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					SEPTEMBER, 2004                        ROAD DESIGN MANUAL               CONTENTS (1)



                                                CHAPTER 1
                              DESIGN FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

1-1.0   GENERAL

1-2.0   MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT of TRANSPORTATION (Mn/DOT)

        1-2.01   Finance and Administration Division
                 1-2.01.01 Affirmative Action Office
                 1-2.01.02   Business and Support Services
                 1-2.01.03 EEO/Contract Management
                 1-2.01.04 Finance
                 1-2.01.05 Human Resources Operations
                 1-2.01.06 Workforce Development

        1-2.02   Program Management Division
                 1-2.02.01  Aeronautics
                 1-2.02.02  Freight and Commercial Vehicle Operations
                 1-2.02.03  Investment Management
                 1-2.02.04  Transit

        1-2.03   Engineering Services Division
                 1-2.03.01   Bridge and Structures
                 1-2.03.02   Construction and Innovative Contracting
                 1-2.03.03   Environmental Services
                 1-2.03.04   Land Management
                 1-2.03.05   Materials
                 1-2.03.06   Technical Support

        1-2.04   Operations, Safety and Technology Division
                 1-2.04.01    Electronic Communications
                 1-2.04.02    Information Technology
                 1-2.04.03    Maintenance
                 1-2.04.04    Transportation Data and Analysis
                 1-2.04.05    Traffic, Security and Operations

        1-2.05   State Aid to Local Transportation Division

        1-2.06   District Operations Division
                 1-2.06.01    Metro District
                 1-2.06.02    District One: Duluth
                 1-2.06.03    District Two: Bemidji
                 1-2.06.04    District Three: Brainerd
                 1-2.06.05    District Four: Detroit Lakes
                 1-2.06.06    District Six: Rochester
                 1-2.06.07    District Seven: Mankato
                 1-2.06.08    District Eight: Willmar
CONTENTS (2)                            ROAD DESIGN MANUAL                         SEPTEMBER, 2004


1-3.0   OTHER STATE AGENCIES/SOCIETIES

        1-3.01   Minnesota Historical Society
        1-3.02   Department of Natural Resources (DNR)
        1-3.03   Department of Public Safety (DPS)
        1-3.04   Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA)
        1-3.05   Minnesota Environmental Quality Board (MEQB)

1-4.0   FEDERAL AGENCIES

        1-4.01   Department of Transportation
                 1-4.01.01    Federal Highway Administration
        1-4.02   U.S. Coast Guard
        1-4.03   U.S. Department of Agriculture
        1-4.04   U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
        1-4.05   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
        1-4.06   U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
        1-4.07   Federal Transit Administration (FTA)
        1-4.08   Board of Water and Soil Resources (BWSR)

1-5.0   COUNTY AGENCIES

        1-5.01   County Engineering Office
        1-5.02   County Health Agencies

1-6.0   MUNICIPALITIES

        1-6.01   Incorporated Areas
        1-6.02   Unincorporated Areas
        1-6.03   Townships

1-7.0   METRO AND RELATED REGIONAL GROUPS

        1-7.01   Metropolitan Council of the Twin Cities Area
                 1.7.01.01    Metropolitan Council Environmental Services (MCES)
                 1.7.01.02    Metropolitan Council Transit Operations (MCTO)
        1-7.02   Metropolitan Airports Commission (MAC)
        1-7.03   Local Planning Agencies
        1-7.04   Watershed Districts

1-8.0   TRANSPORTATION SERVICE GROUPS

        1-8.01   American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
        1-8.02   Transportation Research Board (TRB)

1-9.0   PROJECT ADMINISTRATION

        1-9.01   Project Development Process (General)
        1-9.02   Project Management
        1-9.03   Project Manager Responsibility
                                           ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

