Advanced functionally graded EB-PVD coatings for gas turbine

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					  Advanced functionally graded EB-PVD
    coatings for gas turbine industry

             STCU/NATO Workshop
                October, 11-12

               Kostyantyn Yakovchuk
                  phone 289-2176
International Center for Electron Beam Technologies
        of E.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute
                     Talk outline

1.   What is needed in the market?
2.   Brief technology description.
3.   Stage of development.
4.   Who needs it & how many will they need?
5.   What is my unique technology advantage?
6.   Competitive matrix.
7.   How will I beat the competition?
8.   Opportunity for joint work.

           Proprietary information statement

• The technology material presented in this talk is
  available for licensing or joint product development.

• None of the slides contain any confidential or
  proprietary information which would prevent patenting
  the technology.

         Targeted Market Segment

• Gas turbines manufacturers need it.
• Total quantity of gas turbine parts (blades
  and vanes) that can be protected using
  advanced functionally graded coatings is
  about 400,000.
• Typical cost of modern aircraft engine blade
  made from Ni-base superalloy is about 700
  USD. The cost of thermal barrier coating
  deposition onto 1 blade using traditional
  multi-stage technology is more 150 USD.
    Problem Description & Market Need
• Advanced functionally graded coatings
  should have a higher level of durability
  and life-time (at highest service
  temperature and in severe environment);
• Gas turbines global market needs a new
  coating deposition technology with lower
  cost (one-stage electron beam physical
  vapor deposition technology) for
  protection of many thousands of blades
  and vanes.
               Brief technology description
• Key element of electron beam (EB-PVD) technology for
  deposition of functionally graded coatings is the
  composite ceramic ingot;
• Evaporation of a single composite ingot allows deposition
  of advanced graded coating (bond coat, transition zones
  and top coat) per one process run in one EB-PVD coater;
• The corresponding EB-PVD equipment is available for
  sale and commercialization.

                                                             Transition        zone

                                                             Transition zone

                                                             Rene 142
Composite ingot for evaporation   Microstructure of graded TBC            6
This technology allows:
• producing graded coatings with a higher level of
  reliability and durability and lower cost, which is at least
  2 times lower than that of the traditional coatings
  produced by the multistage technology, using various
  kinds of equipment;
• replacing the flat interface between layers by a graded
  transition zone and achieving a good adhesion of the
  coating to the substrate;
• achievement of a high degree of reproducibility of the
  composition and structure of the functionally graded
  coating as compared with traditional multi-stage
  technologies of protective coating deposition.
                Experimental results
Graded thermal-barrier coatings (TBC) can allow:
• increasing gas temperature more than 1000C, keeping the cooling
  blade surface temperature at the same level;
• decrease of ceramic layer thermal conductivity to 0.8-1.0 W/mK;
• improving adhesion strength with bond coat (more than 100 MPa);
• increasing thermal-cyclic life-time 1.8-2 times compared with
  traditional TBC;
Graded hard erosion-resistant coatings (TiN-based, TiC-based) of
  15-25 m thickness deposited at high deposition rate (up to 1
  m/min) can increase the erosion resistance up to 15-30 times as
  compared with steel substrate;
Graded hard damping coatings (Sn-Cr-MgO) of thickness of about
  25-50 m provide several times higher damping capability and
  erosion resistance of Ti-based parts at 25% improvement of fatigue

        Stage of development and international patents

  First sets of blades with graded TBC deposited
  by one-stage EB-PVD technology are in flight
  engine test now.
• US Patent 6,669,989 of 30.12.2003. Movchan B.A., Nerodenko L.M.,
  Rudoy Ju.E. “Method for producing by evaporation a functionally graded
  coating with an outer ceramic layer on a metal substrate”;
• European Patent EP0799904 of 03.04.1997. Movchan B.A., Rudoy
  Ju.E., Malashenko I.S. “Method of producing a graded coating with a
  ceramic top layer’;
• Application for European Patent EP1096037A2 of 28.10.2000.
  Movchan B.A., Nerodenko L.M., Rudoy Ju.E. “A composite ingot for
  producing a gradient coating by evaporation”
• Traditional protective coating (multi-step technologies
  used by Pratt&Whitney, Rolls-Royce, General Electric):
  multi-stage nature of the process cycle and application of
  diverse equipment increase the cost of traditional
  coatings and do not facilitate achieving a high
  repeatability of their structure and properties;
• One-stage electron beam deposition technology
  (developed at ICEBT) based on application of a
  composite ceramic ingot, allows producing advanced
  graded protective coatings with a higher level of reliability
  and durability and lower cost, which is at least 2 times
  lower than that of the traditional coatings produced by the
  multi-stage technology, using various kinds of equipment.
                  Competitive Matrix

Important product One-stage EB-PVD      Traditional
  or technology        technology       multi-stage
  characteristics developed at ICEBT technology of
                   for TBC deposition TBC deposition
Total coating             50%             100%
deposition time
Coating service          180%             100%
Coating cost             50%              100%

• International Center for Electron Beam
  Technologies (ICEBT) proposes available
  EB-PVD equipment and licenses for using of
  patents and know-how for deposition of
  advanced functionally graded coatings:
• Graded thermal-barrier coating MeCrAlY/Ni(Cr)Al/YSZ for hot
  section components of gas turbines for various purposes;
• Graded thermal-barrier coating NiAl/YSZ for hot section
  components of gas turbines for various purposes
• Graded nanostructured erosion-resistant coatings on steel and
  titanium alloy items;
• Graded nanostructured damping coatings on items of titanium

    Manufacturing of EB-PVD units in accordance with
                Customer requirements

 The UE-204 pilot-production unit       The UE-207P production unit
             (2006)                               (2005)
EB-PVD units of the last generation developed and manufactured at
ICEBT are used in the USA, Canada, China, India.

Typical cost of the EB-PVD unit is about 1.5-1.6 million USD.
All main vacuum and electronic components made in the USA and
Western European countries
“Impressive work is being
accomplished in Ukraine
(ICEBT) by GE Global
Research to develop
“Electron Beam Physical
Vapor Deposition” hardware.
Former Soviet defense
experts are now low-cost
producers of high-tech
civilian industrial equipment
built to Western standards”.
Monte Mallin,
Director, Global Security
Engagement and Cooperation,
Office of Nonproliferation and
International Security, National
Nuclear Security Administration,
USIC Meeting, March 7, 2006
            Contact information

           Kostyantyn Yakovchuk
             Phone: 289-2176
International Center for Electron Beam Technologies
        of E.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute

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