Main Branches Of Science There are many branches in science. But some branches are main they are 1. Astronomy 2. Biology 3. Chemistry 4. Physics 5. Geology 6. Climatology 7. Meteorology 8. The Earth sciences 9. The Medicine 10. Engineering 11. Anthropology 12. Archaeology 13. Social Sciences 14. Computer Sciences…….etc. 1. Astronomy Astronomy is the science that deals with the origin, evolution, composition, distance, and motion of all bodies and scattered matter in the universe. It includes astrophysics, which discusses the physical properties and structures of all cosmic matter. Until the invention of the telescope, astronomy was primarily concerned with noting and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, and planets for cylindrical purposes and scientific interest. The catalog of objects now studied is much broader and includes, in order of increasing distances, the solar system, the stars that make up the Milky Way Galaxy, and other more distant stellar objects and galaxies. With the advent of scientific space probes, the Earth also has come to be studied as one of the planets, though its more detailed investigation remains the domain of the geologic sciences. 2. Biology Biology is the study of living things and their vital processes. The field deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. As a result of the modern tendency to unify scientific knowledge and investigation, however, there has been an overlapping of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines. These broadly based levels may be further subdivided into such specializations as morphology, taxonomy, biophysics, biochemistry, genetics, eugenics, and ecology. In another way of classification, a field of biology may be especially concerned with the investigation of one kind of living thing—e.g., botany, the study of plants. Zoology is the study of animals. Ornithology, the study of birds. Ichthyology, the study of fishes. Mycology, the study of fungi. Microbiology, the study of micro-organisms. Protozo-ology, the study of one-celled animals. Herpetology, the study of amphibians and reptiles. Entomology, the study of insects. 3. Chemistry Chemistry is the science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of substances known as elements and compounds, the transformations that they undergo, and the energy that is released or absorbed during these processes. Every substance, whether naturally occurring or artificially produced, consists of one or more of the hundred-odd species of atoms that have been identified as elements. Although these atoms, in turn, are composed of more elementary particles, they are the basic building blocks of chemical substances; there is no quantity of oxygen, mercury, or gold, for example, smaller than an atom of that substance. Chemistry, therefore, is concerned not with the subatomic domain but with the properties of atoms and the laws governing their combinations and with how the knowledge of these properties can be used to achieve specific purposes. Chemistry also is concerned with the utilization of natural substances and the creation of artificial ones. Cooking, fermentation, glass making, and metallurgy are all chemical processes that date from the beginning of civilization. 4. Physics Physics is the science that deals with the structure of matter and the interactions between the fundamental constituents of the observable universe. In the broadest sense, physics, which was long called natural philosophy, is concerned with all aspects of nature on both the microscopic and submicroscopic levels. Its scope of study encompasses not only behavior of object under the action of given forces but also the nature and origin of gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear force fields. Its ultimate objective is the formulation of a few comprehensive principles that bring together and explain all such disparate phenomena. Physics is the basic physical science. Until rather recent times the terms physics and natural philosophy were used interchangeably for the science whose aim is the discovery and formulation of the fundamental laws of nature. As the modern sciences developed and became increasingly specialized, physics came to denote that part of physical science not included in astronomy, chemistry, geology, and engineering. Physics plays an important role in all the natural science, however, and all such fields have branches in which physical laws and measurements receive special emphasis, bearing such names as astrophysics, geophysics, biophysics, and even psychophysics. Physics can, at base, be defined as the science of matter, motion, and energy. Its laws are typically expressed with economy and precision in the language of mathematics. 5. Geology Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, including its composition, structure, physical properties, and history. The term geology is broadly inclusive and is often regarded as embracing all the geologic sciences. The various sub-disciplines of geology not only inter-grade with one another but also with other branches of the Earth sciences and with such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics. Paleontology, for instance, at times requires the use of organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and statistics. Besides providing a better understanding of the Earth’s evolution and its present features, geology serves society in practical ways. Exploration for deposits of commercially valuable minerals is broadly guided by geologic principles and conducted with geophysical and geochemical methods. The search for fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) is strongly dealing with the deposition and deformation of sedimentary rocks and with the flow of underground fluids. Significant, too, is the contribution of seismological research, whose findings have enabled engineers to design structures that are better able to withstand earthquakes. 