Honey-Bee Mating based Bound Time Approach for Energy minimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

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					                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                         Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010

   Honey-Bee Mating based Bound Time Approach
    for Energy minimization in Wireless Sensor
                     J Senthilkumar                                                          Dr.R.Lakshmipathi
                  Assistant Professor/IT                                                        Professor/EEE
               Sona College of Technology                                                St.Peters Engineering College
                Salem, Tamilnadu, INDIA                                                  Chennai, Tamilnadu, INDIA
                 jsenthil10@gmail.com                                                    drrlakshmipathi@yahoo.com

                       V.Mohanraj                                                                Y.Suresh
                    Assistant Professor/IT                                                  Assistant Professor/IT
                  Sona College of Technology                                               Sona College of Technology
                    Salem, Tamilnadu, INDIA                                                Salem, Tamilnadu, INDIA
                  rajkrishcounty@gmail.com                                                  shuresh_22@yahoo.co.in

Abstract—In Wireless Sensor Network, dynamic cluster based                energy efficient communication models and protocols that are
routing protocol approach is widely used. Such practiced                  designed for specific applications and topologies.
approach, quickly depletes the energy of cluster heads and
induces the execution of frequent re-election algorithm. This                 LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is
repeated cluster head re-election algorithm increases the number          one of the most referenced protocols in the sensor networks
of advertisement messages which in turn depletes the energy of            area [3],[4],[5]. In LEACH and other routing protocols, when
overall sensor network. Here, we proposed the Bound Time and              current cluster head changes due to self destruction or energy
Honey Bee Mating Approach (BT-HBMA) that reduces the                      loss, increases the overhead, in turn leading to higher energy
cluster set up communication overhead and elects the stand by             consumption. This is one of the worrying drawbacks. A
node in advance for current cluster head which has the capability         possible solution which is proposed in this paper is the use of
to withstand for many rounds                                              the bound time to reduce set-up communication overhead.
                                                                          During this bound time, sensor nodes receive advertisement
Our proposed BT-HBMA method uses the Honey bee mating                     messages and from this, node determines multi-route for
behaviour in electing the stand by node for current cluster head.         transmission and consider only the message with the minimum
This approach really outperforms the other methods in achieving           number of hops and stand by cluster heads are elected.
reduced number of re election and maintaining high energy
nodes between the rounds.                                                     The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II,
                                                                          we review the related work. In Section III, describes Honey bee
Keywords- Cluster based Routing; Wireless sensor network;                 structure and modeling. The proposed method of BT –HBMA
Honey Bee mating; Bound Time                                              algorithm for cluster formation is described in Section IV. In
                                                                          Section V, We presented the Simulation results. Finally Section
                                                                          VI, concludes the paper.
                      I.    INTRODUCTION

                                                                                            II   RELATED WORK
    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are formed by a set of
nodes that gather information and forward it to a sink. They
                                                                              Hierarchical or Cluster –based routing, originally proposed
are formed by small, inexpensive and resource limited devices
                                                                          in wire line networks, are well-known techniques with special
that can interact with the environment and communicate in a
                                                                          advantages related to scalability and efficient communication.
wireless manner with other devices [1] WSNs present a new
                                                                          As such, the concept of hierarchical routing is also utilized to
challenge research problem due to their high flexibility to
                                                                          perform energy efficient routing in WSNs. In a hierarchical
support several real-world applications. The core operation of
                                                                          architecture, higher nodes can be used to process and send the
wireless sensor network is to collect and process data at the
                                                                          information while low energy nodes can be used to perform
network nodes, and transmit the necessary data to the base
                                                                          the sensing in the proximity of the target. This means that
station for further analysis and processing. Due to large
                                                                          creation of Clusters and assigning special tasks to cluster-
network size, limited power supply, and inaccessible remote
                                                                          heads can greatly contribute to overall system scalability,
environment, the WSN-based protocols are different from the
                                                                          lifetime, and energy efficiency.
traditional wireless protocols [2].Currently there are several

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                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                        Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010

