ERDC Topographic Engineering Center Issue Second Quarter BTRA BC by principalbelding

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									 ERDC Topographic Engineering Center

 Issue 7
 Second Quarter 2009
                              BTRA-BC/ J-GES
                                                                         Quarterly Gazette
In This Issue:                                             From the Program Manager…
Geospatial Battle Management Language
                                              Page 2
                                                           We are back from the Holidays and
Next Generation BBE                           Page 3-6     into the full swing of things on both
BCE Engine Development Update                 Page 7       programs. We are working with
FBCB2 RISA Update                             Page 7
                                                           ESRI on some very innovative tech-
BCE Update and Urban Routing Study            Page 8
SkyView: BTRA Ground-to-Air Line-of-Sight
                                                           nology areas that I plan on featur-
 Tool                                         Page 9
                                                           ing in the next release on the Ga-
Replication/Synchronization Experiments
 Underway                                     Page 10      zette. The article on Next Generation BBE discusses
Distributed Architecture Experiments Enable
 Understanding BTRA Requirements              Page 10      some of these areas, but more to follow.
TEC Buckeye Program Successful UAS Tests      Page 11
                                                           Through the Geospatial Acquisition Support Office and
J-GES Partners with TISC                      Page 12
CJMTK Geospatial Appliance Testing            Page 13
                                                           Project Director Combat Terrain Information Systems, I
J-GES Cultural GIS Experiment #1              Page 14      am delighted to be involved in the geospatial support
Enterprise File Delivery                      Page 15-16   of DCGS-A V3,
BTRA BC BCE Architecture Experiments          Page 17
J-GES Value Experiment #3                     Page 18-20   Many thanks to Mr. John Geddes and SSG Matthew
Army Warfighting Simulation Support           Page 21      Dodge at Ft. Lewis and Major Mike Cahill at Ft. Ben-
                                                           ning for hosting the J-GES experimentation team and
                                                           facilitating Value Experiment #3. We could not have
                                                           succeeded without your TREMENDOUS support!
In Every Issue:
                                                           Finally, another set of BTRA BC engines, Standard Mo-
From the Program Manager                      Page 1       bility, Cross Country Movement, and On-Road Move-
Breaking News                                 Page 2       ment are being delivered to PD CTIS for integration.
Distinguished Visitors                        Page 13
Program Leads/ POCs                           Page 14
                                                           As always, our bottom line is tangible products and
Recent Events                                 Page 16      support to the war fighter!
Upcoming Events                               Page 21
Websites                                      Page 22
Team Members                                  Page 22
                                                                                   Dan “Spidey” Visone

                                                                                   PM BTRA BC/J-GES
Issue 6                                                                                             Page 2

                                       Breaking News!
                   J-GES Value Experiment #3 Successfully Completed
   The J-GES program successfully executed our third value experiment, “The Evaluation of High Reso-
   lution Imagery and Elevation Data” the week of 17 November 2008. More information about the
   specifics are included in an article in the gazette, but I want to personally thank the people that
   made this experiment a reality! My sincere heartfelt appreciation to Mr. John Geddes and SSG
   Matthew Dodge at Ft. Lewis and Major Mike Cahill at Ft. Benning for coordinating the subjects and
   all logistics! And we could not have crafted and executed the experiment without design and pilot
   test support from the following individuals from the U.S. Marine Corps: Major James Martin, Cap-
   tain Gabriel Diana, SSGT Shawn Vicklund (ret), CPL Justin Tredo, and MSGT Jack Sheaffer.

                      Geospatial Battle Management Language (GeoBML)
                                           By Raymond Simms

With the great success of the GeoBML program over the last few years, the GeoBML program is transi-
tioning from an ERDC multi-lab program to a full fledged Joint Capability Technology Demonstration
(JCTD). This JCTD, known as Common Ground, will build on the many successes that the GeoBML has
achieved. Many of the current GeoBML team will be joining the prime contractor, Northrop Grumman, as
the team works to bring the capabilities demonstrated in GeoBML to the Joint and International commu-

In preparation for that transition, a final GeoBML integration event will be held in Mid-March that will fo-
cus on transitioning capabilities to the Common Ground Team and incorporating new Common Ground
partners into the current GeoBML environment. Although there are several technical goals and objectives
that we would like to accomplish, the focus will be a complete transition from the C2IEDM to the JC3IEDM
and from OTB to OneSAF.

In November, our military Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) conducted a Military Decision Making Process
(MDMP) walkthrough/ tutorial for the benefit of the civilian staff and developers so they could better un-
derstand how the Army conductions operations. The event was highly successful with over 50 partici-
pants from over 17 different organizations. The SMEs started with a full overview briefing of the MDMP
before the two day practical exercise. The participants were given a Division order, and the SMEs lead in
the creation of Brigade OPORD.
   Issue 6                                                                                                Page 3

Next Generation BBE
By Jerry Schlabach

“The staffs through which the modern commander absorbs information and exercises his authority must be a
beautifully interlocked, smooth-working mechanism. Ideally, the whole should be practically a single mind.”
                                             - General Dwight D. Eisenhower

As described in two previous articles of this Gazette, the BTRA-BC Battle Engine (BBE) prototype ‘cognitively am-
plifies’ the ability of battle staff planners to conduct the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) and Intelli-
gence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB). BBE accomplishes this by enabling the human-computer reasoning
team to develop and analyze tactical Courses of Action (COA’s) faster and better than humans alone. In this is-
sue we present the two-year plan for the ‘Next Generation’ overhaul of BBE. The new BBE will consolidate func-
tionality into a single application, support battlestaff collaboration, and leverage the Military Object Information
and Analysis System (MOBIAS), an intriguing new product from ESRI.

