CHAPTER 4 The Integration of Traditional and Modern Systems of Environmental Management Public-Private Partnerships in Natural Resource Management and Tourism Development in the State of Yap, Federated States of Micronesia Richard S. Stevenson 132 133 to the normal executive, legislative, and judicial Executive Summary branches, a fourth branch comprises two councils of traditional leaders. Objective Traditional Leadership A s part of the preparation of the Pacific Region Environmental Strategy (PRES) the Asian Development Bank (ADB) funded a field study in Yap Respect for the traditional culture and for the traditional leaders in Yap is still strong, though the State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), of traditional observance of traditional practices and rights is approaches to the management of natural resources and weakening as Yap progressively enters the cash their relationship to modern resource management and economy and adopts modern technology. to the development of tourism. It is intended that this study contribute to PRES guidelines for environmental The traditional method of natural resource sustainability and be of general use to other Pacific island management in Yap is based on very complex systems members of ADB. of both traditional leadership and land tenure. In the traditional culture of Yap, a geographic area does not The objectives of the study are to evaluate (i) how normally have just a single leader or “chief.” Any single traditional systems have played a role in natural resource village and its lands are governed by complex hierarchies management and in development, (ii) how traditional of village and family structure, and by multiple leaders systems could be productively integrated with contem- of different rank, each with specific cultural and porary approaches to resource management, and (iii) operational responsibilities and authority. One of the how public-private partnerships have been employed in leaders, not necessarily the most senior, has the development of tourist destinations in a Pacific island responsibility for the stewardship of the land, and nation and could be employed in future development. another has responsibility for stewardship of the water or marine resources. The study examines, through interviews with locally involved persons, the decision-making As part of the system of multiple and specialized processes employed for the development of four leadership roles, decisions are normally taken resorts. Two are small locally owned facilities using consensually, through community discussion, from traditional island design and two are larger, more which the responsible leader gauges the consensus and complex and internationally or expatriate-owned and announces it as the decision of the community. The -operated facilities. Through the same interview process, Yapese culture is very nonconfrontational, and it is often the study examines the traditional methods of natural difficult for individuals to speak their opinion. resource management, how the traditional and modern state approaches have conflicted with or complemented Decisions are taken for the overall welfare of the each other, and how they can be better integrated in the community, whether at the village or regional level. As future for more sustainable environmental management. much of the work in the past was done communally (e.g., fishing and building fish traps, building boats or houses, Background and repairing the stone paths that connected communities), members of the community were able to Government discuss issues with deliberation, and usually a consensus emerged without confrontation. Yap is one of four states in the FSM (Figre 4.1). Within the federation, Yap State is a constitutional Land Tenure democracy with great independence to set its own policies and operations. Land tenure is extremely complex and has significant implications for future development and Respect for tradition is incorporated into the management of natural resources. Some land or water constitution of Yap State, into the legal code, and into may be held communally, but for most the right to use the very structure of the government where, in addition the resource is owned by individuals and is inherited in PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 134 an equally complex hybrid matrilineal/patrilineal system. These traditional systems of natural resource While the “owner” enjoys the exclusive use of the management have been increasingly unable to regulate resource, the nature of that use is subject to the guidance the use of either marine or terrestrial resources in the or limitation of the traditional leader who has sustainable manner that they once did. Weakened responsibility for stewardship of the resource. The owner traditional authority and loss of community cohesion has the right to take resources from the area for the make it difficult to stop widespread poaching in violation welfare of his own family, but more extensive use, such of individual fishing rights, and technological changes as fishing by net or agriculture for sale, is subject to the allow an individual or small group to overfish an area decision of the appropriate traditional leader. where previously the entire community fishing together and limiting the entry of other communities did not Because of its importance, land has been divided deplete the stocks. Certain fish species have almost through inheritance until most of it is in small parcels. disappeared, and it is widely recognized that marine Less than 10% of land in Yap has been surveyed and resources are endangered. titled. Many disputes over boundaries occur, and because several persons may be named as owner it is The greatest single impact on the marine resources often difficult to title the land. Tourism facilities have has been the introduction of the small-mesh thus far been built on small footprints of land owned monofilament nylon net that has made lagoon fishing by the entrepreneur or on land in Colonia that is or so easy that fish stocks inside the reef are being was owned by the state. Any future development of decimated. The traditional leaders recognize that this is tourism, especially dispersed ecotourism outside a problem, but the traditional system of stewardship Colonia, will face significant barriers in acquiring clear seems unprepared to deal with the issues and unable to title or access to land that will be acceptable to stop the process. investors. Foreigners and foreign companies are not allowed to own land in Yap. Increasing variability in weather conditions has produced more extreme storm conditions, causing Findings substantially increased erosion and saltwater intrusion into coastal agricultural lands. The loss to saltwater Natural Resource Management intrusion of important taro-producing land at the coastal fringes has caused interior land to be cleared for garden The traditional systems of natural resource patches, with resulting steady increase in loss of already management are extensions of the very complex systems diminished forest cover. Traditional methods for the of traditional leadership, community cohesiveness, and multiple use of agricultural land for higher productivity and landownership. The objective in the traditional system sustainable yield have been largely lost, and the weakened of stewardship of the natural resources was to assure traditional authority and community cohesion apparently sufficient food and shelter materials. Achieving that prelude either reintroducing traditional agricultural objective of course required sustained yield and methods or stemming the continual clearing of more land. productivity from the natural systems, but the system contained no distinct concept of the sustainable use of The state government has organizational units to natural resources. The consensual manner in which plan and manage both agriculture and marine resources, decisions were made and the ownership and authority but these units lack sufficient trained staff and funding patterns over the land and marine areas served to limit to undertake effective outreach programs. The state who could use the resources and how they could be used management units meet resistance from the traditional to meet a complex set of community needs and system that sees state government as intruding on obligations. The available technology (e.g., stone fish traditional usage rights, while the traditional system is traps and heavy hand-made nets) was such that its use itself unable or unwilling to confront and deal with the within the ownership system could not easily exhaust steadily deteriorating resource base. the resources, and marine populations and land fertility remained stable. It was not necessary to plan for the Very little integration of traditional and modern management of natural resources, and such planning systems of natural resource management has taken was not part of the traditional culture. place. Traditional systems prevail by default, even in 135 their weakened form, because the government is that Yap has very limited resources to export or by which reluctant to confront traditional land and water use to attract foreign investment, and they therefore assume rights. Communications between the state government that their future is tied to the development of tourism. and the traditional leaders and communities are weak, While they have fragments of a vision of future tourism, sometimes clouded in mutual suspicion; the latter no plan or strategy has emerged as to how they will generally assume that the state is focused on economic expand their current level of tourist arrivals and capture growth, balance of payments, foreign investment, new markets. tourism promotion, and other such “modern economy” issues and not concerned with the problems or opinions Public-Private Partnerships of the traditional leaders and communities. None of the four tourist facilities studied involved The two councils of traditional leaders, established any significant form of public-private partnership. Of the constitutionally among other purposes to avoid such a two larger facilities, one was built on land created by communications gap, have in most cases been unable fill, owned by the state, and sold to the developer and to do so effectively, becoming more involved in the present owner and operator. The other is built on land modern economy issues of the government. Lack of leased from the state and through former colonial powers effective channels of communication has made it difficult long ago alienated from any traditional ownership. for state agencies to reach understanding with leaders and communities on the common objectives and Of the two smaller facilities studied, one is built on interests for traditional and modern approaches to land in Colonia purchased through traditional means management and how they can be beneficially (e.g., stone money and other obligations) by the Yapese integrated. family that owns and operates it. The other is outside Colonia and is built on land owned traditionally by the Tourism developer and operator. In both cases, the facilities are built on land still within the traditional system of Tourism in Yap is of limited scale relative to its ownership; traditional obligations still connect to the neighbors, Palau and Guam. On the main island of Yap land. are seven relatively small hotel facilities, ranging in size from 4 to 24 units and totaling 100 rooms and on the Two attempts at public-private partnerships in outlying island of Ulithi, one hotel of 10 units. Tourism tourism have been made in which private capital partners is very important to the Yap economy. The Yap Visitors allied with a village or community. A large development Bureau estimates that tourists spend US$3 million was being negotiated between a municipality and a annually in Yap, a significant amount relative to Yap’s developer when investors withdrew during the Asian annual gross domestic product of about US$40 million. financial crisis. Another smaller venture was started in It is believed that more than 80% of tourism revenue is a partnership between a village and an American connected to diving, which is in turn heavily dependent investor, but the facility was destroyed by a typhoon in on the famous manta rays that can be seen year-round. 2001 when only two units had been built and it was barely operational. Though the concept seems All but two of the tourism facilities are in Colonia, acceptable, no real test of it in practice has occurred. the capital of Yap, which has a population of about 1,000. All facilities in Colonia are on small areas of land, are Recommendations connected to the municipal waste treatment system, and have thus far had little impact on the environment or the Four strategic recommendations have been derived natural resource base. Little growth in tourism has taken from the study as programmatic guidelines that will place since the 1997 Asian financial crisis. enhance environmental sustainability of the use and management of natural resources, including for the The people of Yap are aware of the social and development of the tourism industry. These recom- environmental problems that large-scale tourism has mendations reflect the comments and the recom- brought to some of their neighboring islands and they mendations of the people of Yap who were interviewed want a different future for Yap. They recognize, however, and are made with reference to conditions and issues in PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 136 Figure 4.1. Map of FSM 137 Yap. However, they are based on problems that are support the efforts of state agencies to mount pervasive among the Pacific island countries. Specific well-thought-out and systematic processes of actions to implement each must be tailored to the communications with the people. particular conditions in the location concerned. Agreed goals and a shared vision of the future are Identify Shared Goals and Plan Strategically essential as a basis for selecting courses of action that integrate traditional and modern concepts and tools for When asked what they want for Yap, most Yapese management of natural resources. Development of a answer with a number of common elements, including commonly held strategy must begin in the communities respect for traditional values, controlled progress into and progress up to the state level. Forums should be the modern economy, better education and health care, conducted at the community level to identify community development of high-end ecotourism, preservation of the visions for the future, and those should collectively build environment, better infrastructure, etc. But these issues a state vision. A vision developed at the top and passed have not been openly discussed in any forum, and no down to the communities will be viewed as poor generally accepted statement of a vision for Yap, or of communications between state and community. how the commonly held values and objectives will be achieved, has evolved. Strengthen Community Cohesion and Action Many Yapese feel that the government is pursuing Traditional management of natural resources was economic development (e.g., trade, infrastructure, etc.) based on the needs of the community, but more rather than development that focuses on bringing a importantly on cohesion within the community that better quality of life for many people. Development caused its members to communicate often among should be based on broad agreement as to what the themselves and to understand their common needs and government and the people are trying to achieve and best interests. The advent of the cash economy and the values and priorities that vision comprises. So long modern technology has caused the community to break as no open discussion of issues or general agreement down as an entity, with the result that its members and on values and a future for Yap takes place, it will be very leaders often do not understand the issues of sustainable difficult to integrate traditional forms of natural resource use of natural resources and are no longer able to act as management with modern management techniques. an entity to enforce their collective will (e.g., prevent Integration will require using the tools and leverage of widespread poaching and use of gill nets). traditional authority and community cohesiveness, working together with state government science and Development programs should address the problem expertise, to achieve common objectives relating to the of creating community awareness and cohesion, sustainable use of natural resources. supporting community forums and education to identify common problems and possible solutions. Communities Build Government-to-Community Communications also need the means by which to take action. A strong and focused community is a critical tool for sustainable Communications between the state government management of natural resources in Yap. Without it and the communities are poor; effective channels of sustainable management may in many cases not be communication must be built through systematic achievable at all, especially since a strong enforcement contact. The councils of traditional leaders have not capability will always be both too expensive and fulfilled their intended role as communicators between culturally unacceptable. the government and traditional leaders. State government agencies have tried, largely unsuccessfully, Promote Public-Private Partnerships to communicate with the municipalities, but need to do so more, more systematically, and with a willingness on While public-private partnerships are relatively the part of government to listen rather than direct. Such unknown at present, the concept fits well with traditional a program will gradually create understanding through concepts of the role of the community or village in the which the community and the state government can management of natural resources. Partnerships should develop cooperation. Development programs must be supported through development programs at all PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 138 levels. They will provide stability by engaging more and a community for the development of an ecotourism stakeholders in the active management of resources, destination might be the only way such a venture could preventing resource owners from feeling taken access the land and water resources required. In such a advantage of by developers and investors. venture the community would hold an equity interest in exchange for the guarantee of access to land and Development of ecotourism requires access to resources and over time would take an increasingly substantial land and water resources. With the prevailing active role in the actual management of the facility. complex system of landownership, partnerships may Development programs should build the institutional be the only way that such development will be capability—the business and community advisory and possible. Most Yapese, when asked, responded that a legal services—to initiate and develop such partnerships. public-private partnership between an outside investor 139 Tourism is an important potential growth industry Background and Rationale for the Pacific islands. While tourism is itself highly of the Study dependent upon a largely undisturbed and appealing environment and ecosystem, it also creates a huge The Asian Development Bank (ADB is formulating burden on the often-fragile Pacific island ecosystems. a Pacific Region Environmental Strategy (PRES) that Its development is therefore inextricably interlaced reviews major environmental challenges in the Pacific with issues of the sustainable management of natural region and defines strategic objectives, guidelines, and resources, including traditional aspects of such activities for ADB’s assistance to its Pacific developing management, their integration with modern country members (PDMCs). The purpose of the PRES is management methods, and the complex land tenure to make environmentally sustainable development a systems involved. priority in the PDMCs and to ensure that assistance from ADB to its members will move development in that Public-private partnerships offer a means to involve direction. As part of this review, ADB has supported traditional systems in the development of tourism. More several case studies of discrete issues in the practice of important, they may be the only means for tourism environmental planning and management in the Pacific development to coexist with traditional systems of land region. One of these is a field study in Yap State, tenure and right-to-use aspects of traditional resource Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) to observe management. traditional approaches to the management of natural resources and their relationship to modern resource Both public-private partnerships and traditional management and to the development of tourism. It is approaches to natural resource management are key to intended that this study contribute to the PRES guidelines the development of integrated natural resource for environmental sustainability and be of general use management policies and strategies that can be to other PDMCs. effectively mainstreamed into overall development policies and strategies for a sustainable future. While Understanding the interaction of traditional and each Pacific island group has different cultural contemporary approaches to natural resource manage- imperatives and conditions, the island cultures have ment is critical with the continuing shift in Yap away sufficient in common through geographic conditions, from traditional values and approaches. Traditional ethnic origins, and other factors that conclusions and approaches have evolved over centuries, and while they recommendations drawn from one island nation should do not always fit entirely with contemporary economies have general replicability for policy and strategy across and objectives, they can often make a significant contri- the region. bution in combination with contemporary approaches. At a minimum, modern developers should understand It is appropriate to undertake an examination of the them so as to avoid serious conflicts. The most valuable implications of traditional systems of natural resource and efficient solution, however, is likely to be one in management on development in the tourism sector which the traditional approaches can be integrated because a number of Pacific island countries derive a into comprehensive policies and approaches for major portion