www.usaid.gov MAY 2003
“I’ve seen the
USAID Shifts Focus as WHO ARE USAID’S PARTNERS?
Crisis Fears Fade For profit
Cash transfers to other governments
Obligations and transfers to USG agencies
It is my USAID prepared for the worst possible “We will be continuing to focus on food
responsibility ... to help the Iraqi humanitarian crisis in Iraq, after U.N. and increasing our focus on the transition
people turn Iraq into a stable, warnings that 2 million Iraqis might flee a to democracy,” said Tighe. “This is a
war and millions more might need emer- luxury we usually don’t have when
safe, peaceful and prosperous gency relief. responding to humanitarian crises.”
country. But the crisis never came. Within weeks USAID reconstruction work has also
L. PAUL “JERRY” BREMER ” of the end of hostilities, U.S. military and
civilian teams as well as other international
begun with major contracts signed for
fixing seaports, roads, bridges, schools,
Administrator, Coalition Provisional Authority
aid groups began restoring water, elec- clinics, and airports. USAID is also reha-
Baghdad, May 15
tricity, healthcare, and other basics—in bilitating water, sanitation, and power
some cases surpassing preconflict levels. plants, getting the educational system up
Apparently believing that U.S. troops and running, establishing the foundations
Afghan Update did not threaten them directly, most
Iraqis decided not to flee, while thou-
for neighborhood councils, and providing
small grants for Iraqi organizations.
Estimated percentages based on FY 2002 transfers and procurements
sands of refugees from Saddam’s regime Total USAID assistance to Iraq in 2003 Source: USAID Bureau for Management and Bureau for Program
With surprisingly little fanfare, over 2 mil- returned home. reached $579 million by May 30, with and Policy Coordination.
lion Afghans have returned to their homes “There is relief that the severity of the another $36 million provided by the State
since January, 2002, in what some call the crisis we prepared for did not arise,” said Department.
largest voluntary population movement in
recent world history. Largely ignored by the
Donald Tighe, spokesman for USAID’s
Disaster Assistance Response Team
Security conditions finally improved in
May, allowing aid workers to travel Agency PMA
world press, 1.5 million refugees returned
from Pakistan, 390,000 refugees came
home from Iran, and 600,000 internally dis-
The DART continues to fund water,
healthcare, and food assistance, but is
throughout Iraq. DART teams have been
placed in Arbil, Al Hillah, Basra, and
Baghdad. They visit hospitals, schools,
placed people went back to their homes.
The presence of U.S. security forces and
now turning to transition activities such as
re-equipping looted ministries and reha-
villages, water systems, power plants, and
other sites to make assessments and
U.S. and international aid apparently reas- bilitating schools and municipal arrange to supply aid, if needed.
sured refugees that it was safe to return structures. “We are still careful,” said Tighe. “But I For the first time, USAID received
home after years in exile. “green” progress scores for the goals
▼ SEE USAID FOCUS ON PAGE 8
U.S.relief and development aid to the related to electronic government and
Afghans since the American military helped IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION financial management in the latest
oust the Taliban regime has totaled $1.081 President’s Management Agenda (PMA)
billion. quarterly scorecard.
▼ SEE AFGHAN UPDATE ON PAGE 16 The scores in these two areas moved
from yellow to green on the traffic light-
style grading system devised by the
Bush administration to gauge agencies’
efforts to make government more effec-
tive and efficient. Under the PMA,
Postage and Fees
Permit No. G-107
agencies are periodically graded on their
efforts to improve human capital, com-
petitive sourcing, electronic
government, financial management, and
integrating performance measures into
the budget process.
John Marshall, Assistant Administrator
for Management, stated that the Business
Transformation Executive Committee
(BTEC) has been “instrumental in our
efforts to meet the goals of the PMA
because Agency senior executive-level
involvement is critical to management
U.S. Agency for International Development
Bureau for Legislative and Public Affairs
Thomas Hartwell, USAID
New Iraqi newspapers have begun to be published after years of domination by the former regime.
AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER
▼ SEE IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION ON PAGES 8–9 ▼ SEE AGENCY PMA SCORES ON PAGE 16
Washington, D.C. 20523-6100
Penalty for Private Use $300
INSIDE THIS ISSUE
ASHA: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
In Focus: Alternative Development . . . . . .4
IN IRAQ PRISONERS
Ghana Oranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
PAGE 8 AFSA Memorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 PAGE 16
Where in the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-13
2 PANORAMA May 2003
American Schools and Hospitals Abroad Get
Aid for U.S.-Style Teaching, Research
The American University of Beirut Fulbright, frustrated with the lack of The ASHA office, now part of the KEY CRITERIA FOR
(AUB), the American University of Cairo funding for U.S. schools overseas, created Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and ASHA GRANTS
(AUC), and many other schools and hos- ASHA through Section 214 of the Foreign Humanitarian Assistance, accepts applica-
pitals in the Middle East and around the Assistance Act. tions every June for grants that are
◆ Application must be sponsored by a U.S.-
world have long benefited from USAID When USAID was created in 1961, it awarded the next fiscal year. A review
based, private organization
grants to support U.S.-style teaching and took over ASHA. At that time, it was one committee that includes outside experts
health services. In FY 2003, ASHA will of several U.S. government programs ranks the proposals. ◆ Institution must be located outside of the
award $18 million in grants. administered by the State Department that Within USAID, staff worked to harmo- United States, and not controlled or man-
Most staff, students, and patients at provided assistance to schools abroad. nize ASHA’s chief purpose of supporting aged by a government agency
these institutions are not U.S. citizens, but ASHA’s purpose is to support the ability centers of U.S. culture overseas with the ◆ Most teachers and trained staff must be
many of their teachers and doctors have of overseas institutions to demonstrate Agency’s development mission. U.S. citizens or U.S.-trained
studied in the United States. The schools U.S. ideas and practices. Eligibility Many of the schools, libraries, and hos-
and hospitals demonstrate U.S.-style edu- requirements are tightly defined. Eligible pitals offer opportunities and services that ◆ Most students or patients must not be from
cation and medicine while preparing institutions include secondary schools and had not existed. USAID also encourages the United States
future leaders in the developing world. institutions of higher learning, hospital ASHA-supported institutions to lend their ◆ Institution must be open to all, without
The American Schools and Hospitals centers that engage in education and resources and talents to serving wider regard for race, religion, sex, or nationality
Abroad (ASHA) program is older than research and libraries that include a col- community needs. ★ www.usaid.gov/asha/grant.htm
USAID. In 1957, Senator J. William lection of U.S. books or periodicals.
HONDURAS SCHOOL TRAINS AGRICULTURE MINISTERS AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF BEIRUT: A FIRST ASHA GRANTEE
ZAMORANO, Honduras—Since 1943, the Students complete a two-year core cur- BEIRUT—The American University of U.S. textbooks and teaching techniques
Panamerican Agricultural School riculum to learn basic skills before Beirut (AUB)—one of the most prestigious are used throughout the university and
(Escuela Agricola Panamericana) in the specializing in one of four career paths: institutions of higher education in the most of its faculty holds U.S. degrees.
Zamorano Valley northeast of agricultural production, agribusiness, Middle East—was originally chartered by The 80-building campus spreads out over
Tegucigalpa, Honduras, has graduated agro-industry, or socioeconomic devel- the State of New York in 1863 and is one of 72 acres. Five faculties—arts and sci-
4,780 students from 25 countries. More opment and environment. the original grantees of ASHA. It is one the ences, medicine, engineering and
than 30 graduates have served as ministers A project of USAID’s Association institutions that has benefited the most architecture, agriculture, and health sci-
of agriculture, natural resources, and Liaison Office recently funded University during ASHA’s 46-year history. ences—offer a wide array of academic
finance in the Americas. of Maryland students to spend a month on AUB has awarded more than 40,000 and professional pursuits.
ASHA has supported the school by the campus. They worked alongside degrees since its founding. More than ASHA has helped AUB acquire med-
constructing and renovating its facilities, fourth-year Zamorano students on 5,000 students are currently enrolled from ical and science equipment; obtain
including faculty housing and a dairy sci- applied research projects. 59 countries, 94 percent of which are internet access; modernize its research,
ence laboratory. The program also The school, which currently enrolls 815 Arabic-speaking. Approximately 81 per- teaching, and administrative facilities;
financed telecommunications equipment students, has agreements that allow its cent of the students are Lebanese. and improve security. ★
and information technology investments, graduates to receive in-state tuition rates
as well as the repair of the school’s water at the University of Florida, Louisiana
management system after Hurricane State University, and Kansas State
Mitch swept through Honduras. University. More than half of Zamorano’s
ASHA ASSISTS ZIMBABWE’S FIRST PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
The school adopted a full, four-year graduates continue their studies in the
undergraduate program in 1999. United States. ★ MUTARE, Zimbabwe—Founded in 1992, campus, located in Zimbabwe’s eastern
Africa University is the first private uni- highland. They can choose from bachelor’s
versity in Zimbabwe and is sponsored by degrees in agriculture, education, manage-
the General Board of Higher Education ment, social sciences, and theology, or
and Ministry of the United Methodist from two master’s programs. The College
Church. Almost 900 students from 18 of Management and Administration regu-
African countries currently attend. larly holds workshops and seminars for
ASHA built and equipped the library local and regional businesses.
and telecommunications center, and The university is following the U.S. land
financed the design, construction, and grant educational formula closely, and is
equipment of the College of Agriculture developing modern methodologies in
and Natural Resources building. agriculture on experimental farms. The
Approximately half of Africa University of Maryland and Purdue
University’s students live on its 1,500-acre University are helping. ★
HOSPITAL IN INDIA BRINGS CARE TO VILLAGES
PUNE, India—King Edward Memorial an outreach program that trains workers to
Hospital provides medical care, research, bring health information to 300,000
and education under one roof. Starting as people in villages within 60 miles of Pune.
a small dispensary in 1912, the 442-bed ASHA gave its first grant to King
general hospital also serves as a teaching Edward in 1997. ASHA grants have
hospital for primary healthcare workers allowed the hospital to expand and equip
and doctors. its research facilities. Along with
The hospital, located in Pune, a city near financing basic equipment and supplies
Bombay, has long specialized in maternal used by village health workers, AHSA has
and child health. It engages in research supported the integration of U.S. medical
The Panamerican Agricultural School (Esquela Agricola Panamericana) in the Zamorano Valley, Honduras, and runs a rehabilitation and physio- technology and practices into the hos-
one of the many educational institutions supported by USAID’s American Schools and Hospitals Abroad therapy center, as well as a 250-bed pital’s care and training. ★
(ASHA) program nursing home. Its medical school operates
May 2003 DIALOGUE 3
This is really a war-torn area, and get-
ting money is very difficult. Instead of war, from
war, war, I thought, why don’t we do some- Natsios
thing that can help ourselves? The
Education for Peace training revived the
idea [of my becoming a carpenter]. Our TRADE FUELS DEVELOPMENT
family is much happier now that we’re Trade has become one of the most powerful
back in the rural area. Little by little, we engines driving the efforts of poor countries
to grow their economies.
are getting by. I’ve started this business, For 40 years, this Agency has been at the
we have enough to eat, and the children forefront of development around the world.