2   CHAPTER 2 – DESIGN STANDARDS
    2-1 INTRODUCTION
    2-2 HIGHWAY SYSTEMS
       2-2.01   Jurisdictional System
       2-2.02   State Aid System
       2-2.03   Federal Aid System
           2-2.03.01      National Highway System
           2-2.03.02      Surface Transportation Program
           2-2.03.03      Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program
           2-2.03.04      Other Funding Programs of ISTEA
    2-3 DESIGN CONTROLS
       2-3.01   Driver
       2-3.02   Vehicle
       2-3.03   Pedestrian and Bicyclist
       2-3.04   Mass Transit
       2-3.05   Safety
       2-3.06   Access Control
           2-3.06.01      Full
           2-3.06.02      Partial
           2-3.06.03      Statute, Zoning and Regulations
    2-4 PROJECT SCOPE DETERMINATION
       2-4.01   Project Scoping
           2-4.01.01      Design Level Goal
       2-4.02   Cost Effectiveness
           2-4.02.01      User Benefit and Cost Analysis
           2-4.02.02      Safety Benefits Based on Accident Experience
           2-4.02.03      Safety Benefits Based on Accident Potential (Run off Road Accidents)
       2-4.03   Value Engineering
    2-5 DESIGN PARAMETERS
       2-5.01   Major Section Determination
           2-5.01.01      Identification
           2-5.01.02      Evaluation
       2-5.02   Investment Categories
           2-5.02.01      New Construction/Reconstruction
           2-5.02.02      Preservation
       2-5.03   Functional Classification
                                      ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

      2-5.03.01       Freeways
      2-5.03.02       Arterials
      2-5.03.03       Collectors
      2-5.03.04       Local Roads
  2-5.04   Type of Highway
      2-5.04.01       Two-Lane Highways
      2-5.04.02       Multi-Lane Highways
           2-5.04.02.01           Freeway (includes Interstate)
           2-5.04.02.02           High Speed (Expressway)
           2-5.04.02.03           Low Speed
      2-5.04.03       Scenic Byways
  2-5.05   Market Artery
  2-5.06   Traffic Characteristics
      2-5.06.01       Volume
      2-5.06.02       Directional Distribution
      2-5.06.03       Composition
      2-5.06.04       Flow
  2-5.07   Speed
      2-5.07.01       Design
      2-5.07.02       Running
      2-5.07.03       Operating
  2-5.08   Capacity
      2-5.08.01       Highway Mainline
      2-5.08.02       Signalized intersection
      2-5.08.03       Non-Signalized intersection
      2-5.08.04       Level of Service
      2-5.08.05       Pedestrians
  2-5.09   Sight Distance
      2-5.09.01       Stopping
      2-5.09.02       Passing
      2-5.09.03       Non-Striping
      2-5.09.04       Decision
  2-5.10   Terrain
  2-5.11   Accident Data
2-6 DESIGN STANDARDS
  2-6.01   Critical Design Elements
                                  ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

       2-6.01.01    Geometric Design Exceptions
   2-6.02   General Design Elements
2-7 DESIGN STANDARDS TABLES
   2-7.01   Design Standards Tables for 2-Lane and Multi-Lane Highways
2-8 DESIGN PROCEDURES
   2-8.01   Design Report
   2-8.02   Coordination with Functional Groups
   2-8.03   Intermodal Coordination
   2-8.04   Agency Coordination
                                          ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

3   CHAPTER 3 – ALIGNMENT AND SUPERELEVATION
    3-1 INTRODUCTION
    3-2 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
       3-2.01   General Criteria
       3-2.02   Types of Curvature and Alignment
           3-2.02.01      Simple Curves
           3-2.02.02      Compound Curves
           3-2.02.03      Spiral Curves
           3-2.02.04      Reverse Curves
           3-2.02.05      Broken-Back Curves
       3-2.03   Superelevation and Side Friction
       3-2.04   Minimum Radius for Horizontal Curvature
       3-2.05   Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves
       3-2.06   Divided Roadways
           3-2.06.01      Narrow Medians
           3-2.06.02      Wide Medians
           3-2.06.03      Independent Roadways
    3-3 SUPERELEVATION
       3-3.01   General
       3-3.02   Rates
       3-3.03   Superelevation Transition
       3-3.04   Axis of Rotation
       3-3.05   Shoulder Superelevation
       3-3.06   Right-and Left-Turn Lanes
       3-3.07   Deceleration Lane
       3-3.08   Acceleration Lane
    3-4 VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
       3-4.01   General Criteria
       3-4.02   Grades
           3-4.02.01      Maximum Grades
           3-4.02.02      Minimum Grades
           3-4.02.03      Critical Lengths of Grade
           3-4.02.04      Truck-Climbing Lane
       3-4.03   Vertical Curves
       3-4.04   Sight Distance on Vertical Curves
       3-4.05   Provisions for Passing Lane
                                ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