of their foreign exchange from tourism, environmentally sustainable development. and many more are looking to tourism as their economic growth sector for the future. Most of the tourism is based It is also important and timely to examine the on the use of coastal resources and has the potential for effectiveness of public-private partnerships or other significantly impacting on fragile coastal ecosystems and forms of cooperation. Worldwide, they are increasingly on the traditional uses and access to the coastal aquatic relied upon for achieving sustainable development in resources. lieu of strict regulatory approaches, and it is increasingly difficult to rely on either public or private resources The comprehensive and integrated approach of this exclusively. This is a global trend and it is useful to study responds effectively to the mandate of the World understand how such partnerships have worked in the Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) that small past and could work better in the future in the Pacific island states require immediate action to alleviate island cultures. environmental impacts while improving community PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 140 quality of life and establishing a strong and credible other, and how they can be better integrated in the future economic base. The analysis is designed to lead to a for more sustainable environmental management. more achievable strategy to integrate traditional and contemporary approaches to environmental manage- The study also examines and contrasts the ment and to promote beneficial public-private traditional natural resource management systems (such partnerships in economic development, facilitating as restricted rights to the use of land and marine achievement of WSSD objectives. resources) with the concepts of resource management that have been employed by the state government. The analysis further examines how the traditional and modern approaches may have conflicted with or The Study complemented each other and how they can be better integrated in the future for more effective environmental Objective and Scope management. Conclusions are drawn about the implications of the study’s findings for efforts to The objectives of the study are to evaluate mainstream environmental considerations into national, state, and sector development plans, policies, and • how traditional systems have played a role programs in Yap and the other PDMCs. in natural resource management and in development, The analysis is designed to help ADB and the Yapese • how traditional systems might be productively organizations and agencies to better understand integrated with contemporary approaches to traditional and modern approaches to development and resource management, and resource management and the interaction of public and • how public-private partnerships have been private interests. The recommendations for achieving employed in the development of tourism more effective collaboration and integration of the destinations in a Pacific island nation and could different approaches provide broadly replicable guidance be employed in future development. to ADB for inclusion in the PRES and for mainstreaming policy and strategy for environmentally sustainable The purpose of the study is to generate recom- development. mendations to ADB that will contribute to the PRES and its guidelines for achieving the environmental Methodology and Implementation sustainability of future assistance to PDMCs. A wide range of individuals in Yap was interviewed The study uses primarily personal interviews to for the study. This list includes the managers of the examine the decision-making processes employed for tourism destinations concerned and those who may have the development of four tourism hotels. Two are small, direct knowledge of the decision processes and issues locally owned facilities using traditional island design, that were involved in their establishment. However, since and two are somewhat larger, more complex, and the study involves broad issues of traditional versus internationally or expatriate-owned and -operated modern approaches to the management of natural facilities. The research inquires whether public-private resources, and the efficacy and appropriateness of partnerships or cooperation were achieved in these public-private partnerships within the context of the developments, and if so, where problems were Yapese culture, a much wider range of individuals was encountered. Finally, comments are presented on how interviewed than just those dealing with tourism. The such partnerships can be promoted and better integrated full list is shown as Appendix 1. into future development and management of natural resources. Relevant documents such as the Constitution of Yap, the State Code of law, established and pending Through the same interview process, the study legislation, and various plans and conference reports examines the traditional methods of natural resource were reviewed to gain their relevant information. The management, how the traditional and modern state full list is presented in the References. However, the approaches have conflicted with or complemented each culture of Yap is one of verbal history, and beyond the 141 relatively recently written legal code and regulations, • Have policies and strategies for development much that is understood and widely observed by its incorporated traditional approaches? citizens is not written. Very little in the manner of policy • What are the state government policies, or economic or political direction is written. While most incentives, and marketing strategies to attract Yapese would agree on many issues or values, it is new investors in tourism? usually not possible to find those points in written form. • Do present policies and strategies encourage The study therefore depends heavily on information and create conditions favorable to public-private collected in interviews and in informal discussion. partnership and collaboration in development? Issues Tourism Development Process The collection of information centered on a set of • What are the present processes, procedures, and key issues, each of which translates in interviews into a permitting and licensing requirements for the set of questions that vary according to the situation. The development of a tourism destination? issue areas and specific questions include the following: • What were the processes in place at the time of the development of the facilities examined in the Vision study, and did they incorporate traditional approaches? • What are the long-term interests and objectives • Were the procedures followed and did problems of the FSM National Government that will have occur? impacts on the development of Yap? • Were public-private partnerships involved, and • What are the interests and objectives of the state what problems were encountered? government of Yap with regard to sustainable • How did the development process for small- management of natural resources? scale facilities contrast with that for larger • What are the interests and objectives of the facilities in issues encountered? traditional leaders of Yap with regard to sus- tainable management of natural resources? Conflicts and Synergy • What are the interests and objectives of the tourism industry of Yap with regard to • Overall, how have traditional approaches to sustainable management of natural resources? management of natural resources conflicted with contemporary approaches? Resource Management Approaches • How can they be integrated into and be supportive of contemporary approaches? • What is the relationship of the traditional leaders • How do public and private interests conflict, and to the state government? how can they best work together for mutual • How have traditional leaders managed the use benefit? of natural resources? • What approaches does the state government use Recommendations to manage the natural resources sustainably? • Have there been conflicts between traditional • What policies and strategies can help to promote and modern approaches, and if so how have they and create the conditions necessary to beneficial been resolved? integration of traditional approaches with contemporary approaches for environmentally Resource and Development Policies sustainable development, especially in the tourism industry? • What are the present state policies and strategies • What policies and strategies can help to for economic development? promote and create the conditions necessary • What are the present state policies and to the use of public-private partnerships for regulations as they affect environmental and environmentally sustainable development? resource conservation in development? PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 142 • What can ADB do in technical assistance and in Present economic concerns include large-scale guidance for lending to assure environmental unemployment, overfishing, and overdependence on US sustainability in the development it supports in aid. FSM economic activity consists primarily of the Pacific island countries? subsistence farming and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting except for high-grade The findings and resultant analysis and recom- phosphate. The potential for more tourist industry exists, mendations are largely a synthesis of the answers but the remote location and a lack of adequate facilities received to the above questions from the more than 50 and transportation hinder development. In 1996, the individuals interviewed in Yap. country experienced a 20% reduction in revenues from the Compact of Free Association, the agreement with the US in which Micronesia received $1.3 billion in financial and technical assistance over a 15-year period Findings and Analysis ending in 2001. Since these payments accounted for 57% of consolidated government revenues, reduced Compact Background and Observations funding resulted in a severe depression. Economic activity started to recover in 1999–2001. Federated States of Micronesia The country’s medium-term economic outlook is The FSM comprises the four island group states of fragile due to possible further reductions by the US in Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae, and the 1 million-plus external grants under the next round of funding for the square miles (mi2) of ocean surrounding the islands Compact. Geographic isolation and a poorly developed (Figure 1). The total land area of FSM is 207 mi2 extending infrastructure remain major impediments to long-term 1,700 miles from west (Yap) to east (Kosrae). The 133 growth. However, a satisfactory outcome to negotiations mi2 island of Pohnpei is the largest in the FSM and home for renewal of the Compact will provide a basis for future of the country’s capital, Palikir. The total population of development if wisely utilized. FSM was estimated in July 2002 at 135,869. State of Yap In 1979, the Federated States of Micronesia, then still the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific The traditional name of Yap is “Waab”. In the Islands (TTPI) under US administration, adopted a traditional language “yap” means the oar of a boat. When constitution and in 1986 independence was attained the first European trading ship came to the island the under a Compact of Free Association with the US in sailors asked the name of the island, pointing down at which the latter provides national defense and the water. The islanders thought they were pointing at substantial grant funds. The FSM is currently the oars of their boat and answered: “Yap.” renegotiating the Compact with the US for an additional 20 years. The FSM is a member of the World Bank, the Located in the Western Carolines, about midway International Monetary Fund, and ADB. between Guam and Palau, Yap State comprises a tightly clustered group of four volcanic islands: Yap, Gagil- Principal sources of revenue for the FSM are US Tomil, Maap, and Rumung, which together with ten payments, government work, fisheries, tourism, and smaller islands are surrounded by a coral reef. These subsistence agriculture. Present per capita gross with another 19 inhabited outer islands and 115 domestic product (GDP) is about $2,000. FSM annual uninhabited islands and atolls give a total land area for exports are $22 million (f.o.b., FY1999/2000) consisting the state of 46 mi2. Two thirds of the estimated 12,000 primarily of fish, garments, bananas, and black pepper. population of Yap State live on Yap Island, whose land Its principal trading partners are Japan, the US, and area is about 25 mi2. Other islands with substantial land especially Guam. Annual imports are $149 million (f.o.b., area and populations include Ulithi, Fais, Woleai, Ngulu, FY1999/2000), leaving a substantial balance of payments Satawal, Sorol, Lamotrek, Sowol, and Eauripik. Only the deficit that is largely covered by US payments under the first three have regular air service. Yap State includes a Compact and by tourism. vast oceanic territory. 143 Yap’s capital and center of business and government under the three paramount villages and leaders of the is Colonia, a small town with a population of about 1,000, entire island, and they convened other leaders as needed, situated along the waterfront and around a bay. depending on the issue and the relationships. Government The councils are intended to be the communications link between the state government and the traditional Yap is one of four states in the FSM, and within the leaders and communities. The original intent for the COP federation, Yap State is a constitutional democracy with was that senior traditional leaders, one from each of the great independence to set its own policies and 10 municipalities, would sit on the Council. While this is operations. The mainland has 10 municipalities and the still the case for the COT for the outer islands, the COP outer islands are grouped into two island groups. has evolved so that many of the representatives are not themselves traditional leaders but are chosen from the The Yap State Legislature has 10 representatives, municipality to represent the community. Some of the called senators. Six are elected at large from the main representatives may themselves have weak regard for island of Yap and four are elected from districts that the authority or value of the traditional system. include the 19 outer islands. The senators are elected for a 4-year term, as is the governor. The COP is intended as a force to work with the other organizations to preserve the traditional system, The senators have no term limit but the governor is but the Council is somewhat ineffectual, has no clear limited to two terms. Normally the senators are opposed mission, and many of the representatives actually do not in elections, but equally normally they are reelected until know the traditional system very well. The Council they decide to retire. Most senators are from mid-caste discusses primarily modern issues and what the governor villages and most have been traditional leaders. The asks them to discuss. Communities feel that some of most recent election in January of 2003 was the first time the representatives do not return often enough to their more than one candidate ran for governor. municipalities to inform the community and to ask for advice and the wishes of the people. The preamble to the Constitution of Yap recognizes traditional heritage and community life as the foundation The municipality is a new geopolitical construct, of Yapese society and commits the government to created by the colonial powers. The municipality integrate modern institutions and technology with boundaries often do not coincide with the traditional traditional ways so as to realize prosperity and welfare areas of responsibility of the traditional leaders. As noted for all. The Constitution establishes the Council of above, many of the representatives in the COP are not Pilung (COP) for the traditional leaders from the main the apparent traditional leaders. But the senior traditional islands and the Council of Tamol (COT) for the leader may not be the person who has the traditional traditional leaders from the outer islands. These two responsibility to represent the area of the municipality councils constitute a fourth branch of government, in to other villages. The issue is so complicated that some addition to the executive, legislative, and judicial traditional leaders find it easier to let the municipality branches. Yap is the only one of the four states of FSM select another person. Moreover, many of the traditional with this fourth branch of government. The councils do leaders are old and do not want to go to the city and not pass legislation but they must be consulted on any deal with the issues of the Council. legislation that affects the communities, the traditional culture, the traditional leaders, or traditional rights. They Legal and Justice System can veto proposed legislation and have done so on one occasion. Micronesia Legal Services Corporation is a nonprofit organization with offices in each state, The councils were created by the present providing free legal counsel and services to those who Constitution and do not represent a traditional forum. cannot otherwise afford them. It is supported by both However, other forms of council have existed that local sources and by the Legal Services Corporation of brought the regions and the villages together as needed the US, which in turn receives a US government grant to to discuss and resolve issues. The system was structured help provide the support. PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 144 The national legal system is small and cannot carry community as to how to manage growth while a heavy load of cases. There are only three state justices, simultaneously protecting the environment. one of whom has been ill for some time. All criminal cases are tried in the national courts. There is strong The export of manufactured garments earns the pressure, however, for civil matters to be settled in the largest part of Yap’s foreign exchange (other than from traditional way in the village, in the municipality council, the Compact), totaling 82% of exports in 2001. Yap vies or in the municipal courts. The family structure is with Palau as the world’s largest exporter of betel nut, becoming weaker as the traditional system weakens and which in the same year represented 15% of exports. Small the modern system dominates, so domestic issues and amounts of marine and agricultural products and civil disputes over land ownership are growing. They handicrafts make up the balance of exports. are, however, mostly still resolved in the community. The practical economic development policies of Yap The representative to the COP is automatically the emphasize increasing exports of specialty agricultural presiding justice for the municipal court, and he selects products and oceanic marine products such as tuna, light two other persons, often other traditional leaders, to manufacture such as garments and value-added make up a panel of three justices to hear cases in the assembly, and the expansion of tourism, especially high- municipal court. Neither the Council representative nor end ecotourism. the two others locally selected usually has training in the law, so they depend on what is sometimes a weak Present economic development goals, strategies, understanding of the traditional system to settle civil and objectives for the state of Yap were set out in a claims. The advantage is that cases are usually settled communiqué of the State government following the First quickly on simple evidence rather than being drawn out Yap State Economic and Social Summit in 1996 (Yap into complex litigation. Most cases in the municipal State Government 1996). The overall goal is that Yap courts concern disputes over land borders and State should be a self-sustaining economy and society. inheritance. The report of the Summit indicates that this goal reflects the type of society that Yap wishes to achieve and should Only one private firm of attorneys operates in Yap— be kept constantly in mind as decisions are made about Mulalap & Mulalap—and Yap State has refused the use of state resources. applications from others to establish legal practices in Yap. There is a State Office of the Public Defender that The objectives and strategies focus on reducing provides legal services for those who are brought before reliance on external aid funds through achieving greater the criminal courts. efficiency in the public sector operations, diversifying sources of external funding and investment, and Economic Development increasing the size and competitiveness of the private sector. The latter is to be accomplished through policy Yap State’s GDP, adjusted for inflation, declined 3% reform, improved efficiency of land use, and investments in FY2002 because of the drop in the flow of funds from in human resource development, especially in health and the Compact of Free Association with the US. Inflation- formal and informal education. adjusted GDP for FY2003 is forecast to grow by 0.9%. Of the four states in FSM, Yap has been the most prudent in The Summit endorsed the objective of sustainability the use of its share of Compact funds and has been able of development, with special emphasis on management to save funds to provide a basis for some near-term of the physical environment to provide the resources for infrastructure development. continuing production to generate livelihoods for the people of Yap. It emphasizes the importance of Yap has enjoyed only limited investment and growth preservation, enhancement, and respect for the rich in tourism, but it is considered internationally one of traditional culture as providing the social cohesiveness the finer destinations for Scuba diving. The environmental essential to human progress. conditions remain relatively good, though some problems are starting to emerge and some division has The report of the Summit contains detailed sections arisen within the government and the stakeholder on status, objectives and proposed actions on topics such 145 as agriculture, commerce and industry, education, health controlled and are not so sustainable. Findings and services, marine resources (focusing on the promotion recommendations from the analysis of tourism of commercial fishing), tourism, transportation and development and concerning the integration of infrastructure, and government reform and downsizing. traditional and modern management of natural It