We have provided advice, tools, supplies,
are growing up well.
AIAH JOSIAH ” food, and training. We have built dams and
roads and schools. But in recent years, as the
global economy has taken root around the
Laura Lartigue, USAID
world, trade has surpassed aid as the engine
Aiah Josiah shows off the certificate he earned at the USAID-sponsored Education for Peace program, where of growth.
he got the idea of teaching his carpentry skills to local ex-combatant youth. He is now manager of carpentry at U.S. and all other foreign aid programs total
the Community Youth Training Center in Yengema, Sierra Leone. The war that caused Josiah to abandon about $50 billion a year. Annual exports from
plans to become a carpenter and flee his village created thousands of unemployed ex-combatants who lack developing countries earned $2.4 trillion.
skills to carry on economic activities. The Education for Peace training program helps them learn such skills That is why the U.S. government is
and contribute to the rebuilding of their communities. spending around $600 million this year—
most of it through USAID—to help poor
countries build up their abilities to trade and
negotiate trade agreements.
Mission of the Month In May, we released USAID’s new
strategy, Building Trade Capacity in the
Why Build Trade Capacity?
Growing the economies of the developing
The Challenge world is good for the U.S. economy. Poor
About 5 million acres of Indonesia’s countries with stagnant economies are not
forests are logged each year. Some 70 particularly good trading partners for the
percent of that logging is illegal. This United States because they are too poor to
costs the Indonesian government about buy our products.
$1 billion in taxes and revenues, to say Trade capacity building promotes global
nothing of the huge environmental loss. economic growth through free markets and
Much of the logging is driven by the free trade while expanding the circle of
demand for timber and pulp. development. Increasing trade also benefits
The livelihoods of about 30 million the United States. Developing countries now
people depend on Indonesia’s forests, account for over 40 percent of U.S. exports.
which are among the most biodiverse Illegal logging in Indonesia. Finally, trade and investment allow global
in the world. market forces to support growth and reduce
poverty in developing countries.
Innovative USAID Program President of Merchandising, said that example, Caterpillar, Inc. is providing But before they can compete with other
USAID/Indonesia built an alliance of his firm contributed $1 million in No- heavy equipment “to promote the trading nations in the world marketplace,
governments, businesses, and local and vember 2002 toward the alliance—a adoption of sustainable forest manage- developing countries need to train the skilled
international NGOs to simultaneously contribution he characterized as “doing ment and the marketing of sustainably personnel who can participate in interna-
address illegal logging and market the right thing.” produced forest products.” USAID’s tional trade negotiations. They also need
interests. USAID-funded NGOs will assist contribution was exceeded four-fold by auditors, customs officials, and other people
The alliance aims to increase the retail companies in sourcing “good corporate partners and the conservation or institutions to implement international
supply of Indonesian wood products wood” products. Such “green” community. trade agreements.
from well-managed forests, demon- sourcing policies act as an incentive for The alliance has already obtained To help countries participate in trade,
strate practical ways to differentiate Indonesians to provide legal wood commitments from the Government of USAID will continue to assist them to
legal and illegal supplies on the islands products. To gain preferential access to Indonesia, concessionaires, and pulp improve economic policies and institutions,
of Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, and North America and Europe, available and paper companies to stop logging in transfer technology, reduce dependence on
strengthen market signals to combat only for legally harvested wood, furni- areas of high biodiversity. These areas exports of unprocessed tropical agricultural
illegal logging. Secondary aims are to ture and other wood product companies include Tesso Nilo on Sumatra— commodities, and help exporters meet world
reduce access to financing and invest- in Asia are seeking third-party verifica- believed to contain the highest level of quality standards.
ment funds for companies engaged in tion of good wood. plant biodiversity in the world—and
destructive or illegal logging and to The alliance is promoting investment East Kalimantan, the habitat of the last A Strategic Priority
share lessons learned with other screening tools to ensure that invest- viable population of orangutans in that The strategy was developed under the leader-
forested nations. ment banks, financial analysts, region. ship of the Office of Economic Growth in the
The Nature Conservancy and the insurers, brokerages, and financiers One pulp and paper company has Bureau of Economic Growth, Agriculture and
World Wildlife Fund Indonesia are don’t end up playing destructive roles been refusing to accept illegal logs at its Trade, with input and review from across the
coordinating the alliance, which by supporting illegal pulp and paper mill. Growing numbers of companies Agency. In developing the strategy, USAID
includes Global Forest Watch, the mills or wood panel plants. with global sourcing power—such as staff worked closely with the office of the U.S.
World Resources Institute, the Tropical Home Depot, IKEA, Goldman Sachs, Trade Representative to ensure that develop-
Forest Foundation, the Tropical Forest Results BP, and Carrefour—have joined the ment concerns mesh with trade policy.
Trust, the Center for International In the island provinces where the alliance. This buying power provides I strongly urge all bureaus and missions to
Forestry Research, the U.S. and alliance is active, the NGOs are another incentive for Indonesians to embrace this strategic approach to trade
Indonesian governments, 17 compa- engaged directly with companies that ensure that their wood products are capacity building. I expect that country
nies, and numerous local NGOs. provide formal letters of commitment legal and responsibly harvested. ★ strategies and mission programs will increas-
Ron Jarvis, Home Depot’s Vice for financial and in-kind support. For www.usaid.gov/id/ ingly reflect this priority. ★
4 IN FOCUS: ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT May 2003
Schools Get Alternative Peruvians Cut
Bolivian Bananas Coca Production
In cities around Bolivia, thousands of
Development Combats When the Colombian government
children each get at least one banana
with their lunches every week, thanks to
a USAID marketing project that is cre-
Drug Production cracked down on coca growers last year,
Peru felt it. For the first time in five years,
coca production in Peru went up. Unless
ating domestic demand for locally it changed its approach, USAID/Peru
grown produce, an alternative to Coca in the Andes—like diamonds in own coca bushes, but they simply feared progress made in combating coca
growing coca. Africa or opium in Afghanistan— replanted them. production would be lost.
Poverty runs deep in Bolivia—for many finances instability and violence. Consequently, President Hugo Banzer From 1996 to 2001, coca cultivation in
children, the school lunch is the only From the slopes of the Andes to the Suarez ordered soldiers into the fields to Peru dropped 70 percent. During that
square meal of the day. Bananas are nutri- interior jungles along the headwaters of rip out the plants in 1997. Farmers then time, USAID helped move the seven
tious, and buying locally grown ones the Amazon, coca traffickers seek out switched to growing legal crops like coca-producing regions toward legal
increases demand for a legal crop that remote areas to grow and process coca bananas. Farm-to-market roads were built crops and businesses. USAID also helped
grows well in the Cochabamba tropics, without government interference. Once and export links were set up in USAID’s increase the percentage of households
especially in Chapare, one of the enforcement catches up with them, they largest rural development program in the with running water and latrines from 16
country’s coca-producing regions. move on. Andes in 20 years. Poverty fell in regions to 49 percent.
Between February and November So fighting drugs requires going like Chapare, despite the loss of the major In October 2002, the mission con-
2002, Chapare producers sold nearly beyond just clamping down on growers, cash crop. cluded that many communities were
85,000 48-pound boxes of bananas to spraying crops, arresting traffickers, or In Peru, USAID’s AD program took off giving in to the temptation to grow coca
the Bolivian school system. President interdicting shipments at ports and on the after the Shining Path leadership was again, despite better living conditions.
Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada recently high seas. This approach, called alterna- destroyed. Many communities that had The mission decided to challenge these
signed a decree to expand the program. tive development (AD), aims to offer been cut off from the central government communities to give up illegal coca
As a result, sales of Chapare bananas those involved in the illegal drug industry for years by the guerilla war stopped entirely. (Growing small amounts of coca
are expected to double. a safer, legal way to earn a living and pro- growing coca when law and order, basic is legal in some areas of Peru.)
Since the early 1980s, USAID has vide for the basic needs of their families. services, and access to outside markets Drawing on social marketing tech-
spent more than $200 million to help the “Alternative development focuses on returned. At the same time, U.S.-Peruvian niques seen in health programs, educators
coca-growing regions of Bolivia the state, the community, the family, and patrols were intercepting traffickers’ air and environmentalists are visiting vil-
develop legal economies. Assistance the individual to undermine the narcotics shipments of coca paste to Colombia. lagers and talking to them about the costs
from the U.S government and others industry and narcoterrorism,” said Adolfo In the late 1990s, drug traffickers in of coca production.
built roads and brought electricity to Franco, Assistant Administrator for Latin Colombia began planting in territory For example, coca cultivation has led to
Chapare as well as the mountainous America and the Caribbean. “AD com- controlled by the Revolutionary Armed a 25 percent loss of Peruvian jungle.
