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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010 Multipath Routing for Self-Organizing Hierarchical Mobile Ad-hoc Networks – A Review Udayachandran Ramasamy Sankaranarayanan K. Principal Professor, Department of Computer Science and Akshaya College of Engineering and Technology Engineering Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Technology email@example.com Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract— Security has become a primary concern for providing Geographic Position Assisted Routing Protocols protected communication between mobile nodes in a hostile environment. The characteristics of Ad-hoc networks (dynamic Power-Aware Routing Protocol topology, infrastructure less, variable capacity links, etc) are Security- Aware Routing Protocol origin of many issues. Limited bandwidth, energy constraints, high cost security are the encountered problems. This type of Multicasting Routing Protocols networks pose particular challenges in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) and performance. In this paper, the issues of Geographical Multicast (Geocasting) multipath routing in MANETs are reviewed and performances of Tree-based such MANETs are compared to discuss the application of multipath routing and its effects on different layers to support Mesh-based QoS. Zone Routing Keywords- MANET, Mobile Ad-hoc networks and QoS. Associativity-Based I. INTRODUCTION Differential- Destination In Adhoc networks, more flavours of routing options are provided to cover the flexible nature of network elements. Weight-Based This paper is organized as follows: In section II different Preferred Link-based categories of MANET’s Routing protocols are classified. In Section III multipath routing will be discussed in depth and The goals of these protocols could be summarised as : those Adhoc protocols offering multipath routing will be Minimal Control Overhead addressed in detail. Conclusion and References will be mentioned in Section IV and V. Minimal Processing Overhead Multihop Routing Capability II. MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS AND PROTOCOLS Dynamic Topology Maintenance The major challenges that a routing protocol designed for adhoc wireless networks faces are mobility of nodes, resource Loop Prevention constraints, error-prone channel state, and hidden and exposed terminal problems. In most MANETs, multipath III. MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOLS protocols are needed to facilitate efficient connectivity between There exists a set of QoS routing and best-effort routing senders that are not necessarily within each other’s wireless protocols that use multiple paths between a source-destination range. MANET routing protocols are divided into the following pair. There are several advantages in using multipath routing. categories. Some of the advantages  include the reduction in route Flat Routing Protocols computing time, the high resilience to path breaks, high call acceptance ratio, and better security. For TCP, these Proactive Routing (Table-Driven) advantages may add to throughput degradation. These can lead Reactive Routing (On-Demand) to significant amount of out-of-order packets, which in turn generates a set of duplicate acknowledgements (DUPACKS) Hybrid Routing (blend of Reactive and which cause additional power consumption and invocation of Proactive) congestion control. Hierarchical (Zonal/Cluster-Based) Routing Protocols. 118 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010 A. Multipath routing in Reactive Protocols The Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSR)  is a MSR ‘Multipath Source Routing Protocol’  that supports generalization of GSR  protocol. FSR uses the fisheye multipath routing is a direct descendant of DSR. In MSR, the technique to reduce information required to represent graphical throughput, end-to-end delay, and drop rate have been data, to reduce routing overhead. The basic principle behind improved greatly. Another routing protocol AOMDV ‘On- this technique is the property of a fish’s eye that can capture Demand Multipath Distance Vector Protocol’ , extends the pixel information with greater accuracy near its eye’s focal single path AODV protocol to compute multiple paths. Under point. This accuracy decreases with an increase in the distance wide range of mobility traffic scenarios, AOMDV offers a from the centre of the focal point. This property is translated to significant reduction in delay and up to 20% reduction in routing in adhoc wireless networks by a node, keeping