includes only a limited statement of goals and values resources in Yap should therefore be broadly relevant for the environment and sustainable development, and applicable throughout the Pacific region. however, and with no practical details as to what should be done. It states that a failure to conserve the natural Traditional Culture resources will undermine the culture, and that the government of Yap should take the lead in protecting Yapese society has a caste or rank system the environment. There is no mention, however, of the comprising seven levels that are based on the rank of traditional management of resources or suggestion of the village. People are recognized and respected collaboration between modern government and the according to their village. Each person is named after traditional system. an ancestor, which ties that person to a certain piece of property. Every group of islands within the Yapese society While the overall resource and development policies has its own unique cultural identity and customs. of Yap do not actually address the issues of incorporating Traditional life remains strong in the villages where traditional resource management into the development fishing and weaving are still important parts of everyday process, in stressing the importance of the preservation life. Grass skirts for women and thu’us, a type of of both the resources and traditional culture they create loincloth, for men are still seen as basic clothing in the a policy environment that should be hospitable to such villages, although today western clothes and styles are incorporation. Clearly it is not hostile to such concepts. becoming more popular in use and are pervasive for the It remains to the government, however, to take the younger generation in school. initiative to bridge the gap of understanding with the traditional leaders to incorporate their management Dance is an art form in Yap. Through dance, legends approaches into the dynamics of the development are passed down, history is recorded, and entertainment process. is created. The dances of Yap are often raucous and always colorful and well orchestrated. Both men and Similarly, the present resource and development women start at an early age to learn this special Yap policies of Yap do not address or specifically promote tradition. the possible use of various types of public-private partnerships in the development process. However, in Most Yapese live in their home villages located stressing the importance of traditional systems and the outside of Colonia. Villages retain many features that community, they establish conditions hospitable to the have remained for centuries, such as stone pathways use of such partnerships. The very traditional culture and clan platforms. A major part of the tourism appeal itself is the most powerful force encouraging such of Yap is that it retains many of its traditional partnerships. Despite individual rights to the use of characteristics. The stone paths wind through lush jungle resources, the overall benefit of the natural resources is and picturesque food-producing landscapes of tree considered to belong to the community. Therefore the gardens and taro patch systems. community and the individual owners are both logical participants in any venture or development that uses the Most of the islands east of Yap are coral atolls and resources. The concern of the traditional system with are sparsely populated by a people different from the the stewardship of the resources should intrinsically Yapese in culture and language. Four indigenous serve to promote more environmentally sound languages are spoken. These are Yapese, Ulithian, investments and generally sustainable development. Woleaian, and Satawalese. English is the official language and the state government is conducted in The State of Yap is not very different from many English, though some local government organizations other Pacific island countries, in that it has a pervasive still conduct business in the Yapese language. Some of concern for sustainable development, but sometimes the older generation of Yapese can speak Japanese from actual development programs are poorly designed and the long period of Japanese administration. Traditional PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 146 Yapese was not a written language and has only been subject to the guidance or limitation of the traditional written phonetically in recent years. leader, who has responsibility for stewardship of the resource. Because of its remote position, Yap was minimally affected when the Spanish colonized Micronesia in the While an individual can “own” land and water 1500s, and again during German occupation from the inside the reef, the owner does not have full authority end of the 1800s to the beginning of World War I. The over the use of that resource, as the traditional leader pre-World War II Japanese administration had more of a for the area has authority to approve or disapprove how direct impact. By Micronesian and even by Pacific the land or water is used. Because the leadership culture standards, Yap remains relatively unaffected by the and the land tenure are so complex, foreign investors modern world. may become confused when they need to speak to the “chief” of an area because they want a decision on use There are several institutions in Yap committed to of land or water resources. The person to whom the the preservation of the history and traditional culture of investors speak may be only one of a number of Yap. The Historic Preservation Office (HPO), supported traditional leaders for the area, probably the one by both the government and private contributions, responsible for contact outside the community, and it maintains a library of historical documents and is may later evolve that they have not sufficiently translating old documents written in early Yapese consulted everyone necessary, especially not those with languages that have been almost lost. The Bechiyal the real authority. Cultural Center continues the traditional architecture and boat building skills of Yap through its founder Tamag, a The role of traditional leader is normally hereditary, traditional leader and master architect and boat builder but not always. The role can be earned, especially if the of Yap, and Kadai Village where the history and incumbent traditional leader has no appropriate traditional art forms of Yap are presented to the public successor, in which case a successor is appointed by in a setting of traditional architecture. consensus in the community. Traditional Leadership The traditional leader positions are inherited through the father, but the more important bloodline is In the traditional culture of Yap, a geographic area matrilineal. Women have very limited authority and are does not normally have a single traditional leader or not seen by men as equals: women are not allowed to “chief.” The concept of a paramount chief or leader is fish, for example. And yet the aunt names the children one imposed by a succession of colonial powers that and the name is connected to ownership of land, so the wished to deal with a single leader with full authority. women effectively control the inheritance of land. It is The village and family structure has complex hierarchies, an extremely complex system of balances that is not truly and for any single village and its lands, multiple leaders, either patrilineal or matrilineal, patriarchal or of differing ranks, have specific cultural and operational matriarchal. responsibilities and authorities over different parts of the community (young men vs. women vs. old people) and The main island of Yap is divided into 10 different functional areas (taro growing vs. grassy shore municipalities and each municipality may have as many area vs. open lagoon area). One of the leaders, not as 100 villages. Each village and municipality has its own necessarily the most senior, will have responsibility for structure of traditional leaders, normally 3 at the lowest the stewardship of the land; another will be responsible level, up to 10 at the highest level. There is a village for stewardship of the water or marine resources. rank system of low-, medium-, and high-caste villages, with a total of seven subcategories. An individual is While some of the land or water may be held normally considered to be of the rank of his village, but communally, most is owned by an individual or family he may have linkages to a higher rank. A village can and the right to the use of an area of land or water is move up in the ranking. Originally, vertical movement inherited in an equally complex hybrid matrilineal/ was accomplished by defeating (or being defeated by) a patrilineal system. While the “owner” enjoys the higher-ranking village, but the Germans stopped all exclusive use of the resource, the nature of that use is warfare in the 18th century. 147 A person of low rank is usually a farmer or The owner has the inherent right to take enough fisherman; the higher ranks have responsibility for his for the welfare of his own family, but more extensive welfare, putting his interest above their own because use, such as fishing by net or extensive agriculture for they depend on the product of his work. As one goes up community use or sale, is subject to the decision of the the scale to higher rank, one normally has fewer personal traditional leader. This stewardship was exercised rights to land and water and does less physical work traditionally to make certain that there was sufficient such as planting and fishing, but one has wider authority food for the community as a whole, since not everyone and responsibility. The culture constantly seeks overall and not all villages had immediate access to sources of balance between authority and responsibility. food. That particular aspect of leadership was exercised within a larger complex of leaders (some of whom were Yap has three paramount villages (Ngolog in Rull, not at all concerned about natural resources), but that Teb in Tomil, and Gachpar in Gagil) whose senior leaders is what served indirectly to manage natural resources are considered the three paramount leaders of mainland sustainably. (i.e., the main island of) Yap. Because of its importance, land has been repeatedly As part of the system of multiple and specialized divided through inheritance, until most of it is in small leadership roles, decisions are normally taken parcels. Less than 10% of the land in Yap has been consensually through community discussion, from which surveyed and titled. There are many disputes over the responsible leader gauges the consensus and boundaries, and because several persons may be named announces it as the decision of the community. The as owners, it is often difficult to title the land. Tourism Yapese culture is very nonconfrontational, and it is often facilities have thus far been built on small footprints of difficult for individuals to speak their opinion. land owned by the entrepreneur or on land in Colonia that is or was owned by the state. Future development Decisions are taken for the overall welfare of the of tourism, especially dispersed ecotourism, will face community, whether at the village or regional level. In significant barriers in acquiring access to large the past, much of the work was done communally (e.g., aggregations of land in a manner that will be acceptable fishing and repairing fish traps and nets, building boats to investors. Foreigners and foreign corporations are not or houses, and repairing the stone paths that connected normally allowed to own land in Yap. communities). There was ample opportunity for members of the community to slowly discuss issues, and usually a Land tenure is a critical issue both in inheritance consensus would emerge without confrontation. This and in development in the modern economy. The FSM would include such issues as opening new land for Development Bank can accept untitled land as collateral cultivation, or fishing with nets, or working the for a loan if the note is signed by the traditional leader community taro patch. of the municipality and by that of the village and by the apparent senior landowner (several family members may Land Tenure be considered to be the owners of the land in a hierarchy of succession). But it is difficult to use traditional land Land tenure is extremely complex and has significant as collateral and land tenure problems have in the past implications for the future management of natural stopped the issuance of loans for business development. resources. With certain exceptions for community land, individuals own all areas of land or water within the reef. Even with three levels of endorsement on untitled The person’s name is connected to the land (or water) land as collateral for a loan, it is doubtful that a bank and it is inconceivable for a man not to own land, for he could actually take possession of the land if the loan would then have no name. The aunt of a male child gives were in default. The bank would do absolutely everything the child his name, determining the inheritance of land, it could to solve the problem and to resuscitate the and more than one person in an extended family may be project rather than try to possess the collateral. Even named for a piece of land. They are each then owners of with titled land as collateral, the bank would try to do the land, each waiting his turn to be the prevailing owner. the same rather than try to foreclose on the collateral. Only the owners of the land or water have the right to The entire concept of land as collateral is very take resources from the area (e.g., to fish or farm). questionable in Yap, and this could be a significant PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 148 barrier for a foreign investor in acquiring foreign debt managing natural resources and the importance of financing. preserving the environment, but they do not go into detail about how the traditional natural resource management A partnership relationship between an investor and system works. More detail may be in the curricula of the community could help to overcome the land title/ higher grades still to be produced. tenure issue. The relationship would need to be worked out carefully as to how the community is involved, as Most teachers are relatively young and not expert the landowner has the last word on how the land is used. in the traditional system, so it is difficult for them to teach The FSM Development Bank would favorably consider about it convincingly. In some instances, a traditional a loan application from a partnership between an leader from the community is asked to talk to the investor and a community. students about the traditional system. Education Language has been a significant problem in the development of the state of Yap. Everyone on the main On the mainland of Yap are 10 secondary schools island of Yap can understand one other in Yapese, of grades 1–8, one school of grades 1–4 and one of grades although differences occur in traditional pronunciation. 5–8, and all populated outer islands have an eight-year But the outer islands have three other language groups, secondary school. One public high school and one each of which is different enough from Yapese—and from private (Seventh Day Adventist) high school grades one another—that when the COT meets they converse 9–12 are located on Yap mainland and there are high in English in order to be mutually understood. schools on two of the outer islands, Ulithi and Woleai. The educational system has a difficult problem Instruction in the first 4 years is entirely in the local balancing between wanting to preserve the traditional language (which for the outer islands is different from Yapese and outer-island languages, while also needing Yapese). In years 5 and 6, English is introduced and the to promote English for efficiency; ease of access to curriculum becomes progressively in English, with information, tourism, and trade; and for minimizing substantially all instruction in English from grade 7 up. production costs of educational materials. Yapese is not traditionally a written language, so all written materials tend to be in English. This trend toward Natural Resource Management school curricula conducted entirely in English risks losing skills in Yapese, and thereby knowledge in the traditional Traditional Systems of Resource Management system. Throughout the Pacific, people have been discussing It is difficult to separate language from culture. A for years how to preserve traditional systems of natural alternative approach being considered would be to resource management. The Micronesian Traditional introduce English very early in school for practical Leadership Conferences held in Koror in 1999 and in purposes, but also to retain Yapese or outer-island Pohnpei in 2002 emphasized this point. No clear vernacular as a subject, with some cultural materials solutions to the issue have emerged, however, and taught in the vernacular throughout the grades in order resolutions have been very broad, with no direction as to preserve the language. to how such preservation should be accomplished. At all levels there is a component called living arts, The traditional system of natural resource which includes materials on the traditional culture, management is an extension of the very complex including such subjects as traditional ways of fishing and systems of traditional leadership, community agriculture. The education system is gradually producing cohesiveness, and land ownership. No specific objective new instruction materials from the lower grades up, one seems to appear in the traditional system of managing year each year (Yap State Government 2003a, 2003b), the natural resources, other than to assure a sufficient and is presently revising grade 7. The new curricula supply of food and shelter for the community. However, increase the emphasis on the traditional values and on the consensual manner in which community decisions understanding the traditional ways of living, including were made and the ownership and authority patterns 149 over the land and marine areas served to limit who could The manner in which the oversight authority is use the resources and how they could be used to meet a exercised is equally varied. A great variety of rules and complex of community needs and obligations. Moreover, restrictions has served to protect specific resources. For the technology available was such that, within the example, in the traditional system on Yap, only the high- traditional ownership and use systems, the resources caste villages are permitted to eat sea turtle and the could not be easily depleted and marine populations and lower-caste villages ate fruit bats. As there were far fewer land fertility remained stable. It was not necessary to high-caste villages, this served to maintain the plan for the management of natural resources, and such population of sea turtles, which with the weakening of planning was not part of the traditional culture. traditional restrictions are now almost gone. In another such rule, the land crabs that are considered a delicacy In the outlying islands, three broad patterns of can only be taken when the wind blows from the west, control and management of the natural resources exist. during the season when storms make fishing too On Ulithi atoll, all reef and lagoon areas belong to the hazardous and fish are in short supply. This use of the highest-ranking clan, whose chief is the paramount crabs as a reserve food has stabilized both the diet of leader of the atoll. The marine areas are divided among the islanders and the population of crabs. the clans, however, for purposes of the rights to use the resources. Members of a clan can fish within the area of The people still hold the power and authority over their clan at any time. the use of the resources they need through community cohesiveness supported by traditional leadership. This is On Woleai Atoll, however, no paramount leader has why it is important to engage the traditional leaders in authority over the entire atoll; the ownership of the reef addressing the issues, to reaffirm their responsibility to and lagoon is divided among the villages and the right care for the interests of the people—as well as their to use the resources is then divided among the clans in authority to do so—and to give them the knowledge and a village. The head of each clan controls the use of its the resources with which to take an active role again. own areas, including determining if the reef should be closed. Individuals can fish within their own clan’s area Management of Marine Resources at any time. The most powerful single impact on marine A third form of tenure and usage rights is found on resources has been the introduction of the small-mesh Satawal Atoll, where the leaders of three ranking clans monofilament nylon net that has made fishing so easy divide the authority and responsibilities for the that fish stocks inside the reef of Yap main island are management of the island. One of these three is being decimated. The advent of the outboard motor has designated as the chief of the sea and controls the use also contributed to this technological nightmare. While of all marine resources. While the use of the fringing no scientifically recorded data are available on changes reef is open to anyone, the chief’s permission is required in fisheries resources, it is widely agreed that yields for the use of the food resources of all other marine areas. are steadily decreasing and that some species have almost entirely disappeared. The traditional leaders The structure of the land and water tenure system recognize that there is a serious problem, but the (ownership versus right to use the resource) and the traditional system of stewardship seems unprepared to authority over management of the natural resource vary deal with these issues stemming from modern significantly from mainland Yap to the outlying islands, technology. and even within clans and municipalities on Yap mainland. Overall, however, some oversight by a senior The change from traditional to more modern leader always affects the way the marine or land resource methods of fishing, often for commercial purposes, has is used, and that leader is responsible to the community placed enormous and widespread pressures on the fish as a whole to assure that the resource is used in a manner stocks. A survey by the Marine Resources Management that ensures the welfare of the community as a whole. Division (MRMD) in 1987 reported that