Multipath Routing for Self Organizing Hierarchical Mobile Ad Hoc Networks – A Review

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					                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                               Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010

   Multipath Routing for Self-Organizing Hierarchical
         Mobile Ad-hoc Networks – A Review

                Udayachandran Ramasamy                                                      Sankaranarayanan K.
       Professor, Department of Computer Science and                          Akshaya College of Engineering and Technology
                        Engineering                                                   Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
          Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Technology
                Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract— Security has become a primary concern for providing                  Geographic Position Assisted Routing Protocols
protected communication between mobile nodes in a hostile
environment. The characteristics of Ad-hoc networks (dynamic                   Power-Aware Routing Protocol
topology, infrastructure less, variable capacity links, etc) are               Security- Aware Routing Protocol
origin of many issues. Limited bandwidth, energy constraints,
high cost security are the encountered problems. This type of                  Multicasting Routing Protocols
networks pose particular challenges in terms of Quality of
Service (QoS) and performance. In this paper, the issues of                                Geographical Multicast (Geocasting)
multipath routing in MANETs are reviewed and performances of                               Tree-based
such MANETs are compared to discuss the application of
multipath routing and its effects on different layers to support                           Mesh-based
                                                                                           Zone Routing
   Keywords- MANET, Mobile Ad-hoc networks and QoS.
                                                                                           Associativity-Based
                         I.   INTRODUCTION
                                                                                           Differential- Destination
  In Adhoc networks, more flavours of routing options are
provided to cover the flexible nature of network elements.                                 Weight-Based
This paper is organized as follows: In section II different                                Preferred Link-based
categories of MANET’s Routing protocols are classified. In
Section III multipath routing will be discussed in depth and                 The goals of these protocols could be summarised as [3]:
those Adhoc protocols offering multipath routing will be                       Minimal Control Overhead
addressed in detail. Conclusion and References will be
mentioned in Section IV and V.                                                 Minimal Processing Overhead
                                                                               Multihop Routing Capability
                                                                               Dynamic Topology Maintenance
    The major challenges that a routing protocol designed for
adhoc wireless networks faces are mobility of nodes, resource                  Loop Prevention
constraints, error-prone channel state, and hidden and exposed
terminal problems[1][2]. In most MANETs, multipath                                   III.   MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOLS
protocols are needed to facilitate efficient connectivity between            There exists a set of QoS routing and best-effort routing
senders that are not necessarily within each other’s wireless             protocols that use multiple paths between a source-destination
range. MANET routing protocols are divided into the following             pair. There are several advantages in using multipath routing.
categories.                                                               Some of the advantages [1] include the reduction in route
        Flat Routing Protocols                                           computing time, the high resilience to path breaks, high call
                                                                          acceptance ratio, and better security. For TCP, these
                  Proactive Routing (Table-Driven)                       advantages may add to throughput degradation. These can lead
                  Reactive Routing (On-Demand)                           to significant amount of out-of-order packets, which in turn
                                                                          generates a set of duplicate acknowledgements (DUPACKS)
                  Hybrid Routing (blend of Reactive and                  which cause additional power consumption and invocation of
                   Proactive)                                             congestion control.
        Hierarchical (Zonal/Cluster-Based) Routing Protocols.