accurate routing load and the frequency of route discoveries. information about nodes in its local topology, and not-so- accurate information about far-away nodes, the accuracy of the B. Multipath Routing in Proactive Protocols network information decreasing with increasing distance. DSDV ‘Destination-Sequenced Distance- Vector Routing’ Hierarchical Max-Flow Routing ‘HMFR’ forwards packets in , maintain routing updates among all nodes all the time. In such a way that the impact of failures is minimized. However, fact, many proactive protocols tend to offer shortest path to the computational complexity of Max-flow routing is quite each destinations. This is done by continuously monitoring the high, making it not acceptable for moderate size networks. network topology. Unlike reactive routing algorithms, E. Multipath Routing in Geographic Position Assisted proactive routing protocols are capable of repairing broken Routing Protocols routes in a short time. This is done by collecting network topology continuously. The drawback of DSDV however is the Multipath location - Aided Routing ‘MLAR’ is a multipath requirement of parameters such as the periodic update interval, version of LAR ; that uses position information (2D or 3D) maximum value of the ‘settling time’ for a destination and the to make routing decisions at each node. The proposed name of update intervals, which may become known before a algorithm in  uses a 3D approach which is a new route is considered stale. TERA ‘Tree Exchange Routing hierarchical, Zone based 3D routing algorithm based on GRID Algorithm’ is an extension to standard distance vector routing . The approach proposes a replacement of LAR with algorithms, which is based on multipath. Multipath LAR (MLAR) in GRID. It is expected to have significant performance differences in 3D and as to whether C. Multipath Routing in Hybrid Protocols single or multipath algorithms should be used in a particular ‘ZRP’ Zone Routing Protocol is a hybrid routing protocol scenario. The simulation results demonstrate the performance incorporate the merits of both on-demand and proactive routing benefits of MLAR over LAR and AODV in most mobility protocols. ZRP is similar to a cluster with the exception that situations. AOMDV delivers more packets compared to each node acts as a cluster head and a member of other clusters. MLAR,but at a cost of more frequent flooding to control The routing zone forms few mobile adhoc nodes within one, packets and thus bandwidth usage than MLAR. two or more hops away where the central node is located. F. Multipath Routing in Power-Aware Protocols Ant Hoc Net  ‘Ant Agents for Hybrid Multipath Routing The limitation on the availability of power for operation is a in Mobile Adhoc Networks’ the route setup of this scheme is significant bottleneck, given the requirements of portability, performed by reactive algorithm and the route probing and weight, and size of commercial hand-held devices. Hence the exploration are done by proactive scheme. This scheme can use of routing metrics that consider the capabilities of the outperform AODV in terms of delivery ratio and average power sources of the network nodes contributes to the efficient delay, especially in more mobile and large networks. utilization of energy and increase the lifetime of the network. Scalability is also promising in this scheme. However, Singh et al  proposed a set of routing metrics that supports relatively large amount of overhead could be mentioned as a conservation of battery power. The routing protocols that select drawback and also less adaptability to the network situation. paths so as to conserve power must be aware of the states of the D. Multipath Routing in Hierarchical Protocols batteries at the given node as well as at the other intermediate nodes in the path. The use of routing hierarchy has several advantages, the most important ones being reduction in the size of routing An interesting insight of power-aware adhoc protocols has tables and better scalability. The Hierarchical State Routing been presented in  in which optimization at the network (HSR) protocol  is a distributed multilevel hierarchical layer is of major concern. The research addresses power routing protocol that employs clustering at different levels with control, routing, and sleep mode (stand-by) control. efficient membership management at every level of clustering. Multipath Power Sensitive Routing Protocol ‘MPSR’  The use of clustering enhances resource allocation and is another adhoc routing protocol with interest in power aware management. communication. MPSR shows how an efficient heuristic-based Though the reduction in the amount of routing information multipath technique can improve the mean-time-to-node failure stored at nodes is appreciable, the overhead involved in and maintain the variance in power of all the nodes as low as exchanging packets containing information about the multiple possible. The simulation results show performance optimized levels of hierarchy and the leader election process makes the in MPSR protocol compared to the Dynamic Source Routing protocol unaffordable in the adhoc wireless networks context. ‘DSR’. 