"Letter from 258 Professors of Criminal Justice, Criminology, Sociology"
Letter from 258 Professors of Criminal Justice, Criminology, Sociology and Law April 28, 2009 Senator Patrick Leahy Representative John Conyers, Jr. Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary U.S. Senate U.S. House of Representatives Senator Arlen Specter Representative Lamar Smith Ranking Minority Member Ranking Minority Member Committee on the Judiciary Committee on the Judiciary U.S. Senate U.S. House of Representatives Dear Senators Leahy and Specter, and Representatives Conyers and Smith: Over twenty-two years ago, President Reagan signed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986. It created mandatory minimum sentences for federal drug trafficking offenses in the 1970 Controlled Substances Act. As you recall, Congress intended these long mandatory sentences to encourage the Justice Department to focus on major drug traffickers. The quantities of drugs that trigger the mandatory sentences in that law are very small relative to the quantities of drugs that are actually imported and distributed by significant drug traffickers. Only five grams of crack cocaine trigger a sentence of at least five years up to forty years. Fifty grams of crack cocaine trigger a sentence of at least ten years up to life imprisonment. Fifty grams is the weight of a candy bar, not the large quantity shipped by major traffickers. More than-one third of all federal crack cocaine cases involved less than 25 grams in 2006, according to the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s “Report to Congress: Cocaine and Federal Sentencing Policy,” May 2007, (table 5-3, pp. 112-114). Much more appropriate federal cases are the national and international-level cases such as the recently concluded “Operation Xcellerator,” which Attorney General Eric Holder said resulted in the seizure of more than 12 metric tons (12,000 kilos or 12,000,000 grams) of cocaine. The low-level crack cases amounted to about 15 percent of all federal cocaine prosecutions for 2006. These minor cases are an enormous commitment of federal investigative, prosecutorial, judicial and correctional resources to what are neighborhood cases. Analyzing all federal cocaine cases, the Commission has found repeatedly that the focus has predominantly been upon the lowest-level offenders – street-level dealers, couriers, lookouts, loaders or users. Thus the small statutory quantities have distracted the Justice Department from focusing on major traffickers. The current mandatory minimums undermine public safety by providing perverse incentives for federal law enforcement agencies to focus on minor offenders instead of major traffickers who routinely use violence and corrupt public officials. The law has helped drive the increase in the federal prison population from 36,000 in 1986 to over 200,000 today. And the law has been unfairly targeted at people of color. Less than one in four federal drug offenders was white in FY 2007 – the rest were Black, Hispanic, Asian or Native American. Judges nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate have the maturity and judgment to determine the appropriate and just punishment for criminal violations. There is nothing inherent or uniquely abhorrent in a drug offense that requires mandatory sentencing, especially when sentencing guidelines provide numerous opportunities to enhance sentences when aggravating factors exist. As a scholar of criminal justice, criminology, sociology, law or other relevant discipline, I join my colleagues around the nation to urge this Congress to review the 1986 anti-drug sentencing provisions and enact amendments that will eliminate mandatory minimum sentences. Congress should enable federal judges to hand down sentences that follow the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 that: – reflect the nature and circumstances of the offense (including its seriousness), – reflect the history and characteristics of the defendant, – promote respect for the law, – provide adequate deterrence to criminal conduct, – provide the defendant with needed educational or vocational training, medical care, or other correctional treatment in the most effective manner, – avoid unwarranted sentence disparities among defendants with similar records who have been found guilty of similar conduct, and – provide restitution to any victims of the offense (18 U.S.C. section 3553(a)). I find especially repugnant the mandatory sentences for crack cocaine offenses at 5 and 50 grams which have led to thousands of unjustly long sentences and racially disproportionate manner in which