periodic table song
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The Periodic Table Triads • 1829 – Döbereiner (1780-1849) • Only 60 elements known • Groups of 3’s – Melting points – Boiling points – Metallic properties Cl, Br, I: similar chemical reactions nonmetallic diatomic gases form colorless acids Ca, Sr, Ba S, Se, Te What do these triads have in common? Elements in each triad are in the same column or group on the Periodic Table Döbereiner's Lamp • A lighter invented by the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner. • It is ignited by the action of hydrogen on a platinum sponge. Döbereiner observed that if a jet of hydrogen was directed at the platinum from a distance of 4 cm so that it was premixed with air, the platinum became red- hot, then white-hot and the jet ignited spontaneously. This discovery, in which fire was produced without flint and tinder or a match, quickly created an international sensation and was immediately tested and confirmed by many chemists and physicists. • The Döbereiner-lighter was invented in 1823 by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner and was in production until ca. 1880. • The lighter is exhibited in the Deutschen Museum and in the old pharmacy in the Heidelberg Castle. Octaves John Newlands (1837-1898) • 1863 • Before 1860, atomic masses were unknown, uncertain, or incorrect 1. Arranged elements by atomic weights 2. Why do properties repeat every 8th element? Elements are in the same group Groups of 7—Law of Octaves 7 families of elements with similar properties VIIIA –not yet discovered • Members of the British Chemical Society laughed at this proposal. • 30 years later he received an award for this achievement. Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) 1. Arranged elements by atomic weights 2. Predicted unknown elements and their properties world fame! 3. Predicted: Scandium, Gallium, Germanium 4. Problem: Reversed Pairs Te and I Ar and K Doomed his table Co and Ni Either the weights were wrong or the arrangement was wrong Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) •1869 •13th of 17 children •At age 20, the family moved to Moscow to go to University •Denied admission, so moved to St. Petersburg and graduated at the top of his class •He got one haircut a year Modern Periodic Table Henry Moseley (1887-1915) • 1913 • Studied under Ernest Rutherford 1. Found reasons for the reversed pairs 2. Accurately determined atomic numbers (# of protons) using X-ray diffraction 3. Revised Periodic Chart: Now based on atomic number NOT atomic weight Henry Mosely (untimely death) • In 1914, he resigned at Manchester to return to Oxford to pursue his research, but when World War I broke out, he turned down a job offer and enlisted in the Royal Engineers. • He fought at Gallipoli, where he was killed in action by a sniper in 1915. Periodic Law • Properties of elements are a function of their atomic numbers • Manhattan Project Scientists used atomic numbers and periodic law to predict and purify Uranium and Plutonium while making the A-bomb • Robert Oppenheimer • Upon seeing the A-bombs first trial quoted the Bhagavad-Gita “Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds” • Truman speaking about dropping the A-bomb Tom Lehrer Tom Leher AKA Thomas Andrew Lehrer Born: 9-Apr-1928 Birthplace: New York City Gender: Male Religion: Atheist Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Comic, Musician Nationality: United States Executive summary: Wretched songwriter Military service: US Army (1955-57) Father: (necktie manufacturer) Brother: (1 brother) High School: (prep school, Connecticut) University: BA Mathematics, Harvard University (1947) University: MA, Harvard University (1948) University: PhD, Harvard University Teacher: MIT Teacher: Harvard University Teacher: Wellesley College • Periodic Table Song Professor: UC Santa Cruz (1972-) Animated Element Song Phi Beta Kappa Society Edgar Allan Poe Award Raven Award (1954) http://www.privatehand.com/flash/elements.html Jewish Ancestry FILMOGRAPHY AS ACTOR Hey, Mr. Producer! The Musical World of Cameron Mackintosh (8-Nov-1998) Himself http://www.nndb.com/people/710/000022644/ Element Puns Getting Punny With It •John Enium’s Sister • Ruthenium •A crazy inmate • Silicon •Not fat • Tin •What doctors do for sick • Curium people • Assign HW elements #1-5 Periodic Trends • Draw the rough outline of the periodic