Fundamental principles of exercise program design by xhc42564


									Fundamental principles of exercise
      & program design

 What makes a successful program?

Why do people drop out or avoid exercise?

 What can we do?
   Health related
Components of Fitness
   Cardiorespiratory endurance

   Muscular strength
   Muscular endurance
   Flexibility
   Body composition
 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance
 The ability of the heart & lungs to take and deliver an adequate
supply of oxygen to exercising muscles
 Improved primarily through aerobic exercise

2. Muscular Strength
 Maximum amount of force a muscle/group of muscles can
develop during a single contraction (1RM)

3. Muscular Endurance
 The ability to sustain repeated contractions or one contraction
over a period of time
        4. Flexibility
 The range of motion (ROM) at a joint or joints
 Important for posture, stability, coordination & balance
 Flexibility is limited by tight muscles, tendons & ligaments

              5. Body Composition
  Refers to the amount of water, muscle fat & bone in the body
  Excess fat is associated with certain lifestyle diseases
Principles of exercise

       Specificity
       Overload
       Progression
       Detraining
       Individuality
                 1. Specificity
           Specific modes of training will produce specific results that have little
          transfer to other systems
           Transfer does occur in some instances
           Program needs to be specific as possible to meet the needs of client

  2. Overload
 Ensuring the training places sufficient physiological demands on their systems
above & beyond what they are accustomed to
 Overload can be achieved by manipulating
               Frequency
               Intensity
               Time (duration)
               Type
 Failure to produce overload will result in minimal gains and possible plateau
                  3. Progression

 As a client’s physiological performance increases the training threshold
also needs to increase.
 Clients training program needs to evolve to ensure the necessary
overload is occurring.
 Note: It is not possible or desirable to improve components of fitness
 Rapid increases in performance early in training
 Need to ensure overtraining does not occur
 No more than 5% progression at each occurrence
 Rate of improvement in clients varies greatly
                      4. Detraining
          If training is not maintained at the training threshold the effects will be
          To prevent, adopt maintenance training where the principles of
         progression & overload are not applied
          Many factors effect the specific time frame of detraining in individuals
                           age, level of fitness, illness / injury

              5. Individuality
  Areas to consider when designing the exercise program include:

 Age                          Diet                      Client goals
                               Occupation                Motivation & personality
 Sex
                               Testing results
 Genetics                                                Restrictions by other health
                               Time available           professionals
 Current health issues
                               Equipment available
 Previous training
       Components of each training session
                            Resistance training
                            Cardiovascular conditioning
                            Flexibility training

 Remember to consider all components
 It is OK to place emphasis on one component but not to the exclusion of the others
 Clients progress at dramatically different rates – these are influenced by physiological
& psychological factors
 Initial physiological responses to exercise are considerable early in but these will
                  Essential Components
                 for exercise prescription
                           Appropriate choice of
                           Frequency
                           Intensity
                           Time

 A generalised training program must include the following
 Warm up
 Stimulus phase – resistance & cardiovascular phase
 Cool down period
 Flexibility – usually included in cool down
                                          Warm up
            Increases blood flow to working muscles
            Facilitates metabolic processes
            Increases body temperature
            Increases heart rate
            Increases blood pressure
            Increases respiration rate
            Decreases chance of injury

 A warm can last any where between 5 – 15 minutes.
 For time deficient clients 5 minutes of light / moderate activity is sufficient.
 You can even incorporate this into cardiovascular activity e.g. the first 5 minutes on
treadmill slow speed (5.0km/ph) then the next 20 minutes cardiovascular activity at an
increased speed (6.0 – 8.0km/ph)
                                Stimulus Phase
                  Based on client goals
                  Considers the essential health components
                  Duration is influenced by the client’s abilities, time availability & intensity of
                 chosen activities.
                  Remember – the higher the intensity the shorter the duration of the exercise
                  Exercises should be motivating & enjoyable

   Cool down
 Gradual recovery for the session
 Important as failure to do so has been linked to incidences of cardiovascular complications
 Can assist in the following
                Decreases heart rate
                Decreases respiration
                Decreases blood pressure
                Facilitates venous return & decreases blood pooling
                Dissipates body heat
                Promotes removal of lactic acid
                  Instructional Model

 When meeting a client you need to
     Rview clients file (if they are existing clients).
     Be familiar with client’s goals.
     Check for injury / Illness.
     Ask additional questions.
     OH & S procedures should be explained.
     New clients can become confused especially with too many teaching cues.
     Breakdown instruction into manageable parts.
     Use questioning techniques to ensure understanding.
     Sometimes the client will need manual guidance while performing an
     Remember to explain & seek permission to touch the client.
                      E-SIC Approach
  Before instructing any exercise you should give a general explanation to the
  client. This should include

        The name of the exercise
        The name of the equipment used
        Exercise – specific safety
        The purpose of the exercise

  Use verbal cue words, one or two word phrases to remind the client the important
  aspects of the exercise.

Show (Visual)
    You need to demonstrate the correct execution of the exercise with
   adequate repetitions
    Perform repetitions without talking
    Make eye contact with client
    Make breathing noises to cue breathing
Instruct (Verbal)
    Once adequate reps are completed use verbal instruction

    Allow client to hear what you say

    Avoid redemonstrating as they may be distracted

    “What I did then was………” followed by clear explanation of what

    Start with body positioning then execution of exercise

               Body position

               Action

               Supplementary information e.g. breathing

               Specific safety points

               Teaching cues
                                      Cue (Kinaesthetic)
           Client performing drill

           Observation & feedback from instructor

 Before client attempts the drill remind the client of the important cues and assume spotting

 Explain to client what spotting is & ask for permission if you need to touch.

 Instruct on how many reps you would like them to complete

 If you do not need to spot, view exercise from somewhere you can see all movement & give

 Pay close attention to the drill

 Use positive reinforcement & cues

 If they are making a lot of errors stop the exercise and either show or instruct them and
then have them attempt it again

 Alert client to common errors made in the exercise
                        Clients who have difficulty
                            with exercises (drills)
           Step back to basics and repeat E-SIC.

      Show the client the exercise again.

      Explain to them how to do it.

      Have them practice.

      If the client still experiences difficulties you can try the following.

 Use a whole, part, whole method. Break the skill into a components and teach part
separately before instructing the whole skill together

 Alter teaching cues so that client can focus on the area that requires attention

 Use progressions and ensure that client has mastered prerequisite skills before
attempting more difficult skill.

 Modify exercise conditions to minimise client apprehension.

 Use positive feedback as reinforcement to increase confidence & self esteem.

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