    Hierarchical routing is an efficient way to lower energy             nest, lay the eggs, and feed the larvas. The first group of
consumption within a cluster and by performing data                      broods is reared alone until they take over the work of the
aggregation and fusion in order to decrease the number of                colony. Subsequently, division of labor takes place and the
transmitted messages to the base station.                                queen specializes in egg laying and the workers in brood care .
    Heinzelman[4] introduced a hierarchical clustering                   Another founding method is called “swarming” in which a
algorithm for sensor networks, called Low Energy Adaptive                new colony is founded by a single queen or more, along with a
Clustering Hierarchy(LEACH). LEACH is a cluster based                    group of workers from the original colony.
protocol, which includes distributed cluster formation. The
operation of LEACH is split into two phases, the set-up phase                A colony of bees is a large family of bees living in one
and steady state phase. During the set-up phase, the clusters
                                                                         bee-hive. A bee hive is like a big city with many “sections of
are created and cluster heads are elected. LEACH randomly
selects a few sensor nodes as cluster-heads and broadcast an             the town”. The queen is the most important member of the
advertisement message to the entire network declaring that               hive because she is the one that keeps the hive going by
they are the new cluster heads. Every node receiving the                 producing new queen and worker bees. With the help of
advertisement decides to which cluster they wish to belong               approximately 18 males (drones), the queen bee will mate with
based on the signal strength of the received message. The                multiple drones one time in her life over several days. The
sensor node sends a message to register with the cluster-head            sperm from each drone is planted inside a pouch in her body.
of their choice. Based on a TDMA approach, the cluster head              She uses the stored sperms to fertilize the eggs. Whether a
assigns the time slot to registered node for sending the data.           honeybee will become a queen, a drone, or              a worker,
    During the steady-state phase, sensor nodes can start                depends on whether the queen fertilizes an egg. Since she is
transmitting data to their respective cluster-head. The cluster          the only bee in the colony that has fully developed ovaries,
head applies aggregation functions to compress the data before           the queen is the only bee that can fertilize the egg. Queens and
transmission to the sink. After a predetermined period of time           workers come from fertilized eggs and drones from
spent on the steady-state phase, the network enters the set-up           unfertilized eggs.
phase again and starts a new round of creating clusters.                     Only the queen bee is fed “royal jelly,” which is a milky-
    Although LEACH is able to increase the network lifetime,             white colored jelly-like substance. “Nurse bees” secrete this
there are still a number of issues about the assumptions used in         nourishing food from their glands, and feed it to their queen.
this protocol. LEACH assumes that all nodes can transmit with            The diet of royal jelly makes the queen bee bigger than any
enough power to reach the base station if needed and that each
                                                                         other      bees in the hive. A queen bee may live up to 5 or 6
node has computational power to support different MAC
                                                                         years, whereas worker bees and drones never live more than 6
protocols. Therefore, it is not applicable to networks deployed
in larger regions. It also assumes that nodes always have data           months. There are usually several hundred drones that live
to send, and nodes located close to each other have correlated           with the queen and worker bees. Mother nature has given the
data. It is not obvious how the number of the predetermined              drones just one task which is to give the queen some sperm.
cluster-head is going to be uniformly distributed through the            After the mating process, the drones die. As the nights turn
network. Therefore, there is the possibility that the elected            colder and winter knocks the door, the drones still in the hive
cluster head will be concentrated in one part of the network.            are forced out of the hive by worker bees. It is a sad thing, but
Hence, some nodes will not have any cluster heads in their               the hive will not have enough food if the drones stay.
area.                                                                        Queens represent the main reproductive individuals which
    Lindsey and Raghavendra[6],[7] proposed an enhancement               are specialized in eggs laying [9]. Drones are the fathers of the
over LEACH protocol. The protocol, called Power-Efficient                colony. They are haploid and act to amplify their mothers’
Gathering in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS), is a                  genome without altering their genetic composition, except
near optimal chain –based protocol. It achieved the                      through mutation. Workers are specialized in brood care and
performance through the elimination of the overhead caused               sometimes lay eggs. Broods arise either from fertilized or
by dynamic cluster formation and through decreasing the                  unfertilized eggs. The former represent potential queens or
number of transmissions and reception by using data                      workers, whereas the latter represent prospective drones.
aggregation. Although the clustering overhead is avoided, still              The mating process occurs during mating-flights far from
requires dynamic topology adjustments.                                   the nest. A mating- flight starts with a dance where the drones
    This paper provides a protocol with the same underlying              follow the queen and mate with her in the air. In a typical
benefits as LEACH and PEGASIS and reduces the number of
                                                                         mating-flight, each queen mates with seven to twenty drones.
set-up messages required which in turn increases the network
lifetime.                                                                In each mating, sperm reaches the spermatheca and
                                                                         accumulates there to form the genetic pool of the colony. Each
            III HONEY-BEE COLONY STRUCTURE                               time a queen lays fertilized eggs, she retrieves at random a
                                                                         mixture of the sperms accumulated in the spermatheca to
A honey-bee colony typically consists of a single egg
                                                                         fertilize the egg. Insemination ends with the eventual death of
laying long-lived queen, anywhere from zero to several
                                                                         the drone, and the queen receiving the “mating sign.” The
thousand drones (depending on the season) and usually
                                                                         queen mates multiple times but the drone inevitably only once.
10,000 to 60,000 workers [8]. The colony can be founded in
                                                                         These features make bees-mating the most spectacular mating
two different ways. In “independent founding” the colony
                                                                         among insects.
starts with one or more reproductive females that construct the