the use of While the term “sustainability” is foreign, the basic motorboats had increased by 22% in a decade, and that concept is part of the fabric of the traditional tenure and 7 out of 10 households in Yap owned spear guns and gill management authority system. nets. The report further indicated that 91% of villages PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 150 participate in night spear fishing and 72% participate in periods of time for the purpose of sustainable gill-net fishing. management of the marine resources. On the main island of Yap, a growing problem is In the outlying islands, the management of marine the illegal entry of individuals into waters to fish, including resources has remained continuously under local frequent night fishing with gill nets or with lights and spear traditional control, even through the several colonial guns. Small-scale commercial fishing in the lagoons of occupations, and remains now generally stronger than the main island is also increasing. Fishing for commercial on the mainland of Yap. Traditional systems of marine purposes is a relatively recent phenomenon (post-World tenure, fishing rights, catch distribution, and punishment War II). Traditional leaders are considerably concerned, of offenses are still usually observed. Most outer islands as it circumvents the traditional distribution system for are a single community and no adjacent communities the catch; encourages excessive, often wasteful fishing; or clans have disagreements about landownership or and depletes fish stocks. The commercial exportation of the use of resources. Community cohesiveness and fish is an even greater concern. traditions remain more nearly intact. Less commercial fishing and less illegal fishing Everywhere, both on the main island and on the occur in the outer islands. Less opportunity exists there, outlying islands of Yap, the traditional systems of marine but the situation also reflects the greater concern of the resource management have been increasingly weakened outer-island traditional leaders over the sustainability by new political, economic, religious, and educational of the fishing yield, on which they are more dependent. systems. Many residents adopted Christianity following Some actions taken on some of the outlying islands reflect World War II, following which a number of cultural this concern and illustrate ways in which the stewardship restrictions on the use of marine resources were lifted, authority of the traditional leaders is implemented. and this, plus the entry of many people into the cash Leaders of many of the outlying islands have banned the economy, has weakened the traditional controls. As a use of monofilament gill nets, recognizing that they result, the traditional leaders have been increasingly would change the way net fishing is done, from a unable to regulate the use of either marine or terrestrial communal to an individual or small group activity, and resources in the sustainable manner that they once did. that their use would result in overfishing. Spearfishing Weakened traditional authority and loss of community with lights has also been banned in many of the outlying cohesion make it difficult to stop widespread poaching islands as a method that would allow reef fish to be of individual fishing rights, and technological changes overharvested. On Woleai Atoll, an area outside the atoll allow an individual or small group of persons to overfish that regularly has schools of tuna is restricted to fishing an area where previously the entire community, fishing with pole and line from sailing canoes. On Ifik Atoll, the together, would not have depleted the stocks. Certain traditional leaders have banned the use of modern boats fish species have almost disappeared, and it is widely and outboard motors entirely. Only paddling and sailing recognized that marine resources are endangered. canoes are allowed inside the lagoon. The commercialization of inshore fishing is believed Many of the islands close sections of the reef entirely to contribute to the erosion of traditional authority and after a senior leader dies as a sign of respect. Such obligations relating to fishing. Some nonlocal closures may remain in effect for years. A closed section commercial fishing enterprises have circumvented local may be opened for other than management reasons, restrictions by forming alliances with local traditional such as a tribute or a celebration. However, on Satawal leaders. Local communities seem to lack sufficient Island, a raised coral island with a fringing reef and a cohesion to stop their leaders from engaging in such high population density, a section of the reef is illegal practices for their personal gain. The result is an traditionally closed for long periods of time for the overall loss of respect for the leaders and for traditional purpose of allowing the fish population to regenerate. rules of resource management, and a further weakening For whatever reason the closings have been decreed, of traditional authority. Communities then have greater the islanders have quickly observed how dramatically difficulty instituting other management measures, such the marine stocks have recovered. As a result, more as bans on nighttime spear fishing, closure of protected leaders are starting to close sections of the reef for areas, or protection of seeded giant clams. 151 Some Yapese concerned with the management of to provide considerably higher yields of produce than commercial fishing feel that traditional controls of the are now achieved with more modern methods. One use of the water have a great advantage over government simple but elegant technique employed was pyramidal regulation because they make the people responsible yam trellises about which yam vines were trained in for the use of the resources. They believe that attempts order to gain more light and moisture and more vines by the government to regulate the use of marine per area. This technique was only named in the 1970s resources directly would be a mistake, because they as thigomorphogenesis, but it had been used for would shift the attention of the people from what hundreds of years in Yap. This way of growing yams also tradition says they should do to simply what they need used less land and did not require the burning of trees to do to evade the enforcement of the government. They to clear land. say that too many people already think that the government will do everything for them, including taking In the uplands of Yap, the land was farmed care of the natural resources. traditionally with a complex system of ditches laid out in a grid to drain and irrigate the land. It is believed that In the waters surrounding Yap are more than 800 the ditches developed bacteria to fix nitrogen that would stone fish traps or weirs. Most have not been used for a maintain the fertility of the farmed area. The excavated long time and are in disrepair. They represent a very soil was used to raise areas for houses, paths, and tree sustainable form of fishing. The man-made stone walls planting. The system functioned like a forest and are mostly below water at high tide and the incoming provided a pleasant living environment as well. This tide pushes fish within the area of the walls. The outgoing practice was widespread and the outlines can still be tide traps the fish within the walls as they appear above seen, but the practice is now lost. Now people cut the water, and fish can be easily selected and caught. Those canopy to open new space for gardens, then move on not taken can swim away unharmed on the next high when the land is depleted. Such practices also produce tide. Efforts are underway in Yap to revive the use of the damage to the marine habitat, when washout from the traditional traps. land exposed in the extensive clearing of watershed areas runs into the lagoon. While traditional management of marine resources primarily concerns the lagoon within the outer reef, it Relatively little of the land remains in upland forest does affect to a more limited degree the waters and that which does remain is decreasing rapidly. immediately outside the reef and the taking of pelagic Present distribution of the land is 3% urban, 12% species of fish. Pelagic fish stocks are also down, though mangrove, 13% upland forest, 28% agroforest, 23% not as far as the reef stocks. savanna (where the earlier ditching methods are seen), and other categories. The most common form of Management of Terrestrial Resources agriculture now is a taro or vegetable patch with some trees. The terrestrial resources of Yap are equally complex and as endangered as the marine resources. Increasing variability in weather conditions and Yap’s ancestors developed the surrounding landscape into rising sea levels have produced saltwater intrusion into a complex food production and living system and that coastal agricultural lands and erosion from more landscape in turn sustained the Yapese culture. extreme storm conditions. The loss of important Community forests consist of the trees, forests, secondary traditional taro-producing land at the coastal fringes has forest, agroforests, tree garden/taro patch systems, caused more clearing of interior land for garden patches, watersheds, and associated animal life and other natural with steadily increasing loss of already diminished forest resources in the areas where the Yapese live, and their cover. Traditional methods of multiple use of agricultural urban and community area extends from town and village land for high and sustainable yield have been largely centers through agroforests and into the natural forests, lost, and the weakened traditional authority and where they collect medicines and other resources. community cohesion mean that communities are apparently unable either to reintroduce traditional The Yapese developed food production systems that agricultural methods or to stem the continued clearing made use of simple wooden tools and natural processes of more land. PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 152 Historically the Yapese used more complex forms The MRMD has undertaken specific programs to of agroforestry, like the trenching system described protect and reintroduce species. Most successful has above, which achieved significantly higher productivity been a program to reintroduce the several species of from the combined land use than they now get from giant clams, which have almost disappeared because of simple garden patches. Both the yam farming in the uncontrolled harvesting. MRMD has raised seedling uplands and the taro raising in the lowlands or wetlands clams in an artificial environment to the size of several were more productive, and the soil was not depleted so inches and then reintroduced them into the waters of rapidly. These integrated systems evolved over long cooperating individuals and villages. This has been a periods of time to be the most productive approaches to successful collaborative effort between the modern and the use of the land. Present agriculture is very simple, traditional systems and the clams are gaining ground in using basic hand tools; the complex approaches have some areas. Unfortunately, the clams are often still taken been forgotten. too young, by poaching and sometimes even by the cooperating water owner, impatient for a clam dinner. Unless the agricultural land is properly managed, forest cover will decrease further and erosion washing Not surprisingly, MRMD does not have enough funds down into the lagoons will increase, impacting marine or staff to accomplish its full agenda. It is also still resources. Individual farmers (usually women) are struggling to establish its image and legitimacy with the reluctant to try “new” methods unless the village as a traditional leaders as an entity that wishes to form a whole supports the concept. Community cohesiveness partnership with them in the sustainable management and action are needed to reintroduce the more of marine resources. As a government agency, it is sustainable agriculture methods. suspected of trying to usurp traditional authority. Modern Systems of Resource Management As to terrestrial resources, the Department of Agriculture is concerned with increasing agricultural Modern governments commonly divide respon- production, but has not addressed the incorporation of sibilities for resource management among different traditional agricultural methods and land management agencies that regulate specific resources, such as techniques into modern agriculture. fisheries and agriculture. Some agencies whose decisions may impact on these resources, such as The Yap Urban and Community Forestry Advisory economic planning and development through siting Council (UCFAC) seeks to protect and enhance existing factories and infrastructure, are rarely required to community forests, to expand the practice of community consider their relationship to the resource agencies, and forestry to meet current and future needs, and to the linkages among all of the pertinent agencies is often maintain the vital connection between people’s forests weak. In Yap, as in many island countries, the problem and culture. Yap’s ancestors had developed the is considerably complicated by the presence of traditional landscape into a living system and that landscape in turn institutions of resource management, which in most sustained Yapese culture. The Council wishes to maintain instances have even weaker communications or linkages and enhance this connection while progressing into the with the agencies of government than those agencies future. have among themselves. The UCFAC and the Forest Resources Management Yap State has established the Marine Resources Programs have collaborated on a project to reintroduce Management Division (MRMD) under the Department the traditional yam trellis. While not a big project, it of Resources and Development. The MRMD has been exemplifies collaborative efforts between the state and very active in pursuing various planning efforts, traditional systems for the sustainable management of participating in international programs, and trying to natural resources. By reviving the use of trellises instead communicate issues of the decline of marine resources of burn-girdled trees to support yam vines, the traditional to the communities and the traditional leaders. It has an practice reduces the rate of deforestation. ongoing program of visiting communities, together with other agencies and organizations concerned with the In a recent project, researchers compared the environment, to talk about marine resource management. production of gardens using the traditional trellises with 153 control gardens where the yams were allowed to grow The most recent planning document for marine up sacrificed trees—the common current practice. They resources is the MRCMP, started in 1991 and published in found that the weight of the harvested yams was about 1994, but even now not adopted by the government. Much 2.5 times greater per mound for the gardens with of the basic data on fisheries resources and exports traditional trellises. Thus the practice appears not only needed for its implementation have not yet been collected. to reduce deforestation but to significantly increase yields In 1999, the MRMD again initiated efforts to revise and as well. revitalize the MRCMP. However, to date essentially no marine resource management plan is in effect, only a The support framework for the trellis project, which collection of valuable but fragmentary activities. The only has now been carried out in most municipalities on Yap, policies officially endorsed by the state with regard to utilizes a federal grant to provide tools (knives and marine resources are those from the 1996 Summit. shovels), a water chest, and a modest stipend for a teacher to village groups that want to do a project that helps both In 1999, an important initiative resulted from a people and trees/forests. The teacher is generally a mandate of the two councils of chiefs, the COP and COT. knowledgeable older person identified by the group who It established an Environmental Stewardship Task Force is willing to teach a group of at least eight apprentices. to work cooperatively with the government to develop The government administers the program and the an environmental stewardship program for Yap. This community implements it. Further work is needed with initiative was subsequently merged with the initiative the yam trellises to understand the science behind the of the MRMD to revitalize the MRCMP to become the system (plant physiology, soil microbiology, etc.) in order Environmental Stewardship Consortium (ESC). to identify the parameters of the system and deliberately manipulate them, and perhaps eventually utilize science The ESC includes the original task force of to enhance the traditional practice. prominent individuals active in the issues of sustainable resource management, plus representatives of relevant The Yap Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is government agencies, nongovernment organizations considered to have the responsibility to implement the (NGOs) (e.g., the Yap Community Action Program National Environmental Management System (NEMS) (YAPCAP), the Yap Institute of Natural Sciences, and prepared for FSM in 1993 with ADB technical assistance the Yap Women’s Association, and community (ADB 1993). The NEMS stresses traditional environmental representatives appointed by the councils of chiefs. Many management as a priority area for implementation, and of its approximately 20 members are very influential in the EPA does participate with MRMD and other agencies state and traditional affairs; together they are in outreach programs to traditional leaders, communities, representative of the many stakeholders in the and schools to explain the importance of protecting the sustainable management of the resources of Yap. environment, including both the marine and terrestrial environments. The organization undertakes to prevent More than any other body in Yap at this time, the the discharge of toxic wastes onto the land or into the ESC bridges the gap between traditional and modern water, but the environmental regulations in Yap are approaches to resource management. It has intervened minimal and the ability to enforce them is limited. on several occasions in public issues: in the most notable of these, runoff from highway construction was believed The First Yap State Economic and Social Summit to to be threatening the habitat of the manta rays and the consider the future of the state and to set directions for ESC forced the state to conduct a full and neutral development, held in 1996, reported on goals, objectives, environmental impact assessment (EIA). A bill before strategies, and projects for marine resources, including the present Legislature would formalize the ESC as the recommendations to maintain existing traditional Natural Resources Advisory Council (NRAC) to assist the resource regulations, develop and maintain adequate councils of chiefs and to link government, NGOs, and monitoring data on the various resources and set specific other efforts with communities. The new government is harvest limitations, implement the Marine Resources and very supportive of the concept of the ESC and the NRAC. Coastal Management Plan (MRCMP), and ban the commercial exportation of inshore fisheries resources The ESC has also assisted in the development of to markets outside Yap State. the Yap State Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 154 which has become part of the FSM National Biodiversity waters of four cooperating coastal villages. The villages Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP). The concept of the and the individual landowners concerned have agreed integration of traditional resource conservation was to participate in a partnership with the MRMD to establish incorporated into the NBSAP, as endorsed in March 2002. the areas. These are at the northern and southern The NBSAP begins with the vision: “The FSM will have extremes of Yap, in Rumung and Gilman municipalities, more extensive, diverse, and higher quality… marine, respectively, and on the east coasts of the island in Gagil freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems, which meet and Maap Municipalities. The purpose of the project is human needs and aspirations fairly, preserve and utilize to demonstrate how damaged marine reserves can traditional knowledge and practices, and fulfill the recover when protected or used for a limited take. The ecosystem functions necessary for all life on Earth” program is encouraging in that it represents cooperation (Federated States of Micronesia 2002a). between the state government and communities and could be the precursor and model for an integration of Unlike some other island countries, the government traditional and modern approaches to natural resource of Yap does not consider that it controls the lagoon management. waters within the surrounding reef. Respecting traditional ownership rights, the government finds it very Integration of Traditional and Modern Management difficult to try to regulate what is done in those waters. of Resources Therefore any form of regulation of the inshore waters is problematic. This situation makes it doubly critical that The traditional systems of resource management the modern systems and the traditional systems work have a great intrinsic advantage, both in their knowledge together in a partnership for sustainable management of of conditions at the very local level and in their ability to lagoon resources. make decisions quickly. In order for their role to be meaningful in the future, however, it must be reconciled The present Governor would like to stop altogether and integrated with that of the government agencies that the use of nets in the waters inside the reef, but he does are also charged with managing the resources for the not feel that he has the authority to do so by regulation. welfare of all the people. As these traditional institutions He proposes instead to introduce fishpond production and systems have become weakened, they must be of food fish species that can tolerate brackish water, and revitalized, while at the same time, the best of both then make illegal the commercial sale of reef species traditional and modern management systems must be other than those commercially produced. The integrated into a partnership seeking to achieve government cannot control the fishing, but it can control identified common goals. commerce. Direct