Application Consolidation:

The current configuration of BBE consists of five separate applications:
The BBE Weapons Assessment and Calculation Tool (B-WACT) enables staff planners to create Order of Battle

    (OB) ‘game pieces’ for wargaming. These game pieces accurately model the combat power of real world
    units, using the Dupuy attrition model.

The BTRA-TCE (Terrain Combat Effects) Tool enables terrain analysts to create products that significantly reduce
the amount of hard-drive-space and CPU-time required to model the combat effects of terrain features. This
knowledge feed enables BBE to conduct fast ‘terrain-informed’ wargaming, so the COA's nominated by BBE
reflect tactics appropriate to the terrain. These terrain analysis products are independent of specific missions.
The BTRA ‘MCOO-Maker’ tool enables the terrain analyst to create a mission-specific ‘gameboard’ for wargaming
    analysis. The resulting product is an articulated Modified Combined Obstacles Overlay (MCOO), a traditional
    product of the IPB process.
Issue 6                                                                                                 Page 4

The BTRA Battle Engine (BBE) uses the products described above to establish a battle staff planning ses-
    sion. Planners can use BBE to develop and wargame both Enemy and Friendly Courses of Action
    (ECOA’s and FCOA’s). The results of the wargaming can then be analyzed using a set of analytic tools
    within BBE.
BBE Complex View (BCV) enables planners to visualize BBE wargames in an ESRI ArcGlobe Geographic
   Information System (GIS).

The challenge with this five-application configuration is that planners must deal with five distinctly differ-
ent Graphic User Interfaces (GUI’s), as well as complex import and export protocols to move the knowl-
edge-products from one application to another.

Under the leadership of ESRI software engineers Matt Paonessa and James Taylor, the ‘Next Generation
BBE’ development team integrates the efforts of both government and contract developers to consolidate
these five functional processes into a single application. The new BBE ap-
plication will have a common GUI as well as a common data service. This
will significantly reduce the current user complexity. The development
team also includes Doug Kurucz from Northrop Grumman, along with the
original BBE developers of Eric Nielsen (TEC), Adam Kuchinski (Northrop
Grumman), Ken Braswell (TEC), and Jerry Schlabach (TEC).
In Next Generation BBE the ESRI MOBIAS product, described below, will
replace B-WACT for Order of Battle information. MOBIAS will also replace
BCV for wargame visualization (animation). The development team will
port the BTRA MCOO-Maker and the BTRA-TCE (Terrain Combat Effects)
tool into a new software component named ‘Terrain-Informed Gameboard

Rectification’ (TIGR). TIGR will be an integrated component within the BBE application, but the TIGR ob-
ject library will be available to other application developers. Finally, the development team will retrofit the
core BBE wargaming engine (the engine that actually fights an ECOA against an FCOA) with enhanced ma-
neuver COA variables, along with the more professional common GUI and data service.

Battle Staff Collaboration:
Issue 6                                                                                             Page 5

The current BBE prototype supports the COA development and analysis steps of MDMP with a single ap-
plication instance on a single computer. This requires the S2 to enter his enemy OB and ECOA’s into the
session, and then step away from the computer to allow the S3 to enter friendly OB and FCOA’s. Of
course, neither the S2 nor the S3 can do any planning when the Commander is ready to enter his Desired
End-State information into the computer.

In Next Generation BBE, all staff planners will share a collaborative MDMP session from separate network
computers. There will be a data-synchronization system, controlled by a battle captain, to assist the staff
in maintaining integrity of the various IPB and MDMP knowledge products.

The application will still support a single planner who wants to conduct offline wargaming. The offline
planner can copy products from a collaborative wargame session, such as the gameboard, game pieces,
and initial IPB set of ECOA’s. When re-entering the collaborative session, the data-synchronization system
will enable the planner to register FCOA’s developed offline into the collaborative session, assuming the
baseline products (game board, game pieces, IPB) have not changed.

This next generation of BBE will enable the battle captain to accept or
reject any product from any collaborative source, which means BBE will
not have to assign and regulate ‘roles’ by staff position. The S2 can
conduct the terrain analysis if a topographic engineer is not available,
the S3 can provide interim desired end-state until the commander can
log into the session, and any collaborative planner can wargame ex-
perimental FCOA’s against the official IPB set. The battle captain will
accept or reject FCOA’s from any planner, based upon ‘swivel
chair’ (verbal) coordination.

Leveraging MOBIAS:

The Military Object Information and Analysis System (MOBIAS) is a new ESRI technology designed to en-
hance the current Military Overlay Editor (MOLE) extension to ArcGIS. ESRI developer Andy Bouffard is
creating MOBIAS under the 2009 TEC effort, Geospatially Aware Battlefield Objects (GABO). Next Genera-
tion BBE will be the first application to leverage this exciting new capability.

The additional value that MOBIAS will bring to BBE is the ability to easily create, manipulate, and maintain
battlefield objects for immediate display in ArcMap. MOLE was originally designed to render 2525B sym-
bology for elements within an ArcGIS feature layer. MOBIAS will enhance this MOLE
foundation with Object Class libraries that can be used in any .NET application. This
enables the BBE developers to create military objects like units and control meas-
ures, without having to worry about the technical details of how to render those ob-
jects in ArcMap. MOBIAS will automatically implement the MOLE rendering of all mili-
tary symbology.