Yungas region. bats poverty and encourages economic Forces of Colombia (FARC) to replace Deforestation, in turn, leads to erosion
Now the poverty rate in Chapare, once growth. It strengthens and improves local the declining production in Peru and and loss of fertile soil. Streams and
the country’s chief coca-producing governance.” Bolivia. In 2002, after giving up on rivers— drinking water for many vil-
region, is 60 percent, compared to the In Colombia, through the AD program, peace talks with the FARC, the lages—are contaminated by the toxic
rural national average of 90 percent. The more than 40,000 acres of illicit crops Colombian government began to crack chemicals used to make cocaine.
23,067 Chapare families participating in have been manually eradicated, over down in these areas. But the drug traf- Specially commissioned soap operas,
alternative development programs are 60,000 acres of legal crops are being sup- fickers are fighting back; as a result, talk shows, and community events rein-
getting about $2,200 a year from legal ported, and 31 community justice centers whole communities want government force the message that the narcotics
crops. The national average per capita have been established to handle over 1.6 protection and services. industry isolates farmers and creates vio-
income is only $994. million cases. Increasingly, alternative development is lence that scares away private investment
The school lunch program illustrates In the early 1980s, USAID’s first AD addressing the lack of a government pres- and disrupts education and health care.
how USAID’s alternative development programs in Bolivia tried to substitute ence in coca-producing areas. Effective Getting people to think about the costs
program is changing, helping to create legal crops for coca. Eradication efforts policing, accessible courts, accurate land of coca production and take responsibility
demand and link it to markets for legal began in the 1990s, since farmers con- registries, and access to credit, health, and for it is important, says Program Director
crops that are now well established in tinued to grow high-earning coca. At first education are as much part of the AD Erin Soto, because “for coca elimination
Bolivia. ★ they received money for pulling out their package as agricultural development. ★ to work, we need to convince people that
it is in their long-term interest.”
Meanwhile, narcotraffickers are using
media, politicians, and protests to roman-
ticize the traditional role of coca in Peru
Colombian Warning System Averts Massacres and tell rural people that the government
is wasting donor funds meant for their
There is no government presence in vast Colombia’s national and regional 208 alerts. To qualify for USAID assistance, com-
expanses of Colombia’s countryside. Drug- ombudsmen tracks information about threat- Another critical USAID program in munities and local governments now
running guerilla groups and paramilitary ening graffiti or posters, phone calls, or a Colombia helps the estimated 2 million must agree to destroy their coca bushes
units fill the vacuum with violence. mysterious influx of strangers into a com- internally displaced persons (IDPs) who and not replant. Another incentive to
However, the government’s ability to pro- munity. Tips from citizens and local officials have fled violence. USAID has assisted cooperate is that the government of Peru
tect and serve its citizens is improving, are weighed against the government’s intelli- 700,000 IDPs, including some 700 former has endorsed forced eradication.
thanks to an early warning system and gence about guerilla and paramilitary child guerrillas, by providing health serv- The first cases of forced eradication
human rights protection program, funded movements. ices, shelter, income generation this year prompted a national strike of
in part by USAID and operated by the Within 48 hours, the local police com- opportunities, education, and community coca growers. For three months, USAID
Colombian government. Helping the state mander gets recommendations on how to infrastructure. put its program on hold while communi-
increase its presence and provide services respond to the threat. Measures range from Another critical program strengthens the ties in the seven drug-growing districts
in neglected, rural communities are crucial citizen alerts, curfews, and road checkpoints access of poor and rural people to the made up their minds about what they
elements of USAID’s alternative develop- to the mobilization of military troops or country’s criminal justice system. USAID wanted to do.
ment strategy. police. has established 29 community-based cen- In May, 56 communities will eradicate
The Agency is also assisting many of the 2 It is difficult to know how many massacres ters for legal assistance and alternative coca in order to receive USAID assis-
million people who have been forced to flee the program has averted, except when things dispute resolution which, over the last tance.
their homes to escape violence, and it has go wrong. This happened in April 2002, seven years, have handled 1.5 million The mission created a multidisciplinary
helped create new justice systems to serve when people were killed in the town of cases, most related to intrafamily violence. alternative development task force. All
the poor and rural population. Boyaya. Warnings by the ombudsman’s The Agency has also helped establish 19 technical and operational office directors
More than 5,000 people were killed in office went unheeded by the military, which oral trial courtrooms and trained 6,000 now serve on an alternative development
politically motivated violence in 2002— is stretched to capacity. The early warning lawyers, judges, and public defenders. ★ board of directors. Frequent board meet-
1,000 of them died in massacres. Warning system gained credibility for having fore- ings coordinate the economic, social, and
signs often foretold these murders. seen the violence. Since its inception in Bruce Abrams, USAID/Colombia, governance assistance teams. ★
An early warning system operated by 2001, the early warning system has issued contributed to this article.
May 2003 U.S. GOVERNMENT IN ACTION 5
Colombia’s $7 Billion Plan Wins U.S. Backing
Colombia’s government—besieged by drug the plan to fight drug production and $1.2 billion towards the Colombian drug half—$122 million—is devoted to develop-
traffickers and guerrillas living off drug exports. war. In FY 2002, U.S. support for Plan ment work and other activities in Colombia.
profits—submitted to the world in 2000 a $7 The three-part strategy of Plan Colombia Colombia expanded to include the entire The remainder goes to work in Bolivia ($42
billion plan to rescue the country and defeat is to eradicate the crops that produce cocaine region and was named the Andean million), Ecuador ($16 million), and Peru
the drug industry—Plan Colombia. and heroin, interdict drug shipments to the Counterdrug Initiative (ACI). Of $645 mil- ($69 million).
Colombia’s president at the time, Andrés United States, and—USAID’s main job in lion in total U.S. funding for ACI in 2002, The rest of the ACI budget supports drug
Pastrana Arango, called upon the rest of the this plan—promote alternative development USAID spent $215 million. fighting activities in the Andean region by
world—especially the wealthy nations that so farmers can earn a living from legal In FY 2003, the U.S. ACI funding is $734 the departments of State, Defense, Justice,
consumed most of the cocaine and heroin crops. million. USAID was given 34 percent of that and other agencies. ★
produced by his country—to contribute to In FY 2001, the United States pledged total—or $248 million of which about
Department of U.S. Supports
Defense Fights Spraying Coca
Narcoguerrillas and Poppy Fields
It only takes five or ten seconds for a U.S.-
The United States military has long been supplied plane swooping low over a coca
involved in helping Colombia fight nar- field to release a burst of herbicide that
cotics producers and smugglers and has floats down to kill the crop. Within a
trained three battalions of antinarcotics month, the plants wither and die.
troops. But coca farmers and drug barons don’t
But the drug barons increasingly have accept the spraying: sometimes they open
been linked to two leftist guerrilla armies fire at the planes. In addition, U.S. experts
and a rightist paramilitary group—all on risk their lives when they try to ensure that
the State Department’s list of terrorist the coca plants are dead and no legal crops
organizations. were affected.
So President Bush signed a measure in A U.S. supplied plane sprays coca and poppy fields with a herbicide that kills the plants within a month. In Colombia, U.S. spraying of drug
2002 that allows U.S. forces to train anti- crops is part of the broad effort to fight the
insurgency Colombian troops as well as production of drugs that destabilize
antinarcotics battalions. Andean governments and eventually end
The first unit in the Colombian Army that up on U.S. streets.
received U.S. special forces training under In Colombia, the Department of State is
the new Bush program began tracking rebel spending $100 million in 2003 for the
commanders in April. planes, pilots, and glyphosate-based herbi-
The 300 U.S. forces in Colombia are not cide that destroys coca plants and, at higher
allowed to participate in combat. But three altitudes, opium-producing poppies.
U.S. contractors for the Pentagon were cap- The program has been controversial.
tured by FARC guerrillas after their plane Some opposed it because they thought the
was shot down in February. glyphosate damaged the environment or
The FY 2003 U.S. budget includes $98 created health risks. However, the chemical
million in weapons, equipment, helicopters, is the most widely used herbicide in the
and training for the Colombian Army and to world; it breaks down rapidly in the soil
defend the 480-mile Cano Limon-Covenas and allows new crops—including food—to
oil pipeline, a frequent target of guerrilla be raised on previously sprayed fields.
dynamite attacks, which runs from Arauca On the other hand, drug cultivation dam-
near the Venezuelan border to the ages the environment: remote fields are
Caribbean port of Covenas. ★ often cleared without concern for sustain-
ability and nearby cocaine labs routinely
dump uric acid, gasoline, kerosene, and
acetone into streams and watersheds.
State Supports Colombia’s Antidrug Troops, Police There is, however, concern that the
spraying program in Colombia also pro-
duces “ballooning”—after one region is
The Department of State is a key player USAID’s development projects support State Department to support the Colombian sprayed, the crops are shifted to other
in U.S. efforts to help Colombia defeat nar- democracy, justice, education, and health, National Police, much it for spraying herbi- regions or countries. For example, when
coguerrillas: it spent $433 million to and attempt to show Colombians a pathway cide on coca and poppy fields. spraying reduced the coca-growing areas
counter the drug trade in the Andean region to a better life that does not require growing In support of new efforts by President of Guaviare province by 75 percent in
in FY 2003. and selling drugs. Alvaro Uribe, the State Department is 1998, the area under cultivation in
Colombia is the third largest recipient of But security is needed for development paying to train and equip 49-man police Putumayo province—where U.S. spray
U.S. government assistance, after Israel and and crop eradication to succeed. units, which are being inserted into the 79 planes were banned—shot up.
Egypt. The State Department is spending $147 of the 160 municipalities that had been U.S. officials have been required to
But drug kingpins allied with both leftist million in 2003 to support the Colombian taken over by the guerrilla group FARC investigate accusations that the spraying
guerrillas and rightist militias have turned military, mainly in aviation support for the (the Revolutionary Armed Forces of damages corn or other food crops.
the mountainous Andean nation of 44 mil- Colombian Army’s counterdrug mobile Colombia). However, when 400 such claims were
lion people into a shooting gallery and brigade and for its training by the U.S. The State Department is also supporting checked out, only two were determined to
hostage hunting ground. Department of Defense. U.S. Special Forces training of 62 rural be valid.