    3-4.05.01    Evaluation Method
    3-4.05.02    Location
    3-4.05.03    Length
    3-4.05.04    Spacing
    3-4.05.05    Geometrics
    3-4.05.06    Signing and Markings
3-4.06   Location of Grade Line
    3-4.06.01    General
    3-4.06.02    Bridges
    3-4.06.03    Laying Grade
3-4.07   Combination of Vertical and Horizontal Alignment
3-4.08   Erosion Control
3-4.09   Earthwork
    3-4.09.01    Earthwork Balance
    3-4.09.02    Earthwork Summary
                                       ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

4   CHAPTER 4 – CROSS SECTIONS
    4-1 INTRODUCTION
    4-2 SUBGRADE
       4-2.01   Treatments
           4-2.01.01    Compaction Subcut
           4-2.01.02    Subgrade Treatment
           4-2.01.03    Subgrade Correction
           4-2.01.04    Design Details
       4-2.02   Borrow and Disposal Areas
           4-2.02.01    Borrow Areas
           4-2.02.02    Disposal Areas
           4-2.02.03    Topsoil Removal and Placement
       4-2.03   Width and Cross Slope
    4-3 TRAVEL LANES
       4-3.01   Thru Lanes
           4-3.01.01    Number
           4-3.01.02    Width
           4-3.01.03    Cross Slopes
       4-3.02   Auxiliary Lanes
    4-4 SHOULDERS AND CURBS
       4-4.01   Shoulders
           4-4.01.01    Width
           4-4.01.02    Cross Slopes
       4-4.02   Continuous Rumble Strips
       4-4.03   Curbs
       4-4.04   Border Areas
    4-5 MEDIANS
       4-5.01   Width
       4-5.02   Median Types
           4-5.02.01    Flush Medians
           4-5.02.02    Raised Medians
           4-5.02.03    Depressed Medians
    4-6 ROADSIDE ELEMENTS
       4-6.01   Side Slopes
           4-6.01.01    Inslopes (foreslopes)
           4-6.01.02    Back Slopes
                                  ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

   4-6.02   Rock Cuts
   4-6.03   Ditch Sections
   4-6.04   Clear Zones
       4-6.04.01     Design Criteria
       4-6.04.02     Design Application
   4-6.05   Horizontal Clearance to Obstruction
4-7 FRONTAGE ROADS
   4-7.01   Design
   4-7.02   Terminals
4-8 RIGHT OF WAY
   4-8.01   Special Controls
   4-8.02   Procedures
   4-8.03   Indication of Right of Way Limits on Cross Section Sheets
                                        ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

5   CHAPTER 5 – AT-GRADE INTERSECTIONS
    5-1 GENERAL
       5-1.01   Definition
       5-1.02   Policy
       5-1.03   Design Considerations
       5-1.04   Vehicle Characteristics
           5-1.04.01     Turning Radii
           5-1.04.02     Approach
           5-1.04.03     Maneuver Speeds
           5-1.04.04     Under and Edge Clearances
       5-1.05   Intersection Types
       5-1.06   Traffic Controls
       5-1.07   Intersections on Horizontal Curves
           5-1.07.01     Superelevation and Roadway Crown
       5-1.08   Sight Corners
    5-2 URBAN INTERSECTIONS
       5-2.01   Design Vehicle Selection
       5-2.02   Intersection Sight Distance
           5-2.02.01     Policy
           5-2.02.02     Requirements
           5-2.02.03     Case IIIA Enabling Stopped Vehicles to Cross a Major Highway
           5-2.02.04     Cases IIIB - Enabling Stopped     Vehicle to Make Left Turn
           5-2.02.05     Case IIIC - Enabling Stopped Vehicle to Make a Right Turn
           5-2.02.06     Case IV - Signal Control
           5-2.02.07     Effects of Skew
       5-2.03   Alignment and Grade
       5-2.04   Design for Right Turns
           5-2.04.01     Minimum Turning Curve
           5-2.04.02     Free Right Turns
       5-2.05   Design for Left Turns
       5-2.06   Turn Lanes
           5-2.06.01     Policy
           5-2.06.02     Cross Section and Pavement Details
           5-2.06.03     Typical Length of Turn Lane
           5-2.06.04     Exceptions to Turn-Lane Lengths
           5-2.06.05     Continuous One-Way or Two-Way Left Turning Lanes (COWLTL; CTWLTL)
                                  ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