MOBIAS will further provide a core set of data for military objects, which will enable
the BBE development team to use it for Order of Battle (OB) files and relative combat
power ratings. This will enable us to dispense with the old B-WACT application for constructing game
pieces. MOBIAS also allows the BBE application programmers to extend the core objects with additional
information. This will support the ability of BBE, and any other application that leverages MOBIAS, to grow
future capabilities.

Finally, the core set of MOBIAS products will also enable the BBE developers to quickly assemble military
overlays with rich meta-data and geo-processing tools customized for military operations orders. This
Issue 6                                                                                                Page 6

new capability will also include the ability to visualize (animate) BBE-produced battles between any se-
lected FCOA’s and ECOA’s. The battle visualizations will be highly interoperable with MOBIAS’s operations
overlay format. This means that any selected BBE FCOA can be quickly translated into an operations
overlay for ArcMap manipulation.


The Next Generation BBE project is a two-year overhaul of the existing BBE prototype. In FY 2009 ESRI
will develop the MOBIAS foundation while the BBE development team creates the BBE ap-
plication framework for the GUI, data services, and collaboration services. In FY 2010 the
team will integrate the Next Generation BBE Framework with the MOBIAS foundation.
Please contact the BTRA-BC Program Manager, Mr. Dan Visone, if you would like to influ-
ence, or participate in future BBE development.

          Next Generation BBE reflects our program commitment to providing warfighters a com-
          plete application, rather than an awkward set of laboratory prototypes. This is a signifi-
          cant step forward in deploying terrain-informed ‘Cognitive Amplifiers’ to support military
                                                - Mr. Dan Visone, Program Manager,
                                                  Battlespace Terrain Reasoning and Awareness,
                                                  Battle Command (BTRA-BC)
Issue 6                                                                                               Page 7

                                BTRA-BC Engine Development Update
                                             By Adam Kuchinski

The BTRA-BC team has been working hard over the past three months taking some necessary steps that
will help us produce higher quality products and provide greater value to our customers. Our team has
grown to include over fifty researchers, developers, and military subject matter experts (SMEs) spread
across the country from more than ten government labs, academic institutions, and contracting organiza-
tions. Many of these team members worked together on last summer’s successful ERDC-wide GeoBML
demonstrations at TEC, and we have increased our focus on continuing this collaborative working envi-
ronment on the BTRA-BC program.

Ray Simms, filling in for Harland Yu as GeoBML lead while Harland is spending a year deployed in theater,
led an effort between the SMEs and technical staff to analyze and classify potential BTRA-BC geospatial
engine functionality by military significance. This effort helped identify groupings of capabilities shared by
multiple engines, established a common language for better communication between SMEs and develop-
ers, and prioritized future development by analyzing the number of military tasks associated with each
BTRA-BC engine.

The development team has been working on completion of a redesigned BTRA-BC Common Library. Luke
Catania and Mike Dillon have been leading this effort and have involved several team members in the
design and review of the common library. It provides a variety of coarse grained objects and Geo-
Processing methods designed to enhance the development of BTRA-BC engines using the ESRI Arc-
Objects API. It also defines a common interface with logging and progress reporting. This will offer a
more straightforward and flexible integration experience for programmers implementing BTRA-BC engines
into their applications and will provide a more enriching end-user experience.

Finally, we have continued making progress towards the completion of new releases of BTRA-BC engines
through the CJMTK website. We have worked with the BTRA-BC CJMTK Extensions (BCE) team on the re-
lease of BTRA-BC 1.1, targeted for February/March 2009. This release includes updated/enhanced ver-
sions of all the engines included in the 1.0 release last year, compiled and built for use with ArcGIS 9.3,
in addition to the new BTRA-BC Cross Country Mobility engine. All of the 1.1 engines now produce out-
puts with detailed metadata which has been mapped to the specifications in the JC3IEDM to support
data confidence and discovery. Several other engines are slated for release in Spring 2009 including
Choke Areas, Dismounted Maneuver Networks, and UAS Operational Sites. A refactored Movement Pro-
jection engine is also currently in development. It will provide much better performance and integration
flexibility and will add six new categories of military route solvers.

                         BTRA-BC FBCB2 RISA Development Update
                                        By Adam Kuchinski

The BTRA-BC team, which is currently developing a Reference Implementation Sample Application (RISA)
for the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) program, traveled to Ft. Knox in November
to meet with the TRADOC Capability Manager, Platform Battle Command. Col Dwayne Carman and his
staff provided valuable feedback on the use cases and CONOPS for utilizing BTRA-BC applications in a
tactical maneuver environment. Their input will be clearly evident in the final deliverable, which will be
available as a RISA on the CJMTK website in March 2009.
Issue 6                                                                                               Page 8

                                   BTRA CJMTK Extensions Update
                                                 By Scott Clark

Over the last month and a half, the BCE team has been focused on testing for the current set of engines
plus the new Cross Country Mobility engine on the ArcGIS 9.3 release. The team is testing on Windows
Vista, XP, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, and Solaris 10. Testing is scheduled to be completed by 30 Janu-
ary 2009 in order to support the Digital Topographic Support Systems (DTSS) mobility requirements. The
new release of Standard Mobility will provide the capability to use parameters for moisture, season, sur-
face condition, and visibility. It will also allow the user to select additional vehicles beyond the standard
12 vehicle bundles currently provided. The engines will be released with metadata capabilities as well.