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A. Honey-bees modeling                                                     head changes. These changes are due to cluster head failures
The mating–flight may be considered as a set of transitions in             or when its energy level approaches a certain threshold value.
a state-space (the environment) where the queen moves                      During the bound-time, sensor node receives single multi-
                                                                           purpose message and from this the node starts to determine
between the different states in some speed and mates with the
                                                                           the following 1) possible routes from the cluster head to sensor
drone encountered at each state probabilistically. At the start
                                                                           node 2) learns the minimum number of hops to reach the
of the flight, the queen is initialized with some energy content           selected cluster head.3) Stand by nodes are chosen for next to
and returns to her nest when her energy is within some                     current cluster head. Hence, this single multi-purpose
threshold from zero or when her spermatheca is full.                       advertisement message can be used for both reducing the set-
    In developing the algorithm, the functionality of workers is           up communication overhead and fault tolerant, thus makes our
restricted to brood care and therefore, each worker may be                 protocol more energy efficient.
represented as a heuristic which acts to improve and/or take
care of a set of broods (i.e., as feeding the future queen with                The operation of the proposed routing protocol can be split
royal jelly). A drone mates with a queen probabilistically                 into two phases: the role determination phase and the data
using an annealing function as[10]:                                        transfer phase

                                                                           B. Role Determination Phase
                   exp − ∆( f )       
                                 s (t )
   Prob (Q, D) =                                        (1)                    During this phase, cluster heads are selected and clusters
                                                                         are formed. At the start up, base station randomly selects some
                                                                           desired percentage of nodes as cluster heads and broadcasts
     where Prob (Q, D) is the probability of adding the sperm of           selected information to the network. On receiving the
drone D to the spermatheca of queen Q (that is, the probability            broadcasted information, each node checks its status whether
of a successful mating); ∆( f ) is the absolute difference                 it has been selected as cluster head or not. If yes, it starts a
between the fitness of D (i.e.ƒ(D)) and the fitness of Q(i.e. f            new cluster formation by broadcasting an advertisement
(Q)); and S(t ) is the speed of the queen at time t. It is                 message. Otherwise, it forwards the message to its neighbors.
apparent that this function acts as an annealing function,                 Every cluster head creates an advertisement message which
where the probability of mating is high when both the queen is             has the number of hops count to zero and broadcast it to its
still in the start of her mating–flight and therefore her speed is         neighbors. If a node already belongs to another cluster for
high, or when the fitness of the drone is as good as the                   which the number of hops to reach the current belonging
queen’s. After each transition in space, the queen’s speed,                cluster is less than newly received broad cast then it ignores
S(t), and energy, E(t), decay using the following equations:               the received message.
                                                                               The bound time of a node starts when it accepts an
         S (t + 1) = a × S (t )                         (2)                advertisement message. When the bound-time is still valid, the
                                                                           node caches the received message and waits for other possible
         E (t + 1) =E (t)-γ                             (3)                advertisement. In this way, it collects all possible alternative
                                                                           paths to chosen cluster head. All the sensor nodes consider the
Where a is a factor ∈ [0, 1] and γ is the amount of energy                 message with minimum number of hops count (shortest route)
reduction after each transition. Thus, an Honey-Bees Mating                as the best route. When route fails, an alternate route can be
Optimization (HBMO) algorithm may be constructed with the                  immediately used without delays or degradation of QoS.When
following five main stages [11]:                                           the bound-time reaches zero, a route is established with
1) The algorithm starts with the mating–flight, where a queen              shortest route and increases the number of hops count by one
                                                                           in the retained message and broadcasts it to its nearby nodes.
    (best solution) selects drones probabilistically to form the
    spermatheca (list of drones). A drone is then selected from                 After bound time expires, all sensor nodes who receive the