                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                               Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010
A. Multipath routing in Reactive Protocols                                         The Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSR) [8] is a
    MSR ‘Multipath Source Routing Protocol’ [4] that supports             generalization of GSR [9] protocol. FSR uses the fisheye
multipath routing is a direct descendant of DSR. In MSR, the              technique to reduce information required to represent graphical
throughput, end-to-end delay, and drop rate have been                     data, to reduce routing overhead. The basic principle behind
improved greatly. Another routing protocol AOMDV ‘On-                     this technique is the property of a fish’s eye that can capture
Demand Multipath Distance Vector Protocol’ [5], extends the               pixel information with greater accuracy near its eye’s focal
single path AODV protocol to compute multiple paths. Under                point. This accuracy decreases with an increase in the distance
wide range of mobility traffic scenarios, AOMDV offers a                  from the centre of the focal point. This property is translated to
significant reduction in delay and up to 20% reduction in                 routing in adhoc wireless networks by a node, keeping accurate
routing load and the frequency of route discoveries.                      information about nodes in its local topology, and not-so-
                                                                          accurate information about far-away nodes, the accuracy of the
B. Multipath Routing in Proactive Protocols                               network information decreasing with increasing distance.
    DSDV ‘Destination-Sequenced Distance- Vector Routing’                 Hierarchical Max-Flow Routing ‘HMFR’ forwards packets in
[6], maintain routing updates among all nodes all the time. In            such a way that the impact of failures is minimized. However,
fact, many proactive protocols tend to offer shortest path to             the computational complexity of Max-flow routing is quite
each destinations. This is done by continuously monitoring the            high, making it not acceptable for moderate size networks.
network topology. Unlike reactive routing algorithms,                     E. Multipath Routing in Geographic Position Assisted
proactive routing protocols are capable of repairing broken                   Routing Protocols
routes in a short time. This is done by collecting network
topology continuously. The drawback of DSDV however is the                    Multipath location - Aided Routing ‘MLAR’ is a multipath
requirement of parameters such as the periodic update interval,           version of LAR [10]; that uses position information (2D or 3D)
maximum value of the ‘settling time’ for a destination and the            to make routing decisions at each node. The proposed
name of update intervals, which may become known before a                 algorithm in [11] uses a 3D approach which is a new
route is considered stale. TERA ‘Tree Exchange Routing                    hierarchical, Zone based 3D routing algorithm based on GRID
Algorithm’ is an extension to standard distance vector routing            [12]. The approach proposes a replacement of LAR with
algorithms, which is based on multipath.                                  Multipath LAR (MLAR) in GRID. It is expected to have
                                                                          significant performance differences in 3D and as to whether
C. Multipath Routing in Hybrid Protocols                                  single or multipath algorithms should be used in a particular
   ‘ZRP’ Zone Routing Protocol is a hybrid routing protocol               scenario. The simulation results demonstrate the performance
incorporate the merits of both on-demand and proactive routing            benefits of MLAR over LAR and AODV in most mobility
protocols. ZRP is similar to a cluster with the exception that            situations. AOMDV delivers more packets compared to
each node acts as a cluster head and a member of other clusters.          MLAR,but at a cost of more frequent flooding to control
The routing zone forms few mobile adhoc nodes within one,                 packets and thus bandwidth usage than MLAR.
two or more hops away where the central node is located.                  F. Multipath Routing in Power-Aware Protocols
    Ant Hoc Net [7] ‘Ant Agents for Hybrid Multipath Routing                  The limitation on the availability of power for operation is a
in Mobile Adhoc Networks’ the route setup of this scheme is               significant bottleneck, given the requirements of portability,
performed by reactive algorithm and the route probing and                 weight, and size of commercial hand-held devices. Hence the
exploration are done by proactive scheme. This scheme can                 use of routing metrics that consider the capabilities of the
outperform AODV in terms of delivery ratio and average                    power sources of the network nodes contributes to the efficient
delay, especially in more mobile and large networks.                      utilization of energy and increase the lifetime of the network.
Scalability is also promising in this scheme. However,                    Singh et al [13] proposed a set of routing metrics that supports
relatively large amount of overhead could be mentioned as a               conservation of battery power. The routing protocols that select
drawback and also less adaptability to the network situation.             paths so as to conserve power must be aware of the states of the
D. Multipath Routing in Hierarchical Protocols                            batteries at the given node as well as at the other intermediate
                                                                          nodes in the path.
    The use of routing hierarchy has several advantages, the
most important ones being reduction in the size of routing                    An interesting insight of power-aware adhoc protocols has
tables and better scalability. The Hierarchical State Routing             been presented in [14] in which optimization at the network
(HSR) protocol [8] is a distributed multilevel hierarchical               layer is of major concern. The research addresses power
routing protocol that employs clustering at different levels with         control, routing, and sleep mode (stand-by) control.
efficient membership management at every level of clustering.                 Multipath Power Sensitive Routing Protocol ‘MPSR’ [15]
The use of clustering enhances resource allocation and                    is another adhoc routing protocol with interest in power aware
management.                                                               communication. MPSR shows how an efficient heuristic-based
    Though the reduction in the amount of routing information             multipath technique can improve the mean-time-to-node failure
stored at nodes is appreciable, the overhead involved in                  and maintain the variance in power of all the nodes as low as
exchanging packets containing information about the multiple              possible. The simulation results show performance optimized
levels of hierarchy and the leader election process makes the             in MPSR protocol compared to the Dynamic Source Routing
protocol unaffordable in the adhoc wireless networks context.             ‘DSR’.