table in this space. Reactivity Group or Family Non- metals Metals Period Atomic Size – add arrows to your table Size • Why? • As the number of electrons grows the positive nucleus pulls them closer. + + + + + Reactivity Most active metal: Fr Most active non-metal: F More active? O or S Se or Br K or Ca Mg or Ca F or Ne II. Noble Gases •Also known as: Rare Gases, Inert Gases •Group VIII A •Exist as monatomic gases •Chemically inert (unreactive) •Why are the noble gases so stable? •They have a filled outer shell (ns2np6) X •Until 30 years ago, no noble gas compounds were known •Only Krypton and Xenon have formed chemical compounds Xe(g) + 2 F2 (g) XeF4 (s) Reaction done at 400oC and 6 atmospheres of pressure (4560 mmHg) • Helium: used as a coolant in refrigeration, deep sea diving, pressurized gas for rocket fuel, blimps • Discovered on the sun with spectrophotometery before it was discovered on Earth • Neon: used in signs • Argon: used in incandescent light bulbs Red = Ne Others = Ar, Hg, phosphor III. Alkali Metals 1. Elements in Group IA 2. Occur in nature only as ions (+1) 3. All (except Hydrogen) posses: metallic properties silvery luster conductor of heat and electricity ductile malleable (can be cut with a knife) 4. Metal + H2O H2 (g) + Base Alkaline means basic Basic solutions have a pH > 7 Bases neutralize acids 5. Alkali Metals are very reactive --want to lose 1 electron to form a stable octet Alkali Metals = +1 ions K K1+ + 1 e- X Electron configuration of K1+ ion? 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 (Just Like Ar) Filled outer shell = greater chemical stability Reactivity increases with larger distance of e- from nucleus Sodium Lake? • Reaction of Sodium with air: http://220.127.116.11/lab/CCA/MVHTM/NO_elt/Na_Air.HTM • Sodium with water: http://18.104.22.168/lab/CCA/MVHTM/NO_elt/Na_H2O.HTM • Potassium Air: – http://22.214.171.124/lab/CCA/MVHTM/IL_elt/K_Air.HTM • Potassium Water: – http://126.96.36.199/lab/CCA/MVHTM/IL_elt/K_H2O.HTM • Rubidium Air: – http://188.8.131.52/lab/CCA/MVHTM/PR_elt/Rb_Air.HTM • Rubidium Water: – http://184.108.40.206/lab/CCA/MVHTM/PR_elt/Rb_H2O.HTM • Cesium Air: – http://220.127.116.11/lab/CCA/MVHTM/CmCz_elt/Cs_Air.HTM • Cesium Water: – http://18.104.22.168/lab/CCA/MVHTM/CmCz_elt/Cs_H2O.HTM • Sodium Lake:http://www.theodoregray.com/PeriodicTable/Stories/011.2/Videos/SodiumLake01.html 6. Uses of Group IA Metals Li somewhat rare occurs in nature as Li1+ ions in several types of rocks lowest density of any metal used in ceramics and drugs (anti-psychotic) Na very abundant, but never found as a pure metal usually in chloride form In soil, seawater, plants, animals hard to find anything without Na+ NaHCO3—baking soda NaHCO3 + H2O—soda water Na2CO3—soda cracker (yeast dough neutralized with soda) NaNO3—fertilizers Na2B4O7•10H2O—Borax (washing soda) K many uses very abundant KBr sedatives and photography K2CO3 potash—used in fertilizers, glass making, soap KNO3 saltpeter—black gun powder, curing meat, fireworks • Which is the most reactive alkali metal? Why? – Fr, farthest down the table, electrons lost are FAR from the + nucleus • What does “alkali” mean? – Base forming….Alkali flats out in Utah • Why aren’t there any pure Na or K deposits on earth? – Explode with H2O Alkali Metals—Group IA Li Na K Element Puns Getting Punny With It • When people die they … • argon (or barium) •What a torpedoed ship does • zinc •50% of element 67 • hafnium •Male of the Ganese tribe • manganese Element Puns Getting Punny With It • A 2000 pound coffin • Krypton •What some classes do, •Boron but not this one •Rubidium •Land of the Frogs IV. Halogens—Group VIIA “salt forming” non metals X 1. Ions tend to gain 1 e- to form a stable octet 2. Form –1 ions Cl + 1 e- Cl1- Halogen Reactions • Halogen and Hydrogen Acid • Cl2 + H2 HCl • Halogen + Metal Salt Na + Cl2 NaCl • Try these dot diagrams: Cl Cl- Cl2 Cl Cl- Cl Cl • Which is more stable a chlorine atom, ion, or molecule? Why? – The ion, a completely full, unshared outer shell. • Why are halogens so reactive? – Only need to gain 1 e- • Which is more reactive, Cl2 or F2? – Fluorine, electrons are closer to the positive nucleus. • What are the problems with freon? – Reacts with ozone layer http://env.chass.utoronto.ca/env200y/know/ozonehole3d.gif • Which is the most stable halogen? – Lower down the group • What is the molecular weight of Chlorine gas? g Cl2 71 mol Halogen High Intensity Discharge (HID) XENON Chlorine, Bromine, Fluorine & Iodine V. Alkaline Earth Metals 1. Elements in Group IIA 2. Occur in nature as ions (+2) 3. 