    the list at random for the creation of broods.                         advertisements message are candidate for stand by node to
2) Creation of new broods (trial solutions) by crossoverring               their respective cluster head. All the sensor nodes who
     the drones’ genotypes with the queen’s.                               expressed their willingness are collected in the stand by node
3) Use of workers (heuristics) to conduct local search on                  list and stored in the cluster head. This stand by node list is
      broods (trial solutions).                                            used as input to our proposed Honey mating algorithm which
4) Adaptation of workers’ fitness based on the amount of                   is discussed in next section. In the meantime, data transfer
     improvement achieved on broods.                                       phase is started for conducting data transfer in the network.
5) Replacement of weaker queens by fitter broods.                              The current energy of the current cluster head is polled in
                                                                           every round time. When the current cluster head energy is
                                                                           depleted to near specified threshold energy level, our proposed
                 IV. PROPOSED METHOD                                       Honey Bee Mating algorithm is triggered to find the best stand
                                                                           by node for current cluster head from the stand by node list.
A. Bound Time (BT) Routing Protocol                                        When current cluster head about to dead completely, the best
                                                                           stand by node selected using our approach replaces the current
     The main objective of our BT approach is to minimize the
                                                                           cluster head. This newly elected cluster head can withstand for
set-up communication overhead, whenever current cluster
                                                                           many rounds and there by reduces the number of re-election.

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    Honey-bee mating behavior discussed in section III is
equivalently mapped to our proposed BT-Honey Bee mating
algorithm in electing the stand by cluster head as shown in
figure 1 & figure 2.                                                                 Trial Stand by                    Select at Random
   ..                                                                                    Nodes                          using Objective

                                                                                            Next Best Node                        Best Node List

                                                                             Exchange of nodes
                                                                             between Best node                        Mating using the
                                                                               and Next Best                          Fitness function
                                                                                 Node List

                                                                             Apply local search                  Replace the current
                                                                              on best node list                  cluster head with the
                                                                               using heuristic                   elected node

                                                                            Figure 2. Honey Bee Mating Approach

                                                                         4. Mating is done through exchange (crossover) between Best
   Figure 1. Real Honey Bee Mating Approach                              Node and Next Best Node List based on the fitness function
                                                                         which depends on the closeness to the sink node (if
                                                                         selected).The new best node list are broods. Our fitness
                                                                         function is based on the closeness of stand by node from other
C. Honey Bee Mating Algorithm.                                           nodes if it is selected as new cluster head. In cluster, calculates
                                                                         the distance of each node to its cluster-head (if selected) based
                                                                         on number of hops. The lesser the distance the higher the
1. After the Bound time expires, Cluster head collects the               probability that the node will become cluster head. The
nodes who expressed willingness to act as stand by node and              number of hops between i and j node is calculated as follows
creates the node list called Trial Stand by node List.
                                                                         No_of_hops (i, j) =
2. Before the start of next step, current energy of nodes in the
stand by node list are examined and nodes having less energy                                           →
are discarded from the stand by node list.                                                            A − > 1 .. n
3. From the Standby Node List, Best Node and Next Best                                            j−1
                                                                                                                                            