                                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                              (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010
G. Multipath Routing in Multicasting Protocols                             The average end-to-end delay between MTS, AODV and DSR
    Based on the type of operation, multicast protocols for                shows that beyond speeds of 1.7m/s, MTS delay drops rapidly
adhoc networks are broadly classified into two types: Source-              and performs better in respect to the other two routing
initiated protocols and receiver-initiated protocols. There exists         protocols. The protocols discussed are tabulated in Table 1.
certain other multicast protocols such as MCEDAR [16] and
AM Route [17] which may not strictly fall under the above two                                            CONCLUSIONS
types. Multicast Routing Protocols are of great interest as the              Multipath routing was the main focus of this paper and we
demand for such communication is on the rise. Multipath                    investigated its effects of multipath routing in variety of
Multicast Routing Algorithm ‘MRPM’ quick distributed                       protocols. In all these, performance enhancements were
dynamic algorithm can manage network resources efficiently.                observed and promising results pointed to the better
    Multi-Flow Real-Time Transport protocol ‘MRTP’ [18] is                 deployment of the schemes when multipath routing is used.
another example of a mesh-based adhoc-based protocol that
offers multipath routing for multicast application. MRTP is                                               REFERENCES
motivated by the observations of effective path diversity in
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engineering scheme using different distribution trees to                          March 2000.
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                                                                                  Routing in Adhoc Networks”, 9th International Conference on 11-14 Nov
Multi Protocol Label Switching ‘MPLS’. This multi-tree                            2001.
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                   DSDV           Proactive                                       October 1998.
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                                                                                  Jan 2004.
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[21]. In MTS, the source node chooses the available routes                        1999, pp 1313-1317, Sep 1999.
adaptivity rather than testing the ‘Stored routes’ one by one              [17]   Bommaiah.E, Lin.M McAuley.A and Talpade.R, “AMRoute: AdHoc
exhaustively. Compared to AODV and DSR, MTS has a better                          Multicast Routing Protocol”, Internet Draft, draft-talpade-manet-
number of participating nodes and highest interception ratio.                     amroute-oo.txt, August 1998.

                                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                       (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                         Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010
[18] Shiwen Mao, Dennis Bushmitch, Sathya Narayanan and Shivendra S.                University, Montreal, Canada Institute Megatech, Kuala Lumput , Multimedia
     Panwar, “MRTP: A Multi-Flow Real Time Transport Protocol for                   University, Kuala Lumpur.
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     2003.                                                                          includes Mobile AdHoc Networks Distributed Computing and Grid
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     2004 International Symposium on performance Evaluation of Computer             Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. He is a Fellow of Institution of
     and Telecommunication Systems (SPECTS’ 04).                                    Engineers(India), Fellow Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication
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     Workshops on 14-17, June 2005.

                          AUTHORS PROFILE

                                                                                       K.Sankaranarayanan, born on 15.06.1952, completed his B.E
                                                                                    (Electronics and Communication Engineering) in 1975, and M.E (Applied
                                                                                    Electronics) in 1978 from P.S.G College of Technology, Coimbatore under
                                                                                    University of Madras. He did his Ph.D (Biomedical Digital Signal Processing
                                                                                    and Medical Expert System) in 1996 from P.S.G College of Technology,
                                                                                    Coimbatore under Bharathiar University.
                                                                                       His areas of interest include Digital Signal Processing, Computer
                                                                                    Networking, Network Security, Biomedical Electronics, Neural Networks and
                                                                                    their applications, and Opto Electronics. He has more than 30 years of
   Udayachandran Ramasamy,(M’79,SM’94) born on 26.05.1956,                          teaching experience and worked in various Government and Self financing
completed his B.E (Electronics and Communication Engineering) in 1979, and          Engineering Colleges.
M.E (Applied Electronics) in 1981 from P.S.G College of Technology,                    At present he is working as PRINCIPAL at AKSHAYA College of
Coimbatore under University of Madras. Currently he is pursuing Ph.D at             Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, India.
   He has worked and carried out research in various institutions like REC,
Tirchy, BIT, Bangalore, IOC, Assam, CIT, Coimbatore, VLBJACET,
Coimbatore, Technical University of Novascotia, Canada Halifax, Concordia

                                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500

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