Urban Routing Study

In 3rd Quarter FY08, a study was conducted on routing capabilities that become very critical in the urban
environment. The intention of the study was to implement costs and restrictions that could be incorpo-
rated in the BTRA-BC Maneuver Network Generator. The ultimate goal is to eventually have a network
that would allow seamless routing between urban and non-urban areas. The routing study explored the
following areas:
• Loading Navteq data (from NGA) into the Urban level TGD model
• Features that should be in the TGD model to support urban routing
• Turn restrictions for narrow streets with sharp runs (on a per vehicle basis)
• Costs for turn delays
An investigation of using Network Dataset properties to support the use of a command mandated speed
to over-ride Standard Mobility speeds

The study focused heavily on the implementation of the turn restriction for narrow streets. This required
details for the street width and the vehicle length and turn radius. The use case was to support routing of
larger vehicles and ensure that they weren’t sent down streets they would have to make multiple-point
turns. In a tactical environment this is very dangerous and even in peaceful operations it can cause major
traffic issues. The figure below shows an example of the shortest route to a location (in blue) versus the
route the vehicle would have to take because of turn restrictions.

                                Shortest Route (Blue) and Alternative Route (Gold)
  Issue 6                                                                                                Page 9

                             SkyView: BTRA Ground-to-Air Line-Of-Sight Tool
                                                 By Jay Johnson
While line-of-sight (LOS) calculations already form an integral part of the BTRA toolset, one new engine necessi-
tated the development of a second LOS tool with a different slant: upward.
The new Unmanned Aircraft Systems Operational Sites (UAS OpSites) engine will aid commanders in choosing
launch/recovery and control sites for UAS operations, a process which must consider two distinct LOS factors:
glide slope obstructions and the amount of airspace within range of the radio transmitter. Since existing ESRI
and BTRA LOS tools that generate ground-to-ground LOS computations could not provide the necessary
ground-to-air viewsheds, a new tool, SkyView, has been developed.
The SkyView LOS tool supplies the UAS OpSites engine with a table that rates glide slope clearance in each azi-
muthal sector, the angular size of which is adjustable by the user. It performs a second calculation to deter-
mine what portion of the UAS air maneuver network is visible from each site. For this, SkyView generates a
viewshed polygon at the specified flight level. The computational efficiency of this calculation is critical as the
UAS OpSites engine is used to compare hundreds, possibly thousands, of potential sites. Each calculation
must extend out to the communication range limit, which, for the Shadow UAS, is about 50 kilometers. Using
DTED Level 2 30-meter elevation data, this means processing up to 9 million pixels per site.
Our initial effort employed a series of ArcGIS Spatial Analyst commands to generate sky viewsheds. The proc-
ess took about 45 seconds per site—fine for a few sites, but too slow to use for ranking the relative merits of
the 1300 potential sites in our initial study area. We decided to perform the viewshed calculation directly in
memory, outside of the ESRI environment, and were able to reduce the processing time by a factor of 10. How-
ever, this was still too slow for large numbers of sites.
Since the desired result was a polygon viewshed, we reasoned that time could be saved by computing the
viewshed polygon directly rather than deriving it as a secondary product from a traditional raster viewshed. The
raster-to-vector conversion would be eliminated and disk space and I/O time would be saved as well. This ap-
proach reduced the calculation time to a reasonable 1.4 seconds per site. The accuracy also improved and is
equivalent to the LOS gold standard, the “R3” algorithm that computes a separate LOS for each point in the
elevation raster dataset. The very fast time for this degree of accuracy results from taking advantage of the
simpler geometry of viewing a planar surface (the flight level) rather than the variable surface of the ground.
Since SkyView allows the user to select the desired level of accuracy, processing time can be reduced still fur-
ther if you can live with some approximation. Calculating lines-of-sight at 1-degree azimuth intervals, for exam-
ple, reduces the time by another factor of 10 and requires only 0.14 seconds per site. The resulting viewsheds
look like smoothed versions of the “full” calculation and have only 1/30th as many vertices.
The image below shows sky viewsheds for 3 different flight levels
from the same observer location (yellow triangle) using the “full” cal-
culation. The red line superimposed on the yellow is an approximate
calculation that was 10 times faster. The circular arc indicates the
maximum communication range.
In summary, the SkyView tool enables UAS mission planners to iden-
tify operational sites free from glide slope and radio transmitter ob-
structions. It takes advantage of domain specific simplifications and
enables a site to be analyzed many times faster than with previous
techniques. The SkyView tool will be incorporated into the UAS OpSite
engine due to be released in March of 2009. It will also be available
as a stand-alone JAR file and API.
Issue 6                                                                                            Page 10

                       Replication/Synchronization Experiments Underway
                                           By Douglas Caldwell

Two FY2009 Replication/Synchronization experiments are currently in progress. Replication/
Synchronization Experiment #3 is focusing on the transfer of the Theater Geospatial Database (TGD) be-
tween the Theater-level Geospatial Planning Cells (GPCs) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

The current work focuses on ESRI’s one-way geodatabase synchronization and will simulate the one-way
transfer of data from the GPCs to NGA. The purpose of the experiment is to validate the architecture for
the system and develop the Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) for its operation.

Moving the architecture from the laboratory to the operational environment has been challenging. The
communication and firewall issues need to be resolved before the experiment can move forward. Efforts
to overcome these issues have been plagued by the ever changing security environment. Once these are
resolved, the experiment should move forward quickly.

Replication/Synchronization Experiment #4 is currently in the requirements phase. This experiment will
focus on the replication and synchronization of data between heterogeneous computing environments.
These will include different versions of ArcGIS (Versions 9.1-9.3), different database products (Oracle,
SQL Server, and Informix), and different versions of the TGD schema. This complex environment reflects
the current situation in the field. Requirements gathering will be completed by early spring, at which time
the experiment will be designed and executed.