Node List are created using the objective function. The Best
node List and Next best node list is equivalent to queen and
                                                                                      (            ∑                     (
                                                                         no_ of _ hopsi, I A1 ) + no_ of _ hopsIAK, IA(k+1)             )      (5)
drones respectively. Our objective function is based on the              
                                                                                                 k=1                                        
remaining energy of stand by nodes. Obviously, the higher the
enrgy,the higher the probability that the node will become
cluster head.                                                            A− > 1..n = Number of Alternative path between i and j node.

The remaining energy is calculated as                                     IA1 = 1st Intermediate node in the A th Alternative path to
                       Ec                                                        node j
              Er =                                      (4)
                       Ei                                                 K varied from 1st node to j-1 (previous node in reaching jth
                                                                           node) node.
Where   Ec is the current energy and Ei is the initial energy.

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5. Perform a local search on the Best Node List by applying               the hardware. Sensors are modeled using a pool of
the heuristic function which depends on the distance between
cluster head [if selected] and base station. The lesser the             concurrent, communicating threads. Individual sensors are
distance, less power is needed to transmit and receive the              able to:
data.. Such nodes are having higher probability to become the              1) Gather and process data from a model environment
cluster head. This local search gives the best solution.                  .2) Locate and communicate with their nearest neighbours
6. In case of re-election, current cluster-head is replaced by             3) Determine whether they are operating correctly and
new cluster -head which is selected in step 5.                                 act accordingly to alter the network topology in
                                                                               case of faulty nodes being detected.
     When the cluster round time is over or energy level
approaches a threshold, the current cluster head hands the              Separate interfaces gather information from the network and
main role to new elected cluster head . With a single flooding          display it on the graph pane or the chart pane, where
to cluster members, the new cluster head continues its main
                                                                        individual data can be plotted during the simulation. This
role without the need for further communication.
                                                                        partitioning allows us to experiment with different ways
                                                                        of processing individual node data into information
D. Data Transfer Phase
    The second phase is called data transfer or steady state                      Using the SenSor Plus framework, we implemented
phase. In this phase, data transfer is started as soon as bound         the proposed algorithm. For our simulation, we gave all the
time expires. This phase is identical to steady state phase             nodes an initial supply of energy and ran the protocol until it
proposed in LEACH[5].The steady state is broken into frames             converged. For our Experiments, we created a 100-node
where nodes send their data to the cluster-head at most once            network, where the nodes are scattered randomly on 600×600
per frame during their allocated transmission slot which
                                                                        grid, such that no two nodes share the same location. In our
scheduled by TDMA. Once the cluster- head receives all the
data, it performs data aggregation and forwards the final data          simulation, we considered the initial simulation parameter and
to the base station.                                                    its values as shown in Table I.

                                                                                           TABLE I SIMULATION PARAMETERS
                 V SIMULATION RESULT

  Our proposed algorithm is implemented and completely                  Parameter          Value     Motivation
  studies using the simulation tool called SenSor Plus. This is
                                                                        Initial Energy     1J        Standard energy value used for
  an in- house sensor network simulator. SenSor [12] is a                                            batteries in most sensor nodes.
  realistic and scalable Python based simulator that provides
  a workbench for prototyping algorithms for WSN. It                    Broadcast size     11 bit    Assume that the sensor                is
  consists of a fixed API, with customizable internals. Each            packet                       broadcasting an ID of 11 bits.
  simulated sensor node runs in its own thread and                      Routing     Size   11 bit    Assume that the sensor is routing
  communicates using the same protocols as its physical                 Packet                       packets of size 11 bits
  counterpart would be. This enables experimentation with
  different algorithms for managing the network topology,
  simulating fault management strategies and so on, within                 Our proposed BT-HBMA methods outperforms the other
  the same simulation. SenSor Plus is an extension of Sensor            methods such as LEACH, PEGASIS in achieving reduced
  with an added interface between            the    simulation          number of re election and maintains high energy nodes
  environment and different hardware platforms, for                     between the rounds. According to Table II, it is clear that our
  example the Gumstix [13] platform. SenSor Plus bridges                honey bee mating approach selects the best stand by node
  between Sensor and the Gumstix to allow applications                  which can withstand for more rounds compare to other
  implemented within the simulator to be ported directly on to          methods.