2 e- in their outer shells X 4. Metal + H2O H2 (g) + Base Alkaline means basic Basic solutions have a pH > 7 Bases neutralize acids Alkaline Earth Metals • Essential for life: • Without Ca+2 organisms die – Muscle action, energy use, hormone signaling, blood clotting etc. • Mg+2 is needed for photosynthesis and many protein jobs. Calcium compounds • CaO “lime” mortar, “Wild” Iowa bricks, steel • CaCO3 “limestone” a key component of rock formations, fossils, and shells • CaCl2 is used to de-ice roads • Why are alkali metals more reactive? – Only need to lose 1 electron, alkaline need to lose 2. Also alkaline have a filled s sublevel increasing stability • Which is more stable, Ca+2 of Ca? – Ca+2 due to a full octet (e- config of Argon) Reactions of Alkaline Earth Metals • Alkaline + Halogen a salt Mg + Cl2 MgCl2 • Alkaline + Oxygen oxide Sr + O2 SrO • Alkaline + Water a base (DEMO Ca and Mg) Ca + 2 H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2 (g) • Short 1 min movie of Group I and II Rxn’s Element Puns Getting Punny With It • A flower you might raise •Germanium •The lone ranger’s horse •Silver •What a farmer did with seeds •Sodium •The outer covering of an ox •Oxide Iron • “The skeleton of our modern civilization” • Steel – Iron and carbon and other metals. chrome steel, nickel steel, titanium, etc. • 5% of the earth’s crust • Found in earth as Fe2O3 • Mesabi Range – Minn. Large Deposits. Bessemer Converter used to convert iron ore to iron Copper • Large deposits in N. Michigan • Conductor of electricity (wires) • Cooking pots – (heat conductor) • Brass – alloy of Cu + Zn • Bronze – alloy of Cu + Sn copper ore copper kettle copper roofs Lead • Pb Plumbum Plumbing • Mineral Point – SW Wisconsin • Obtained from PbS (Galena) ore • Lead Salts are poisonous White lead – paint • Batteries – wet cells Pb and Sulfuric Acid in cars • Pewter – Lead and Tin Galena Zinc • Use in dry cell batteries (flashlight) • Galvanized Iron – Zinc “dipped” protects from rusting. • Sacrificial Zn on your outboard motor Tin • Coating for Iron (steel) “tin” cans • Napoleon’s Coat – tin pest brittle when cold Mercury • Found in cinnabar (HgS) • Spain – large producer • 13.6 times more dense than water • freezing point = - 38.9º C • vapor is poisonous (breathing) • liquid can be absorbed through the skin (touching) Mercury Cinnabar Silver • A “Noble” metal • Relatively unreactive • The best conductor • Uses: Silverware, jewelry Mirrors (silvered) Photography – Ag+ ions are sensitive to light Dental Fillings – amalgam Hg and Ag mixture Aluminum • Most abundant metal in earth’s crust (8.1%) • electrolytically extracted from bauxite (Charles Martin Hall) • In 1855 – 3 times the value of silver • Washington Memorial had an Aluminum cap • 50% used in structural alloys, ships, planes, cars, buildings • Household utensils – foil, pans • AlCl3 is in many antiperspirants • Linked to Alzheimer’s and brain lesions. • Charles Martin Hall Washington Monument Aluminum Gold • Most malleable and ductile metal • Gold leaf 1/250,000 inch thick • Not attacked by individual acids only Aqua regia (HNO3 + HCl) • Pure Gold = 24 carats 14 carat = 14 parts Au and 10 parts other metals Silicon • Second most common element (28% of earth’s crust) • Exists as silica – SiO2 sand, clay, glass, asbestos • Uses: Microchips Carborundum – SiC Silicon Sulfur • Brimstone H2S and SO2 • Paper industry bleaching dioxins – That Wisconsin Rapids smell • SO2 – Acid Rain • 80% of sulfur mined in Texas and Louisiana • Production of H2SO4 • Found in proteins “perming” hair Sulfur Sulfur Hot Springs Yellowstone Transition Elements – Groups B • 10 columns – filling d orbitals • Structural uses • 85% must be imported • Also needed in living organisms • Iron – Zinc – Copper - Manganese • Lanthanoid Series – 14 Elements – filling f orbitals – lanthanum utterbium • Actinoid Series – 14 Elements – filling 5f orbitals • The lanthanoids and actinoids were once called “rare earth elements” • Why? • ‘Earth’ refers to the oxide form of these elements. These elements were first isolated in this form. Coinage • Many transition metals are coinage metals • What properties are desired in a coin metal? • Unreactive, inexpensive, can form durable alloys, resistant to corrosion.