6. Climatology Climatology is the branch of the atmospheric sciences concerned with both the description of climate and the analysis of the causes of climatic differences and changes and their practical consequences. Climatology treats the same atmospheric processes as meteorology, but it seeks as well to identify the slower-acting influences and longer-term changes of import, including the circulation of the oceans and the small yet measurable variations in the intensity of solar radiations. From its origins in 6th-century-BC Greek science, climatology has developed along two main lines: regional climatology and physical climatology. The first is the study of discrete and characteristic weather phenomena of a particular continental or sub continental region. The second involves a statistical analysis of various weather elements, principally temperature, moisture, atmospheric pressure, and wind speed, and a detailed examination of the basic relationships between such elements. Other significant sub-disciplines of climatology include bioclimatology and palaeoclimatology. 7. Meteorology Meteorology is the scientific discipline concerned with atmospheric phenomena, particularly of the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Meteorology entails a systematic study of short-term-that is, day-to- day variations in temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind, cloud cover, and precipitation, along with their causes. It provides the basis for weather forecasting. Meteorology is closely related to, but distinct from, climatology which deals with weather conditions in a given area over an extended period of time (from a month to many millions of years). Meteorology is divided into two major branches, dynamic and synoptic. Dynamic meteorology deals primarily with the motions of the atmosphere and the physical processes involved in air flow. Research in the field involves he extensive use of computer models of general global circulation and of small-scale motion systems such as tornadoes and hurricanes. These mathematical models contribute much to the understanding of the physics and structure of the lower atmosphere. 8. The Earth sciences The broad aim of the Earth sciences is to understand the present features and the past evolution of the Earth and to use the knowledge, where appropriate, for the benefit of humankind. Thus, the basic concerns of the Earth scientists are to observe, describe, and classify all the features of the Earth, whether characteristic or not, to generate hypothesis with which to explain their presence and their presence and their development, and to devise means of checking opposing ideas for their relative validity. In this way the most plausible, acceptable, and long-lasting ideas are developed. The physical environment in which humans live includes not only the immediate surface of the solid Earth, but also the ground beneath it and the water and the air above it. Early man was more involved with the practicalities of life than with theories, and thus his survival depended on his ability to obtain metals from the ground to produce, for example, alloys, such as bronze from copper and tin, for tools and armor, to find adequate water supplies for establishing dwelling sites, and to forecast the weather, which had a far greater bearing on human life in earlier times than it has today. Such situations represent the foundations of the three principal component disciplines of the modern Earth sciences. 9. The Medicine In its widest form the practice of medicine, that is to say the promotion and care of health, is concerned with this ideal. The practice concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention, alleviation, or cure of disease. More recently established medical specialties are those of preventive medicine, physics medicine and rehabilitation, family practice, and nuclear medicine. In the United States, every medical specialist must be certified by a board composed of members of the speciality in which certification is sought. Some type of peer certification is required in most countries. 10. Engineering The application of science to the optimum conversion of the resources of nature to the uses of humankind. The term engineering is sometimes more loosely defined, especially in Great Britain, as the manufacture or assembly of engines, machines tools, and machine parts. Engineering employ two types of natural resources-materials and energy. Materials are useful because of their properties: their strength, ease of fabrication, lightness, of durability; their ability to insulate or conduct; their chemical, electrical, or acoustical properties. 11. Anthropology Anthropology is the study of human beings, in particular the study of their physical character, evolutionary history, racial classification, historical and present-day geographic distribution, group relationships, and cultural history. Anthropology can be characterized as the naturalistic description and interpretation of the diverse peoples of the world. Modern-day anthropology consists of two major divisions: cultural anthropology, which deals with the study of human culture in all its aspects and physical anthropology, which is the study of human character, in both the past and present. 12. Archaeology The scientific study of the material remains of past human life and activities. These include human artifacts from the very earliest stone tools to the man- made objects that are buries of thrown away in the present day: everything made by human beings- from simple tools to complex machines, from the earliest houses and temples and tombs to palaces, cathedrals, and pyramids. Archaeological investigations are a principal source of knowledge of prehistoric, ancient, and extinct culture. 13. Social sciences Social science can be defined as any discipline or branch of science that deals with human behavior in its social and cultural aspects. The social sciences include cultural (or social) anthropology, sociology, social psychology, political science, and economics. Also frequently included are social and economic geography and those areas of education that deals with the social contexts of learning and the relation of the school to the social order. The study of comparative law may also be regarded as a part of the social sciences. 14. Computer sciences Computer science is the field of study that deals with the structure, operation, and application of computers and computer systems. Computer science includes engineering activities, such as the design of computers and of the hardware and software of computer systems, and theoretical, mathematical activities, such as the analysis of algorithms and performance studies of systems. It also involves experimentation with new computer systems and their potential applications.