government regulation or management of the marine resources, however, remains problematical. Recognition of both the limitations of government and the decline in traditional management authority has A bill is pending before the State Legislature that led to the suggestion that, where traditional systems still would give MRMD sweeping authority to regulate the exist, they should be embedded in a framework of “co- use of the lagoon for the conservation of coastal and management,” defined as the mutual accommodation aquatic resources (Fifth Legislature of the State of Yap and sharing of management responsibility between 2002). The terms of this proposed act stand in stark traditional and government systems. The concept of co- contrast with the traditional concepts of authority over management was presented and recommended at the the use of natural resources, and the bill is therefore Coastal Fisheries Consortium held in Pohnpei in unlikely to be enacted as it stands. However, it is an December 2000. important start, and a compromise bill may give MRMD more authority and resources to enter into a partnership The MPAs being established by the IWP, the with traditional authority to achieve the same purpose. experimental programs with yam production, and the activities of the ESC represent the leading edge in Yap’s In another initiative, the Strategic Action integration of traditional and modern environmental Programme for the International Waters of the Pacific management. They are promising, and the potential for (IWP) Small Island Developing States is just starting to their success is substantial. But true integration will only establish marine protected areas (MPAs) in the lagoon come with understanding of common goals, strengthened 155 communities, and effective communications between the grasses on which the cattle grazed. modern and traditional systems. Much work remains to be done to create those conditions, but collaboration On the mainland, the combination of high tides and and partnerships between government and communities saltwater intrusion has caused the loss of traditional and between government and individuals will be taro-growing land and consequent clearing of forest essential to the future sustainable management of Yap’s cover to open more land for agriculture. Ninety percent natural resources. of taro production is on the coast and almost all traditional community taro lands are on the coast, often Weather Variability occupying small inlets that had been dammed and filled. By nature of their geology, these are the first to be Increased variability in weather patterns and rising affected by saltwater intrusion. sea levels have become major concerns in the last decade for the people of Yap, especially for those living Not only has loss of these special agricultural lands on the 19 outlying islands that are coral atolls and rise caused the loss of forest, it has also speeded the only a few feet above sea level. Some migration from weakening of community cohesiveness. One of the the outlying islands to the mainland has already occurred traditional activities conducted cooperatively by the as a result of erosion of land and fears of future storms. community was the cultivation of the community taro The present government is very concerned about the patch. With the loss of such community resources, impact on the economic viability of Yap, including members of the community have turned to independent matters as basic as being able to raise enough taro root, family agriculture and community cohesiveness has if a significant portion of the outer-island population suffered. (which is 40% of total population of Yap) should decide to move to the mainland. This phenomenon is culturally The variability of weather also impacts the conceivable, as the outer islanders are more traditional leadership and management systems. economically dependent on the state government for Historically, traditional leaders specified fishing or survival than are the mainlanders and tend to look more planting according to the time of year as determined from to the government to help them survive. the stars, because they could anticipate rain or certain sea conditions. Now they cannot be sure that the weather No local scientific measurements could be found will cooperate with the schedule, and this variability on Yap of the change in sea level, but everyone has a serves to weaken the traditional authority. story of a set of rocks or some other feature that within their memory was above sea level at normal tides. The Tourism Development perception that the sea level is rising is pervasive, ranging from 8 to 12 inches in the last decade, especially in the Tourism in Yap is of limited scale relative to that of outer islands. But it is the increased variability in weather its neighbors Palau and Guam. Six hotel facilities with a that has produced the more tangible effects. Storms are total of 100 rooms are located on the main island of Yap observed to be more frequent and more violent, with and one hotel of 10 units on the outlying island of Ulithi. higher surge tides. Substantial portions of coastline have Nonetheless, tourism is very important to the economy been eroded, and a number of villages have built concrete of Yap. A recent study by the Yap Visitors Bureau seawalls to try to stop the erosion. Unfortunately, violent estimates that the 3,289 tourist arrivals in 2002 spent a storms often come over the seawalls and erode the land total of more than US$3 million in Yap. This is significant inside the wall, leaving it standing alone in the water. with reference to a 2001 GDP of US$40 million and is slightly more than the amount spent each year for the In the outlying islands, many instances of saltwater importation of petroleum products. More than 80% of intrusion into freshwater lenses have occurred as a result tourism revenue is connected to Scuba diving, which is of the erosion. This poses a significant threat: the in turn heavily dependent for marketing on the famous freshwater resources of the outlying islands are very manta rays that can be seen year-round. limited, as they have no mountains to form catchment basins. In one instance, half the population of cattle on Yap has other attractions besides the manta rays, an island was lost because saltwater intrusion damaged however, and good potential for diversified ecotourism PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 156 development. The numerous sand beaches and coral reefs This study compares the application of traditional are fine for snorkeling. The network of stone paths offers management approaches and public-private partnerships the opportunity to walk through unspoiled dense tropical in large vs. small tourism destination development. The forests, mangroves, and upland agricultural areas, while developments selected and contacted for the study are observing a great variety of plants, birds, small animals, the Trader’s Ridge Resort and the Manta Ray Bay Hotel, and reptiles. Many stone paths have fallen into poor both relatively large resorts (for Yap) of 23 units each. condition and disuse, but some have been rebuilt. One Both have international or expatriate ownership and village (Kadai) has carefully rebuilt its entire network of management. The smaller facilities are the Pathways paths, as well as its platform and several traditional Hotel and the Village View Resort, facilities of 9 and 10 houses; it offers tourists a guided walk through the forest units respectively, built in traditional architectural design and traditional dances in an authentic village setting. and owned and operated by local families. All tourism facilities are relatively small, ranging in The first two facilities and the second two stand in size from 4 to 24 units. All but two of the facilities (with sharp contrast physically. The study asks if their a total of only 14 rooms) are in Colonia. All facilities in development also contrasted significantly, and if lessons Colonia are on small areas of land, are connected to the can be learned for the future environmental sustainability municipal waste treatment system, and have thus far of development from the different issues they faced and had little impact on the environment or on the resolved. sustainability of natural resources. Tourism operators and facilities connected with diving have been very active Trader’s Ridge Resort in supporting government actions and in taking their own voluntary actions to preserve the pristine nature of Trader’s Ridge Resort (TRR) is wholly owned by the the marine resources on which they depend. US-based Robert Gumbiner Foundation and is associated with the Ethnic Art Institute of Micronesia located on Many of the people of Yap who have engaged in the site of the present hotel. The TRR has 23 rooms with the modern economy have observed social and relatively luxurious appointments and facilities and was environmental problems that large-scale tourism has built in 1997, just before the Asian and world economy brought to their neighbors, Palau and Guam. They want declined. The land on which the main buildings stand is a different future for Yap. They recognize, however, that leased from the Yap state government on terms of an Yap has very limited resources to export or by which to annual minimum payment plus a share of profits on a attract foreign investment, and they assume that their scale that declines as profits rise. No annual net profits future is significantly tied to the development of tourism. have accrued, so the payment has remained the minimum. No written lease was drawn up for the use of Everyone knows the term “ecotourism” and the land. assumes that it is low profile and does not disturb the environment. Though they may not understand well The resort incorporates a previous structure that what it otherwise implies, they want to see ecotourism was the quarters for US Navy SeaBees under the US developed in Yap. The other term widely used is “high- Trust Territory Administration prior to the independence end” tourism, conjuring visions of a small number of of FSM. The building was built by the Japanese tourists who pay substantially for luxury services. administration that commenced after World War I, so the land has been alienated from traditional ownership Tourism was expanding in the mid-1990s, and much for a long time. of the present capacity was built just before the Asian financial crisis in 1997. Since then, and especially since However, some of the outlying buildings, such as the threat of terrorism has reduced international travel, the water sports center and dock, are on private land the tourism sector in Yap has been trying mainly to still held within the traditional system of land ownership. survive. Annual occupancy averages about 25%. While TRR has the verbal permission of the owner and the there are fragments of a vision of future tourism, no state respective traditional leader to use the land and no rent or industry sector plan or strategy envisions how Yap is required. There are however, undefined obligations will capture new tourism markets. that go with the use of the land, such as supplying 157 refreshments for village festivities. Thus far, the requests Manta Ray Bay Hotel have been small but the ultimate extent is undefined. The Manta Ray Bay Hotel (MRBH) has 23 modern The management of the resort has from the units, is dedicated to the diving market, and advertises beginning sought to incorporate traditional leaders into widely internationally. It is built on fill, so questions of the operation of the hotel. One traditional leader from the traditional ownership of the land never arose. The the local village was employed in the resort. This did land was titled to the Yap State and sold to WAAB, the not work out well, as he had difficulty carrying out his local corporation operating the port, from which it was duties and was unable to adjust to working with Yapese bought by the present owner, a former US Peace Corps of a lower caste or social level than himself. volunteer to one of the outer islands of Yap. The land has clear title. People still occasionally claim that the The resort management has created a committee hotel waterfront is violating fishing rights, but these of landowners whose land borders the lagoon on which claims have not been taken seriously by either the hotel it is situated and pays a traditional leader from the area or, apparently, by the area’s traditional leaders. to manage the work of cleaning up the lagoon. Progress has been limited and slow. Hotel management has placed MRBH also operates Yap Divers, the largest dive trash barrels around the lagoon at its own direct expense operation on Yap. The traditional ownership of water and pays a local company to collect and dispose of trash rights has in general not been an obstacle to the placed in the barrels. development of diving tourism. Sport diving does not take resources from the water, and under the traditional TRR’s present annual occupancy rate is about 25%. system, anyone can bathe or swim in any water without As it is owned by a foundation, it has no debt and is not seeking permission. To avoid any conflict, however, each under the same pressure to make a profit that a normal of the five present dive operators seeks the permission commercial operation would be. It has therefore of the water rights holder for each dive site visited even continued to make improvements, and has maintained though the operators believe that diving should be seen a full staff when a commercial operation would have as no different from swimming. In most cases, this been forced to drastically reduce operating costs. permission is given freely, with no request for payment, as the owners of the rights merely wish to have those Except for three expatriates (the general manager, rights reconfirmed. his wife who fills an active role in the operation of the hotel, and a water sports and technical manager), the In one notable exception, the historical owner of the entire staff of the resort is Yapese. It has been difficult to Miil Channel, the area where the manta rays can be keep trained Yapese staff, and other hotels in Colonia regularly viewed in their cleaning station, demanded have all turned to employing Filipino or other foreign payment for access. Because the site is key to the diving staff in order to get the work done. trade for Yap, the operators made such payments. However, the usage rights (though not the ownership) TRR at one point tried unsuccessfully to buy the had been lost in an inter-village war in the 19th century. Pathways Hotel, but the conditions placed on Pathways The traditional leader of the village now owning the rights for the use of the land were that control of the hotel decided that there was too much controversy and told could never be sold to foreigners, as they would not the operators to stop making payment. The operators have understand the continuing obligations that go with the done so and the former claimant of the usage rights has use of the land. threatened to take the issue to the municipal court. Up to now, the present owner of the rights has not suggested TRR has new management and is in transition, that the village should receive any payment, only that the trying to identify its future market. The diving market individual owner should not charge for access. is largely held by the other larger facility studied which has agreements with major dive travel The Pathways Hotel marketing and packaging organizations in the US and Europe. Present management is looking at the retired The Pathways Hotel has nine units built in 1996 in high-end market. the traditional architecture of Yap, primarily native PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 158 wood, bamboo, and thatch construction. The owners exposure, the units might not stand up to the periodic of the hotel have from the beginning been very typhoon winds. concerned to use the environment sustainably. The hotel labels itself an “ecoresort” specializing in “eco- The resort is established on land of the family of oriented” adventure activities. the owner in a village on the east side of Maap municipality, of which the senior traditional leader is the The hotel was established by and is still owned by brother of the owner and operator of the hotel. a family of traditional leaders, but it is at the edge of Construction was started in 1994 and it opened in 1996. Colonia in a location some distance from their village Approval by the traditional leader for establishment of and authority. The grandfather of the present manager the resort was never an issue, nor was use of the water bought the land through traditional exchange of stone in front of the resort, as the family also has the fishing money and obligations, because the family wanted a rights for the adjoining water. piece of land near Colonia, where family members could stay when visiting the city. When the father of the present However, the village controlling the water to the manager decided to build the Pathways Hotel, the land south, which has excellent diving potential, refused to was surveyed and titled. No consultation was held with allow diving in the belief that it would disturb the fish. the traditional leaders of the village where the hotel is Like other villages on the west side of the island that do located about approval to build the hotel. No partnership not allow diving, they do not understand the difference with the local village was considered to be needed in its between local divers who spear fish and take turtles for establishment. A long-time expatriate resident of Yap food and the tourist sport divers who do not take sea life. was taken in as a partner, and three of the original eight units were sold up front as timeshare units and are still The resort also has a small diving operation owned by nonresidents of Yap. This provided much of operated by a Japanese investor/operator. When the the capital to build the hotel. diving operator proposed to introduce jet skis for tourists, the traditional leader, brother of the hotel owner, Construction was held up at one point for several disallowed the proposal, as he was concerned that the months because bulldozing the land for construction had noise would disturb the fish. eliminated taro-growing areas on which the villagers who sold the land depended to meet their obligations to Tourism and Natural Resource Management the village. Traditional leaders of the village on whose land the hotel is located asked what the owners would In the development of the four facilities studied, no do about it. The village that had given permission to sell clear process or set of procedures was followed. A and use the land was of a higher rank or caste than the business license is relatively easy to get and at the time owners of the hotel, so they could not ask directly what that the four facilities were established, no environmental was wrong. They needed to listen to the traditional impact assessment (EIA) was required. An EIA is now leaders of the local village but had to go through a friend required for any construction involving major earth of higher rank who could speak with the village moving, but no particular process is required for licensing traditional leaders. An amicable agreement was arrived a hotel. at and the hotel owners reaffirmed that they had obligations to the village by nature of their use of the Neither at the time when the four hotels were land. The traditional leaders wanted primarily established nor at the present time has any state reaffirmation of respect, not money. Subsequent regulation or licensing requirement stipulated that the demands to meet the obligations have been minimal. traditional system be consulted. The obligations of traditional land tenure are still very real, however, and Village View Resort any project utilizing traditionally owned land would be extremely foolish not to reconcile the use of the land or The Village View Resort has 10 units in 5 duplexes water with traditional resource management systems. built on the oceanfront in a mixed modern and traditional architecture. The owner would have built entirely in Each of the four facilities has had minor conflicts traditional architecture, but feared that with direct beach with the traditional system. Each has been different, and 159 in two of the cases the conflict was quickly resolved Larger-scale development outside Colonia will also through discussion and modest contributions to the engage the traditional systems of natural resource community. In the third, the facility simply complied management, and especially the traditional land tenure with a limitation set by the traditional leader, and in systems, more directly than has tourism development the fourth the conflict has not been taken very seriously to date. The facilities examined in this study have either by any of the parties concerned and has thus far been occupied land outside the traditional system leased or ignored. bought from the state, or they are on relatively small pieces of land owned by the family of the operator within The new licensing requirement enacted in 2002 the traditional land tenure system. The scale of these specifies that a business license shall be denied if a facilities has obviated any significant conflict with the business activity is injurious to the health and welfare traditional systems. of the citizens of the State of Yap. It further defines this to be the case if the applicant or the business activity The diving aspect of much of the tourism has come into conflict on occasion with the traditional resource • will create permanent damage to the natural management system: some owners of water resources environment of the state, have been unwilling to allow sport divers to enter their • is not environmentally sustainable, areas, because of some misunderstanding of the nature • exploits Yapese or other Micronesian culture, of the sport. On the other hand, the diving operators are • will cause damage to traditional social structures, concerned with the depletion of marine stocks from • has not obtained permission for the activity from overfishing, as it degrades the quality of the diving the local community, experience. They therefore back the government in its • has not satisfied the requirements of the EPA, wish to regulate the use of the waters within the reef, or and to that extent they are in further conflict with the • has engaged in other activities in violation of traditional systems of land tenure and resource environmental