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                                                      No of Re election Vs Rounds in Cluster 1

               No of Re election

                                         120                                                                                                     PEGASIS
                                         100                                                                                                     LEACH
                                                50       100   150 200 250 300                 350     400     450     500      550
                                                               No of Rounds in cluster 1

                                                       Figure3 No of Re election Vs No of Rounds in cluster 1

                                                                                           According to table III, the average energy of nodes in the
                                         Number of Re-election in Cumulative           cluster 1 is fair in our approach compared to other methods.
Cluster 1                                         Manner                               The figure 4 shows that average energy of nodes in cluster 1 in
                                                                                       terms of Joules between the numbers of rounds
(Number of
                LEACH                            PEGASIS          BT-HBMA
 Rounds)                                                                                 TABLE III AVERAGE ENERGY OF NODES IN CLUSTER1 BETWEEN THE

   150                             21            27               11
                                                                                                               Average energy of nodes in cluster1
   250                             32`           39               19                       Cluster 1
   350                             41            48               27                     (Number of
   450                             51            59               36                       Rounds)
                                                                                                             LEACH             PEGASIS            BT-HBMA
   550                             63            72               49
                                                                                             150               0.97               0.95                0.982
                                                                                             250               0.95               0.93                0.962
    By this approach, we can reduce the total number of re                                   350               0.84               0.81                0.895
election that likely to happen in the network if other methods
are followed. This also implicitly achieves excellent data                                   450              0.752               0.69                0.842
transfer phase. The Figure 3 depicts that our proposed method
outperforms the other methods in reducing the number of re-                                  550              0.593               0.43                0.712

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                                                  Average Energy Vs Number of rounds in Cluster 1


         Average Energy (Joules)


                                   0.4                                                                                           PEGASIS


                                            150            250           350                 450               550
                                                                 Number of Rounds

                                           Figure 4 Average Energy of nodes in cluster 1 Vs No of Rounds in cluster 1

Our proposed BT-HBMA method, each cluster head and its
respective members are having higher average energy even                                                           REFERENCES
after the 550 rounds. The other methods decay energy because
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                                                                   (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
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[9]  H.H. Laidlaw and R.E. Page, Mating designs. In: T.E. Rinderer, Editor,         Y.Suresh received his ME Applied Electronics from Anna
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      J.Senthilkumar received his ME Applied Electronics with
      Distiction from Anna University, Chennai in 2004. He is
      working as Assistant professor in IT Department of Sona
      College of Technology and pursuing PhD degree in Anna
      University, Chennai. He is active in the research area of
      Wireless Sensor Networks, Mobile computing and Data mining.

      Dr.R.Lakshmipathi received his BE from College of
      Engineering, Anna University, India, in 1971, the ME and PhD
      in Electrical Engineering from College of Engineering, Anna
      University, India in 1973 and Indian Institute of Technology
      (IIT), Chennai in 1979, respectively. He has 36 years of teaching
      experience at UG degree level out of which 10 years in PG
      degree level. He worked as principal in Govt. College of
      Engineering and held the various prestigious posts like Dean,
      Regional Research Director , Chairman for board of BE exams,
      Member of Academic auditing committee, AICTE, University
      and State Govt. expert committee member. He is currently a
      professor of Electrical Engineering, St. Peters Engineering
      College (Deemed University), Tamilnadu. His research interest
      includes Electrical power semi conductor drives, Signal
      processing and Web Mining.

      V.Mohanraj received his ME Computer science and
      Engineering from Anna University, Chennai in 2004. He is
      currently working as Assistant professor in IT department of
      Sona College of Technology. He is pursuing PhD degree in
      Anna University, Chennai. His research area includes web
      mining, database and intelligent system.

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