) Film reel
       b) Developing Tank with lid
       c) Can opener
       d) Scissors
       e) Black bag
   2. Return the following after rolling film, before developing (for others to use):
       a) Can opener
       b) Scissors
       c) Black bag
   3. Return after development (make sure you clean and dry your equipment
       completely before returning for others):
       a) Film reel
       b) Developing Tank and Lid (wash out with water and dry)
                               Processing Black-and-White film
Instructions:
   1.    Needed chemicals: film developer, stop bath, fixer, hypo clear, photo-flo
   2.    In total darkness (black bag) load film onto reel and place in developing tank
   3.    Washout measuring containers. Old chemical residue will affect your film.
   4.    All chemicals are in containers as a working solution. There is no need to dilute.
   5.    Measure 10 ounces per roll of developer. Pour the developer into developing tank, and
         start timer. Tap tank gently on side of sink to remove air bubbles.
   6.    Agitate tank for first 30 seconds, and then agitate 5 seconds every 30 seconds for
         remaining time. 8 minutes total time.
   7.    Start pouring developer (back into brown jug labeled ‘Developer’) out of tank 10 seconds
         before end of developing time.
   8.    Wash with fresh water (fill with water agitate three times pour out and repeat for three full
         tanks)
   9.    Measure and pour stop bath straight, set timer for 1 minute
   10.   Pour into tank and agitate stop bath for the entire 1 minute
   11.   Pour stop bath into bottle (DON’T POUR DOWN DRAIN)
   12.   Wash with fresh water (three full tanks same process as above)
   13.   Measure and pour fixer, set timer to 3 minutes
   14.   Agitate tank for first 30 seconds, than agitate 5 seconds every 30 seconds for the
         reminder time
   15.   Pour fixer out into bottle marked fixer (DON’T POUR DOWN DRAIN, you will kill the
         fishes) YOUR NEGATIVES CAN NOW SEE THE LIGHT.
   16.   Rinse with running water with lid OFF for 30 seconds to 1 minute
   17.   Hypo clear for 3 minutes (return to bottle)
   18.   Rinse 5 minutes, gather as many students (try to fill up washing cylinder)
   19.   Carefully remove from reel
   20.   Take film off of reel and dip into Photo Flo
   21.   Dip your fingers in the photo flo and “squeegee your film of excess liquid
   22.   Hang to dry. Do not let your negs touch anyone else’s
   23.   Clean (rinse WELL) all equipment before returning. This is an easy step and a VERY
         IMPORTANT ONE. If you leave your equipment a mess it will ruin others’ film. TAKE
         YOUR TIME AND CLEAN AND RETURN ALL EQUIPMENT.
                                EVALUATING NEGATIVES
APPEARANCE OF DEFECT        POSSIBLE CAUSES                 PREVENTIVE ACTION
BLANK PATCHES, BLOBS OF     FILM TOUCHING WHEN ROLLED,      CHECK THAT FILM IS
PURPLE UNDEVELOPED FILM     TWO LOOPS OF FILM STUCK         WINDING CORRECTLY BY
                            TOGETHER DURING DEVELOPMENT     FEELING HOW FULL ROLL
                                                            IS
VERTICAL STREAKS OF         OVERAGITATION OR IMPROPER       USE PROPER AGITATION;
GREATER DENSITY             AGITATION MOTION; LIGHT FOG     CHECK EQUIPMENT AND
THROUGH THE SPROCKET                                        DARKROOM FOR LIGHT
HOLES OF 35MM FILM                                          LEAK
FORKED, BRANCH LIKE LINES   STATIC CHARGE BUILT UP DURING   ADVANCE FILM WITH
ON NEGATIVES, DENSER        FILM ADVANCEMENT OR             EVEN, STEADY STROKE;
THAN THE IMAGE              REWINDING                       REWIND SLOWLY AND
                                                            EVENLY
PINHOLES (SHARP, CLEAR      OVER STRONG ACETIC ACID BATH    USE WEAKER STOP BATH;
HOLES IN FILM EMULSION)     OR DUST ON FILM EMULSION        KEEP CAMERA FREE OF
                            DURING EXPOSURE                 DUST

CLEAR DOTS OF               AIR BUBBLES CLINGING TO         TAP TANK GENTLY
TRANSPARENT NEGATIVE        EMULSION DURING DEVELOPMENT     AGAINST SINK OR TABLE
THAT ARE DENSER AT THEIR                                    TO PREVENT BUBBLES
EDGES
DARK "HALF MOONS" OR        FILM CRIMPED WHILE LOADING      LOAD FILM CAREFULLY
CRESCENT MARKS              DEVELOPING REEL

FLAT NEGATIVE, BUT GOOD     UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF             CHECK EXPOSURE AND
DETAIL                      PROPERLY EXPOSED NEGATIVE       METER

FLAT NEGATIVE WITH SOME     UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF             CHECK EXPOSURE AND
LIGHTS BLOCKED AND SOME     OVEREXPOSED NEGATIVE            METER
DETAIL IN SHADOWS
HALLOOED SPOTS ON FILM,     WATER DROPS DRIED ON FILM OR    USE WETTING AGENT
SAME DENSITY AS IMAGE       UNEVEN FILM DRYING              AFTER WASH AND BEFORE
BUT WITH DARKER OUTLINE                                     DRYING
UNEVEN AREAS OF GREATER     LIGHT FOG IN DARKROOM OR        CHECK DARKROOM FOR
DENSITY SPREAD              CHEMICAL FOG DURING             LIGHT LEAK; USE FRESH
IRREGULARLY OVER            PROCESSING                      CHEMICALS
NEGATIVE
BROWN AND YELLOW STAINS     IMPROVE FIXING AND/OR WASHING   CHECK DARKROOM FOR
ON FILM AFTER PROCESSING                                    LIGHT LEAK; USE FRESH
                                                            CHEMICALS
IMAGE BLURRED               CAMERA OR SUBJECT MOVED         USE TRIPOD OR BRACE

HIGHLIGHTS VERY DENSE,      OVER-DEVELOPMENT OF             CORRECT EXPOSURE AND
SHADOWS TOO CLEAR           UNDEREXPOSED NEGATIVE           DEVELOPMENT
NO SHADOW DETAIL            UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF             CORRECT EXPOSURE AND
                            UNDEREXPOSED FILM               DEVELOPMENT