protection laws. management. While it is too soon to know how this wording will The tourism and diving operators hold the position be interpreted and applied, it certainly provides the that diving is no different from swimming and that under government with ample leverage to prevent any traditional rules anyone can swim or bathe in any water, business practice that is not environmentally regardless of ownership. Noting that the tourism of Yap sustainable, or that conflicts with traditional practices. is overwhelmingly dependent on diving, the dive operators would like the government to take a public At the present level of tourism in Yap, the industry position that diving does not deplete or damage the has so far had no apparent impact on the environment resources of a site and that therefore access to all or on the sustainability of the natural resources. This is waters for diving should be free. They have been because most facilities are small and on the municipal disappointed; the government has failed to take such a waste treatment system of Colonia, and they depend on position because it is reluctant to challenge the maintaining the condition of the reef and lagoon for traditional rights of the landowner to determine the use diving. Future development could be very different. It of the water. Traditional leaders have only rarely would probably be located in more remote areas of the intervened in this issue. island and could use more services and resources to provide more luxurious services and facilities. Tourism and traditional resource management have a common interest in sustaining the resources, though Development outside Colonia will require more for different reasons. Their common interest has thus planning as to how to make the operation of the facilities far kept the tourism industry and the traditional leaders environmentally sustainable. It should also have some from coming into serious conflict. Some of the tourism government guidelines as to how the development is to facilities are owned and operated by traditional leaders. occur and may require some infrastructure of So long as tourism remains at its present level, an uneasy legal/cultural expertise to support development of the coexistence will probably continue between tourism and needed public-private partnerships. traditional resource management. PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 160 The modern economy hopes for substantial growth Payments were made to the village chief, not to the of tourism, however, and in ways that will affect larger individual landowners, but all of the payment was areas of land and water. For that to happen without probably returned to the landowner. Initial construction conflict, it will be essential for the government to take was on one parcel of beachfront land, surveyed and an active role in setting guidelines and in working with titled to one member of the village. Two other surveyed traditional leaders to achieve understanding about how and titled parcels were owned by other villagers and development can be designed to work within tradition designated as expansion space for growth. At the and to bring true, positive development to the people of beginning of the project the entire village was surveyed Yap. Achieving the expected growth in tourism, and and titled in 1 month with no problem. Members of the especially in a sustainable manner, will also require a same family owned all three parcels. As it was a high- clear strategy and action plan that is consistent with and caste village, no problems arose of layers of obligation integrates both traditional values and modern on the land from higher-caste villages. Unfortunately, aspirations. The default development in the absence of the facility was destroyed by a typhoon in 2001 when careful planning is likely to be economically only two units had been built and it was barely disappointing and environmentally unsustainable. operational. Public-Private Partnerships The Ulithi Adventure Resort on Ulithi Island is a partnership of three foreign investors, one of whom Tourism served in the military on Ulithi during World War II, and a local citizen who owns the land. Neither the village None of the four tourist facilities studied involved nor the clan is involved in the venture. The hotel has any significant form of public-private partnership. comfortable facilities but has never attracted much Though the concept of public-private partnerships in business because of lack of marketing. Annual tourism seems acceptable, no real test of it has occurred occupancy is probably less than 15%. in practice because of obstacles of weather or finances. Two known attempts have been made at real public- In the state government sector, no examples of private partnerships in tourism, in which private capital public-private partnerships exist. The state government was or was proposed to be in partnership with a village had an exceptional opportunity to enter into such a or community. In the early 1990s, a project was proposed partnership when it decided to remove the national in the village of Chool, Maap Municipality, by a Japanese public utility from direct government operation. investor/developer for a large operation called Nature’s However, it decided to corporatize the utility rather than Way. It would have included accommodations, food seeking private capital or management, and it is still production, community development, and much more. wholly state-owned. In retrospect the project seems a good vision, but it was ahead of its time. The community did not understand The entry of Continental Airlines into Micronesia the project or their relationship to it and was having prior to national independence was in some ways a difficulty in agreeing to it. When investors withdrew public-private partnership, as Continental was previously during the Asian financial crisis, the project collapsed. a solely domestic US carrier and the Trust Territory Administration invested in the infrastructure needed to Another smaller venture was established as a support the air routes. A proposal from private investors partnership between a small village and an American is presently under consideration by the government of investor. Destiny Resort was located in Gilman Yap to expand the air service to and within the state in a Municipality on the far southern tip of Yap. It was started partnership involving investment by the state. in 1995 by an American investor from Hawaii in partnership with the small village (perhaps 20 persons) Many in Yap see the concept of public-private that owned the coastal area. The village was not partnerships in business and development as useful, and incorporated. The venture was a public-private the government may consider it for future infrastructure partnership in which the village held 40% of the equity projects. However, the state government may need help and received a minimum US$1,000/month payment in developing the legal guidelines and infrastructure for until their share of profits would exceed that figure. public-private partnerships involving the government. 161 Substantial future expansion of tourism outside the are becoming overgrown because no one works them. capital is almost certain to involve partnerships between People work only what they will use for themselves. outside private capital and expertise and the Stone fish traps are abandoned because community communities that own or have traditional influence over fishing has declined, and the species of fish for which the use of the land and water resources. they were built have largely disappeared. Nets have replaced the traps. Natural Resource Management Yap has been trying to establish marine protected A different type of partnership has been tentatively areas for many years, with some success. The MRMD tried in the past and is presently being explored through has tried to establish marine life reserves to let the fish new initiatives. It consists of public-public-private reproduce, but too many people fail to respect the partnerships in which the state government, the reserves. Most notable has been the program to establish community, and the private land or water rights owner protected areas for reestablishing giant clams, in which all cooperate to achieve objectives of sustainable some communities have cooperated. Still, reseeding of management of natural resources. The approach could giant clams is failing because of poaching and apply equally to marine resources and terrestrial impatience to eat the clams. Young people sometimes resources, but where sustainability is concerned, the fish illegally with nets for fun, letting the catch spoil and focus has been on the marine resources. The MPAs being not caring about the diminishing fish stocks. established by the IWP and the activities of the ESC to establish an environmental stewardship program for Yap Not enough traditional leaders are really trying to are examples of partnerships between the traditional and stop the overfishing and violation of restricted areas, and modern systems for the sustainable management of the communities have lost the cohesiveness that might resources. They are both promising, and the potential allow community members to either take action for their success is substantial. But their success and themselves or urge the traditional leaders to do so. The that of future public-private partnerships must be built traditional leaders know they should try to stop the on understanding of common goals, strengthened violation of the reserves but they are discouraged by no communities, and effective communications between one listening to them. Many just do not care any more modern and traditional systems. Much work remains to and the traditional authority is disappearing. be done to create those conditions. Unfortunately, some traditional leaders are even exploiting their communities by using community Communities resources for business gain in the cash economy, especially through fishing. As a result some communities The Yapese culture is very nonconfrontational and are trying to reassert their collective authority over the it is often difficult for individuals to speak their opinion. use of the marine resources. Traditionally, as part of the system of multiple and specialized leadership roles, community decisions are The community takes very little part in national normally taken consensually through discussion. decisions. One rarely sees community discussions with Members have ample opportunity to discuss issues with the representative to the COP. Television and the cash deliberation, then from the discussions, the responsible economy are fuelling a transition from the village leader gauges the consensus and announces it as the community to the nuclear family, in which everyone goes decision of the community. Decisions are taken for the to work or to school in the day and comes home to watch overall welfare of the community, whether at the village TV at night. The cash economy and the state government or regional level. Usually a consensus would emerge have largely ignored the communities, and the without confrontation about such issues as opening new communities therefore assume that the government does land for cultivation, or fishing with nets, or working the not care about their opinion. This has weakened the community taro patch. traditional system. Management of natural resources was originally completely a community function. The Very few activities now take place at the village level cash economy and the new authority of the state have or on a community basis, such as communal fishing or also left the communities expecting that government building or even discussion. Community taro patches should do whatever is needed, and if participation of PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 162 the community is required they should be paid for their policy or plans or issues, only campaigns on personal efforts. For example, the state government now offers popularity laced with clan affiliation. funds for villages or individuals to repair the stone paths on their land. Traditionally the villagers would have done Some signs have indicated, however, that the it for themselves. Now everyone expects to be paid by communities themselves are recognizing this shift and the government for such community efforts. are starting to encourage more community activity. The traditional leaders still have the ability to direct the Children are being taught about the environment communities to take action, but something must focus in school but not enough about the value or effectiveness their interests, as well as that of the communities. The of traditional methods of natural resource management. traditional leaders make decisions only when they Therefore the new generation tends to disregard the perceive the intent of the community, rarely against the traditional systems of resource management. wishes of the community as a whole. The community is Information on environmental issues and marine the real force for change and for action to preserve conservation does not reach communities easily. It is the resources. Communities and education hold the essential to reach the younger people in the community keys to a coherent and widely desirable future for Yap, with information, while at the same time showing respect a future striving to gain a vision rather than one arrived to the traditional leaders. Consultations on at by default. environmental issues and resource management have been held in the municipalities and the villages by representatives of the Historic Preservation Office, Lessons Learned MRMD, EPA, and other organizations, but it appeared to the state government that no one was listening to them so their frequency has diminished. Problems MRMD and the EPA have programs to take • The traditional leadership and the communities information to the communities and into the schools, but feel that they are not part of progress. They see the government is still unable to do enough to educate the government as concerned with economic the communities. Education is the key, starting from the development rather than true development that lowest levels of public education up to the traditional focuses on the improved welfare of all the leaders themselves, who might do much more to help people. Consequently, they do not respond well manage the resources if they better understand the issues. to government overtures. • Communication between the government and The communities need to do things for themselves, the traditional leaders and the communities is but to do so they need stronger leadership and to come weak or nonexistent. The councils of traditional together to discuss what to do. Where the community leaders established by the Constitution to bridge has taken action it has usually been the result of a single that gap have not fulfilled their intended role, person in the community animating the community, and and government agencies are sometimes inept it has not always been the traditional leader who has at communicating with the traditional leaders risen to the occasion. An emerging leader, however, will or communities. still need at least the passive endorsement of the • Traditional leadership has been weakened by a traditional leader. number of forces, including the cash economy, new technology, religion, and villagers working Both the state and the communities need a long- in Colonia, Palau, Guam, Hawaii, or elsewhere. term vision of where they want to go, such as on what Yet although their authority is often not well type of tourism they want to develop and where, and exercised, it still exists. Tourism and the impact how they want to manage their natural resources. There of foreign visitors do not appear to have been may be a lot of agreement among the people on what significant factors in this decline. type of world they want, but the vision is not expressed, • Communities have lost cohesiveness for many nor are ideas discussed on how to achieve it. For of the same reasons that the traditional leaders example, in political elections there are no platforms of have lost authority. Communities rarely work 163 together any more, nor do they come together the integration of traditional and modern often to discuss issues. approaches to the management of natural • The extraordinarily complex traditional system resources will be difficult and will require building of land tenure causes frequent disagreements understanding and trust through common over ownership and use and is an obstacle to interests. coherent regulation of the use of natural • Achieving development of tourism beyond its resources and to investment for development. present basic level will require innovative • Traditional systems for the management of approaches to working within the land tenure natural resources are significantly weakened, system and new mechanisms for partnership partly because of the general weakening of between developers and communities for traditional authority, but especially because of common gain and true development. the introduction of technology not anticipated • A major task will be to develop a state strategic within the traditional system. plan in which vision, objectives, actions, and • Environmental sustainability is currently not implementation plans are established for the directly addressed in traditional systems or whole state. This must then be realized through adequately addressed in government functions. the establishment of policies, enabling legislation, While individuals in both systems are very implementation mechanisms, enforcement, concerned for the future sustainability of the monitoring, and evaluation. culture and the environment, they are not yet integrated into a planning process to achieve Opportunities that sustainability. • Very little in the way of policy or economic or • The traditional system is weakened but still political direction is written. Most Yapese may sufficiently intact to be a strong force for agree on many issues or values, but it is seldom sustainable management of natural resources, possible to find the position in written form. Yap but it must be informed of issues and engaged has a tradition of verbal history and much that in a partnership with state government. is widely agreed remains unwritten. • The education system is strong and dynamic, • The Yapese culture is very nonconfrontational and bringing understanding of common goals and public debate is rare, even on issues crucial and a vision for the future of Yap to school to the future of the state. There is no common children may be the most effective means to expression of a vision for the future of Yap, from reach the larger population in the long run. the government or from the traditional system, • A new state government is in the early stages of nor is there any forum that encourages the developing its policies and has expressed the discussion of ideas. desire to establish better communications between the state government and the Challenges communities. • Tacit agreement among the people on a vision • The overriding challenge is to make the for the future of Yap is widespread, and the traditional systems of leadership and community process of debating and articulating that vision feel that they are partners with the state from the ground up should require only the government in moving forward toward true leadership and the open forum in which to make development that bring benefits for all and is it happen. environmentally sustainable. • Opportunities for the development of ecotourism • Establishing good communications between the are excellent, but they will require partnerships government and community and traditional between developers and communities. In turn, leadership will be the greatest challenge. It must such partnerships and developments have the be done in a manner that is truly collaborative potential to greatly strengthen the communities, and not patronizing on the part of either party. the traditional leadership, and the collaboration • Reaching agreement among traditional leaders between traditional and government systems of and government regulators and managers over natural resource management. PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 164 Collectively they go a long way toward making up a Recommendations larger strategy for environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable development for Yap. The following recommendations reflect the comments and the suggestions of the people of Yap and It is easier and perhaps more understandable to are made with reference to the conditions and issues in address the elements of that strategy rather than a single Yap. The strategy and actions are specific to the needs very large continuum. They are therefore presented as of Yap. But they address problems that are pervasive four strategic elements: among the Pacific island countries. • Identify shared goals and plan strategically; Strategy • Build government-to-community communication; • Strengthen community cohesion and action; and Yap currently has unsustainable patterns of use of • Promote public-private partnerships. its natural resources and faces the risk of serious and possibly irreversible depletion of those resources. At present the potential for cooperation is good but Moreover, its economy is heavily dependent on a tourism the environment for its realization is weak, and sector that is in turn dependent on the condition of those the mainstreaming of traditional environmental same natural resources, lacks any development plan, management and the formation of partnerships for and faces significant obstacles to growth in the development are unlikely until actions are taken to traditional tenure of the land and water. correct the underlying problems of institutional structures and the lack of communication. The The two problems may have different roots, but the subsequent recommendations concerning goals/ possible solutions are interrelated. Both require strategy/planning, strengthening communities, and collaboration and partnerships between public and improving communications between government and private entities. In order for those partnerships to traditional leaders and communities will collectively develop, there must develop an identification of shared create the conditions in which public-private partnerships values and objectives, better communications between and the integration of traditional and modern practices the modern and traditional sectors, a strengthening