Colombian cocaine and heroin eventually The Colombians have received police carabinero units to improve security, Most spraying is done by a fleet of 20
reach users in the United States and Blackhawk helicopters to rapidly move so that development programs can be con- planes—either modified crop dusters or
Europe, where drug profits fuel murder, troops and supplies, and their Vietnam-era ducted and local industry and the economy sturdy twin-propeller OV10 aircraft.
money laundering, and other criminal Huey helicopters are being refurbished. can function without the extortion and kid- In spite of the spraying, an estimated
activity. Another $130 million is spent by the napping that has paralyzed much of the 130,000 Colombian families still depend
countryside. ★ on coca cultivation. ★
6 THE PILLARS May 2003
ECONOMIC GROWTH, AGRICULTURE AND TRADE GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT ALLIANCE
USAID Helps Reform Indonesian and
Financial System Filipino Farmers
Boost Cocoa Crops
Cocoa farmers in Indonesia and the management”—or using nonchemical
Philippines are working in alliance with methods for keeping pests in check.
international chocolate manufacturers to Farmers are encouraged to harvest
keep pests in check with fewer chemicals. cocoa beans frequently to reduce damage.
They are adopting such modern cultiva- They must prune frequently so that light
tion methods as frequent pruning of between the branches drives away borer
infested branches and fertilizing to moths. They should bury or destroy pod
strengthen plants. husks after harvesting, in case moth
The Bureau for Asia and the Near East larvae are inside. And they need to apply
and the Indonesia mission are investing fertilizer to improve the health of the
$4.5 million and industry is adding $30 cocoa trees and strengthen their ability to
million over three years to educate fight off pests.
farmers in remote areas about new pro- In Indonesia, more than 700 agricul-
duction practices and connect them to tural extension workers and 35,000
buyers. farmers have learned about integrated
Through these practices, farmers are pest management. Many participated in
getting higher yields and improved an earlier program funded by the U.S.
quality. In turn, chocolate producers such Department of Agriculture. The new
as Masterfoods (formerly Mars) have public-private alliance is expected to
promised to buy their high-quality cocoa double the number of farmers skilled in
through buyers’ contracts that allow the nonchemical methods.
Customers line up outside a bank during the financial crisis that rocked Argentina, one of several growers to reap the rewards of their hard Farmers—some of whom thought they
countries destabilized by the failure of banking systems to produce stability and protect investors. work. were dealing with a disease rather than an
Some 90 percent of the world’s cocoa insect—report using fewer chemicals and
When banks begin to fail, panic soon technical support to field missions is produced on small family farms. One harvesting bigger, heavier pods. When
spreads, leading depositors to withdraw helping local partners sort out interlinked reason cocoa is no longer a plantation they were relying on pesticides, Indonesian
their savings and pushing the institutions organizational and legal problems. crop is its vulnerability to pests. Growers farmers reported crop losses of as high as
into collapse. In Bosnia-Herzegovina, ◆ In Bosnia-Herzegovina, since USAID have tended to rely on costly pesticides, 40 percent. After adopting integrated pest
Argentina, Indonesia, and Kyrgyzstan, got involved, private individuals and which can also be harmful to the person management, losses typically dropped to a
shaky financial systems have faced this legal entities now get deposits back on who applies them. more manageable 15 percent.
challenge. a priority basis. The Federation The cocoa industry in Indonesia dates Cocoa prices are at a 20-year high and
In Bosnia-Herzegovina, failing banks Banking Agency now has the authority back to the country’s days as a Dutch high-quality beans can be hard to find.
were assigned to bankruptcy courts. But it to take over troubled banks. It has done colony. The Dutch cocoa plantations The partnership is therefore linking
was taking years for depositors to get so several times and has returned bal- were chewed up by the tiny cocoa pod exporters to trained farmers who are
back even a fraction of the money they ances to customers’ accounts. Within borer, a moth larva that feeds on the seeking a premium for their cocoa beans.
were owed. two years, private sector deposits were inside of cocoa beans. At the time, cocoa Cocoa is not widely cultivated in the
USAID helped the government draft up 215 percent, implying greater confi- trees were cut down to fight the infesta- Philippines, so USAID/Manila, the cocoa
laws and regulations that give the dence in the banking system. tion. But by the 1990s, the Indonesian industry, and the Philippine government
Federation banking agency legal authority ◆ In Indonesia, the government had taken cocoa industry was once more battling are investing in establishing nurseries and
to take over, sell, or liquidate troubled over several ailing banks with multiple the borer. developing seed stock.
banks. branches—all operating at a loss. At about the same time, agricultural There is a large domestic market for
In several countries, the Agency has USAID provided a third-party review of researchers in the tropics, funded by the cocoa in the Philippines, which currently
been working to fix financial systems to the government’s technical plan to merge cocoa industry and the U.S. government, imports most of its supply. ★
provide the basis for a sound, functioning five of the most viable banks into a applied the lessons of “integrated pest
economy and free markets. bigger institution. Bad assets were sold
In well-functioning economies, banks off and operations were restructured to
collect savings and channel them to the rationalize five systems into one.
most lucrative economic activities. Throughout the process, the branches
Leveraging money and investing it pro- continued to gather deposits and make
ductively is crucial to the process. loans. The government plans to privatize
However, if bank regulators do not have the new, merged bank, which is far more
adequate staff, sufficient training, or legal attractive to investors than the old banks.
authority, they can’t regulate the banks ◆ In Kyrgyzstan, customers had lost
properly. Poorly regulated banks can money in several bank failures, but the
make loans they cannot recover and lose national bank, the regulatory supervisor
their depositors’ money on defaulted of the system, lacked evidence to con-
loans. If shaky banks collapse, scared vince a skeptical court system that it
depositors lose confidence in remaining should intervene to protect customers’
banks and stuff money in their mattresses deposits in troubled banks. A multina-
instead of their savings accounts. tional team that included USAID staff,
Deposits and investment dry up. consultants, and an information tech-
World Bank and International nology expert from the National Bank
Monetary Fund loans can be contingent of Georgia came to Bishkek, the capital
on the government adopting specific city. They modified software used by
reforms in its banking sector. the central banks of Armenia and
Implementing these reforms often Georgia and set up a new offsite sur-
A Sulawesi agricultural extension agent trained by ACDI/VOCA tells farmers how to care for cocoa
becomes the core objective of USAID veillance system that helps Kyrgyz trees to keep the cocoa pod borer in check. The extension agents work intensively with a group of
projects. The Bureau for Economic regulatory supervisors manage and ana- farmers over several months. They, in turn, train other farmers.
Growth, Agriculture and Trade provides lyze data submitted by banks. ★
May 2003 THE PILLARS 7
DEMOCRACY, CONFLICT AND HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE GLOBAL HEALTH
East Timor Survives Drug Treatment Added
A Chaotic Transition to HIV/AIDS Arsenal
DILI, East Timor—When East Timor was facilities. From November 1999 to
forced to deal with the aftermath of vio- August 2000, 63,000 individuals partici-
lence, looting, and wanton destruction by pated in 469 communal projects costing
Indonesians opposed to its independence $3.9 million. Each person was limited to
in November 1999, USAID’s Office of working just a few days so that more fam-
Transition Initiatives (OTI) and the ilies could benefit. Benefits extended
Jakarta mission were among the first to beyond that—when the farmers of
respond. Fatobossu rebuilt a road from their vil-
Then, in 2002, when the small nation of lage, their work not only put money in
800,000 celebrated its independence fol- their pockets but connected them to their
lowing a period of U.N. administration, district market.
the transition assistance evolved into a The jobs program was described by one
full development program, including independent evaluator as “brilliantly timed
work such as microfinancing and democ- and orchestrated—it produced both eco-
racy, which will benefit the new country nomic and political dividends that more
in the long run. The USAID office in Dili than justified the investment of resources.”
is staffed today by many of the OTI A key to the success was the expert use
employees who responded to the 1999 of OTI’s procurement system, which
emergency. allowed staff to provide in-kind assistance
On May 20, East Timor was one year quickly, said the evaluator.
old. The world’s newest nation has USAID sought to support the United
adopted a constitution and elected a pres- Nations and the transition to self-gover-
A celebratory meal is prepared for patients and guests invited by clinic staff to launch the first HIV
ident. The country has come a long way nance by the East Timorese. At the treatment program in Rwanda. The Biryogo canteen, run by people living with HIV/AIDS to generate
since November 1999, when the international community’s urging, the income, prepares and serves lunch to AIDS patients and others referred by the medical center.
Indonesian army left a terrorized popula- political parties drafted and signed a pact
tion, devastated infrastructure, and to keep the peace during the first national
smoldering capital city in its wake. election, which USAID helped distribute.