      Distributed Architecture Experiments Enable Understanding BTRA Requirements
                                  by Dr. Mark Pullen and Douglas Corner

The GMU C4I Center continues experimentation with the BTRA products developed by TEC to help define
optimal operational configurations for field use. The focus of the study is to predict system performance
in a variety of configurations particularly in situations where multi-system configurations are connected
over tactical wireless links. There is significant concern that systems such as BTRA, for best support to
the warfighter, might demand more capacity than Army tactical networks have available. Analysis of the
data collected to date confirms that, as suspected, the engines are quite demanding of computer re-
sources and that simple addition of multi-core processors may not provide much improvement.

The latest measurements now are being used to build analytical models of the fundamental BTRA com-
puting and network requirements. Dr. Sam Malek and Ahmed Elkhodary from the GMU C4I Center are us-
ing this data to construct an architectural model that will enable prediction of BTRA requirements over a
wide range of conditions. Dr. Malek has developed a family of software models that can predict perform-
ance of systems such as BTRA at specific levels of computational power and network capacity. They have
demonstrated an initial model, including performance of six of the seven BTRA engines. Other parts of the
system will be modeled as measurements become available for the Tier 2 BTRA engines. Combined with
realistic use cases reflecting actual tactical conditions, these models will enable evaluation of BTRA use
in the tactical environment in order to support the warfighter effectively.
Issue 6                                                                                                       Page 11

      TEC Buckeye Program completes successful Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) tests
                              at Yuma Proving Grounds

                                                 By Michael Barwick

       Arrow UAS in flight over Yuma Proving Grounds                      Arrow UAS preparing for a mission

The Topographic Engineering Center’s (TEC) Buckeye Program successfully conducted field integration
and testing of the Buckeye sensor suite on the Arrow Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). The integration and
testing was conducted at Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) 22 September through 10 October 2008. The
Buckeye sensor suite flown on the Arrow, consisted of an advanced digital camera system (Flight Landata
1B+) and a LIDAR sensor (OPTECH ALTM 3100). The Buckeye camera system also successfully tested a
near real time data EO downlink with the Ground Control Station (GCS).
       The objective of the field tests was to assess the Buckeye sensor package performance on the Ar-
row UAS. This was accomplished through carefully graduated flight tests exercising system performance,
data downlink of EO imagery and system telemetry, data processing, and data transfers. Testing allowed
the Buckeye team to evaluate CONOPS for field operations.
       The need for the Buckeye system originated from an operational need statement for very high
resolution unclassified geospatial information. The Buckeye system is capable of providing high-
resolution, highly accurate 3-D products.
        As the need for high-resolution products continues to expand in support of operations, the transi-
tion to a UAS platform is essential. The UAS enables the program to reduce assets and ground support
requirements, while increasing data collection capabilities. As the program continues to grow and evolve,
the UAS will provide support to meet the needs of the changing battlefield and operations in support of
the Global War on Terrorism.

                    5 cm EO Image                                     30 cm resolution LIDAR and Intensity Image
Issue 6                                                                                           Page 12

                     J-GES Partners with TISC JCTD for Mobile Development
                          By Aaron Bernard, Nathan Frantz, and Doug Caldwell

The Joint-Geospatial Enterprise Services (J-GES) Program is partnering with the Defense Systems Informa-
tion Agency’s (DISA) Transnational Information Sharing and Cooperation (TISC) Joint Capability Technol-
ogy Demonstration (JCTD) to develop and test mobile, net-centric geospatial applications.

TISC is a very sophisticated collaboration environment supporting multi-organizational cooperation for dis-
asters and emergency response. The web-centric environment includes planning, social networking, and
situational awareness tools to facilitate a shared understanding. Using a completely Open Source back-
bone, the system will allow Department of Defense, Foreign Governments, Non-Governmental Organiza-
tions (NGOs), public, and private organizations to interact more effectively.

The J-GES/TISC partnership will focus specifically on the development of mobile capabilities, including
data collection, geoprocessing, and the utilization of interoperable geospatial standards and services.
Planning is currently underway and development will begin in the spring of 2009.

                                      TISC Dashboard for collaboration
Issue 6                                                                                            Page 13

               Commercial Joint Mapping Toolkit (CJMTK) Geospatial Appliance
                                               By Larry Cook

The CJMTK Geospatial Appliance (CGA), developed by Northrop Grumman with support from ESRI, is a
high-performance server that provides access to National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Limited
Distribution products in an application-ready format. The CGA provides the following NGA data and maps:
• Controlled Image Base (CIB) data at 10 meter, 5 meter, and 1 meter resolution
• Compressed Arc Digitized Raster Graphic (CADRG) scanned maps
• Vector Map (VMAP) 0, 1, 2 and Urban Vector Map (UVMAP) vector maps
• Digital Nautical Charts (DNC)
The CGA also includes general worldwide coverage of Natural View images and ESRI data and maps.

Users can access data on the CGA using ArcGIS applications (Desktop, Explorer, Server, and Globe),
Google Earth, FalconView, and the Command and Control Personal Computer (C2PC).

For the period from July to November 2008, Northrop Grumman provided a rack mount CGA to the J-GES
program to conduct basic tests of interoperability and compatibility with several clients and applications.
TEC and Northrop Grumman personnel tested the CGA against these clients and applications: Agile Cli-
ent, GAIA, DTSS GeoWeb, and the Common Map Background (CMB). Additionally, personnel used the
Shunra network appliance and software to perform basic CGA load testing.