they have been applied. In my opinion, the mandatory minimum sentencing provisions of the 1986 Anti-Drug Abuse Act have fostered injustice, created disrespect for the law, led to ineffective federal law enforcement and should be repealed. Sincerely yours, (Signatures in alphabetical order) Howard Abadinsky, Ph.D. Professor Martin A. Andresen Professor, Criminal Justice & Legal Studies Assistant Professor, School of Criminology St. John's University Simon Fraser University Stephanie Abramoske-James Todd Armstrong MFS (GWU 1998) Doctoral Student of Associate Professor, College of Criminal Criminology at UTD Justice Retired US Army Criminal Investigator, CW4 Sam Houston State University Celesta A. Albonetti Michael. L. Arter, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Sociology Assistant Professor, Criminal Justice University of Iowa Penn State University - Altoona 2 Kathleen Auerhahn, Ph.D. Michael L. Benson Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Professor of Criminal Justice Justice University of Cincinnati Temple University Tamar Birckhead Tom Austin, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Law Professor, Department of Criminal Justice University of North Carolina School of Law Shippensburg University Hon. Dennis L. Blewitt, J.D. (Ret.) Dr. David Baker Instructor Crime and Delinquency Associate Professor, Department of Criminal University of Colorado Justice The University of Toledo Barbara E. Bloom Professor, Department of Criminology and Nicholas W. Bakken, Ph.D. Criminal Justice Studies Center for Drug and Alcohol Studies Sonoma State University University of Delaware Alfred Blumstein Tiffiney Y. Barfield-Cottledge, Ph.D. University Professor Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice Heinz College University of North Texas Dallas Carnegie Mellon University Melissa Barlow, Ph.D. Gene Bonham, Jr., Ph.D. Director, Institute for Community Justice Associate Professor and Graduate Program Professor, Department of Criminal Justice Coordinator, Criminal Justice Department Fayetteville State University University of Central Missouri Kevin Barrett, Ph.D. Dr. Denise Paquette Boots Professor, School of Criminal Justice Assistant Professor of Criminology Fairleigh Dickinson University University of Texas at Dallas Leo Barrile Jean Bottcher, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Criminal Justice Executive Director Bloomsburg University Saginaw Research Dr. Deborah R. Baskin Mary Brewster Professor and Chairperson, Department of Professor, Department of Criminal Justice Criminal Justice West Chester University California State University-Los Angeles B. Irene Britt, (ABD) M.P.A., M.Ed. Robert Batey Chair, Criminal Justice Department Professor School of Public and Social Services Stetson University College of Law Ivy Tech Community College, North Central Region Eleen A. Baumann Undergraduate Advisor and Assistant Stephen E. Brown, Ph.D. Professor (adjunct), Department of Sociology Professor & Department Head, Department University of Oregon of Criminology & Criminal Justice Western Carolina University Amy Cass Patrick Buckley Assistant Professor Professor and Department Chair, California State University, Fullerton - Irvine Administration of Justice & Corrections Departments, Ramón Castellblanch, Ph.D Criminal Justice Division Associate Professor, Health Education San Bernardino Valley College Campus Chapter President, California Faculty Association Hoan N. Bui, Ph.D. San Francisco State University Associate Professor, Department of Sociology University of Tennessee Dawn K. Cecil, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Criminology John M. Burkoff University of South Florida St. Petersburg Professor of Law University of Pittsburgh School of Law William Chambliss Professor of Sociology Deborah Burris-Kitchen, Ph.D. George Washington University Chair, Department of Criminal Justice Past President, American Society of Tennessee State University Criminology James M. Byrne, Ph.D. Allison T. Chappell, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Criminal Justice Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice and Criminology Old Dominion University University of Massachusetts, Lowell Richard D. Clark, Ph.D. Robert Calhoun Associate Professor, Department of Sociology Professor of Law John Carroll University Golden Gate School of Law Todd R. Clear Jack Call Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice Professor, Department of Criminal Justice John Jay College Radford University President, American Society of Criminology Liqun Cao, Ph.D. Jennifer Cobbina Professor, Criminology, Justice & Policy