Flowering Habits of Fruit and Nut Crops by cut58935

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									Flowering Habits of Fruit and
         Nut Crops
      Plant Development Stages
   Juvenile phase
    – Not inducible to flower
    – Basal portion remains
      juvenile
    – Rooting ease
   Adult phase
    – Minimum size, delayed by
      slow growth
    – Apple, 16-20 nodes
    – Non flowering adult phase
      varies with spp/cv
                   HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
    Plant Development Stages

 Juvenile phase
 Adult phase
 Effect of budding
    – Use adult bud
    – Flower more rapidly
      than seedling



               HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
             Flowering Habits
                   Summer before                                    Same year

   Most              Stone fruit
                    Apple and pear                                    Quince
    initiate the      Blackberry                                    Strawberry
    summer             Blueberry
    before               Grape
    flowering             Kiwi
                           Fig                                          Fig
                     Pecan - male                                  Pecan - female
                        Walnut
                       Pistachio
                      Persimmon

                   HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
                               Flowering Habits
   May coincide with fruit development
   Crop load, culture, and climate at this time
    affects next year’s crop

                       Bloom                                                                               Bloom
                                                                             Chilling            Heat Accum.
                                 Fruit bud development

                         Fruit development               Leaf fall
      Endodormancy




                     Growth
                                                           -2C to -8 C                      Deacclimation
                     begins

                                                                               -21C to -28C

                                                                       Endodormancy or Rest
                     Spring    Summer                       Fall                        Winter        Spring

                                        HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
   Age of Fruiting Wood
Current        One-year                 Two-year Both 1&2-
Season         Old                      Old Spurs year

Quince         Peach                    Cherry                 Plum
Strawberry     Almond                   Apple                  Apricot
Fig            Persimmon                Pear
               Blackberry
               Blueberry
               Grape
               Kiwi
               Pistachio
Pecan-female   Pecan-male


               HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
      Alternate Bearing

   Cycle of alternating heavy and light
    cropping years
    – Apples, pecans, plums, apricots, pistachios
   Due to poor flower initiation during
    heavy cropping year
    – Response to developing embryo
    – GA inhibits flower bud initiation
    – Nutrients do not appear deficient
   Management: control the crop load
              HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Factors Affecting Fruit Bud
         Initiation
  Precocity: Scion and rootstock
  Pruning
     – On young trees encourage vigorous
       growth
    Bending
     – Encourages fruit bud initiation
    Girdling
     – May increase if done early spring
                HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Effect of bending on flowering




         HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Factors Affecting Fruit Bud
         Initiation
    Chemicals
     – Thinning agents
     – Hormones - auxin and GA
  Tree Growth Rate
  Crop Load
  Environmental Factors
     – Good nutrition
     – Excessive heat/drought
     – Insufficient chill
               HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
            Pollination
   Pollinator vs. Pollinizer
    – Pollinator is the agent of pollen
      transfer (e.g., a bee)
    – pollinizer is the source of pollen




              HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
              Pollination
   Importance of Pollination
    – Needed for fruit set
    – Seed development affects fruit
      growth
         Fruit shape
         Fruit size
    – Cross pollination can enhance set
      over self pollination

                HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
             Pollination
   Wind pollination
    – Pecans, walnuts, pistachios, filberts
   Insect pollination
    – Pome fruit
    – Stone fruit
    – Small fruit
   Parthenocarpic set
    – Persimmons, common figs, and some pears

               HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Pollination: Terminology
   Self compatible                              Monoecious
     – or self                                    – Dichogamous
       incompatible                               – Protogynous
   Self fertile                                  – Protandrous
     – or self sterile                           Dioecious
   Self fruitful                                   – Staminate plant
     – or self unfruitful                           – Pistillate plant


                 HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
     Wind Pollination
    Pecans and Walnuts
   Dichogamous
   Monecious
   Self fertile




             HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
         Wind Pollination
        Pecans and Walnuts
   Types of varieties
   Protandrous = male 1st
   Protogynous = female 1st




                 HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
        Wind Pollination
       Pecans and Walnuts
Pawnee                                                             Protandrous
Cheyenne                                                           Protandrous
Wichita                                                            Protogynous
Choctaw                                                            Protogynous



                              Catkins shedding pollen

                               Female flowers receptive
   Pollen shed best
          Low humidity (< 85% relative humidity)
          Slight breeze
                   HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
    Wind Pollination
   Pecans and Walnuts
Timing of pollen shed and female receptivity varies
with the climate
 Cool
 climate


 Hot
                                                               Protandrous
 climate
                           Catkins shedding pollen

