"Normative Comprehensive Exam Welcome to the normative comprehensive exam"
2009 Normative Comprehensive Exam Welcome to the 2009 normative comprehensive exam! This document contains guidelines for preparation and the list of readings that you will be responsible for when you write the exam. If you have any general questions about the exam, please feel free to contact any one of Drs. Crocker (firstname.lastname@example.org), Levine (email@example.com), or Walen (firstname.lastname@example.org). Guidance on Preparing for the Normative Comprehensive Exam While comprehensive exams are ultimately designed to test your ability to do self-directed preparation and individual mastery, we hope we can offer you some guidance for preparation that will improve your experience with the test. In addition, School of Public Policy and affiliated faculty and scholars can help you understand unfamiliar material, and we are working to institute clear support for your studies. 1. Orientation Meeting Before the Holiday break or early 2009, Drs. Crocker, Levine, and Walen will convene an optional but highly recommended orientation meeting for the exam. All students taking the exam at the end of the Spring 2009 semester, or Ph.D. students who plan to take the exam in the Fall are welcome to attend. We will discuss the structure of the exam, its intent, and answer questions you may have. Let us know if you are available Wednesday, Dec. 17 at 3:30 p.m., Dec. 19 at 9 a.m., or Dec. 22 at any time. 2. Planning Your Reading We have revised last year’s list to more closely track the sort of examination we plan to give. The list is divided into Classics (as before), Key Normative Approaches (moral and political theories), and Applied Topics, which roughly correlate with the School’s various specializations. Those of you who have seen pre-2009 versions of the normative comp reading list will notice that this list is significantly more comprehensive (not to mention longer), due to the addition of some important items, such as feminist ethics, the ethics of care, and Rawls’s Law of Peoples. While we believe that the increased number of readings gives a better grounding in normative analysis of policy, we would like to offer some guidance on how to approach the list for purposes of the exam, so that the reading is not overwhelming. Note that, in addition to the guidance offered in this section, the comp list is designed around the idea that you will coordinate your preparation with your colleagues; please see note 5 as well. Also note that, in comparison to previous reading lists, while the number of readings is larger, many individual readings are significantly shorter than they have been in the past. Finally, as discussed below, you will not be responsible for all the readings in section III. The exam will be divided into two sections, and you will need to answer two questions from each. The first section will consist of two questions about general issues in normative policy analysis - you will answer both. Each question will ask you to draw on the texts listed under "Classics," "Ethical Theory," and "Political Theory," and demonstrate your understanding of various approaches and an ability to discuss their merits with respect to important policy concerns. You should pay special attention to the implications various theories have for the value of democracy and the proper distribution of resources in a political community. You should be broadly familiar with all the works in these first two sections of the list, but we encourage you to select two approaches included in part II to focus on, and gain a deeper understanding of. The exam will be structured to reflect this advice - you will be expected to be able to demonstrate a basic knowledge of any of the approaches, but given room to display a more sophisticated and nuanced understanding of a few. The second section will consist of five questions, one relevant to each of the sections under "applied topics." You will answer two of the five - choose two topics to master that are relevant to your planned dissertation work. You do not need to master the readings listed for all five applied topics. 3. Overview Books James Rachels' The Elements of Moral Philosophy and Will Kymlicka's Contemporary Political Philosophy are listed as "overviews." These books are intended to give general orientations and backgrounds to students without a significant background in normative analysis. They may help tremendously in understanding the more specific readings, and help illuminate the broader intellectual context of some of the other writers. They will not be discussed in their own right on the exam. 4. Consider taking the CP4 Proseminar While the CP4 Proseminar is not designed directly as preparation for the comp, you will encounter many of the comp readings as part of the class, and cover a wealth of related material that may help your understanding - not to mention get practice writing normative analyses. This class is especially recommended if you have little or no background in ethics, morality, or political philosophy. 4. Meet in Groups We highly recommend forming reading groups with your peers. 