Assistant Professor, School of Criminal Studies Justice University of Ontario Institute of Technology Michigan State University Anne Carroll Philip N. Cohen Dean, Social and Behavioral Sciences Division Associate Professor of Sociology Chattanooga State Technical Community University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill College George F. Cole Tim Carter, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Political Science Associate Professor of Criminal Justice University of Connecticut University of North Alabama 4 University of Ontario Institute of Technology Peter A. Collins Doctoral Candidate, Program in Criminal Michael B. Delaney, J.D. Justice Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice Washington State University Mesa State College Craig Curtis, J.D., Ph.D. Daniel Dexheimer Associate Professor of Political Science Instructor, Department of Sociology Bradley University Santa Clara University Dean Dabney Danielle Dirks Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Doctoral Candidate, Department of Sociology Justice University of Texas at Austin Editor, Criminal Justice Review & International Criminal Justice Review Dallas Drake Georgia State University Principal Researcher Center for Homicide Research Janet T. Davidson, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Criminology & Criminal Joshua Dressler Justice Frank R. Strong Chair in Law Chaminade University of Honolulu The Ohio State University, Michael E. Moritz College of Law Dr. Edwin S. Davis Professor of Restorative Justice Jenifer Drew, Ph.D. Sam Houston State University Assistant Professor of Justice Studies and Sociology L. Edward Day, Ph.D. Lasell College Associate Professor of Criminal Justice & Sociology Susan E. Eichenberger, Ph.D. Penn State Altoona Assistant Professor of Sociology and Women's Studies Program Coordinator, Harriet de Wit, Ph.D. Division of Social Sciences Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Seton Hill University Behavioral Neuroscience The University of Chicago Jessica Ekhomu Managing Editor, Criminal Justice Review and Aimee Dechter International Criminal Justice Review Department of Sociology Department of Criminal Justice University of Wisconsin-Madison Georgia State University University of Washington (Visiting) Preston Elrod, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Safety, Security, and Emergency Management Walter S. DeKeseredy, Ph.D. Eastern Kentucky University Chair, American Society of Criminology's Division on Critical Criminology Finn Esbensen Professor of Criminology, Justice and Policy Professor, Department of Criminology and Studies Criminal Justice 5 University of Missouri-St. Louis Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, Division of Politics, Administration, and Chris Eskridge Justice Professor, School of Criminology California State University, Fullerton University of Nebraska Melissa Garmo James Fadiman, Ph.D. Ph.D. Candidate, School of Criminal Justice Institute for Transpersonal Psychology Michigan State University Palo Alto, California Gilbert Geis Amy Farrell, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus, Department of Associate Director, Institute on Race and Criminology, Law and Society Justice University of California, Irvine College of Criminal Justice Edward J. Girard, Ph.D. James O. Finckenauer, Ph.D. Assistant to the Director Professor II (Distinguished), School of Lackawanna College - Hazleton Center Criminal Justice Rutgers University W. L. Goldfrank Professor of Sociology Stanley Z. Fisher UC Santa Cruz Professor Boston University School of Law Neal M. Goldsmith, Ph.D. Social psychologist Wanda D. Foglia, J.D., Ph.D. Sag Harbor, New York Professor of Law and Justice Studies Coordinator, M.A. in Criminal Justice Roger Goodman Program State Representative 45th District Rowan University Washington State Legislature Former Director Beverly D. Frazier, Ph.D., M. Div., MBA Washington State Sentencing Guidelines Assistant Professor, Law, Police Science & Commission Criminal Justice Administration John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY Stuart P. Green Professor of Law & Justice, Nathan L. Jacobs Charlene Freyberg Scholar Criminal Justice Department Chair Rutgers University School of Law-Newark Kaplan College- Renton Rosann Greenspan, Ph.D. Gennifer Furst, Ph.D. Executive Director, Center for the Study of Assistant Professor, Sociology Department Law and Society William Paterson University University of California, Berkeley George Greer, MD Christie Gardiner, Ph.D. Psychiatrist, Milton Erickson Institute Santa Fe, NM 6 Ricky S. Gutierrez, Ph.D. Craig Hemmens, J.