When OTI arrived, it moved quickly USAIDalso got information to people— KIGALI, Rwanda—The first four patients its lab equipment to monitor patients’
to get people the help they needed and despite lack of literacy or a common to receive anti-AIDS drugs contributed by reactions to the drugs.
to lay a foundation for longer term language—so they could have a say in U.S. donors began a course of treatment at Thirty-two Rwandan physicians and
development work. their country’s governance. The Agency the Biryogo Medical and Social Center in nurses learned how to manage all aspects
OTI sought to stabilize the situation team focused on radio and print media— Rwanda on February 28 that will last their of HIV/AIDS care, including nutrition
economically and politically. At the time, including fixing transmitters, distributing lifetimes. and treatment of opportunistic infections.
all was chaos. There was no market, no radios to rural areas, training journalists, In the coming months, up to 250 HIV- French-speaking colleagues taught the
government, and no media. People had no and funding programs that discussed the positive people in Rwanda and more fundamentals of antiretroviral therapy,
money and no jobs. Nothing worked draft constitution, the national develop- elsewhere in the developing world will visit periodically for consultations, and
because Indonesians who had monopo- ment plan, and other crucial issues. begin to receive treatment, as medical remain in contact by email.
lized leadership positions in industry and “The development continuum, from systems to deliver antiretroviral drugs are The Rwandan medical staff designed
administration had fled. The United relief to development, definitely exists. set up and as USAID expands its efforts an orientation and counseling program
Nations had been put in charge of running One can easily follow the other. I have under President Bush’s five-year $15 bil- for patients, who were asked to choose a
the country, but had no resources to do it. seen it here,” said Jim Lehman, who lion Emergency AIDS Plan. “buddy” to help ensure they take their
OTI stepped in with a jobs program and started the OTI program in East Timor in The declining cost of antiretroviral medicine punctually. Clinical experience
other activities. For $3 a day, people 1999 and is now the mission’s program drugs has allowed the Agency to add that shows that not taking the drugs as pre-
repaired schools, roads, and other public director. ★ therapy into its HIV/AIDS programs, scribed—either by cutting the dosage or
which already include prevention, not taking it every day—quickly allows
fighting mother-to-child transmission, the HIV/AIDS virus to become resistant
and care for those infected and their fam- to the medication.
ilies. Currently, only 1 percent of The staff adopted medical and social
HIV-infected people in Africa who need criteria for selecting their patients, now
treatment receive antiretroviral drugs. numbering 22. The first patients must live
Treatment sites in Ghana, Kenya, and close to the clinic and convince the staff
Rwanda will offer models for antiretro- they will keep to the strict regimen
viral therapy to governments and the required. The first four patients who
private sector. Treatment began in started in February are a 20-year-old stu-
Mombassa, Kenya, in May, starting with dent and three widows—who care for
eight patients, and will scale up to 300 by their own children as well as several
the end of the year. Ghana secured funds orphans of the 1994 war and genocide.
from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Thus far, the patients have experienced
Tuberculosis, and Malaria to treat addi- only minor side effects, such as
tional patients at its sites. USAID will headaches and nausea. All have been very
apply the knowledge gained from the pilot disciplined about taking their medicine.
projects to introduce antiretroviral treat- At first, they checked in with the clinic
ment in other settings around the world. daily, but now they only need to check in
In Rwanda, the first of the three coun- every other week. In a few months, they
tries to dispense drugs, preparations have should feel better and more energetic—
been under way for a year. The govern- more able to cope with their lives and
ment needed lead time to approve the responsibilities.
importation and use of up to six antiretro- Treatment will expand rapidly under
viral drugs that may be required in a the President’s Emergency AIDS Plan.
three-drug “cocktail.” Rwanda’s national The plan, signed into law on May 27,
Over 90 percent of registered voters went to the polls in East Timor’s first national election in August medical laboratory staff participated in could lead to treatment for up to 2 million
2001. The Office of Transition Initiatives assisted the transition to self-governance. training, and the Biryogo clinic upgraded HIV-infected people. ★
8 IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION May 2003
USAID Shifts Focus as Bechtel Meets
Crisis Fears Fade Hundreds of Potential
▲ FROM AID FOCUS ON PAGE 1
was just in Basra, and there are people erally very friendly to Americans and
from CARE, the IOM [International happy that Saddam is gone.”
Organization for Migration], and other “We see people taking the initiative.
aid groups traveling freely.” He said mar- Factory workers are coming back. The
kets and restaurants were open. water and electricity workers are back.
“There are security concerns, but I felt You see road crews working to put up
a strong receptivity in Basra,” he said. guard rails—even though there is no min-
“There is a sense of expectation by the ister of transport ordering them to go out
people—a wait-and-see attitude. People there.”
feel their lives are getting better, and that In mid-May, the U.S. reconstruction
needs to continue. Our work is not done.” effort got a boost when President Bush
In Baghdad, however, all U.S. govern- lifted U.S. sanctions on Iraq, allowing
ment officials, including USAID USAID contractors to import materials
employees, are still required to live and and to hire local Iraqis. In addition, when
work inside a guarded compound and L. Paul “Jerry” Bremer was sent to
must obtain an armed escort to travel Baghdad to replace Jay Garner as civil
around the city. administrator in Iraq, he established a
“This creates difficulty in engaging the “buy-Iraq” policy, urging contractors to
Iraqis,” said Earl Gast, Deputy Chief of use local construction materials to boost
the USAID reconstruction team, which is the local economy. USAID contracts have
fielded by the Bureau for Asia and the components in place to do just that.
Near East. Bechtel has already awarded a subcon-
Gast said that despite news reports of tract to an Iraqi firm to rebuild a bridge. ★
anti-American protests, “people are gen-
Steve Tupper, USAID
Potential Bechtel subcontractors wait in line at the Ronald Reagan Building on May 21.
Representatives of more than 1,000 busi- subcontractors they would have to pro-
nesses overflowed a Washington, DC, vide their own water, food, housing,
conference room May 21, to hear about transportation, materials, insurance,
opportunities for subcontracting in Iraq and security.
from officials of Bechtel, which holds the According to Mumm, “self-suffi-
prime USAID contract for Iraqi recon- ciency” will be needed for
struction. subcontractors, who must provide
The overflow crowd was so great that everything their staffs will require to
Bechtel, which rented a hall in the Ronald complete their work.
Reagan Building (also the site of USAID Of the 14 subcontracts Bechtel had
headquarters) immediately followed up awarded so far, 13 were for an average
with a second session for the hundreds of $500,000.
who could not get seats at the first session. The only large subcontract went to
Iraq is “probably” the next Saudi Arabia Great Lakes Dredging to clear silt from
in terms of opportunities for U.S. busi- the deep-water port at Umm Qasr so
nesses, said Owens Corning manager that humanitarian food shipments can
Steve Campbell, as he waited in the line dock and offload.
snaking across the atrium floor for the The USAID-Bechtel contract aims to
doors to open for the Bechtel briefing. repair existing power plants, airports,
Owens Corning makes insulation, schools, and the like—not replace them
which is expected to be in demand as Iraq with new ones.
builds air-conditioned public and private Bechtel’s priorities are the port,
structures. water, sanitation, electric power, air
“I came here to learn what will be the traffic at Basra and Baghdad airports,
specifications for insulation—a lot will be and repairing six bridges.
required for schools, hospitals, power The subcontracts awarded so far
plants, airports,” said Campbell, whose have gone to U.S., U.K., Kuwaiti, and
firm has 20,000 employees around the Saudi firms. Two more Bechtel meet-
world. ings with potential subcontractors took
Many firms are seeking far more than place in London and Kuwait in late
just a slice of the Bechtel infrastructure May.
contract, which is worth up to $600 million. While USAID closely monitors
They want to get a handhold inside Iraq, Bechtel’s role as the prime contractor;
This map, dated May 29, 2003,lists the contractors involved in nationwide programs relating to humani-
tarian assistance and reconstruction activities in Iraq. Acronyms supplied stand for the following: AFCAP: make contacts, and establish their names subcontractors report directly to
Air Force Contract Augmentation Program; CAII, Creative Associates International, Inc.; DAI: Development and good reputation at the start of what Bechtel.
Alternatives, Incorporated; IDA:International Dispensary Association; ICRC: International Committee of promises to be the next economic boom. Since Bechtel signed its contract
the Red Cross; IFRC: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; IMC: International “This is not a one-time thing—we look with USAID April 19, it has received
Medical Corps; IOM: International Organization for Migration; IRC: International Rescue Committee; at this as a long-term relationship,” said 87,000 visits to websites set up to reg-
IRG: International Resources Group; MC: Mercy Corps; RTI: Research Triangle Institute; SCF/US: Save Campbell. ister firms seeking work.
the Children/US; SSA: Stevedoring Services of America; UNICEF: U.N. Children's Fund; UN OCHA:
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs; WFP: World Food Program; WHO:
In case anyone thought getting work in Some 4,348 firms registered as of
World Health Organization; WVI: World Vision International. Iraq might be easy, Bechtel official Cliff May 16. Of these, 2,826 were U.S.
Mumm, just back from Iraq, told potential firms and 326 British. ★
May 2003 IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION 9
USAID OFFERS HELP TO EXHUME MASS GRAVES
Some 45 miles southwest of Baghdad, the mass A human rights committee of over 100 former
graves of thousands of Iraqis massacred after a 1991 political prisoners volunteered to enter data into four
Shiite uprising were being dug up by anxious rela- computers on former prisoners and the missing,
tives and friends. They were seeking the horrible using piles of seized prison documents and other
truth they have been suspecting since their loved government papers.
ones were dragged away at gunpoint years earlier. After heavy equipment opened the grave in
According to Shiite clerics in Najaf, there were as Musiyab and removed about three feet of sand, the
many as 146 mass graves around their holy city and men used shovels to uncover the bones. The temper-
another 29 around Karbala. ature rose above 100 degrees as scores of volunteers
USAID abuse prevention official Sloan Mann vis- pulled the remains of their former neighbors from
ited the site of one mass grave near Musiyab, a city the sand pits.
of 200,000, where more than 700 bodies have been The bones, still covered in clothing, were laid out
disinterred and 230 identified. Up to 2,000 people on wide white linen strips and carried about 15 feet
were believed to lie in this grave. away. There, a local expert searched for clues to
When the bones were uncovered, it was clear that identity: with no DNA testing or dental records, he
many victims were blindfolded, handcuffed, and looked for clothing, knives, keys, lucky stones, and
shot in the head. Iraqi identification cards.
Mann met with Abu Mustafa, the organizer of the Within two hours, 20 bodies were found. Soon the
exhumation process, and offered him a small grant desert nearby was blanketed with white bundles.
to purchase digging equipment for the volunteers. A In the nearby village, a youth center served as a
British forensic team trained the volunteers in dig- makeshift morgue. One man found his cousin and
ging techniques that reduce the loss of bones. cried. Names of the dead and corresponding num-
The community promised not to disturb two bers were logged on boards. People ran their fingers
prospective trenches so that forensic teams could across the lists looking for loved ones. ★
exhume the bodies and gather evidence for an inter- Thomas Hartwell, USAID
national court of law. By Joanne Giordano, Deputy Assistant Administrator, LPA Iraqis seek the remains of relatives, friends, and neighbors among hundreds of
bodies exhumed from a mass grave.