5. Ask for Help The professors listed below have agreed to be available to answer reasonable numbers of questions, and meet with reading groups at least once during the semester. If you are having difficulty with a reading, feel free to contact us for assistance or discussion. Each scholar is listed below with some of their general areas of knowledge; each scholar has also volunteered to be the contact person for specific readings, as noted on the reading list. David A. Crocker International development, capabilities theory, democracy email@example.com 301-405-4763 Daniel H. Levine International security, law, just war, humanitarian intervention, anarchism, feminism, ethic of care firstname.lastname@example.org 301-405-4755 Xiaorong Li Human Rights email@example.com Mark Sagoff Environmental ethics firstname.lastname@example.org 301-405-4762 Robert Wachbroit Health policy, bioethics email@example.com 301-405-4756 Alec D. Walen International security, law, punishment, deontological ethics, liberalism firstname.lastname@example.org The Reading List The reading list is divided into three sections: Classics, Key Normative Approaches, and Applied Topics. Key Normative Approaches is further divided into Moral Theories and Political Theories. Remember that you are encouraged to select a few normative approaches for special attention (but should be generally familiar with all the readings), and that you are only expected to read two of the five topics under Applied Topics. The “Contact” column lists the professor who has agreed to be a contact person for each reading. If you have questions, feel free to contact the person listed (see contact information, above). IPPP scholars can also be invited to join reading group discussions. The “Availability” column lists where each reading is available: ● Library: A copy of the book has been loaned to the Ph.D. Lab. Please borrow and return these books. We encourage you to designate one of your number as a “librarian” for materials in the Ph.D. Lab, as they can tend to get disorganized. Ph.D. student Stacy Kosko has some good ideas about organization, and may be willing to consult with you if you ask nicely. When possible, these books will also be placed on reserve at McKeldin Library. ● Binder: A binder with photocopies of many materials will also be available in the Ph.D. Lab. Again, we are creating this resource for the benefit of all students taking the exam, so please be courteous in returning any materials you borrow. ● Online: A number of readings, especially “classics,” are available online. Where we are aware of an online edition, we have noted it on the reading list. Please note two things. First, many of these are very “bare bones” HTML editions of the works – to the best of our knowledge, the texts are accurate, but you may want to seek out a nicer copy. We provide links to online versions solely for your convenience. Second, the listings merely represent the best online copies we were able to find, and should in no way be taken to imply endorsement of any website on which they are found. ● ResearchPort: Most of the journal articles listed are available through the University's ResearchPort system. Asterisks (*) denote authors who are current or past research scholars at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy. Reading Contact Availability I. Classics Plato, The Republic, Books I-II Crocker Internet Classics Archive: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.html Aristotle, Politics, Books I-III Levine Internet Classics Archive: http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/politics.html Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan, chs. 13-18 Walen Oregon State: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/hobbes/leviathan- contents.html Locke, John, Second Treatise of Government, Walen Oregon State: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke2/2nd- chapters 1-5, 7 (§§ 88-93, 9. contents.html Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, On the Social Contract, Walen book 1 Constitution Society: http://www.constitution.org/jjr/socon.htm Madison, James, The Federalist Papers, No. 10 Levine Library of Congress: http://thomas.loc.gov/home/histdox/fedpapers.html Mill, J.S., On Liberty, chapters 1-2, 4 Levine Constitution Society: http://www.constitution.org/jsm/liberty.htm Mill, J.S., Utilitarianism, chapters 1-2, 5 Levine Project Gutenberg: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/11224 II. Key Normative Approaches II.A Moral Theories Overview Rachels, James, The Elements of Moral Philosophy with a Dictionary of Philosophical Terms (2002). Library Theory of the Good Smart, J.C. & Williams, B, Utilitarianism, For and Against Crocker (1973), pp. 3-57; 67-73; 77-117 Binder Sen, Amartya, “Capability and Well-Being,” in A. Sen Crocker and M. Nussbaum, eds., The Quality of Life (1993). Binder Theory of the Right Nozick, Robert, Anarchy, State and Utopia (1974), Levine, pp. 28 – 51 Crocker Binder Quinn, Warren, “Actions, Intentions and Consequences: Walen The Doctrine of the Double Effect,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 18 (1989): 334-52; reprinted in Morality and Action (1993) ResearchPort *Alec Walen, “A Moral Grounds for the Means Principle” Walen http://www.publicpolicy.umd.edu/faculty/Walen/progress.html Theory of Virtue Slote, Michael in M Baron, P. Pettit, & M. Slote, Three Walen, Methods of Ethics (1997) Crocker Library Ethic of Care Engster, Daniel, The Heart of Justice (2007), chapter 1 Levine Binder Rational Choice Theory Gauthier, David, Morals By Agreement (1986), Walen chapters 1 & 6 Binder II.B Political Theories Overview Kymlicka, Will, Contemporary Political