Field Study Laboratory Report
The Report should consist of the following materials assembled in the order
1) A formal written laboratory report.
2) A data sheet of your groups measurements.
3) A spreadsheet and a color-coded double pie graph of the relative
dominance and frequency of your class data.
4) A detailed aerial sketch of your forest quadrants with a color-coded key.
5) A data sheet of pond organisms found.
6) A food web of your pond ecosystem. The food web should be color
coded by niche.
7) Sketches of the various pond organisms seen with the microscope. Write
down the organism’s pond habitat and the organism’s niche.
8) A labeled pond sketch including the list of pond plants and higher
organism from the pond.
Typed written report
This should include both studies. Give a brief description. Forest and Pond
study is not enough.
Paragraph 1 – This paragraph should give an overview of what was done at
the forest study in order to evaluate the forest community. Include
information of finding community relationships among species as well as
within a species in regards to their population, size, and layer found. You
also need to explain terms such as canopy, understory, relative dominance
and relative frequency.
study was done in an even-aged mature forest
took a census of tree by species to determine relative frequency
measured tree circumference to determine basal area to determine
relative dominance (define)
determined forest layer by species
Paragraph 2 -This is the paragraph where you hypothesize on the type of
relationship that exists in the forest. Make sure that your hypothesis is tied
into the background information of the first paragraph.
The three relationships are:
A) Strong – dominance and frequency for a species is within 5 %
B) Opposing - dominance and frequency is at least 5% apart from one
another for a species.
You must then explain why (most important) you choose that relationship.
Even though forest layer is not directly in the relationship, it should be
included in your discussion on why you choose that relationship. The
amount of water and soil type are fairly constant for all species. What abiotic
factor is the biggest variable for the trees?
Explain what was done at the pond study in order to create a pond food web
and identify organisms and their niche. Discuss the concept of food web
biodiversity and keystone species.
inventory all the species in the pond and determine relative population
create a food web to determine the biodiversity (define), and stability
(define) of the pond, and the presence of a keystone species (define).
Make a hypothesis about the health of the pond ecosystem by judging its
biodiverstiy based on your visual observations at the pond. This will be
based on your estimate of the number of organisms from each feeding niche
as well as the presence of any keystone species. You are not quantifying this
with numerical values, so it will be your opinion based on your knowledge
of food webs and your observations at the pond.
hypothesis on whether the pond is ecologically stable based on your
observation of its biodiversity and relative populations sizes of the
Predict whether you think a keystone species is present and why. Give
the name of the species if your think there is one.
Explain the procedures for both studies separately with the forest study first.
They should be in the form of a numerical list. Include only relevant
information involved in data collection. The determination of relative
dominance, relative frequency, and forest layer your be the last step of the
forest procedure. The methods on data manipulation are not needed. The
creation of a pond food web by niche is the last step of pond procedures.
Write the words (See Attached).
Paragraph 1 – Evaluate your forest hypothesis and determine whether it is
right or wrong for each of the top five species. It may be right for some and
wrong for others. You will need to examine and analyze your dominance
and frequency data table and pie graphs. A positive difference between
dominance and frequency means the tree is more dominant than frequent. A
negative difference means it is more frequent than dominant. Do not restate
all the numbers from your data section, just make the statement. You must
then explain your data. By doing this you will be stating why your
hypothesis is right or wrong for each of the five top species determined by
your class. Discuss each of the five species considering their growth rate,
reproduction/germination rate, and light requirement (tolerance – very
Paragraph 2 – From the analysis of the pond food web, you will determine
whether or not your hypothesis about the ecosystem's health was valid or
not. Your conclusion, like your hypothesis, is still an opinion but can now be
supported with example from your web. In order to support your statements;
discuss the numbers of organisms per niche and the number of possible food
sources for consumers in order to justify its stability. Also look at the
relative population of each organism. You can now determine if there is any
keystone species present.