       5-2.06.06    Double Left-Turn Lanes
       5-2.06.07    Continuous Right-turn Lane (CRTL)
   5-2.07   Channelization
   5-2.08   Median Openings
       5-2.08.01    Policy
       5-2.08.02    Geometrics
       5-2.08.03    Median Opening Spacing
   5-2.09   Driveways
       5-2.09.01    Policy
       5-2.09.02    Geometric Design Elements
5-3 RURAL INTERSECTIONS
   5-3.01   Turn Lanes – Policy
       5-3.01.01    Policy on Multi-lane Divided Highways
       5-3.01.02    Policy on Multi-lane Undivided Highways
       5-3.01.03    Policy on 2-Lane Highways
       5-3.01.04    Length
       5-3.01.05    CTWLTL
       5-3.01.06    Median Acceleration Lane
       5-3.01.07    Divided Highway Transition to Single Highway
5-4 REFERENCES
                                         ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

6   CHAPTER 6 – INTERCHANGES AND GRADE SEPERATIONS
    6-1 GENERAL
       6-1.01   Definition
       6-1.02   Policy
       6-1.03   Types of Interchanges
           6-1.03.01      General
           6-1.03.02      Three-Leg
           6-1.03.03      Diamond
           6-1.03.04      Cloverleaf
           6-1.03.05      Directional and Semi-Directional
       6-1.04   Concept Development
           6-1.04.01      General
           6-1.04.02      Warrants
           6-1.04.03      Capacity
           6-1.04.04      Selection of Interchange type
           6-1.04.05      Accident Potential
       6-1.05   Number of Lanes Through an Interchange
           6-1.05.01      General
           6-1.05.02      Basic Number of Lanes
           6-1.05.03      Lane Balance
           6-1.05.04      Auxiliary Lanes
           6-1.05.05      Escape Lanes
       6-1.06   Right-of-Way and Access Control
           6-1.06.01      Expressway On-Ramps
    6-2 RAMP-FREEWAY AND RAMP-STREET JUNCTIONS (TERMINALS)
       6-2.01   General
       6-2.02   Sight Distance
       6-2.03   Exit Ramp Design
           6-2.03.01      Deceleration Lanes with Tangent Mainline
           6-2.03.02      Deceleration Lanes with Left-Curving Mainline
           6-2.03.03      Gore Area
       6-2.04   Entrance Ramp Design
           6-2.04.01      Acceleration Lanes
           6-2.04.02      Gore Areas
       6-2.05   Multi-Lane Exits and Entrances
       6-2.06   Weaving
                                       ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

   6-2.07   Ramp Controls
       6-2.07.01       Policy
   6-2.08   Metered Ramps
       6-2.08.01       System to System Metered Ramps
       6-2.08.02       Operational Criteria
       6-2.08.03       Design Details
   6-2.09   High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Ramp Bypass Lanes
       6-2.09.01       HOV Bypass Design Criteria
6-3 RAMP DESIGN
   6-3.01   Policy (Urban and Rural)
   6-3.02   Types
       6-3.02.01       Diagonal
       6-3.02.02       Loops
       6-3.02.03       Semi-Direct
       6-3.02.04       Direct
   6-3.03   Capacity
   6-3.04   Design Elements
       6-3.04.01       Design Speed
       6-3.04.02       Horizontal Alignment
       6-3.04.03       Vertical Alignment
       6-3.04.04       Cross Section
6-4 RAMP AND MINOR ROAD JUNCTION
   6-4.01   General
   6-4.02   Frontage road Intersections
6-5 COLLECTOR-DISTRIBUTOR ROADS
   6-5.01   General
6-6 MAJOR FORKS AND BRANCH CONNECTIONS
   6-6.01   Applications
   6-6.02   Design
                                      ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

7   CHAPTER 7 – PAVEMENT DESIGN
    7-1 INTRODUCTION
    7-2 RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN
       7-2.01   Cross Sections
       7-2.02   Storage Areas
       7-2.03   Bridge Approach Treatments and Panels
           7-2.03.01    General
           7-2.03.02    Low Abutments
           7-2.03.03    High Abutments
           7-2.03.04    Bridge Approach Panels
       7-2.04   Major Forks, Branch Connections, and Escape Lanes
    7-3 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN
       7-3.01   Cross Sections
    7-4 SHOULDER STRUCTURAL DESIGN
       7-4.01   Standard Shoulders
       7-4.02   Composite Shoulders
                                        ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