                            Female flowers receptive

Thus in pecans orchards, 3 complementary cultivars
are recommended
               HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Wind Pollination
  Pistachios
                                     Dioecious
                                     One staminate
                                      plant per 10
                                      pistillate
                                      plants
                                      recommended


   HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
  Insect Pollination:
Pollinizer Need of Crops
   Self fruitful                 Self unfruitful
       Peach                      Apple
     Apricots*                    Pear
 European plums*              Asian plums
    Tart cherry              Sweet cherry*
    Strawberry                 Almonds*
    Blackberry             Rabbiteye blueberry
Highbush blueberry         Lowbush blueberry
      Grapes
     Walnuts+                  * also self fruitful/unfruitful types
     Pecans+                   + dichogamous so need pollinizers

              HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
    Insect Pollination:
     Pollinizer Choice
 Cross compatibility of varieties
 Bloom overlap
 Pollen production
 Culturally compatibility
 Comparable pest/disease
  management needs
 Produce good fruit if possible
           HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Pollinizers for Asian Plums
          Range from self fertile to self
                  incompatible

                    Laroda            Mariposa            Queen Rosa Santa Rosa
    Laroda             O                    F                     G      G
   Mariposa             F                   O                     F      F
 Queen Rosa            G                    F                     G      G
 Santa Rosa            G                    F                     G      F


O = Self unfruitful; F = Fair fruit set most years; G = Good fruit set most years.


                         HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Pollinizers for Apples
Triploids, self fertility, sports, late
             blooming




            HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Pollinizers for cherries




       HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Pollinizers for Sweet Cherries
 Gametophytic incompatibility




         HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
           Pollination:
Fruit Set Needed for a Full Crop

    Small fruited crops
     – Range is 40% to 100%
     – Commonly 60% to 70%
    Large fruited crops
     – Range 2% to 25%
     – Commonly 3% to 10%


              HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
          Pollination:
    Factors affecting Fruit Set

 Competing blooms attract
  pollinators
 Temperature
    – Pollen tube growth
    – Egg viability




             HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
            Pollination:
Effective Pollination Period in Pear
  Temp.      Pollen            Ovule              Effective Fertilization
              tube            viability          pollination probability
  C (F)    growth                                period
            to ovule
  10-15        4                   10                    6      High
 (50-59)

   8-9        10                   13                    3      Medium
 (46-48)

   5-7        13                   13                    0      None
 (41-45)

                HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
          Pollinators
     Pollen Transporters
   Most common: European honey
    bee
    – Hives are rented to orchardists
   Others bees
    – Wild bees: both honey and bumblebees
    – Difficult to manage
    – Normally adequate for small orchard
   Africanized bees or KILLER BEES
               HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
                                                      European honey bee on left,
                                                      African honey bee, right.




variety of honey bee derived by
hybridization from African honey
bees naturalized in the western
hemisphere.
                  HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
           Pollinators
     Africanized Honey Bees
   1957 into Brazil
   Northern limit
    – 10°C/50°F
   Very defensive of nest
    – Only attack if provoked
   Swarm more often
    – 4-8x vs. 1/5x per year
   Less selective about
    nesting sites
   Store less honey
                    HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
How is the African bee different
   from the European bee?
    African bee slightly smaller than domestic bee,
     but it takes a laboratory test to measure the
     difference
    A single African bee sting is no more venomous
     than a single European bee sting
     – The most important difference is in their behavior
    African bees produce more offspring, defend
     their nests much more fiercely and in greater
     numbers and are more likely to abandon the
     nest when threatened by predators or adverse
     environmental conditions

                  HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
              Pollinators
    Factors Affecting Bee Activity

   Pesticide applications
    – Very susceptible to many insecticides
    – Sevin, Diazinon, Parathion
   Weather conditions
    – Wind (10-20 mph)
    – Rain
    – Temperature (10°C or 50°F)

                HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
     Pollination Management
   Hive density
    – 1-4 per acre
    – More hives
         In poor weather
         With small fruited crops
   Hive position
    – Normally hives are clustered
    – Face south - warm up quicker
    – Protected from wind
                     HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
     Pollination Management
   Pollinizer distribution
    – Entire row every 4th row
    – Every 3rd tree per 3rd row
   Alternate pollen sources if low pollen
    production
    –   Graft pollinizer branches
    –   Bouquets
    –   Beehive inserts
    –   Spray, puff, or by hand
                      HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
            Useful reference
   Pollination of Fruits and Nuts
    by Lerner and Hirst
   http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/HO-174.pdf




                 HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production
Any Questions?

								
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