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor, Division of Criminal Director, Honors College Justice Professor, Department of Criminal Justice California State University, Sacramento Boise State University Mark H. Haller Howard M. Henderson II, Ph.D. Professor of History and Criminal Justice Assistant Professor, College of Criminal Temple University Justice Editor-in-Chief, Criminal Justice and Law John H. Halpern, M.D. Sam Houston State University Assistant Professor of Psychiatry Harvard Medical School Rand M. Henderson Adjunct Lecturer, Department of Criminal Judith A. Harris, Ph.D. Justice Associate Professor, Criminal Justice Lone Star College – Montgomery Campus, University of South Carolina Upstate Conroe, Texas Lana Harrison, Ph.D. Rebecca Hensley Professor and Senior Scientist, Department of Instructor of Sociology, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice Center for Sociology & Criminal Justice Drug & Alcohol Studies Southeastern Louisiana University University of Delaware Wolf Heydebrand Clayton A. Hartjen Professor Emeritus, Department of Sociology Professor and Chair, Department of New York University Sociology and Anthropology Rutgers University - Newark Paul Hirschfield Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology Richard D. Hartley Rutgers University Assistant Professor, Department of Criminal Justice Nancy L. Hogan, Ph.D. College of Public Policy Professor and Graduate Program University of Texas at San Antonio Coordinator, School of Criminal Justice Ferris State University Curtis G. Hayes, J.D. Professor of Criminal Justice and Department Lisa Holland-Davis, Ph.D. Chair, Department of Criminal Justice and Assistant Professor of Criminology Chemical Dependency University of South Florida St Petersburg Western New Mexico University Beth M. Huebner Leslie Heffernan, MS Assistant Professor and Director of the Ph.D. Correctional Counselor, North Carolina Program, Department of Criminology and Department of Correction Criminal Justice Guilford Correctional Center University of Missouri-St. Louis Greensboro, North Carolina Emma Hughes, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Criminology California State University, Fresno 7 Drew Humphries Robert J. Kaminski, Ph.D. Department of Sociology, Anthropology, Department of Criminology & Criminal Criminal Justice Justice Rutgers University-Camden Campus University of South Carolina Douglas Husak James W. Kanan, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy Associate Professor of Sociology Rutgers University Western Kentucky University Connie Ireland, Ph.D. Kate King, Ph.D. Director, Evaluation of Mandatory Residential Professor and Director of Criminal Justice Substance Abuse Aftercare Services Murray State University Assistant Professor and Graduate Advisor, Department of Criminal Justice Dr. Lawrence Kobilinsky California State University, Long Beach Professor and Chair, Department of Sciences John Jay College of Criminal Justice John Irwin The City University of New York Professor of Sociology, Emeritus San Francisco State University George Korn, Ph.D. Associate Professor, School of Media Arts Paul Jesilow and Studies Professor, Department of Criminology, Law Ohio University and Society University of California, Irvine Alex Kreit Assistant Professor and Director, Center for Brian D. Johnson, Ph.D. Law and Social Justice Assistant Professor, Criminology and Thomas Jefferson School of Law Criminal Justice University of Maryland Susan T. Krumholz, J.D., Ph.D. Director, Crime and Justice Studies Greg Jones, MA University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Crime Mapping Specialist Douglas L. Kuck, Ph.D. Bernadette Jones Palombo, Ph.D. Department of Sociology Professor of Criminal Justice and Chair, University of South Carolina Aiken Department of History and Social Sciences Louisiana State University at Shreveport Mark M. Lanier, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Don A. Josi, Ph.D. Justice and Legal Studies Co-Director Professor and Chair, Department of Criminal Virtual Center for Epidemiological Justice Criminology South University Marilyn Kain, MS, LADC, LPC, Adjunct Richard L Legault, Ph.D. Professor National Consortium for the Study of Division of Justice and Law Administration Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism Western Connecticut State University (START) 8 University of Maryland, College Park Wayne L. Lucas, Ph.D. Professor, Principal Graduate Advisor Dr Paul Leighton Criminal Justice & Criminology Professor, Dept of Sociology, Anthropology University of Missouri – Kansas City & Criminology Eastern Michigan University Arthur J. Lurigio, Ph.D. Professor of Criminal Justice and Psychology Thomas W. Lenahan Associate Dean for Faculty, College of Arts Professor Emeritus of Criminal Justice and Sciences Herkimer County Community College Loyola University Chicago Krystle M. Leugoud Faith E. Lutze, Ph.D. Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Criminology Associate Professor, Criminal Justice Program and Criminal Justice Washington State University University of Missouri - St. Louis Julia Mack Jill S. Levenson, Ph.D., LCSW Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Sociology Associate Professor of Human Services and Criminology Lynn University Bowling Green State University Harry G. Levine Scott R. Maggard, Ph.D. Professor of Sociology, Queens College and Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology the Graduate Center and Criminal Justice City University of New York Old Dominion University Mitch L. Librett, Ph.D. Jess Maghan, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Criminal Professor and Director Justice Forum for Comparative Correction Bridgewater State College Otwin Marenin Raymond V. Liedka Professor, Department of Political Science Assistant Professor of Sociology, Department and Criminal Justice of Sociology and Anthropology Washington State University Oakland University Damian J. Martinez, Ph.D. Eric Ling, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, School of Criminal Professor, Department of Criminal Justice Justice York College of Pennsylvania Rutgers University Edith Linn, Ph.D. Ernest G. Mayo Department of Justice Studies Professor & Chairperson, Department of Berkeley College Legal Studies Johnson & Wales University Dr. Kenneth J. Litwin Bill McCarthy Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice Professor, Department of Sociology University of Michigan-Flint University of California, Davis 9 R. Paul McCauley, Ph.D., DABFE, FACFE Professor, School of Criminal Justice Professor, Department of Criminology Michigan State University Indiana University of Pennsylvania Steven M. Nelson Justine McDavid, M.A. Assistant Professor of Sociology and Adjunct Lecturer/Researcher Anthropology Rutgers University Clemson University Jerome McKean, Ph.D. Melanie-Angela Neuilly, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Criminal Justice and Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Criminology Anthropology, and Justice Studies Ball State University University of Idaho Richard L. McWhorter, Ph.D. Thomas W. Nolan, Ed.D. Assistant Professor, Human Science Associate Professor in Criminal Justice Department Boston University Prairie View A&M University Claire Angelique Nolasco, J.D., LL.M. Chris Melde, Ph.D. Doctoral Teaching Fellow, College of Assistant Professor, Michigan State University Criminal Justice School of Criminal Justice Institute for Legal Studies in Criminal Justice Sam Houston State University Kim S. Ménard, Ph.D. Department of Sociology and Crime, Law, Trish Oberweis, Ph.D. and Justice Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice The Pennsylvania State University Studies Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Kathryn Meyer Associate Professor of History Charles O. Ochie, Sr., Ph.D. Wright State University Professor of Criminal Justice and Chair, Department of Criminal Justice and Forensic Venezia Michalsen, Ph.D. Science Assistant Professor of Justice Studies Albany State University Montclair State University Dr. Robbin S. Ogle Julie A. Molloy, Ph.D. Associate Professor and Graduate Chair, Chair, Criminology and Criminal Justice School of Criminology and Criminal Justice Department University of Nebraska at Omaha Virginia Union University Marisa Omori Lynn F. Monahan, Ph.D. Doctoral Student, Department of Professor, Department of Criminal Justice Criminology, Law and Society University of New Haven University of California, Irvine Michael Montgomery, Ph.D. Department of Criminal Justice Emmanuel Onyeozili, Ph.D. Tennessee State University Associate Professor, Criminology & Criminal Justice Merry Morash, Ph.D. University of Maryland Eastern Shore 10 Henry N. Pontell Karen F. Parker, Professor Professor, Department of Criminology, Law Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice and Society University of Delaware School of Social Ecology University of California John T. Passante, Esq. Adjunct Instructor, Department of Sociology Heloise H. Price and Criminal Justice Graduate Assistant, Department of Justice Bergen Community College Administration University of Louisville William D. Pederson, Ph.D. Professor of Political Science Dr. Doris Marie Provine