Reconstructing Iraq Begins at Ports, Airports, Local Councils
When the new civilian administrator of Iraq, Bechtel has about 120 people in Kuwait awarded five NGOS contracts worth $7 Inc., Agricultural Cooperative
L. Paul “Jerry” Bremer, arrived in Iraq in who are gradually arriving in Iraq to work on million to help citizens in 250 communi- Development International and
May, one of his first trips outside of Baghdad all the infrastructure projects. At least 15 ties decide how to rebuild schools and Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative
was to Umm Qasr where he saw British were already in the country working on elec- clinics, clean up the environment, and Assistance, Cooperative Housing
troops hand over control of the country’s tricity, said Michael Robinson, Bechtel’s manage job programs. The Iraq Foundation International, and Save the
only deep-water port to a USAID contractor, power sector manager for the Iraqi recon- Community Action Program could reach Children Federation.
Stevedoring Services of America (SSA). struction. a value of $210 million over three years. The programs will benefit approxi-
It was a sign that the reconstruction of the The Bechtel electricity specialists visited The five NGOS are Mercy Corps, mately 5 million Iraqis. ★
country has begun in earnest. Iraqi power plants to assess how to improve International Relief and Development,
While Bremer witnessed the handover to electricity output in the short run before
SSA, Bechtel, another USAID contractor, beginning detailed discussions with the
was pumping silt out of the channel leading Iraqis about longer-term work.
into the port so that larger ships can dock. Bechtel has completed evaluation of the
Five berths are now capable of accepting Baghdad International Airport, which is con-
ships; 16 still require dredging. sidered the highest priority for reopening
Smaller ships were already unloading their Iraqi airspace to commercial traffic. The
rice and wheat—much of it donated by the condition of the Basra airport was being
United States—to be sent by truck and train evaluated.
around Iraq. Bechtel has been awarded the largest of
“We were prepared to address war eight principal reconstruction contracts and
damage, but there was no war damage—it will be working to repair Iraq’s seaport, air-
was basically years of neglect,” said Lewis ports, schools, hospitals, water systems,
Lucke, head of USAID’s reconstruction electric plants, bridges, oil fields, and other
team in Iraq. critical parts of Iraq’s economy. But it will
“The river there has to be continually not build new facilities. Rather, it will focus
dredged because of the siltation process. It on repairs and rehabilitation until Iraq has a
was really in a bad way.” new government that can utilize the
Although emergency relief was not needed country’s oil wealth to replace its aging
after U.S. and British troops entered Iraq and infrastructure.
brought down the regime of Saddam Bremer was briefed on the scope of the
Hussein, reconstruction is needed to fix the work needed at Umm Qasr by Lucke, whose
badly neglected country. Some of the need reconstruction team, fielded by the Bureau
for reconstruction comes from looting and for Asia and Near East, is expected to
vandalism that occurred after the fall of the become the seed of a USAID Iraq mission.
regime. Aside from the infrastructure repairs done
Bechtel reported that an additional two by Bechtel, USAID has funded reconstruc-
400 kilovolt (kV) towers were torch-cut and tion projects in education, governance,
taken down by vandals May 26, bringing the health, infrastructure, and logistics.
total of damaged towers to 20 along the A local governance technical expert with
eastern leg of the north-south connection Research Triangle Institute continues to
between Umm Qasr and Baghdad. On May implement the Neighborhood Advisory
23, a USAID-Bechtel representative Council project, which includes 83 neigh-
reported the collapse of five additional borhoods in Baghdad. These committees
Thomas Hartwell, USAID
towers north of Basra. will select representatives to the nine munic-
Participants in a USAID financed cleanup of the El Rashid neighborhood of Baghdad deliver
Coalition forces repaired several transmis- ipal councils. garbage to collection spots where it is trucked to landfills. Some 1,000 people are participating in the
sion lines on May 22. To rebuild civil society, USAID has 16-day project. Each worker is paid by USAID the equivalent of about $4 day for the effort.
10 THE REGIONS May 2003
Citrus Farming Boosts Ghana Living Standards
ACCRA, Ghana—A USAID citrus settle their children’s school fees, pay their
project in the eastern region of Ghana prom- medical bills, and provide decent clothes.
ises to turn citrus into a major new crop for “The farmers have acquired seedlings,
the area. Six years after the launch of the equipment, and other inputs through
project, more than 4,000 farmers have culti- interest-bearing loans. They have worked
vated some 4,289 acres of orange trees and diligently to repay the loans, increase their
report that their family incomes have risen. crop yields, and raise their families out of
The food security project, financed with poverty,” said Mission Director Sharon
local currency through the sale of U.S. food Cromer.
aid, helped farmers cultivating citrus trees to The farmers involved in the original
improve their farming skills. project are helping other farmers in neigh-
Citrus is a long term investment—it takes boring villages enter the citrus cultivation
four years for a tree to reach maturity. The business and increase crop yields. In the
farmers planted citrus seedlings alongside eastern region, over 500 farmers have begun
food crops such as corn, so that they har- planting orange trees using their own
vested enough food to feed their families resources. As a result, it is expected that
while the young trees were maturing. citrus will become a major agricultural
By adopting better farming techniques, the enterprise in that region in the next five
farmers increased their maize yields from years.
290 kg to 850 kg per acre over a five-year One of the farmers said: “I have learned
period, and increased their net profits from new ways of farming that have increased my
760,000 to 2.6 million Ghanaian cedis per maize production level from a meager three
acre—the equivalent of $88 to $300. bags per acre to ten bags per acre and so I
The variety of orange tree that the farmers have excess food to sell. I have increased my
planted matures off-season when prices for assets by three acres of citrus, which is now
the fruit are highest. Project farms harvested fruiting. Members of my family seldom fall
934 tons of oranges in 2002. sick due to the nutrition and health education
The farmers have established links with we have been given. The money I used to
fruit-buying organizations in Ghana, spend on medication now goes into my chil-
Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger. In 2002, they dren’s education. All my children are in
sold the oranges at 225,000 cedis ($26) a private schools. I am very grateful to the
ton, 30 percent more than they had esti- people of America for coming to our aid.” ★
One farmer said that his colleagues who By Henry Akorsu, Information Specialist, In the eastern region of Ghana, farmers involved in a USAID project planted citrus trees that mature off-
have started harvesting this year were able to USAID/Ghana season, when fruit prices are highest. The farmers also improved their farming skills and techniques,
enabling them to increase their maize production.
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
Hondurans Privatize Water, Other Services
TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras—Puerto Such strategies for improving efficiency
Cortes Mayor Marlon Lara was able to are helping municipalities across the
increase his town’s tax base, encourage citi- country use scarce resources for health and
zens to participate in local government, and education.
make that government more effective by Since the project started in 1995, more
using USAID’s Municipal Development than 13,000 people from 250 municipali-
Program. ties have attended training on how to
With the help of Agency funding, Lara and better protect natural resources, plan for
his staff reduced the cost of government by and mitigate disasters, collect city rev-
privatizing the delivery of services tradition- enues, and encourage citizens to
ally run at a loss by cities all over Honduras. participate in city business.
Lara, who began his third term in 2002, More than 46 municipalities have taken
said his administration has contracted out the advantage of technical assistance to digi-
operation of markets, garbage collection, tize land records, strengthen accounting
street sweeping, fire department services, systems, and improve administrative and
and the water system. The city has also begun other operating systems.
to turn its slaughterhouse over to a private Average municipal income is on the
contractor. increase in Honduras. The income of
“We have had very good results,” Lara municipalities that participated in
said. “The [privatization] processes are USAID’s program increased by 22.4 per-
improving. The private sector is showing cent. Most of the increase was due to A town meeting in Honduras. The country’s municipal law was amended in 2001 to introduce a new
more interest, and we have improved the higher property tax revenues. The average municipal officer, called comisionado municipal, who is elected in an open town meeting and is respon-
quality and the coverage of our services.” percentage of dwellings receiving water, sible for evaluating human rights and social conditions.
With privatization, he said, the municipality’s sewage, and refuse collection grew four
finances have improved. percent in 2002 and 3 percent in 2001.
“Now some of the services are showing At the local level, USAID also encour- Municipalities of Honduras (AMHON). mayors together to make sure the concerns
profits and the others at least are covering ages town meetings that give citizens a AMHON, an advocate of decentralization, of municipalities are understood and their
their expenses,” Lara said. “We don’t have so say in setting city priorities. helped get separate ballots established for interests represented.
much bureaucracy, there are fewer municipal Since effective local governance is also mayoral elections and, more recently, helped
employees, fewer problems, better service, a result of national policies, USAID sup- reform the nation’s municipal law. By Denia Chávez, Project Management Specialist,
and less investment that we have to make.” ports the work of the Association of AMHON regularly brings legislators and USAID/Honduras
May 2003 THE REGIONS 11
ASIA AND THE NEAR EAST
Nepal’s Volunteer Women Save Lives
KATHMANDU, Nepal—In the villages of of serving her community—by saving the
Nepal, where most people live without lives of children.
access to doctors or other medical care, “If I go to the temple and pray, I will earn
46,000 Female Community Health dharma” (spiritual credit), she said. “But if I
Volunteers (FCHV) have been trained to serve my community, then I earn more
deliver basic care and fight pneumonia and dharma.” She says that since becoming a
diarrhea. health volunteer she has the confidence to
These women have made Nepal the first stand up and speak in front of others, and that
country to deliver vitamin A supplements she is respected by the community because of
consistently to its rural population. The sup- her work.
plements should prevent at least 12,000 This is a Nepalese government program
child deaths annually. By October 2002, vol- supported by USAID, the U.N. Fund for
unteers were providing vitamin A capsules Population and the U.N. Children’s Fund.
twice a year to more than 3.3 million chil- USAID is the lead donor.
dren between the ages of six months and five The volunteer program began in Nepal in
years in every district. the late 1980s; volunteers now work in all 75
Bimala Lama, one of the health volun- districts. In each ward of the Village
teers, teaches mothers how to treat Development Committees in a district, the
diarrhea—perhaps the biggest killer of small community chooses one volunteer.
children. She also helps provide family plan- Volunteers receive 18 days of initial training,
ning services, maternal child health logistical support, and ongoing refresher
programs, the vitamin A supplements, and training.