The Agile Client, GAIA, and DTSS GeoWeb were tested as part of         Distinguished Visitors...
the Joint Systems Baseline Assessment 2008 (JSBA 08), a Joint
Forces Command (JFCOM) exercise. The JSBA 08 testing was               November 14, 2008
conducted with the CGA connected to the Secret Internet Protocol       DEYOUNG, Dawnlee (COL)
Router Network (SIPRNET). After the JSBA 08 exercise, the CGA          HQDA, G2, DAMI-POB
was replaced and the appliance was moved to the Non-Secure             BRICKER, David (COL)
Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET) for testing with the        HQDA, G3/5/7, XO, DAMO-MS
CMB application and the Shunra appliance.                              LUCYNSKI, John (COL)
                                                                       HQDA, G-3/5/, Chief, DAMO-MS
The CGA Testing Report, along with testing configurations, meth-       EGGEN, Loren (LTC)
ods, and results, was completed in December 2008.                      HQDA, G-3/5/7
                                                                       HIGGINS, George
                                                                       National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
                                                                       HOPKINS, Jacquelyn
                                                                       National Geospatial Intelligence Agency

                                                                       December 1, 2008
                                                                       National Reconnaissance Organization
                                                                       Office of the Deputy Director for Mission
                                                                       Colonel Steve Ward
                                                                       LTC Shawn Philby

                                                                       December 9, 2008
                                                                       Open Geospatial Consortium
                                                                       Sam Bacharach
Issue 6                                                                                                  Page 14

                                   J-GES Cultural GIS Experiment #1
                          By Joe Watts
                                                                      Program Leads/ POCs…
DoD has recognized that it has a severely limited Joint capabil-
ity (methods, tools) to effectively collect/consolidate, visualize,   BTRA BC:
and understand open source socio-cultural information. Mili-          Program Manager: Dan Visone
tary operations require the capability to understand the social
and cultural terrain and the various dimensions of human be-          703-428-6920
havior within these terrains. Human terrain behaviors extend          Technical Lead: Adam Kuchinski
across the spectrum from adversaries to our Joint U.S. forces,
with our coalition partners, and with government and non-             703-428-3597
government organizations. USG and DoD capstone policy and
guidance articulate this need in NSPD-44, QDR 2006, and               Acting GeoBML Lead: Raymond Simms
DoD 3000.05 (Stability, Security, Transition and Reconstruc-          410-596-6307
tion (SSTR)). The Human Social Culture Behavior Modeling
(HSCB) program was established by OSD to enhance existing             Army Research Laboratory (ARL): Don Hoock
capabilities and create new capabilities for human terrain un-        (505) 678-5430
derstanding and forecasting in four application pillars: intelli-
gence analysis, operations analysis/planning, training and            Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
joint experimentation. The overall HSCB program will demon-           (CRREL): Geoff Koenig
strate visualization toolsets, modeling systems, and training
systems capable of mapping the complex human terrain that             603-646-4556
will be encountered in both current and future military and sta-
                                                                      Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
bility operations.                                                    (CERL): Kirk McGraw
In support of the HSCB program, the US Army Topographic En-           217-373-3328
gineering Center (TEC) will conduct a series of experiments for
demonstrating, assessing, and validating modeling and data            Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory (GSL):
                                                                      Randy Jones
processing capabilities whose development has been funded
under the HSCB program. The first such experiment will be             601-634-4145
conducted in collaboration with TEC’s Joint Geospatial Enter-
prise Services (J-GES) experimentation program and is there-          J-GES:
fore called the J-GES Cultural Geographic Information System          Program Manager: Dan Visone
(CGIS) Experiment #1. We will hold the experiment in the J- 
GES lab at TEC on 27-29 January using a Thailand civil unrest         703-428-6920
scenario. The J-GES CGIS Experiment #1 has two thrust areas:          ESRI Reference Implementation:
a primary capstone experiment in direct support of the HSCB           Doug Caldwell
program and a secondary program for collaboration and inter-
operability from related TEC projects. The two primary cap-           703-428-3594
stone experiments will address end-to-end socio-cultural data
                                                                      Synchronization/ Replication:
processing and the logical/physical socio-cultural data models.       Larry Cook
There will be seven Secondary Experiments related to evalua-
tion of a commercial modeling framework; evaluation of a link-        703-428-6615
node web architecture; analysis of the bandwidth impacts of
Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) collection; performance of           Gazette Editor: Delma Del Bosque
web-based spatial modeling; performance of server-based sta-          703-428-6638
tistical analysis; testing of a dynamic mobile assessment capa-
bility; and performance of crowd sourcing. In total, this experi-
ment will address HSCB requirements as well as TEC activities
under its Army Geospatial Information Officer mission.
Issue 6                                                                                            Page 15

                                        Enterprise File Delivery
                                    By Michael Collins and Larry Cook

Enterprise File Delivery (EFD), part of the Defense Information Systems Agency’s (DISA) Net-Centric Enter-
prise Services (NCES) Content Delivery product line, provides a file and directory synchronization capabil-
ity. EFD is a standalone application used to synchronize large file storage between geographically sepa-
rated sites.

Although EFD was developed for file synchronization, it does both replication and synchronization. Repli-
cation generally occurs once across a network, providing the capability to forward-stage data from sup-
plier to consumer. EFD provides consumer driven directory- and file-level data synchronization capability,
not database record or feature-level data synchronization. File and directory synchronization is initiated
by the data consumer, and allows the consumer to pull the content from the supplier rather than have the
content pushed to them. In addition to the bandwidth savings, this allows the consumer to only update
and synchronize the content they wish to receive and gives them greater control over the synchronization
process. The EFD Component Architecture is shown in the Figure below.