119 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010 G. Multipath Routing in Multicasting Protocols The average end-to-end delay between MTS, AODV and DSR Based on the type of operation, multicast protocols for shows that beyond speeds of 1.7m/s, MTS delay drops rapidly adhoc networks are broadly classified into two types: Source- and performs better in respect to the other two routing initiated protocols and receiver-initiated protocols. There exists protocols. The protocols discussed are tabulated in Table 1. certain other multicast protocols such as MCEDAR  and AM Route  which may not strictly fall under the above two CONCLUSIONS types. Multicast Routing Protocols are of great interest as the Multipath routing was the main focus of this paper and we demand for such communication is on the rise. Multipath investigated its effects of multipath routing in variety of Multicast Routing Algorithm ‘MRPM’ quick distributed protocols. In all these, performance enhancements were dynamic algorithm can manage network resources efficiently. observed and promising results pointed to the better Multi-Flow Real-Time Transport protocol ‘MRTP’  is deployment of the schemes when multipath routing is used. another example of a mesh-based adhoc-based protocol that offers multipath routing for multicast application. MRTP is REFERENCES motivated by the observations of effective path diversity in combating transmission errors in adhoc networks and effective  Siva Ram Murthy. C and Manoj B.S, “Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, data partitioning techniques in improving the queueing Architectures and Protocols”, Perason Edition Inc, 2005. performance of real-time traffic. The simulation results show  Charles E. Perlins, “Ad Hoc Networking”, Addision-Wesley 2nd performance improvement in lost packets per frame and better Printing 2004. management.  Elizabath. M and Belding. R, “ Routing Approaches in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks”, 2004. Multi-Objective Multipath Routing Algorithm for Multicast  Lei Wang, Lian Fang Zhang, Yantai Shu and Miao Dong. “ Multipath Flows ‘MMRAM’  proposes a multi-objective traffic Source Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”, CCECE 2000, 7-10 engineering scheme using different distribution trees to March 2000. multicast several flows. MMRAM is an attractive candidate for  Mahesh. K and Marina S.R, “On-demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing in Adhoc Networks”, 9th International Conference on 11-14 Nov Multi Protocol Label Switching ‘MPLS’. This multi-tree 2001. routing protocol uses a multicast transmission with load  Charles Perkins and Pravin Bhagwat, “Highly Dynamic Destination- balancing. Sequenced Distance-Ventor Routing for Mobile Computers”, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Communication Architectures and H. Multipath routing in Security Protocols Protocols, ACM SIGCOMM, 1994. The existence of multiple paths between nodes in an Adhoc  Frederick Ducatelle, Gianni Di Caro and Luce Maria Gambardella, “Ant network is exploited to increase the robustness of the data Agents for Hbride Multipath Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, confidentiality . The proposed algorithm is tested against Second Annuml conference on Wireless On-demand Network systems and services, 19-21 Jan 2005, WONS 2005. time for intrusion defection and robustness.  