of for resource management will be possible. communities and traditional leadership, and a common strategy and plan for the future of Yap against which to Identify Shared Goals and Plan Strategically measure individual actions and ventures. Clear and agreed commonly held goals and Integration of traditional and modern approaches direction are essential, both for the management of to the management of natural resources, like the natural resources and for the development of tourism, development of ecotourism, requires that the traditional and the two must be internally consistent. and modern, the community and the government, the private and the public sectors all communicate better Most Yapese agree on what they want for Yap: and understand one another’s values and objectives. respect for traditional values, controlled progress into While genuine differences are sure to remain, they can the modern economy, better education and health care, be better managed and compensated when mutual development of high-end ecotourism, preservation of the misunderstanding and suspicion are reduced through environment, better infrastructure, etc. But these issues honest exchange. have not been openly discussed in any forum, and no generally accepted statement of a vision for Yap or of The strategic recommendations below address the how the commonly held values and objectives will be cultural and political roots of problems in both natural achieved has evolved. resource management and tourism development. The elements of the strategy are focused on the Economic and social development, especially environmental sustainability of the management of including achievement of sustainable use of natural natural resources and the development of the tourism resources, must be based on broad agreement about industry, but they support all aspects of development. what the government and the traditional communities 165 are trying to achieve and on the values and priorities organization must exist in order for the community to that that vision comprises. So long as there is neither engage in the discussion of state values and goals, but open discussion of issues nor broad agreement on values the very act of participating in the forum and engaging and a future for Yap, it will be very difficult to integrate in the discussion as a community will build community the traditional forms of natural resource management cohesion and a sense of community empowerment. with modern management techniques. Integration requires that the tools and leverage of traditional Building shared values and goals and a vision, authority and community cohesiveness work together strategy, and action plan for Yap should be widely with the science, expertise, and financial resources of debated and involve a cross-section of the entire the state government to achieve common objectives for community, including government, traditional, and the sustainable use of natural resources. private sectors. Implementation actions and committees should include representatives from traditional Both government and traditional leaders must truly communities, the private sector, government, and NGOs believe in the importance of the integrated and who share the same goals, vision, and inspiration—to sustainable management and development of all natural improve the quality of life of the people of Yap. resources for the effort to be successful. Development of a state vision and strategy will fail if they do not. Both The entire process of building a consensus should groups must repeat the same message down the ranks, proceed from a clear strategy of its own, which should to the different sectors of government, to the private be agreed among representatives of the various parties sector, and to the traditional communities. and sectors involved. It should start with informal mediation among leaders of the traditional and modern A forum is therefore needed for discussion of values sectors to find basic agreement on their own values and and aspirations for the future of Yap. The forum is objectives and on a process for building a state vision figurative, not literal, and may have many aspects, and strategy. This agreement would then probably including everything from the traditional village council include an extensive process of state government to debate between differing viewpoints on television. conferring with community councils, in the communities, Government and traditional leaders must share their to discuss goals and values, while simultaneously viewpoints in front of the general citizenry, so that a building communications channels for the long term. consensus of shared values, goals, and objectives can grow. And in the village council and in the television As the people become more involved in the debate debate both traditional and modern viewpoints must be through community councils and the media, the debate represented, in order to bridge the communications gap would then move up to a state-level forum or convention and resulting suspicion that have grown between where decisions could be drawn and directions set for traditional and modern systems of leadership. the future, to be passed back to the communities for their further debate and eventual concurrence. A second Identifying shared goals and building a vision and round of state-level discussion could be required, but a strategy for the future of Yap are introduced here as the process of reaching agreement should not be forced the first strategic objective because they are the and all parties should feel that they have had adequate paramount and overriding requirement for all aspects opportunity to make their viewpoint heard. of balanced and sustainable growth. But they are also integral to two of the other strategic elements: building This process will include the issues of management government-to-community communications and of natural resources and the development of tourism, strengthening community cohesion and action. but it should touch on other important issues for the future (e.g., use of resources, foreign investment, and Better communications between the government the development of industry) and encompass broad and the traditional sectors is needed in order for a forum values and the general future of Yap. on state values and goals to be effective, and the act of opening public discussion on these issues will in itself Specific actions to implement the strategic objective open new channels of communication and enhance of identifying shared goals and planning strategically are existing ones. Similarly, some level of community presented in “Actions” below. PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 166 Build Government-to-Community Communications The schools can also be an important part of the broader forum for discussion of values, goals, and Communications between the state government strategy for the future of Yap. Children who are and the communities are poor. For a number of complex themselves asked to discuss and consider such questions reasons, the councils of traditional leaders set up to can both take ideas home to their parents and prompt facilitate communication do not fulfill their intended role the parents themselves to consider the issues. well, and occasional forays of agencies of state government into the municipalities only serve to It is essential that a vision for the future of Yap underline to the people in the villages how great is the develop from the community up to the state level. This gap of understanding between state and community. vision will serve many purposes, as the basis for selecting courses of action that integrate traditional and modern The government is seen as too secretive and as not concepts for the management of natural resources as communicating sufficiently with the communities. As a the basis for decisions on the development of tourism, result, many people in the villages assume the and for many more issues. But for all of these, it is government does not care about them. A more important that forums conducted at the community level comprehensive newsletter or newspaper is needed and identify the community visions for the future, and that the government should help to support it by paying for those collective visions filter up to form a state vision space in which to communicate its plans and actions to and strategy. A vision developed at the top and passed the people. The governor and other senior officials down to the communities will be seen as one more should talk to the people regularly by radio, and issues example of poor communication between the state and of national values and goals should be debated on radio the communities. and on television. These and more should be part of a concerted government program to communicate better Specific actions to implement the strategic objective with the people. of building government to community communications are presented in “Actions” below. The state government must take the initiative to build effective channels of communications through Strengthen Community Cohesion and Action systematic contact. The same visits of government that may create confusion when done occasionally will, Traditional management of natural resources was if done systematically and with a willingness of based on the needs of the community, but more government to listen rather than direct, gradually create importantly on cohesion within the community that understanding through which the communities and caused its members to communicate often among the state government can develop cooperation. themselves and to understand their needs and their best Cooperation in small ways and useful projects can interests. The advent of the cash economy and modern steadily build understanding and willingness to listen technology has caused the community to break down from both sides. Development programs must also as a cohesive entity. As a result its members do not support the efforts of state agencies (e.g., for health care, understand the issues of sustainable use of natural agriculture, environment, and marine resources) to resources and they are no longer able to act as an entity mount well-thought-out and systematic processes of to enforce their collective will on issues such as communications with the communities and the people. preventing widespread poaching and the use of gill nets. The public education system should play an Strengthening the communities will facilitate and important role in building communications. Children are stabilize the difficult transition for the traditional culture taught about the environment in school, but not enough of Yap to the modern cash economy. More important about the value or effectiveness of traditional methods of for the management of natural resources, more cohesive natural resource management to keep the new generation communities may be the only entities capable of from dismissing the traditional ways, including those for enforcing decisions reached collaboratively by resource management. It is essential to reach the younger government and communities on resource management. people in the community with information, while at the And as to the development of tourism, given the complex same time showing respect for the traditional leaders. system of land and water tenure, the community may 167 be the only feasible partner for the development of destination. In it the community would hold an equity ecotourism requiring access to substantial areas of land interest in exchange for the guarantee of access to the and water. needed land and resources, and would take a progressively active role in the actual management of State and external assistance programs should the facility. Without exception, those asked answered address creating community awareness and cohesion, that they felt it would be the only way such a facility by supporting community forums and education for the could gain access to the needed land and water community concerning its common problems and resources; they believed that communities (whether possible solutions. Development programs should also village or municipality) would be willing to incorporate help provide the means for communities to take action if needed in order to be a viable legal partner in such a to address their problems (e.g., materials for repairing venture. traditional fish traps or for marking boundaries of marine preserves). Strengthened and focused communities are It will be important to further investigate and not only the most important tool for sustainable describe the possible methods to carry out such management of natural resources, but without them, in partnerships and to build the business and community the absence of an enforcement capability that will always advisory services and legal support to actually initiate be both too expensive and culturally unacceptable, such ventures. The state government can play a major sustainable management may not be achievable at all. part in business-to-community partnerships and should develop guidelines for ventures that will minimize Specific actions to implement the strategic objective misunderstanding or conflict and maximize benefit to of strengthening community cohesion and action are communities. Investors will also want the assurance of presented in “Actions” below. the government that their actions are consistent with state policy and regulations. While government Promote Public-Private Partnerships involvement should be limited, it can assure that projects are in line with state and community interests, While public-private partnerships are relatively regulations, and guidelines. unknown at present, the concept fits well with traditional concepts of the role of the community or village in the Similarly, public-private partnerships among state management of resources. Traditionally, the community government, communities, and private owners of the leadership has an important voice in the use of resources, rights to land and water will be essential to the even though ownership is individual. It is therefore integration of traditional and modern methods of natural logical that the community should be a partner in a resource management and the successful future venture that involves the use of resources, especially if management of natural resources for sustainability. The multiple owners in the community are involved. state government’s limited authority over the use of Partnerships will provide stability by engaging more natural resources makes it imperative to enter into a diverse stakeholders in the active management of partnership relationship with the community and private projects and by preventing the owners of the resources owners in order to manage the resources in an organized involved from feeling that they may have been taken fashion to meet common objectives. advantage of by the investor or entrepreneur. They are a workable idea and should be supported through The nature of these partnerships will evolve with development programs at all levels. time and experience, but in order to work at all they require good communications and the establishment of Development of ecotourism requires access to clear common goals and objectives. A successful substantial land and water resources. With the prevailing partnership must be transparent and must meet some complex system of land ownership, partnerships may of the objectives of each party involved. be the only way that development will be possible. Many different people were asked their opinion of the feasibility Specific actions to implement the strategic objective of a public-private partnership between a foreign investor of promoting public-private partnerships are presented and a community for the development of an ecotourism in “Actions” below. PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 168 Actions each municipality, and if possible within individual villages or groups of villages, on the Each of the following recommended actions has issues of shared values and goals and the been suggested by one or more persons interviewed in citizens’ vision of the future of Yap. Involve Yap. They are grouped and presented here in the same multiple representatives of state government, structures as the strategic initiatives above. In many from the legislature and the executive and its cases they overlap and would support each other. various functional agencies (e.g., environment, Obviously, they collectively make up a larger program education, health, marine resources). While not for environmentally, socially, and economically every part of government can be involved in sustainable development. It remains easier and perhaps each discussion, all parts of government should more understandable, however, to address them in have the opportunity to engage in some groups rather than as a single very large continuum. discussions and to sense the community perspective. The individual items are specific actions that the • Involve the two councils of traditional leaders government can take, in most cases collaboratively with in the consultations between government and the other stakeholders, to carry out the strategic communities. They can form the interface and directions outlined above. Within a category the action make the necessary arrangements. Their items are presented in a loose temporal sequence in involvement will both facilitate the discussions which they should be undertaken, though some actions and strengthen their expected role as an might be logically initiated simultaneously. intermediary between the traditional and modern systems. Identify Shared Goals and Plan Strategically • If it is seen as too difficult to approach the larger issues of the future of Yap directly, an alternative • Initiate a process of identifying and defining approach is to stimulate an open dialog starting shared values and goals for the future of Yap— with an all-stakeholder conference on the issue in essence a state vision. Start with small group of natural resource management. The discussion discussions among a few leaders representing can then develop into the need for a state vision both the modern and traditional leadership and direction in order to make any strategy or sectors, the private sector, and NGOs and other plan for management of the natural resources stakeholders. Establish this group as a state work. This approach may be more palatable than committee to identify the probable common a direct approach to the larger issues of a state ground and the key issues to address, and to set vision. a strategy and plan for the process of developing • Based on the findings in the community, draft a state vision and strategy. a set of issues and apparent values and • It may be useful to bring in an outside party with positions of the communities and other some experience in state visioning and strategic stakeholders with regard to each. These planning to organize and facilitate the initial should be circulated and publicized in the discussions and the design of the subsequent newsletter and aired in radio and television process. The individual should be from outside debate. the culture in order to have objectivity and the • Convene a state forum to develop a strategic ability to suggest without restraint, but he/she plan for Yap. The convention or conference should be careful to facilitate rather than direct. should have widespread stakeholder • Organize the process of developing a broad- representation, and it is important that no based and integrated state vision and strategy significant stakeholder be excluded. An outside from the community level up. Government must moderator with skills in strategic planning might support the process of municipal and village be of assistance. It is important that the meetings and other forums needed to build a conference start by addressing values and goals, state vision and strategy from the bottom up. A and strategic direction, and not limit itself to systematic process of discussions at the specific action items as did the First Yap State community level should occur, at a minimum in Economic and Social Summit. 