8   CHAPTER 8 – DRAINAGE DESIGN AND EROSION CONTROL
    8-1 INTRODUCTION
       8-1.01   Manuals
       8-1.02   Importance of Drainage
    8-2 HYDROLOGY
    8-3 MEANS OF DRAINAGE CONVEYANCE
       8-3.01   Roadway Typical Section and Alignment
       8-3.02   Open Channels or Ditches
       8-3.03   Culverts
       8-3.04   Storm Drain Systems
       8-3.05   Definitions of Pipe Culverts and Pipe Sewers
       8-3.06   Subsurface Drainage
       8-3.07   Stormwater Holding Ponds
    8-4 HYDRAULIC DESIGN
       8-4.01   Open Channel Flow
           8-4.01.01       Manning Formula
           8-4.01.02       Channel Grade
           8-4.01.03       Channel Alignment
           8-4.01.04       Channel Cross Section and Side Slopes
           8-4.01.05       Channel Linings
       8-4.02   Culvert Design
           8-4.02.01       Entrance Culverts
           8-4.02.02       Large Culverts
       8-4.03   Culvert Design Policy
           8-4.03.01       Safety Design Policy
           8-4.03.02       Permits for Construction of Drainage Facilities or Changes to Drainage Facilities
           8-4.03.03       Boat Clearances
           8-4.03.04       Artesian Conditions at Culvert Sites
           8-4.03.05       Anti-Seepage Diaphragm
           8-4.03.06       Inlet and Outlet Aprons and Improved Structures
       8-4.04   Storm Drain Design
       8-4.05   Subsurface Drainage
           8-4.05.01       Subsurface Drainage Design Process
           8-4.05.02       Designer Awareness of Subsurface Drainage Needs
    8-5 EROSION CONTROL
       8-5.01   Permanent Erosion Prevention
                                   ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

       8-5.01.01    Proper Shaping for Erosion Control
       8-5.01.02    Rounding of Cross Section Slopes
       8-5.01.03    Ramp Slopes
       8-5.01.04    Cut-to-Fill Transition (Cut Runouts)
       8-5.01.05    Ditches
       8-5.01.06    Ditch Liners
       8-5.01.07    Sodded Flumes
       8-5.01.08    Sodded Flume Design
       8-5.01.09    Sodded Runoff Spreader
       8-5.01.10    Broken Back Safety Fill Slopes
       8-5.01.11    Wood Fiber Blanket Mulch (specification 3885)
       8-5.01.12    Slope Protection Dikes
       8-5.01.13    Turf Establishment Adjacent to Bituminous Shoulders
       8-5.01.14    Turf Establishment
       8-5.01.15    Sod Quantities
   8-5.02   Temporary Erosion Control Features
       8-5.02.01    General
       8-5.02.02    Bale Ditch Checks
       8-5.02.03    Earth Diversions
       8-5.02.04    Bale diversions
       8-5.02.05    Temporary Drains
       8-5.02.06    Temporary Stream Crossing
       8-5.02.07    Sediment Traps/Basins
       8-5.02.08    Standpipes
       8-5.02.09    Geotextiles
8-6 APPLICATIONS POLICY AND CRITERIA
   8-6.01   Culverts and/or Storm Sewer Pipes
       8-6.01.01    Selection of Material Types for Drainage Facilities
       8-6.01.02    Joint Tying
       8-6.01.03    Joint Sealing and Gasketing of Concrete Pipe
       8-6.01.04    Sewers and Culverts (Metal Pipes)
       8-6.01.05    Elbows and Bends on Plans
       8-6.01.06    Bedding
       8-6.01.07    Corrugated Steel Pipe Protection
       8-6.01.08    Treatment of Center-Line Culverts in Plastic Soils
       8-6.01.09    Backfill for Sewers
                         ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

8-6.01.10   Metal Pipe Arch Treatment
8-6.01.11   Metal Pipe Arch Treatment at the End of Large Drainage Structures
                                        ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