A.Iwata, Chiang C.C, Pei.G, Gerla.M and Chen T.W, “Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, IEEE Journal on Selected TABLE I. ADHOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS DISCUSSED Areas in Communications, Vol 17, No.8, pp 1369-1379, August 1999. ROTOCOLS  Chen.T.W and Gerla.M “ Global State Routing: A New Routing Scheme DSR Reactive for AdHoc Wireless Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE, ICC 1998, pp MSR Reactive 171-175, June 1998. AODMDV Reactive  Y.Ko and N.H,Vaidya, “Location-Aided Routing (LAR) in Mobile AODV Reactive AdHoc Networks”, Proceedings of ACM MOBICOM 1998, pp 66-75, DSDV Proactive October 1998. TERA Proactive  Soumendra Nanda, Robert S.Gray, “Spatial Multipath Location Aided HMFR Hierar AdHoc Routing”, Computer Communications and Networks, 2004. ZRP Hybrid ICCCN 2004 Proceedings, 13th International Conference. ANT.NET Hybrid  Liao W.H, Tseng Y.C and Sheu J.P, “GRID: A Fully Location-Aware HSR Hierar Routing Protocol for Mobile AdHoc Networks”, Telecommunication ZHLS Hierar Systems, Vol 18, No.1, pp 37-60, 2001. CGSR Hierar  Singh.S, Woo.M and Ragavendra. C.S, “Power-Aware Routing in MLAR Geog Mobile AdHoc Networks”, Proceedings of ACM MOBICOM 1998, PP MPSR Power 181-190, October 1998. MRPM Multicast  Sushant Jain, “Energy Aware communication in AdHoc Networks”, MRTP Multicast Technical Report, UW-CSE 03-06-03. MMRAM Multicast  Anand Prabhu Subramanian, Anto A.J, Janani Vasudevan and MTS Security Narayanasamy .P, “Multipath Power Sensitive Routing Protocol for Mobile AdHoc Networks”, WONS 2004, Madonna di Campiglio, Italy, Jan 2004. Another multipath routing algorithm for data security  Sinha.P, Sivakumar.R and Bharghavan.V, “MCEDAR: Multicast Core enhancement, Multipath TCP security ‘MTS’, is discussed in Extruction Distributed AdHoc Routing”, Proceeding of IEEE WCNC . In MTS, the source node chooses the available routes 1999, pp 1313-1317, Sep 1999. adaptivity rather than testing the ‘Stored routes’ one by one  Bommaiah.E, Lin.M McAuley.A and Talpade.R, “AMRoute: AdHoc exhaustively. Compared to AODV and DSR, MTS has a better Multicast Routing Protocol”, Internet Draft, draft-talpade-manet- number of participating nodes and highest interception ratio. amroute-oo.txt, August 1998. 120 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010  Shiwen Mao, Dennis Bushmitch, Sathya Narayanan and Shivendra S. University, Montreal, Canada Institute Megatech, Kuala Lumput , Multimedia Panwar, “MRTP: A Multi-Flow Real Time Transport Protocol for University, Kuala Lumpur. Adhoc Networks”, Vehicular Technology Conference, 2003,6-9 Oct He has 29 years of teaching and research experience. His area of interest 2003. includes Mobile AdHoc Networks Distributed Computing and Grid  Ramon Fabregat, Yezid Donoso Meisel, Jose L.Marzo, Alfonso Ariza, Computing. At present he is working as Professor and head, Department of “A Multi-Objective Multipath Routing Algorithm for Multicast Flows”, Computer Science and Engineering, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Technology, 2004 International Symposium on performance Evaluation of Computer Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. He is a Fellow of Institution of and Telecommunication Systems (SPECTS’ 04). Engineers(India), Fellow Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication  Souheila Bouam, Jalel Ben-Othman, “Data Security in Adhoc Networks Engineers(India) and Senior Member IEEE(USA.) using Multipath Routing”, Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2003. PIMRC 2003, 14th IEEE Proceedings on Volume 2, 7-10 September 2003.  Zhi Lij Yu-Kwong Kwok, “ A New Multipath Routing Approach to Enhancing TCP Security in AdHoc wireless Networks”, Parallel Processing, 2005. ICPP 2005 workshops, International Conference Workshops on 14-17, June 2005. AUTHORS PROFILE K.Sankaranarayanan, born on 15.06.1952, completed his B.E (Electronics and Communication Engineering) in 1975, and M.E (Applied Electronics) in 1978 from P.S.G College of Technology, Coimbatore under University of Madras. He did his Ph.D (Biomedical Digital Signal Processing and Medical Expert System) in 1996 from P.S.G College of Technology, Coimbatore under Bharathiar University. His areas of interest include Digital Signal Processing, Computer Networking, Network Security, Biomedical Electronics, Neural Networks and their applications, and Opto Electronics. He has more than 30 years of Udayachandran Ramasamy,(M’79,SM’94) born on 26.05.1956, teaching experience and worked in various Government and Self financing completed his B.E (Electronics and Communication Engineering) in 1979, and Engineering Colleges. M.E (Applied Electronics) in 1981 from P.S.G College of Technology, At present he is working as PRINCIPAL at AKSHAYA College of Coimbatore under University of Madras. Currently he is pursuing Ph.D at Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, India. He has worked and carried out research in various institutions like REC, Tirchy, BIT, Bangalore, IOC, Assam, CIT, Coimbatore, VLBJACET, Coimbatore, Technical University of Novascotia, Canada Halifax, Concordia 121 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500
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