169 • Convene a regional forum for the discussion and • The governor and other senior officials should exchange of experience on the development of talk to the people by regular radio or television state/national vision, goals, and strategic plans. programs, and national issues should be With so many physical, cultural, and economic discussed and debated among different issues in common, the Pacific island countries stakeholders on radio and on television. could gain much from one another’s experiences. • The media campaign and public debate should also be used as a means to preserve knowledge Build Government-to-Community Communications of traditional culture, and especially traditional methods of managing natural resources. • Establish a systematic program in which representatives of various elements of govern- Strengthen Community Cohesion and Action ment visit communities to discuss the concerns of the community and what government is trying • Organize a statewide program of community to do to meet the needs of the community. These revitalization. This program will be managed by discussions should occur at a minimum in each representatives of the communities and of NGOs municipality and if possible within individual concerned with community development: it villages or groups of villages. Involve multiple could be an independent agency, or it could be representatives of state government, from the embedded within an NGO such as YAPCAP. legislature and the executive and its various • Set up small-scale pilot projects to test principles functional agencies (e.g., environment, and strategies, and then use lessons learned education, health, marine resources). While not from these pilot projects to design new larger- every part of government can be involved in scale programs. Use small projects that rebuild each discussion, all parts of government should community pride and that require the have the opportunity to engage in some collaboration of many individuals within the discussions and to sense the community community, such as rebuilding stone paths and perspective. traditional buildings. Try to develop projects for • At some point the community discussions with the sustainable management of natural the government may overlap with the process resources, such as rebuilding stone fish traps or of seeking community perspective on values and surveying natural resources. goals for a state strategy. Unlike the focused • Establish grant and loan funds for development discussions on goals and values, however, this and revitalization actions undertaken by process should be ongoing and permanent and communities. Make these easily accessible to should address the more practical issues that all communities, subject to performance-based will cause the community to feel that the state conditions. The state government should provide government is responsive to its concerns and financial support for the convening of needs. The practical issues of natural resource community forums to discuss issues, including management will be a continuing theme in such management of natural resources. meetings. • Train community leaders, both interested • Local government organizations and NGOs traditional leaders and emerging new concerned with traditional authority should nontraditional leaders, in how to revitalize organize together to take an active role in the community cohesiveness. statewide program of outreach to communities • Send someone well rooted within each and to traditional leaders. municipality outside the community (within FSM • The government should set out an organized or overseas) for training in business development media program to communicate with the people. and natural resource management. Select A more comprehensive newsletter or newspaper someone young who is not offended by training is needed and the government should help to and yet who will have the stature to advise the support it by paying for space in which to traditional leaders when he/she returns. communicate its plans and actions to the • Introduce special materials on traditional people. leadership systems and the traditional role of PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 170 the community into public education, possibly solutions to the obstacles and develop any through a traditional leader who is a roving needed legislation or regulations. lecturer to the school system. Develop guidelines • Convene a regional workshop on the past on how the schools can help to facilitate experience and future advantages of public- community communication and revitalization. private partnerships for development. Examine • Convene a regional workshop on the how they fit within the traditional systems in the revitalization of communities and the traditional various cultures and how they can be used to systems of authority in order to generate best advantage to achieve sustainable manage- exchange of experience across countries and ment of natural resources. cultures. Integrate Traditional and Modern Management of Promote Public-Private Partnerships Natural Resources • Train legal counseling services, business • Empower the ESC as the planner, coordinator, development services, and municipal leaders in and integrator of state programs to achieve the issues and techniques of developing public- sustainable management of natural resources. private partnerships between developers and It already has a membership that well represents communities, for tourism and for other projects, both the modern and the traditional systems, and and between developers/investors and the state it is the best positioned organization to seek the government for infrastructure projects. practical means to integrate the traditional and • Establish tax and other incentives in the modern systems of management. It should investment and tax regulations for development remain an independent body, not a state ventures that are built on public-private organization. But it should have the endorsement partnerships. of both the state executive government and the • Establish a revolving loan fund for private sector councils of traditional leaders as the planning development to provide funds for the develop- and integrating agency to find the best solutions ment of business proposals, the incubation of and to marshal and allocate the available entrepreneurs, the marketing of opportunities, resources, public and private, local and external, and seed money to start or expand small to achieve sustainable management of natural investments using public-private partnerships. resources. This might be administered through the FSM • Support partnership initiatives such as the new Development Bank, with the technical support IWP program to establish marine protected of the Small Business Development Center and areas. Examine closely the progress and results the advice of YAPCAP on community issues. of this initiative, to identify how future • The state government should establish a public partnerships between the government and information program and a publicly available communities and individual land and water training program to provide information and rights holders can be better designed for training for village landowners to equip them collaboration among government, resource with the business, financial, and management owners, communities, and traditional leaders. skills that will enable them to start small Note particularly the motivations of the resource businesses, including small-scale tourism owners and traditional leaders to participate in facilities, using various forms of partnerships. the partnerships and how they gain from the • Examine possible ways of using land held in process. As neither party has sufficient authority, the traditional system as collateral for loans. resources, or skills to accomplish sustainable Involve the financial and banking community in management of natural resources alone, it is a careful analysis of how the traditional land essential that they collaborate in order to tenure system limits the capitalization of land achieve the objective. But each party to the and thereby hinders domestic sources of partnership must achieve its own objective in investment financing because landowners the process in order for the process to continue cannot use their land as collateral. Identify or to be repeated. 171 • Establish a state program to promote public- regulations. The traditional leaders and private partnerships for the sustainable communities are the best positioned to control management of natural resources. This program excessive demands on the resources, but they should cover both marine and terrestrial are likely to do so only if they see that it is in resources, such as the reintroduction of their own best interest. This becomes possible traditional methods of agriculture. Build on the as part of the larger processes of establishing experience of the IWP program and if needed communications between state government and seek the assistance of outside parties such as traditional leaders, strengthening communities the South Pacific Regional Environment and traditional leadership, and educating Programme in mediating among the interests communities and traditional leaders about the of state, resource owners, and traditional issues and importance of sustainable manage- leadership. ment of natural resources. • Provide special training or briefings for members • Convene a regional forum focused specifically of the councils of traditional leaders and for on the integration of traditional and modern other traditional leaders, to enhance their approaches to the management of natural understanding of issues in natural resource resources. While this subject has been raised in management and the relationships and common a number of regional and Pacific area forums, it interests of traditional and modern approaches has not enjoyed the exclusive and focused to management. Assist them in conveying these attention that it requires, and there are still few concepts to their constituencies. Draw the concrete conclusions on how to facilitate such members of the councils into a central role integration. in seeking ways to integrate traditional and modern methods of natural resource Develop Tourism management. • Provide short-term training for a variety of state • Commission a study of the possibilities for government employees and local experts and tourism development in Yap. Focus on ecolo- consultants in natural resource management, so gically sustainable tourism and include activities that they can participate in the process of other than diving. Address issues of traditional government-to-community meetings and landownership and how it may be an obstacle communicate more knowledge more effectively and the possible ways to deal with the issue. to the communities. Examine possibilities for community-culture- • Provide medium-term training for a select based tourism and how such tourism might also number of key individuals (program managers serve to preserve traditional culture, rebuild and innovative leaders, in government agencies traditional artifacts such as stone paths and clan and NGOs) in natural resource management and platforms, and strengthen communities. community leadership, so that they can lead and • Based on the analysis above and on the work animate programs to communicate more on the shared goals and values identified in the knowledge more effectively to the communities. overall visioning and planning for Yap, develop • Secure outside experts in natural resource a tourism development strategy and plan for management to accompany local teams in Yap. Involve representatives of both the modern outreach programs to reach communities. and traditional sectors in the planning process. Experts from outside the culture, especially off- Hold public discussion in order to get feedback islanders from other Pacific cultures, can make on the important elements of the strategy and a valuable contribution, because they have plan. inherent status vis-à-vis the traditional • Seek outside technical assistance in building a leadership and they help to attract attention to state strategy for the development of tourism the issues discussed. and associated air and water transportation, • Seek the participation of traditional leadership with special concern for ecotourism and its in improved enforcement of both traditional interaction with the management of natural restraints to use of resources and modern state resources. PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 172 • With a clear strategy and plan for tourism The advent of modern technology, the cash development, review existing law and regulation economy, and other forces such as religion have had for consistency and for support of the chosen similar impacts on traditional cultures across the direction. Initiate new legislation to fill any voids Pacific. All are in various stages of transition from the or remove any obstacles to implementing the traditional to the modern world. Consequently, island plan, such as obstacles to encouraging the types communities also share the decline of traditional of investment and partnerships needed to realize authority, the difficulty of communication between the the tourism development plan. modern government and the traditional leaders and • Initiate coordinated action to attract needed communities, and in most cases the weak and foreign investment for both the tourism unsustainable management of natural resources. destinations and the service infrastructure (e.g., transportation, medical services, etc.) required Hence, conclusions and recommendations drawn to realize the tourism development plan. from one island nation should have broad replicability • Convene a regional workshop on ecotourism for policy and strategy across the region. development and its relationship to the Implementation, of course, will need to be tailored to sustainable management of natural resources. the specific situation under consideration. Yap and other islands have similar resources and are targeting the same tourism market. The approach for development of tourism in Yap is They can in many ways learn from the very applicable to other Pacific island countries, and successes and failures of similar development some of the other islands are already on the road of and implementation plans on other Pacific similar development as proposed for Yap. Yap could well islands, and from the impacts that similar learn from the mistakes and successes of such countries development may have had on the sustainability as the Fiji Islands, Samoa, Cook Islands, and Tahiti. of natural resources. Next Steps for Strategic Planning Applicability to Other Pacific Island Countries The strategies above identified through this study of the State of Yap are similar to those that would be Pacific island countries enjoy similar remoteness employed for most Pacific island countries: and isolation, small land masses, fragile ecosystems, small populations, weak economic development, and • identify shared goals and plan strategically, culture and traditions related to land tenure and natural • build government-to-community communication, resources. They tend to lack skilled personnel and the • strengthen community cohesion and action, and financial resources for economic development other than • promote public-private partnerships. for fishing, agricultural, and tourism industries. There is often a disconnect of interests and values Pacific island people share a voyaging tradition and among the traditional community, the modern their societies and cultures have evolved over the government, and the private sector. There is seldom a millennia through migration. While each may have common vision in specific terms, although most might different imperatives and local traditions, the island agree on generalized terms such as improvements in cultures still have much in common as a result of the economy, education, health care, and management geographic conditions, ethnic origins, regional history, of natural resources. Yet, each sector perceives and and economic conditions. defines these terms according to its own set of priorities, and its vision comes through different lenses; their They also share a broad concern for the preservation common vision suffers in specific terms from poorly of their natural environment and for sustainable developed and ineffectual relationships among all three development, but sometimes their actual development sectors. programs are poorly designed and controlled and are not so sustainable. The four strategy recommendations above, however, would create an opportunity for taking new, 173 innovative, progressive directions that not only provide the common vision and values. They proceed together solutions to the challenges within the State of Yap, but in an organic process of continual change. also address challenges faced by a majority of other Pacific island countries. So the next steps for a nation or a state, whether in integrating traditional and modern methods of natural How does one create effective partnerships and resource development or in other issues of development, what are the catalysts? To begin, one must recognize are on a dual track. Some discrete actions need to be that effective partnerships are not products of a process taken early to improve community cohesion and or of a set of policies. They are the process itself. They communications between modern and traditional are dynamic. They must constantly adjust to new society. At the same time, the process should start, slowly conditions and challenges. They must be flexible, capable and carefully at first, to explore common values, of adaptation and compromise. Therefore, the action concerns, and goals toward the evolution and items must address the process and the products articulation of a common vision. separately. This has great advantages. While attention is directed to developing a particular product, meaningful The items outlined in the “Actions” section of this partnerships can evolve among the three sectors. report are the first stage in establishing a knowledge Attention to which sector has the most influence, the base, identifying stakeholders, and building a most benefit, or the most self-serving results disappears. formative dialogue. They will create the conditions in The common vision becomes intertwined in the process which members of communities can better work rather than being forced or manipulated up front. together in the interests of the community and in which the state government can work collaboratively Therefore, building a common vision and values and with communities and traditional leadership toward evolving partnerships for specific products are an common goals and values. The results in iterative process. Some existing common vision helps a implementing such action items will demonstrate partnership to take definition, and the experience of when an island country is ready for a second stage of developing partnerships for specific goals helps to shape engagement. PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 174 175 References: ADB (Asian Development Bank). 1992. Environment and Development; A Pacific Island Perspective. Manila. . 1993. Women in Development: Federated States of Micronesia. Manila: ADB. . 1997. Pacific Studies Series. Federated States of Micronesia 1996 Economic Report. Manila. . 1999a. Sustainable Development: Asian and Pacific Perspectives. Based on the regional Consultative Meeting on Sustainable Development, November 1998. Manila. . 1999b. Federated States of Micronesia Human Resource Study: Health and Education. Manila. . 2000a. 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Enterprising Department. 177 Appendixes PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 178 179 Appendix Persons Interviewed • Al Ganang, CEO/General Manager, Village View • Dave Vecella, General Manager, Beyond the Reef Resort Divers • Andrew Ruepong, Paramount Traditional Leader • James Gilmar, Director, Department of Resources and Associate Justice (Acting Chief Justice), Yap and Development, Government of Yap State Court • James Limar, Director, Small Business Development • Andrew Yatilman, General Manager, Yap Visitors Center, former developer and manager of Destiny Bureau, member of the Environmental Stewardship Resort, member of the Council of Pilung Consortium and former Lt. Governor of Yap • Jesse Damel, Deputy Director, Department of • Andy Tafeilechit, Division Chief, Marine Resources Resources and Development, Government of Yap Management Division, Dept. of Resources and • Jimmie Townsend, CEO, Moy Inc. (a business Development, Government of Yap development service with emphasis on preservation • Ben Tured, Attorney and Yap representative, of the traditional culture of Yap) Micronesia Legal Services Corporation • Joe Habuchmai, Lieutenant Governor of Yap State • Berna Gorong, Editor, The Yap Networker (Yap’s • John Mangefel, first Governor of Yap, principal weekly newsletter) member of the Yap State Environmental • Bill Acker, General Manager and CEO, Manta Ray Stewardship Consortium, Chairman of the Board of Bay Hotel and Yap Divers ACE • Bruno Tharngan, Acting Chairman, Council of • John Mootmag, Law Clerk to the Yap State Court Pilung (council of chiefs for the main island) • John Pong, Traditional Leader, Kadai Village, • Charles Chieng, Executive Director of Yap representative to the Council of Pilung Community Action Program, Chairman of Yap • John Wayaan, owner and manager, The Pathways Environmental Stewardship Consortium, Chairman Hotel of the Board of Directors of the Environmental • Joleen Chumrod, student, granddaughter of Tamag, Protection Agency, representative to the Council of daughter of Sen. Ted Rutun Pilung, traditional leader • Joseph J. Urusemal, senator from Yap and Floor • Charles Falmeyog, Executive Director, KCCDO (a Leader, Congress of the FSM tourist attraction in Kadai village) and Customer Service Manager of Yap State Public Service • Kevin Rhodes, Consultant to South Pacific Regional Corporation Environment Programme for IWP • Charles S. Chiang, Member of the Yap State • Leo Flawaw, Administrator for the Council of Pilung Legislature and of the Committee on Resources, and representative to the Council from the Education and Development Municipality of Gagil • Charles Yalaarow, Manager, Yap participation in • Leo Pugram, Coordinator for Curriculum and Strategic Action Programme for the International Instruction, Yap State Department of Education Waters of the Pacific Small Island Developing States • Leo Yinug, Director, Environmental Protection (IWP) Agency, Government of Yap • Christopher J. Buchun, loan officer, FSM • Lonnie Fread, Manager, Yap Art Studio and Gallery Development Bank • Margie Falanruw, Director, Yap Institute of Natural • Christy Xavier, Publisher, The Yap Networker Sciences, regional representative for the US Forest • Cyril Chugrad, President, WAAB Corp. Service PACIFIC REGION ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY 2005-2009 VOLUME 2 180 • Michael Gaan, Chief, Commerce & Industries, Dept. • Ted Glenn, Executive Director, Academy For Culture of Resources and Development, Government of Yap and Education of Yap • Michael Gumbiner, General Manager, Traders Ridge • Theo Thinnifel, Interim Manager, Yap Fishing Resort Authority, Government of Yap • Patricia Leon, The Nature Conservancy, Pohnpei, • Tiare Holm, The Nature Conservancy, Koror, Palau FSM • Tomil, Representative to Council of Pilung • Peter Stelzer, Attorney, Public Defender’s Office, • Tony Falthin, Director of the Office of Rural Government of Yap Development (FSM institution funded by USDA and • Peter Tharngan, Manager, Yap Branch, FSM providing loans primarily for housing) Development Bank • Tony Ganangiyan, President of Yap Cooperative • Robert Finnginan, Loan Officer, FSM Development , Association, a private company, and Speaker of the Bank Yap State Legislature • Robert Ruecho, Governor of Yap State • William Yad, Traditional Leader of Gachpar Village, • Sabino S. Sauchomal, Floor Leader of the Yap State historian and translator for Historic Preservation Legislature Office • Samson Samasoni, South Pacific Regional • Yuruw, Traditional Leader Environment Programme, Representative to Yap for IWP Names In the traditional system Yapese are given Names: • Scott Davies, Manager, Media Shop, Yap State a single name. The name relates to their land and is a Department of Education clan name but not a nuclear family name (i.e., not • Stan Fillmed, Founder and Owner of The Pathways necessarily the same as the mother or the father). Where Hotel, Traditional Leader of Kadai Village a western style name appears first it is a Christian or baptismal name. Where there is a single name it is the • Tamag, Traditional Leader from Maap, Master traditional name, though the individual might also have Builder, Host of Bechiyal Cultural Center a Christian name.
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