                                          EFD Component Architecture

EFD has several features which make it attractive for disseminating data, including:
• Replication on standard ports to support firewall restrictions at deployed sites
• HTTPS for secure transfer of data
• A Global Broadcast System (GBS) transport option for low bandwidth users
• Live status and historical synchronization metrics
• Deployed as a Standalone application

DoD has given DISA authority to operate the beta version of EFD on SIPRnet. DISA has applied for author-
ity to operate in NIPRnet, JWICS, and Global Broadcast System environments.

As part of the geospatial data replication/synchronization research efforts, the J-GES program obtained a
beta version of the EFD software to evaluate. Using modeling and simulation data, J-GES is running
some experiments replicating approximately 600GB of data in 41,000 files using three methods of dis-
semination: EFD, FTP, and the basic Windows Copy utility. While this experiment is not comparing
Issue 6                                                                                           Page 16

“apples to apples” (the capabilities of the three methods are
not comparable), FTP and Windows Copy are common meth-            Recent Events...
ods of transferring data.
                                                                  BTRA BC:
Initial evaluation results indicate that EFD is slower for data
replication than FTP and Windows Copy. This result was ex-
pected as EFD provides features that FTP and Windows Copy         17-20 Nov 08 - J-GES Value Experiment #3 at
do not, such as file synchronization, scheduling and automa-      Ft. Lewis and Ft. Benning
tion options, and encrypted connections. These features add
more overhead to EFD.                                             2 Dec 08 - Systematic’s support to Howard
                                                                  University review
Additional evaluations are continuing which incorporate the
Shunra network simulation software into the data replication      13 Jan 09 - Tactical Spatial Object grouping
process to obtain metrics for the impact of constrained band-     analysis meeting
width networks on transferring Future Combat Systems (FCS)
prescribed amounts of geospatial data. The experiment re-         28-29 Jan 09 - BCE formal testing of Cross
sults will establish benchmark costs in terms of time, band-      Country Movement, Standard Mobility, and
width and storage for transferring requisite terrain informa-     On Road Movement engines.
tion to Command and Control (C2) systems and military plat-
These experiments are also of interest to the Modeling and
Simulation (M&S) community. J-GES is coordinating these           01 Dec 08 - NRO visit
experiments with the Geospatially Enabled Modeling and
Simulation (GEMS) lead, Dave Lashlee, in an effort to gauge       09 Dec 08 - OGC visit
the existing technology gap between geo-typical terrain infor-
mation currently exploited by M&S training systems and the        17 Dec 08 - ESRI M&S subtask meeting
geo-specific terrain information used for mission planning
and rehearsal. It is the first step toward reconciling spatial    06 Jan 09 - Battle Command WebGIS demo
information required for the Army’s concept to “Train as you
Fight, Fight as you Train.”                                       13 Jan 09 - ESRI Quarterly Review

It is anticipated that the findings will spawn future experi-     15 Jan 09 - Adapx demonstration
ments that will identify and validate research efforts intended
to develop standardized and open archetypes for environ-          15 Jan 09 - DCGS-A V3 Geospatial Meeting
mental models, virtual entities and characterization of inter-
active behaviors. JGES has adopted technical partnerships         22 Jan 09 - Unified Battle Command Geospa-
with ESRI, MAK and MASA to draw on their experience with          tial Meeting
M&S in general and OneSAF program requirements in par-
Issue 6                                                                                                                           Page 17

     Battlespace Terrain Reasoning & Awareness - Battle Command (BTRA-BC) CJMTK
                              Extensions (BCE) Architecture
                                                                  By Larry Cook

Researchers at George Mason University (GMU) completed the performance testing of the Battlespace
Terrain Reasoning & Awareness Battle Command (BTRA-BC) software. The software is a set of computa-
tional engines that process terrain and weather data to support battlefield command operations. The fol-
lowing engines were tested: Slope/Aspect, Complex Generator, Standard Mobility, Obstacles, Conceal-
ment, and Maneuver Network Generator.

The diagram below shows the relationship among the current BCE engines.

                                                                         Standard       Speeds
                                                                         Mobility       Tables

                                   Complex          Complex              Obstacle       Obstacle                   Maneuver
                                   Generator      Feature Class          Generator    Feature Class                Network

                                                                                      Feature Class
                   Slope Aspect   Slope Aspect                                                                     Movement
                    Generator     Feature Class                                                                    Projection


                                                                                                                  Route Feature

The goal of the BCE performance testing was to characterize the engines’ processor and input/output
performance in order to proceed with system-level modeling and analysis of a distributed architecture.
This basic performance data will impact the architecture modeling, analysis, and alternatives for distribut-
ing and deploying the engines. One finding from the performance testing is that, in general, the engines
are CPU-bound. Detailed results are in the performance testing final report GMU delivered to the J-GES

For the BCE architectural analysis and modeling, GMU researchers are using XTEAM, the eXtensible Tool-
chain for Evaluation of Architectural Models. XTEAM is a software architecture modeling environment and
analysis framework for highly distributed, resource-constrained, software systems. The BTRA-BC architec-
ture modeling effort will examine various Concepts of Operations (CONOPS) involving hardware, communi-
cations, and data access. The architecture modeling will help determine the optimum deployment of the
engines, whether they will be web services, embedded software, or a combination. The performance data
obtained through the completed performance testing will play a significant role in this phase of the re-
Issue 6                                                                                             Page 18

   J-GES Value Experiment #3: Evaluation of High Resolution Buckeye Data and Imagery
                                            By Walter A. Powell

Summary: Value Experiment #3 assessed the military planning value of high-resolution imagery and Digi-
tal Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) data. Specifically, data generated by Buckeye, 4-6 inch visual resolu-
tion and LIDAR elevation data comparable to DTED5, was compared to conventional Controlled Image
Base (CIB) one meter resolution and DTED2 elevation data. Fundamentally different from previous ex-
periments, this experiment evaluated the effect of better data (tool set remaining constant) instead of
evaluating a tool set (data remaining constant).