referrals for malaria and other infectious dis- The Nepal Demographic Health Survey
eases. 2001 indicates a 28 percent reduction in child
Bimala Lama works in the village of mortality since 1996. This is in large part due
Nibuwatar, in the hills of Makwanpur dis- to the national vitamin A program, which is
trict. Her monthly mother’s group meetings seen as a model for other countries.
focus on pneumonia and acute respiratory In another program, volunteers in 22 dis-
infections during the winter, and on diarrhea tricts have been trained to detect pneumonia
during the summer. in children, treat mild cases with cotrimoza-
A Female Community Health Volunteer (FCHV) counts respirations to determine if the child needs treat-
When asked why she works as an FCHV xole, and refer severe cases and those that do ment or referral. The program saves children’s lives: evaluations found that FCHVs refer and treat more
despite receiving no payment for her serv- not respond to health facilities. ★ appropriately than some staff at health facilities.
ices, Bimala Lama replied that it is her way
EUROPE AND EURASIA
Corporate Social Attitudes Change in Romania
CONSTANTA, Romania—Marcel Biac was began the transition to a free market system ◆ A small-town school that was saved from As a result of this mix of company funds
born a Rroma—a vulnerable minority in in 1989 with no knowledge of corporate cit- closing by a local company that refur- and employee time, USAID grants totaling
Romania—and lived in a dormitory-type izenship. bished its sewage system $48,000 leveraged local cash and in-kind
residential institution in Constanta, a port Most private firms had little interest in ◆ A firm that equipped 26 schools and uni- contributions worth nearly $500,000.
city on the Black Sea, from the time he was local problems and didn’t understand how versities with software products Nationwide media attention to these proj-
5 years old. When he left the institution at corporate citizenship benefits both the com- ◆ A private company that equipped a school ects spread CSR concepts around the
age 18 in 2002, he had no family, no home, munity and the business. As a result, the computer lab for handicapped children country. Now the program is being copied by
and little hope of finding a job. public frequently perceived companies as and orphans other companies in other cities, without any
Fortunately, Marcel applied for a new pro- egocentric and indifferent to their needs. ◆ A kindergarten, retirement home, and the- outside financial support. ★
gram at a company called FantasyMod—a USAID launched a small corporate social ater that were restored in the capital city of
textile factory—which was training young responsibility (CSR) program through the Bucharest By Mihaela Popescu, USAID/Romania
workers with a grant from USAID. With his Romanian Chamber of Commerce and the
training completed, Marcel now works a reg- NGO World Learning to demonstrate that
ular shift in the plant, where he not only private firms can improve their bottom lines
receives a paycheck but is well on his way to by doing good in their communities.
becoming a self-reliant citizen. Multinational corporations, such as
“Training and hiring the young people McDonalds, Kraft Foods, Procter &
from the youth residential institution has Gamble, Cisco Systems, and Eli Lilly, are
been much more successful than we ever helping Romanians better understand the
anticipated,” said Mihaela Belcin, owner of nature and values of capitalism. A competi-
FantasyMod. tion for small grants was held and the best
“This program helped me understand that CSR project proposals were selected for
by helping the community and its members USAID cofinancing in cities and towns
our company benefits a lot. We have excel- throughout the country. These include:
lent new employees who are very efficient. ◆ Marcel’s company, FantasyMod, which
Not only that, but we have gained new provided vocational training and jobs to
respect from the people of Constanta. My other orphans
company is better known and new clients are ◆ A footwear producer that donated shoes to
increasing our business.” 627 unemployed
Such stories are rare in Romania. After ◆ A plastics manufacturer that distributed
struggling under a centralized, socialist 28,000 trash bags to schools, kinder- Mihaela Popescu, USAID/Romania
economy for 45 years, Romanian companies gartens, hospitals, and other institutions Marcel Biac, working at FantasyMod in Constanta, Romania.
12 WHERE IN THE WORLD… May 2003
April 4–May 17, 2003
PROMOTED Elizabeth Drabant LAC in the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster began his government career in 1943 as
Rwanda to COMP/FSLT Assistance. During his tenure, he partici- an agriculture officer in Brazil with
Brunelle Alexandre Azza El Abd pated in more than 50 Disaster Assistance USAID’s predecessor agency. After
Teresa Allison COMP/FS/REASSIGN to ANE/SPO/SPPM Response Teams (DARTs) worldwide. Bell serving in the Navy in World War II, he
Lily Beshawred was a firm believer in strengthening the served as agriculture officer in Guatemala,
Roxanna Bowers David Jessee
capacity of Latin Americans to mitigate and Director of the ICA (International
Lance Butler III EGAT/EG/TIF to E&E/EG/MT
prepare for disasters. To this end, Bell’s Cooperation Administration) missions in
Marjorie Copson Philip Jones team trained over 32,000 people as first Cuba, and in Colombia. He returned to
Brenda Fisher EGAT/AG/ATGO to E&E/PO/BPPR responders and worked with Latin Washington, D.C., to attend the National
Toraanna Francis Jeffrey Kaufman American governments to promote self- War College course for senior officers
Marlene Garcia COMP/NE/OJT to WB/Gaza sufficiency in disaster response. before serving as USAID/Mexico Mission
Jeffrey Lee Internationally known as a leader in human- Director. Later, he was appointed Deputy
EGAT/AG/ATGO to Caucasus itarian assistance, Bell chaired several Assistant Administrator for Material
Margaret Ann Haywood
important organizational events, including Resources. Johnston also served as
Jennifer Hoffman Inga Litvinsky
the International Search and Rescue Special Assistant to the Deputy U.S.
Criss Kamara COMP/NE/OJT to Russia/BDI
Assistance Group and the Summit of the Coordinator for the Alliance for Progress,
Chandresh Mamlatdarna Lloyd Jens Miller America’s Hemispheric Risk Reduction Advisor to Governor Nelson Rockefeller’s
Desiree Savoy OIG/A/IT&SA to OIG/A/HL&C
Mai-Tran Tran Conference. Presidential Mission in Latin America, and
Martin Napper Associate Assistant Administrator for
RCSA/OD to E&E/ECA/SE Reginald Bellows, 57, died May 9 after a Administration in USAID’s Bureau for
Richard Taylor RETIRED Andy Nguyen brief illness in Washington, D.C. Bellows Vietnam. Johnston spent more than 30
OIG/A/IT&SA to OIG/A/FA began his 37-year government career years in the foreign service. He retired as
Barnett Chessin with the Department of the Army before Director of the Office of Personnel and
Clinton Doggett Jr. OIG/A/PA to OIG/A/FA joining USAID in 1966 as Chief of Manpower in 1973, and received USAID’s
Lance Downing Management in the Program and Distinguished Honor Award in recognition
Lyne Paquette Management Services Bureau. He retired of his career in government service.
OIG/A/PA to OIG/A/FA
Robert Goldman on February 10 from the Office of
Nedra Huggins Williams Robert Rhodes Administrative Services, Bureau for Timothy O’Connor, 46, died April 30.
Robert Stone McClusky COMP/NE/OJT to Haiti/PCPS Management, where he was a general O’Connor joined USAID as a foreign
Virginia Sewell John Schneider services specialist. service officer in 1991. He served over-
Marilyn Zak LAC/CAR to AFR/EA seas in Jamaica, Egypt, and Indonesia,
Randal Joy Thompson Edna Antoinette Falbo, 88, who retired in and in Washington, D.C., in the Bureau for
MOVED ON COMP/FS/REASSIGN to E&E/DGST 1981 as Chief of the USAID Reference Europe and Eurasia, the Bureau for
Center, died March 8 at a hospital in Humanitarian Relief, and the Bureau for
Michael Arrington Sara Walter
Morgantown, W. Va. Falbo was a librarian, Asia and the Near East.
Rachel Ballen COMP/NE/OJT to Mexico
records manager, and federal government
Tine Johannesen Knott
James O. Watson contracts administrator before she estab-
Gregory Manuel Notices and reminders for “Where in the
Jamaica-CAR/OEG to E&E/EA lished USAID’s reference center in 1967 in World…” should be submitted by e-mail to
Joseph Williams the Bureau of Program and Policy firstname.lastname@example.org or by mail to Mary
NEPAL/PPD to ANE/TS Coordination. She headed the reference Felder, USAID, Ronald Reagan Building, suite
6.10.20, Washington, D.C. 20523-6100 or by
Ernest Wilson Edith Wilson center for 14 years, overseeing its function FAX to (202) 216-3035.
REASSIGNMENTS as a repository for feasibility studies,
AA/LAC to A/AID
Timothy Alexander research, and final reports about devel-
E&E/NCA/C to E&E/EA oping countries.
Chris Barratt IN MEMORIAM
Rwanda to Mozambique/GD Raymond Eugene Fort, 75, died April 30. TOP THAT SHOT
Paul Bell, Senior Regional Advisor, USAID Fort worked overseas for approximately FrontLines plans to run a feature on great
Robert Stephen Brent photos taken by USAID staff. The photo should
Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, 40 years. He was with USAID in Nepal, showcase how you get the opportunity to do
Egypt/HDD to PPC/DEI
Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Afghanistan, Yemen, and Egypt. amazing things in your jobs. Please include a
Robin Brinkley caption with your photo that explains when and
Humanitarian Assistance, died May 16 in Subsequently, he was the FAO representa- where the photo was taken and how it relates
Jamaica-CAR/OPDM to A/AID San José, Costa Rica. Bell began his federal tive in Pakistan, and later was a consultant to your work at USAID. Photos should be
prints, negatives or high resolution digitals
Agatha Brown career with the Peace Corps, serving as to the Ford Foundation, Rockefeller (300 dpi or larger).
AA/E&E to A/AID Peace Corps Director in several countries Foundation, State Department, and the
from 1964–71 and 1976–80. From 1971 to United Nations. Fort also served in Iran, REMEMBER WHEN
Betsy Brown Share your most memorable story working
GH/HIDN to COMP/LT TRNG 1975, he was Vice President for Operations Indonesia, Syria, India, Nepal, Western with USAID. FrontLines plans to run a feature
for the Inter-American Foundation. In 1980, Samoa, the Philippines, Italy, Pakistan, and on USAID employees’ most memorable
Christopher Brown moments in a future issue. Your articles should
he served as the Deputy Director of the Mongolia. During the summer of 2002, he be no more than
E&E/MT/SBA to COMP/LT TRNG 300 words.