9   CHAPTER 9 – BRIDGES AND OTHER STRUCTURES
    9-1 INTRODUCTION
    9-2 BRIDGES
       9-2.01   Mainline Bridges
           9-2.01.01    Alignment at Bridges
           9-2.01.02    Grade Line at Bridges
           9-2.01.03    Superstructure Cross Section
           9-2.01.04    Underpassing Highway Cross Section
       9-2.02   Ramp Bridges and Underpasses
           9-2.02.01    Ramp Bridge Cross Section
           9-2.02.02    Ramp Underpass Cross Section
       9-2.03   Local Road Bridges and Underpasses
           9-2.03.01    Bridge Cross Section
           9-2.03.02    Underpass Cross Section
       9-2.04   Water Crossings
           9-2.04.01    Navigable Waterways
           9-2.04.02    Non-Navigable Waterways
       9-2.05   Railroad Bridges and Underpasses
           9-2.05.01    General
           9-2.05.02    Railroad Underpass Cross Section
    9-3 LARGE DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
       9-3.01   Design Responsibility
       9-3.02   Structures
           9-3.02.01    Box Culverts
           9-3.02.02    Circular Pipe
           9-3.02.03    Pipe Arches
           9-3.02.04    Long Span Structures
       9-3.03   End Treatments
       9-3.04   Energy Dissipaters
    9-4 WALLS
       9-4.01   Design Responsibility
       9-4.02   Conventional Design Types
           9-4.02.01    Cantilever Walls
           9-4.02.02    Counterfort Walls
           9-4.02.03    Precast Panel Walls
       9-4.03   Alternate Design Types
                                   ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

      9-4.03.01      General
      9-4.03.02      Site Restrictions
      9-4.03.03      Design Parameters
      9-4.03.04      Material Properties
      9-4.03.05      Retaining Wall Aesthetics
      9-4.03.06      Traffic Safety Aspects
      9-4.03.07      Acceptance Procedure
      9-4.03.08      Approved MSE Retaining Wall Systems
9-5 MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES
  9-5.01   Foundations for Signs, Signals, and Illumination Poles
  9-5.02   Utility Bridges and Vaults
  9-5.03   Tunnels
      9-5.03.01      General
      9-5.03.02      Design Considerations
  9-5.04   Underpass Structures
      9-5.04.01      Livestock Underpasses
                                     ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

10 CHAPTER 10 – TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES AND TRAFFIC BARRIERS
   10-1 INTRODUCTION
      10-1.01 Vehicle Path
      10-1.02 Vehicle Speed
      10-1.03 Vehicle Conflict
      10-1.04 Operational Controls
          10-1.04.01   After Construction
          10-1.04.02   During Construction
      10-1.05 Traffic Laws and Regulations
          10-1.05.01   Common Laws and Regulations
      10-1.06 Warranting Procedures for the Use of Explicit Controls
      10-1.07 References
          10-1.07.01   Traffic Engineering Manual
          10-1.07.02   Minnesota Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MN MUTCD)
          10-1.07.03   Work Zone Traffic Control
          10-1.07.04   Minnesota Statutes
   10-2 RULES OF THE ROAD
      10-2.01 Vehicle Position
      10-2.02 Yield Conditions
      10-2.03 Speed Conditions
   10-3 MARKINGS AND DELINEATORS
  10-4 SIGNS
  10-5 SIGNALS
      10-5.01 Vehicle Traffic Control
          10-5.01.01   General
          10-5.01.02   Signal Design and Coordination
      10-5.02 Pedestrian Signals
      10-5.03 Other Signals
          10-5.03.01   Flashing Beacons
          10-5.03.02   Lane-Use Control Signals
          10-5.03.03   Moveable Bridge signals
          10-5.03.04   Emergency Traffic Signals
          10-5.03.05   Railroad Crossing Signals
          10-5.03.06   One-Lane, Two-Way Facilities
          10-5.03.07   Freeway Entrance Ramp Control
  10-6 LIGHTING
                                    ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