Philosophy, An Introduction (2001) Library Liberal Theory Rawls, John, A Theory of Justice (1972), §§ 1-6, 9, 11-14, Walen 17, 22, 24-26, 29, 40, 47-48 Library Rawls, Political Liberalism (1993), lecture V Walen Binder Libertarian Theory Nozick, Robert, Anarchy State and Utopia (1974), Levine, Binder chapter 7 Crocker Egalitarian Theory Cohen, G.A., “Where the Action Is: On the Site of Walen ResearchPort Distributive Justice,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (1997): 3-30 Republican Theory Pettit, Philip, Republicanism (2000), chapter 6, & pp. Levine Binder 272-274 Communitarian Theory: Sandel, Michael, “Morality and the Liberal Ideal” Walen Binder Western and East Asian Bell, Daniel A. Beyond Liberal Democracy: Political Li, Crocker Binder Thinking for an East Asian Context (2006), chapter Anarchist Theory 1 Kropotkin, Peter, “Law and Authority,” in A Collection of Levine Anarchy Archives: Revolutionary Writings (2002) http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/kropotkin/lawauthority.html Feminist Theory Okin, Susan Moller, "Political Liberalism, Justice and Levine ResearchPort Gender," Ethics 105 (1994): 23 Held, Virginia, The Ethics of Care (2006), chapters 5, 7 Levine Binder Democratic Theory Dahl, Robert A., Democracy and Its Critics (1989), Crocker Library Introduction, chapters 1-13 Gutmann, Amy and Thompson, Dennis, Democracy and Crocker Binder Disagreement (1996), chapter 2 Rawls, “Public Reason Revisited,” reprinted in The Law Walen Library of Peoples (1999) Shapiro, Ian, The State of Democratic Theory (2003), Crocker Binder chapter 2, “Aggregation, Deliberation, and the Common Good.” Human Rights Nickel, James, Making Sense of Human Rights, 2nd Crocker Binder edition (2007), Introduction, chapters 1-6, 11-12 *Li, Xiaorong, "'Asian Value' and the Universality of Human Li Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy: www.puaf.umd.edu/ippp/li.htm Rights," 16 Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly (1996) III. Applied Topics International Security Walzer, Michael, Just and Unjust Wars, 4th edition Levine Library (2006), chapters 1-12, 14, 16, 18-19 *Gehring, Verna, ed., War After September 11 (2003), Crocker Binder chapters 1-2, &4 Buchanan, Allen, Justice, Legitimacy, and Self- Levine Binder Determination: Moral Foundations for International Law, chapter 8 McMahan, Jeffrey, "The Ethics of Killing in War," Ethics Levine ResearchPort 114 (2004): 693-733 Coady, C.A.J., Morality and Political Violence, chapters Levine Binder 10-11 *Luban, David, "Liberalism, Torture, and the Ticking Levine ResearchPort Bomb," Virginia Law Review 91 (2005): 249 International Committee on Intervention and State Levine International Committee on Intervention and State Sovereignty: http://www.iciss.ca/ Sovereignty, The Responsibility to Protect, chapters 1-6 report-en.asp International Economics Singer, Peter, One World, The Ethics of Globalization, 2d Crocker Binder and Development ed. (2002), chapter 5 O’Neill, Onora, “Ending World Hunger,” in Tom Regan, ed., Crocker Binder Matters of Life and Death: New Introductory Essays in Moral Philosophy (1986) *Crocker, David A., Ethics of Global Development: Crocker Binder Agency, Capability, and Deliberative Democracy (2008), chapter 8 Rawls, John, The Law of Peoples (1999) Levine Library Beitz, Charles, Political Theory and International Relations, revised edition (1999) Held, Virginia, The Ethic of Care, chapter 10 Levine Binder Sen, Amartya, Development as Freedom, pp. xi-xiv, Crocker Binder 3-34, 54-86, 146-160, 190-92, 227-54, 279-89 World Bank, World Development Report 2006: Equity Crocker World Bank: and Development (2005), Overview & chapter 1 http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDR S/EXTWDR2006/0,,menuPK:477658~pagePK:64167702~piPK:64167676~theSiteP K:477642,00.html Leadership Walzer, Michael, "Political Action: The Problem of Dirty Levine ResearchPort Hands," Philosophy and Public Affairs (1973) Weber, Max, "Politics as a Vocation" in The Vocation Crocker Moriyuki Abukama: Lectures (2004) http://www.ne.jp/asahi/moriyuki/abukuma/weber/lecture/politics_vocation.html Nye, Joseph Jr., The Powers to Lead, Preface, chapters Crocker Binder 1-3, 5, Appendix Environment Light, Andrew and Holmes Rolston, III, eds., Sagoff Binder Environmental Ethics: An Anthology (2003). (Selections from Leopold, Weston, Jamieson, Rolston (451-63), Attfield, Nickel and Viola, Norton and Hannon) *Sagoff, Mark, Price, Principle, and the Environment Sagoff Binder (2004), chapter 3 Singer, Peter, One World, The Ethics of Globalization, Crocker Binder 2nd. ed. (Yale 2002), chapter 2 Social Policy (Health Nickel, James W. , Making Sense of Human Rights, 2nd. Crocker Binder Policy) Ed (Blackwell, 2007), chapter 9 Daniels, Norman, Just Health (2007), chapters 1-4, 11 Wachbroit Binder Daniels, Norman and James E. Sabin, Setting Limits Wachbroit Binder Fairly: Learning to Share Resources for Health (2008), chapters 1-4 Buchanan, Allen, Dan W. Brock, Norman Daniels, and Wachbroit Binder Daniel Wikler, From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice, chapters 1, 3-6 Friedman, Alex, “Beyond Accountability for Wachbroit ResearchPort Reasonableness,” Bioethics 22 (2008), 101-112 *Wachbroit, Robert, “Genetic Encores,” Philosophy and Wachbroit Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy: Public Policy Quarterly 17 (1997) http://www.puaf.umd.edu/IPPP/Fall97Report/cloning.htm