Environment: The Commander’s Support Environment (CSE) was the computing environment through
which the evaluation of Buckeye data was made.

Data and Location: As both Buckeye (high resolution) and Controlled Image Base (CIB1) (1 meter resolu-
tion) data are available for Iraqi cities, Kirkuk has been chosen as the location for the experiment.

Experimental Design: The experiment was structured as a within-subjects design in that each participant
performed tasks involved in evaluating potential sites for Vehicle Control Points (VCPs) using both Buck-
eye imagery/LIDAR elevation data and CIB1 imagery/ DTED2 elevation data. The participants were U.S.
Army senior enlisted and junior officer personnel who have experience establishing VCPs in Iraq or Af-
ghanistan. Each participant evaluated three randomly ordered sites using CSE tools with either Buckeye/
LIDAR or CIB1/DTED2 imagery and elevation data. A total of three trials were run using: (1) Buckeye/
LIDAR data, (2) CIB1/DTED2 data, and (3) Buckeye/LIDAR data on the same sites previously evaluated
with CIB1/DTED2. At the conclusion of the three trials, the participants responded to questionnaires and
participated in a brief debriefing session. Participants were trained in the use of CSE and imagery evalua-
tion prior to running the experiment.

Progress: The experiment was conducted at Ft. Lewis, WA and Ft. Benning, GA the week of 17 November
2008. A total of 15 U.S. Army personnel participated. Statistical analyses of the data are underway and
preliminary analyses indicates that, overall, the participants believed they would request significantly less
additional information with Buckeye/LIDAR. They were also able to derive more accurate information
from the data as measured by more accurate answers to questions about the terrain. The participants
believed that Buckeye/LIDAR data allowed them to complete their evaluations more quickly, made com-
pleting the evaluations easier, provided more useful information, and was superior overall. The partici-
pating military personnel were generally enthusiastic about Buckeye’s high-resolution imagery and eleva-
tion data. The final results will be ready for the next newsletter.
Issue 6                                                               Page 19

      Soldiers at Fort Lewis, Washington run through J-GES experiment 3
Issue 6                                                                  Page 20

          Soldiers at Fort Benning, Georgia run through J-GES experiment 3
  Issue 6                                                                                             Page 21

                         Advanced Warfighting Simulation (AWARS) Support
                                                 By Chris Stahl

The Battlespace Terrain Reasoning and Awareness – Battle Command                 Upcoming Events...
(BTRA-BC) team provided support to the Advanced Warfighting Simulation
                                                                                 BTRA BC:
(AWARS) group, located at the TRADOC Analysis Center in Ft. Leavenworth,
Kansas.                                                                          30 Jan 09 - GeoBML demonstra-
                                                                                 tion for TRADOC
AWARS provides the Army with a single operational level, HLA compliant
                                                                                 4-5 Feb 09 - BML conference
simulation for analysis, which is also capable of driving experiments and dem-   hosted by GMU
onstrations when coupled with the current, future, and surrogate battle com-
mand systems. Structurally, AWARS provides a multi-sided, deterministic, dis-    18-20 Feb 09 - BTRA presentation
crete event simulation environment representing the full range of combined       at ESRI Federal User Conference
arms combat with joint contribution appropriate for Joint Task Force studies
                                                                                 Late-Feb/Mar 09 - Delivery of
and analysis. AWARS represents resolution units at the company level but         FBCB2 RISA to CJMTK
implements a template mechanism that allows an internal representation at
platoon and lower. (AWARS Executive Summary - Terry Gach, 2008)                  Late Feb/Mar 09 - Command and
                                                                                 Control Test and Demonstration
                                                                                 Application demo
At the request of the AWARS group the BTRA-BC team provided training and
installation of BTRA’s network generation engines on-site during November 3-     Late Feb/Mar 09 - Architecture
7, 2008. Topics included ingesting data into the Theater Geospatial Database     experiments on BTRA BC web-
(TGD), loading and creating custom tools in ArcGIS, best practices for data      services
management and geoprocessing tasks, network generation, appropriate us-
age of the BTRA datasets, and exporting data into an AWARS compliant for-        J-GES:
mat. In addition to the training, the BTRA-BC team delivered an extensive        30 Jan 09 - J-GES briefing to TRA-
network dataset covering all of Korea. The team also provided instruction to     DOC
the AWARS operation analysts on the BTRA geospatial workflow. Using sample
datasets, the AWARS staff was able to replicate the type of terrain and net-     03 Feb 09 - Meeting with NGA
                                                                                 eGeoInt team
work datasets they would need for integration into their simulation system.
The dataset was built using NGA’s Vector Interim Terrain Data (VITD) and         Feb 09 - Socio-cultural data model
DTED Level 2. Since the delivery of the Korea network, BTRA-BC has also          demonstration
provided further functionality for importing BTRA networks into the AWARS
system.                                                                          Feb 09 - Enterprise architecture
                                                                                 set-up using Oracle Spatial, Map
                                                                                 Server, and ArcSDE.

                                                                                 May 2009 - Replication/
                                                                                 Synchronization Experiment #3
Issue 6                                                      Page 22

              General GIS:

                      Team Members

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