   10-6.01 Roadway Illumination
   10-6.02 Pedestrian and Pedestrian/Roadway Illumination
10-7 TRAFFIC BARRIERS
   10-7.01 Guardrails
       10-7.01.01    Service Requirements and Performance Criteria
       10-7.01.02    Warrants
       10-7.01.03    Adverse Geometrics
       10-7.01.04    Fixed Projects
       10-7.01.05    Clear Zones
       10-7.01.06    Roadside Hazards
   10-7.02 Selection of Guardrail Type
       10-7.02.01    Structural Plate-Beam Guardrail (Standard Plate 8307)
       10-7.02.02    3-Cable Guardrail (Standard Plate 8330)
       10-7.02.03    Cable Fence Barrier (Standard Plate 8310)
       10-7.02.04    Concrete Barrier (Standard Plate 8314)
       10-7.02.05    End Treatments
       10-7.02.06    Transition Between Guardrail Types
   10-7.03 Length of Installation
   10-7.04 Vertical Adjustment
   10-7.05 Median Barriers
       10-7.05.01    Service Requirements and Performance Criteria
       10-7.05.02    General Warrants for Median Barriers
       10-7.05.03    Rigid Median Barriers (Standard Plate 8334)
       10-7.05.04    Sloped Medians
   10-7.06 Traffic Screens and Glare Screens
       10-7.06.01    General
       10-7.06.02    Location
       10-7.06.03    Types
       10-7.06.04    Selection of Screen Types
       10-7.06.05    Screen Replacement and Removal
10-8 CRASH CUSHIONS (IMPACT ATTENUATORS)
   10-8.01 General
   10-8.02 Performance Requirements
   10-8.03 Physical Theories
       10-8.03.01    Kinetic Energy Principal
       10-8.03.02    Conservation of Momentum Principal
                                  ROAD DESIGN MANUAL

   10-8.04 Warrants
   10-8.05 Types
   10-8.06 Selection and Design
       10-8.06.01   Sight Considerations
       10-8.06.02   Safety Characteristics
       10-8.06.03   Cost
       10-8.06.04   Placement
10-9 TRAFFIC CONTROL IN WORK ZONES
FEBRUARY, 2010                  Mn/DOT ROAD DESIGN MANUAL                            11-0(1)


                                       CHAPTER 11
                                     SPECIAL DESIGNS
11-1.0   INTRODUCTION

11-2.0   VEHICLE FACILITIES
         (Update Pending)

11-3.0   PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES

         11-3.01   General
         11-3.02   Accessibility Requirements
         11-3.03   Thresholds for Pedestrian Facilities
         11-3.04   Pedestrian Facility Definitions
         11-3.05   Walkways
                   11-3.05.01        Sidewalks
                   11-3.05.02        Shared-Use Paths
                   11-3.05.03        Pedestrian Access Route
                   11-3.05.04        Buffer Zone
                   11-3.05.05        Frontage Zone
                   11-3.05.06        Street Furniture
                   11-3.05.07        Vertical and Horizontal Alignment
                   11-3.05.08        Surfaces
                   11-3.05.09        Side Slopes
                   11-3.05.10        Walkway Placement
         11-3.06   Walkway Widths
                   11-3.06.01        Protruding Objects
         11-3.07   Grades and Cross Slopes
         11-3.08   Crossings
                   11-3.08.01        At Grades Intersections
                   11-3.08.02        Types of At Grade Intersections
                   11-3.08.03        Crossing Features
                   11-3.08.04        Detectable Warning Surfaces (Truncated Domes)
         11-3.09   Pedestrian Refuges
         11-3.10   Curb Extensions and Turning Radii
         11-3.11   Signals and Signal Timing
         11-3.12   Grade Separated Crossings
         11-3.13   Types of Grade Separated Crossings
         11-3.14   Grade Separated Features
         11-3.15   Other Crossings
11-0(2)                      Mn/DOT ROAD DESIGN MANUAL        FEBRUARY, 2010

          11-3.16     Doors, Doorways, and Gates
          11-3.17     Transit Stops
          11-3.18     Rail Platforms
          11-3.19     On-Street Parking
          11-3.20     Passenger Loading Zones
          11-3.21     School Zones
          11-3.22     Work Zones
          11-3.23     Lighting
          11-3.24     Maintenance
          11-3.25     Roundabouts
          11-3.26     Pedestrian Safety
          11-3.27     Resources

11-4.0    BICYCLE TRAFFIC

11-5.0    HIGHWAY DESIGN IN VICINITY OF AIRPORTS
          (Update Pending)

11-6.0    RAILROAD/HIGHWAY CROSSINGS
          (Update Pending)

11-7.0    UTILITIES

11-8.0    ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGNS
          (Update Pending)

11-9.0    FENCES
          (Update Pending)

11-10.0   LANDSCAPING
          (Update Pending)

11-11.0   ROADSIDE APPURTENANCES

          11-11.01    Mailbox Supports

                      11-11.01.01         Policy
                      11-11.01.02         Unlawful Supports
JANUARY, 2009                         Mn/DOT ROAD DESIGN MANUAL                                  12-0(1)

