Fundamental principles of exercise & program design Successful Programming What makes a successful program? Why do people drop out or avoid exercise? What can we do? Health related Components of Fitness Cardiorespiratory endurance Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance The ability of the heart & lungs to take and deliver an adequate supply of oxygen to exercising muscles Improved primarily through aerobic exercise 2. Muscular Strength Maximum amount of force a muscle/group of muscles can develop during a single contraction (1RM) 3. Muscular Endurance The ability to sustain repeated contractions or one contraction over a period of time 4. Flexibility The range of motion (ROM) at a joint or joints Important for posture, stability, coordination & balance Flexibility is limited by tight muscles, tendons & ligaments 5. Body Composition Refers to the amount of water, muscle fat & bone in the body Excess fat is associated with certain lifestyle diseases Fundamental Principles of exercise programming Specificity Overload Progression Detraining Individuality 1. Specificity Specific modes of training will produce specific results that have little transfer to other systems Transfer does occur in some instances Program needs to be specific as possible to meet the needs of client 2. Overload Ensuring the training places sufficient physiological demands on their systems above & beyond what they are accustomed to Overload can be achieved by manipulating Frequency Intensity Time (duration) Type Failure to produce overload will result in minimal gains and possible plateau 3. Progression As a client’s physiological performance increases the training threshold also needs to increase. Clients training program needs to evolve to ensure the necessary overload is occurring. Note: It is not possible or desirable to improve components of fitness indefinitely Rapid increases in performance early in training Need to ensure overtraining does not occur No more than 5% progression at each occurrence Rate of improvement in clients varies greatly 4. Detraining If training is not maintained at the training threshold the effects will be reversed. To prevent, adopt maintenance training where the principles of progression & overload are not applied Many factors effect the specific time frame of detraining in individuals age, level of fitness, illness / injury 5. Individuality Areas to consider when designing the exercise program include: Age Diet Client goals Occupation Motivation & personality Sex Testing results Genetics Restrictions by other health Time available professionals Current health issues Equipment available Previous training Components of each training session Resistance training Cardiovascular conditioning Flexibility training Remember to consider all components It is OK to place emphasis on one component but not to the exclusion of the others Clients progress at dramatically different rates – these are influenced by physiological & psychological factors Initial physiological responses to exercise are considerable early in but these will plateau. Essential Components for exercise prescription Appropriate choice of exercise Frequency Intensity Time Type A generalised training program must include the following Warm up Stimulus phase – resistance & cardiovascular phase Cool down period Flexibility – usually included in cool down Warm up Increases blood flow to working muscles Facilitates metabolic processes Increases body temperature Increases heart rate Increases blood pressure Increases respiration rate Decreases chance of injury A warm can last any where between 5 – 15 minutes. For time deficient clients 5 minutes of light / moderate activity is sufficient. You can even incorporate this into cardiovascular activity e.g. the first 5 minutes on treadmill slow speed (5.0km/ph) then the next 20 minutes cardiovascular activity at an increased speed (6.0 – 8.0km/ph) Stimulus Phase Based on client goals Considers the essential health components Duration is influenced by the client’s abilities, time availability & intensity of chosen activities. Remember – the higher the intensity the shorter the duration of the exercise Exercises should be motivating & enjoyable Cool down Gradual recovery for the session Important as failure to do so has been linked to incidences of cardiovascular complications Can assist in the following Decreases heart rate Decreases respiration Decreases blood pressure Facilitates venous return & decreases blood pooling Dissipates body heat Promotes removal of lactic acid Instructional Model When meeting a client you need to Rview clients file (if they are existing clients). Be familiar with client’s goals. Check for injury / Illness. Ask additional questions. OH & S procedures should be explained. New clients can become confused especially with too many teaching cues. Breakdown instruction into manageable parts. Use questioning techniques to ensure understanding. Sometimes the client will need manual guidance while performing an exercise. Remember to explain & seek permission to touch the client. E-SIC Approach Explain Before instructing any exercise you should give a general explanation to the client. This should include The name of the exercise The name of the equipment used Exercise – specific safety The purpose of the exercise Use verbal cue words, one or two word phrases to remind the client the important aspects of the exercise. Show (Visual) You need to demonstrate the correct execution of the exercise with adequate repetitions Perform repetitions without talking Make eye contact with client Make breathing noises to cue breathing Instruct (Verbal) Once adequate reps are completed use verbal instruction Allow client to hear what you say Avoid redemonstrating as they may be distracted “What I did then was………” followed by clear explanation of what occurred Start with body positioning then execution of exercise Body position Action Supplementary information e.g. breathing Specific safety points Teaching cues Cue (Kinaesthetic) Client performing drill Observation & feedback from instructor Before client attempts the drill remind the client of the important cues and assume spotting position Explain to client what spotting is & ask for permission if you need to touch. Instruct on how many reps you would like them to complete If you do not need to spot, view exercise from somewhere you can see all movement & give feedback. Pay close attention to the drill Use positive reinforcement & cues If they are making a lot of errors stop the exercise and either show or instruct them and then have them attempt it again Alert client to common errors made in the exercise Clients who have difficulty with exercises (drills) Step back to basics and repeat E-SIC. Show the client the exercise again. Explain to them how to do it. Have them practice. If the client still experiences difficulties you can try the following. Use a whole, part, whole method. Break the skill into a components and teach part separately before instructing the whole skill together Alter teaching cues so that client can focus on the area that requires attention Use progressions and ensure that client has mastered prerequisite skills before attempting more difficult skill. Modify exercise conditions to minimise client apprehension. Use positive feedback as reinforcement to increase confidence & self esteem.
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