Louisiana State University, Shreveport Professor, School of Justice and Social Inquiry Arizona State University Robert W. Peetz Professor of Criminal Justice Benn Prybutok, MA, EJD Midland College Director of Criminal Justice Studies, Fire Science & Emergency Management Michelle Petrie, Ph.D. Montgomery County Community College - Assistant Professor of Sociology Blue Bell, PA University of South Carolina Aiken Kenna Quinet Matthew Petrocelli, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Criminal Justice, Law Associate Professor, Criminal Justice Studies and Public Safety, and Research Fellow, Southern Illinois University Center for Criminal Justice Research School of Public and Environmental Affairs Elicka Peterson, Ph.D. Indiana University Purdue University Associate Professor of Justice Studies Indianapolis (IUPUI) Appalachian State University Nicole Rafter Alexander W. Pisciotta, Ph.D. Professor, Northeastern University Professor and Chair, Department of Criminal College of Criminal Justice Justice Kutztown University Raymond R. Rainville Ph.D. Chair, Department of Criminal Justice Wayne J. Pitts, Ph.D. Saint Peter's College Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice Sarah Joanna Reed, M. Phil University of Memphis Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Sociology University of Texas at Austin Mark Pogrebin, Ph.D. Professor, School of Public Affairs \ University of Colorado-Denver Thomas E Reed, Ph.D. Joycelyn M. Pollock, Ph.D., J.D., Professor of Criminal Justice and Police Department of Criminal Justice Studies Texas State University-San Marcos Eastern Kentucky University 11 Craig Reinarman Professor of Sociology Judge H. Ted Rubin (ret.) University of California, Santa Cruz Denver Juvenile Court Jeffrey T. Renz Danielle S. Rudes Clinical Professor of Law, School of Law Assistant Professor, Administration of Justice The University of Montana Department George Mason University Stephen C. Richards, Ph.D. Professor, Criminal Justice Program Steve Russell University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Associate Professor of Criminal Justice Indiana University, Bloomington Susan P. Robbins, Ph.D., LCSW Associate Professor, Graduate College of Emily J. Salisbury, Ph.D. Social Work Assistant Professor, Criminology & Criminal University of Houston Justice Division Portland State University Thomas B. Roberts, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Gabriela Sandoval Northern Illinois University Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology Co-editor, "Psychedelic Medicine: New University of California, Santa Cruz Evidence for Hallucinogens as Treatments" Jessica Saunders, Ph.D. Kristenne Robison Associate Social/Behavioral Scientist Instructor of Sociology RAND Corporation Syracuse University Joanne Savage, Ph.D. Michelle Ronda Associate Professor, Department of Justice, Instructor, Department of Sociology Law and Society Marymount Manhattan College American University Thomas Roscoe, Ph.D. Andrea Schoepfer, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Criminal Justice Assistant Professor, Department of Criminal Westfield State College Justice California State University, San Bernardino Chris Rose, Ph.D. Professor of Criminal Justice Studies Christopher J. Schreck, Ph.D. University of Southern Indiana Associate Professor of Criminal Justice Rochester Institute of Technology Annette Ross-Gray Associate Professor Sinclair Community College Aaron Roussell, M.A. Eric L. Sevigny, Ph.D. Doctoral Student, Department of Assistant Professor, Department of Criminology, Law & Society Criminology and Criminal Justice School of Social Ecology University of South Carolina University of California-Irvine 12 James F. Short, Jr. Kelly Socia Past President, American Society of Ph.D. Candidate, School of Criminal Justice Criminology University at Albany (SUNY) Professor Emeritus of Sociology Washington State University Natalie J. Sokoloff Professor of Sociology Neal Shover John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the Professor, Department of Sociology Graduate Center, CUNY University of Tennessee Mittie D. Southerland, Ph.D. Peter Shrock Professor Emeritus of Criminal Justice, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice Murray State University Southeastern Louisiana University Past President, Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and Southern Criminal Justice Jane A. Siegel, Ph.D. Association Associate Professor of Criminology Executive Director, Academy of Criminal Chair, Department of Sociology, Justice Sciences Anthropology and Criminal Justice Rutgers University Cassia