                                   CHAPTER 12
                   DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR MODERN ROUNDABOUTS
12-1.0   INTRODUCTION
         12-1.01   General
         12-1.02   Purpose and Scope
         12-1.03   Evaluation Criteria
         12-1.04   Analytical Tools
         12-1.05   Roundabout Classification and Design Methodology
                   12-1.05.01    Single-Lane Low-Demand Roundabouts
                   12-1.05.02    Single-Lane High-Demand Roundabouts
                   12-1.05.03    Multi-Lane Roundabouts
         12-1.06   Design Review Process
         12-1.07   Design References

12-2.0   PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT
         12-2.01   Public Awareness
         12-2.02   Public Meetings
         12-2.03   Information Brochures

12-3.0   SCOPING AND FEASIBILITY
         12-3.01   Scoping
         12-3.02   Feasibility
         12-3.03   Intersection Control Evaluation (ICE)
         12-3.04   Site Requirements
         12-3.05   Pedestrian and Bicyclist Accommodations
                   12-3.05.01    Pedestrians
                   12-3.05.02    Bicyclists
         12-3.06   Transit, Large Vehicle and Emergency Vehicles
                   12-3.06.01    Transit
                   12-3.06.02    Large Oversized Vehicles and Emergency Vehicle Considerations
         12-3.07   Social, Environmental and Economic Considerations
         12-3.08   System Considerations
                   12-3.08.01    Access Management
                   12-3.08.02    Roundabouts in Highway Network
                   12-3.08.03    Closely Spaced Roundabouts
                   12-3.08.04    Roundabout Interchange Ramp Terminals
                   12-3.08.05    At-Grade Rail Crossings
12-0(2)                                 Mn/DOT ROAD DESIGN MANUAL                          JANUARY, 2009

12-4.0    GEOMETRIC DESIGN
          12-4.01   Introduction
          12-4.02   Features and Design Parameters
          12-4.03   Roundabout Design Process
                    12-4.03.01     General Design Steps & Explanation
          12-4.04   Design Principles
                    12-4.04.01     Vehicle Paths
                    12-4.04.02     Speed Consistency
                    12-4.04.03     Design Vehicle
                    12-4.04.04     Alignment of Approaches and Entries (Deflection)
          12-4.05   Geometric Design Criteria
                    12-4.05.01     Length of Conflicting Leg of Sight Triangle
                    12-4.05.02     Superelevation
                    12-4.05.03     Bicycle Provisions
                    12-4.05.04     Vehicle Path Overlap
                    12-4.05.05     Design Method to Avoid Path Overlap
                    12-4.05.06     Design Techniques to Increase Entry Deflection
                    12-4.05.07     Approach Offset to Increase Entry Deflection
                    12-4.05.08     Curbing
                    12-4.05.09     Entry Flare Length = L′
                    12-4.05.10     Entry Angle, Ø (Phi)
                    12-4.05.11     Circulatory Roadway Width
                    12-4.05.12     Approaches/Departures
          12-4.06   Capacity and Operations
                    12-4.06.01     Roundabout Capacity
                    12-4.06.02     Factors Affecting Capacity
                                   12-4.06.02.1   Entry Lanes and Volume Balance
                                   12-4.06.02.2   Approach Alignment
                                   12-4.06.02.3   Single Lane Roundabout Capacity
                                   12-4.06.02.4   Multi-Lane Roundabout Capacity
                                   12-4.06.02.5   Pedestrian Effects on Entry Capacity
                                   12-4.06.02.6   Exit Capacity Considerations
                    12-4.06.03     Operational Analysis
                                   12-4.06.03.1   Data Requirements
                                   12-4.06.03.2   Driver Behavior and Geometric Elements
                                   12-4.06.03.3   Delay
                                   12-4.06.03.4   Queue Length
                                   12-4.06.03.5   Capacity Analysis

12-5.0    MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN
          12-5.01   Snow and Ice Operations
          12-5.02   Routine or Ordinary Maintenance
12-6.0    TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
JANUARY, 2009                       Mn/DOT ROAD DESIGN MANUAL   12-0(3)

12-7.0   LANDSCAPING
         12-7.01   Advantages
         12-7.02   Central Island Landscaping
         12-7.03   Splitter Island and Approach Landscaping
         12-7.04   Perimeter Landscaping

12-8.0   REFERENCES