C. Spohn, Ph.D. Professor and Director of Graduate Deborah A. Sieger, RN, MSW, Ph.D. Programs, School of Criminology and Professor, Criminal Justice Criminal Justice Kutztown University Arizona State University Jonathan Simon Brian Chad Starks, MCJ Associate Dean, Jurisprudence and Social Ph.D. Candidate, Sociology and Criminal Policy Program, and Professor of Law Justice Faculty Co-Chair, Berkeley Center for University of Delaware Criminal Justice BerkeleyLaw Sara Steen Associate Professor, Department of Sociology Lee Ann Slocum University of Colorado-Boulder Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice Eric E. Sterling, J.D. University of Missouri, St. Louis Lecturer in Sociology and Criminal Justice, Department of Sociology Steve Smith George Washington University Instructor, Administration of Justice Counsel, Committee on the Judiciary Gavilan College U.S. House of Representatives, 1979-1989 S. De Lacy Stith, J.D. Associate Professor of Criminal Justice Elizabeth City State University Susan Smith-Cunnien, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Sociology and Mary K. Stohr, Ph.D. Criminal Justice Professor, Department of Criminal Justice University of St. Thomas Boise State University 13 Murray A. Straus Sheryl Van Horne Professor of Sociology and Co-Director, Instructor of Criminal Justice Family Research Laboratory Widener University University of New Hampshire Dave Van Mierlo, J.D. Richard P. Talbot, Ph.D. Professor of Criminal Justice and Sociology Associate Professor of Criminal Justice and Social Sciences Department Chair Sociology St. Charles Community College Anna Maria College Jennifer Varriale Christine Tartaro, Ph.D. Lecturer, Department of Criminology and Associate Professor of Criminal Justice Criminal Justice The Richard Stockton College of NJ University of Maryland Terrance J. Taylor, Ph.D. Michael S. Vaughn, Ph.D. Associate Research Professor Professor, College of Criminal Justice Department of Criminology & Criminal Institute for Legal Studies in Criminal Justice Justice Sam Houston State University University of Missouri-St. Louis Carol Veneziano, Ph.D. Buford C. Terrell Professor, Department of Criminal Justice & Professor of Law (Ret.) Sociology South Texas College of Law Southeast Missouri State University Richard Tewksbury, Ph.D. Holly Ventura Miller, Ph.D. Professor of Justice Administration Assistant Professor of Criminology University of Louisville University of Texas at San Antonio Wayne Thompson, M.S. William J. Vizzard Adjunct Instructor of Criminal Justice Professor and Chair, Division of Criminal McNeese State University Justice Louisiana State Trooper and Criminal California State University Sacramento Investigator Vincent J. Webb, Ph.D. Dr. Clifton Quint Thurman Dean and Director, College of Criminal Professor of Criminal Justice Justice Texas State University-San Marcos Sam Houston State University Sam Torres, Ph.D. Robert R. Weidner, Ph.D. Professor, California State University, Long Associate Professor, Department of Beach Sociology-Anthropology Senior U.S. probation officer (retired) (CDC) University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus Carol L. S. Trent, M.A. Harald E. Weiss, Ph.D. Associate Instructor, Indiana University- Assistant Professor of Sociology Bloomington Mississippi State University Department of Criminal Justice 14 Ron Weitzer James P. Zacny, Ph.D. Professor & Graduate Director, Sociology Professor, Department of Anesthesia & Department Critical Care George Washington University University of Chicago Kelly Welch, Ph.D. Tracy E. Zinn, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Sociology and Criminal Associate Professor Justice Department of Psychology Villanova University James Madison University Jonathan M. Wender, Ph.D. Department of Sociology and Law, Societies, and Justice Program University of Washington Angela West Crews, Ph.D. Immediate Past Chair, Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Corrections Section Associate Professor of Criminal Justice Marshall University John T. Whitehead, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Criminal Justice & Criminology East Tennessee State University James A. Wilson, Ph.D. Senior Program Officer Russell Sage Foundation Dr. Michael Winkelman, M.P.H., Ph.D. Associate Professor Arizona State University Fulbright Research and Teaching Professor Dee Wood Harper Professor, Department of Criminal Justice Loyola University New Orleans Kevin A. Wright Ph.D. Candidate, Program in Criminal Justice Washington State University Melinda R. York, Doctoral Candidate Instructor of Criminal Justice Washington State University 15