Cuban-Haitian Task Force at the was working to reestablish the postwar
Michael Carey Burkly Department of State. Shortly thereafter he agricultural economy in Afghanistan. Please send articles and/or photos to front-
PERU/OFA to Brazil joined USAID’s Bureau for Latin American email@example.com or FrontLines, USAID, Ronald
Reagan Building, Suite 6.10, Washington, DC
Mary Byer and the Caribbean (LAC). In June 1983, he John “Johnnie” W. Johnston, 86, died 20523-6100.
DCHA/PPM to PPC/DCO became the Senior Regional Advisor for April 28 in Port Charlotte, Fla. Johnston
May 2003 WHERE IN THE WORLD… 13
AFSA STUDENT ACADEMIC
AND ART MERIT WINNERS
Foreign Service Honors Three of Its Fallen
The names of Laurence Foley, Oscar lives abroad “in the
Each year, the American Foreign Service Association Curtis Holder, and Sidney Jacques were line of duty” in
(AFSA) Scholarship Fund conducts a competition that etched into granite and unveiled in a addition to those
recognizes the academic and artistic achievements of Foreign Affairs Day ceremony at the C who died in
high school seniors who are the children of AFSA Street entrance of the Department of “heroic or other
members. State on May 9. inspirational cir-
AFSA awarded $27,600 in scholarships to 27 winners on “Their work is our work now, and we cumstances.”
May 9. Four were children of USAID employees. Winners can honor them best by doing it well,” In his welcoming
received $1,500 awards; “honorable mention” winners said Administrator Natsios, who unveiled remarks to rela-
each received $500. In addition, four named scholarships the plaque with Secretary of State Colin tives and
were bestowed to the highest scoring students. L. Powell. colleagues of the
USAID Executive Officer Larry Foley honorees, AFSA
AFSA received 62 applications for the Academic Merit
was assassinated outside of his home in President John
Awards. Students competed on the basis of their grade
Amman, Jordan, in October 2002. And Naland stated that
point averages, SAT scores, two-page essays, letters of
more than 40 years after dying in an air- 141 officers have
recommendation, extracurricular activities, and any spe- The Foley family at the plaque ceremony on May 9
plane crash in Nepal, USAID auditors been added to the
cial circumstances. Seventeen students submitted art
Oscar Curtis Holder and Sidney Jacques plaque since World
applications under the categories of visual arts, musical
were honored on the American Foreign War II. Three-fourths were killed as the service: “It is a mission that brings to
arts, drama, dance, and creative writing. Applicants were
Service Association (AFSA) memorial direct result of terrorist attacks or other each and every one of us a deep sense of
judged on their art submissions, letters of recommenda-
plaque. hostile action. satisfaction that we are helping people
tion, and two-page essays.
The names of Holder and Jacques were The simple ceremony began with a around the world to a better life. It is also
added to the plaque as a result of AFSA’s military color guard and remarks by a mission that frequently entails hard-
USAID Academic Merit Winner decision to amend its criteria to include Secretary Powell, who was greeted with a ship, and often, all too often, it is a
Christine M. Elliott, daughter of foreign service employees who lost their standing ovation. He said of the foreign mission that carries great risks.” ★
William S. Elliott (Bureau for Europe
and Eurasia) and Angela Elliott.
Christy is a senior at George C.
Marshall High School in Falls
Church, Va. and president of the
Sixty-Eight USAID Staffers Fully Certified as CTOs
National Honor Society. She enjoys
acting, overseeing her school’s Sixty-eight USAID staffers recently
Interact Service Club, and volunteering at a local crisis completed training and became certi-
pregnancy center. Christy has lived in Botswana, Jordan, fied managers of U.S. government
and South Africa. In addition to the Academic Merit grants and contracts. The official term
Award, Christy received the John C. Leary Scholarship as is cognizant technical officer— CTO
one of the highest scoring students in the competition. A for short.
National Merit finalist, Christy will attend the University of USAID’s human resource office
Virginia as a Jefferson Scholar. organized intensive, two- and three-
week training courses for mission staff
in Lima, Peru, and Kiev, Ukraine.
USAID Academic Merit Honorable Mention USAID will track the performance of
Courtney L. Keene, daughter of the two missions to evaluate the impact
Sharon L. Cromer (Mission Director, of the training.
Staff from USAID/Peru and Ecuador attended a course in Lima in October 2002.
USAID/Ghana) and Arnold S. Sobers. Before the sessions began, all partic-
Courtney is a senior at the American ipants were required to complete an
School in Switzerland. She is an online preparatory course. The formal
enthusiastic and gifted writer who training was held offsite. It was the first
enjoys dance and basketball. time online and classroom training
Courtney plans to pursue a career in were combined for the CTO certifica-
journalism. She has lived in Pakistan, Côte d’Ivoire, tion program. At the end of the new,
Senegal, Indonesia, and Ghana. condensed-format training, all partici-
Shayda Vance, daughter of Anthony
pants received their certification as
N. Vance (USAID/Egypt) and Ladan
Doorandish-Vance. Shayda attends
By Anne L. Terio, USAID Program Manager,
the Cairo American College in Egypt,
CTO Training Programs In spring 2003, 42 CTOs completed their training in Kiev, Ukraine, and were certified.
where she is president of the
National Honor Society. She plans to
attend Harvard College, where she
hopes to major in environmental science and public
policy. Shayda loves different cultures and is involved in Forum Says Agency Staff Needs Support,
the Model United Nations. She has lived in Côte d’Ivoire,
Kenya, Botswana, and Egypt. Makes 25 Recommendations on Changes Needed
USAID Art Merit Honorable Mention (Musical Arts) USAID has found it increasingly diffi- sary in the development field.” funded yet. The report has a lot of good
Angela Garland, daughter of cult to recruit, retain, train, and reward its Nearly 30 former and current govern- insight—it’s great to get the private
William R. Garland (USAID/Ecuador) employees, due to constraints that have ment officials, businessmen, and sector view.”
and Gail L. Garland. Angela is the been imposed by other federal agencies academics attended the forum on The report stated: “USAID
valedictorian and vice president of and branches of government, according USAID workforce issues in October employees, who are loyal, committed,
her senior class at the Academia to Human Capital Reform: 21st Century 2002. and professional, seek greater appreci-
Cotopaxi in Quito, Ecuador. She is a Requirements for the United States The forum was organized by the ation of the valuable work they do
talented musician and songwriter Agency for International Development. National Policy Association, with sup- overseas, often under the most difficult
and has released her own album. Written by former diplomat Anthony port from the IBM Endowment for the of circumstances.”
She loves children and animals, volunteers at a local C.E. Quainton and researcher Amanda Business of Government. During the 1990s, cuts in the budget
orphanage, and plans to pursue a career in music or M. Fulmer, the report adds that “the fear John Marshall, Assistant Admin- and workforce, ineffective manage-
zoology. Angela has lived in Costa Rica, the Dominican of taking risks is ingrained in the istrator for Management, said: “We are ment, and a poor personnel system
Republic, Kenya, and Ecuador. agency’s culture to the point where it working the recommendations of the weakened the agency, the forum con-
sometimes stifles innovation—some forum into our human capital strategic cluded.
degree of ‘prudent’ risk taking is neces- plan, but we don’t have everything ▼ SEE STAFF ON PAGE 14
14 YOUR VOICE May 2003
TOP THAT SHOT
FRONTLINES EDITORIAL BOARD
Joanne B. Giordano
Editor and Publisher
Chief of Publications
Veronica (Ronnie) Young
(Acting) Production Manager and Bureau Coordinator
Human Resources Coordinator and Employee Liaison
Contributing Writers, Editors and Staff
Joe Fredericks, Bob Lester, Rick Marshall, Wanda Taylor
FrontLines is published by the U.S. Agency for International Development,
Bureau for Legislative and Public Affairs
J. Edward Fox, Assistant Administrator
through the Strategic Communications and Publications Division I saw your call for photos and decided to how they live and work.
Jeffrey Grieco, Chief submit this one—it was used in 2002 by the The conditions are brutal—women
Correspondents and Reporters London Museum of Natural History when work alongside men doing backbreaking
AFSA—Joseph Pastic; AFR—Ranta Russell, Christine Chumbler; they did an exhibit of mining in Africa. It is labor under the searing hot sun. We visited
ANE—Eric Picard, Jeremiah Carew, Mary Melnyk; of an artisanal gold miner in Siguiri, in during the religious period of Ramadan.
DCHA—Jenny Marion, Tom Staal; EGAT—Marx Sterne; Upper Guinea. The miners were working even while
E&E—Brock Bierman; EOP—David Grim; GC—Tim Riedler; I have an amazing job. I’m doing promo- fasting all day.
GDA—Dan Runde; GH-HIV/AIDS—Gabrielle Bushman; tional work for USAID in Guinea and in After having walked through and inter-
IG—Donna Rosa; LAC—Rebekah Stutzman; Sierra Leone that takes me to towns and vil- viewed men and women in the gold mines
LPA—Bette Cook; M—Nancy Barnett; PPC—Joe Duggan; lages and beyond in both countries. I get to in Guinea and the diamond mines in Sierra
OSDBU—LaVerne Drummond; SEC—Randy Streufert. speak to people ranging from smallholder Leone, I have understood why the mining
farmers in the smallest villages to govern- industry presents particularly acute devel-
ment officials, mayors, and ministers, not to opment concerns in health, education,
Readers are encouraged to send in stories, feature articles, photos, nomina- mention partners, donors, and my col- democracy, and natural resource manage-
tions for “First Person” or “Mission of the Month” columns, and other ideas. leagues here at USAID. I particularly like ment, and why USAID is working to help
talking to our beneficiaries—that’s when I local mining communities reap more of the
Letters to the editor, opinion pieces, obituaries, and requests to be added to the find out if what we’re doing is really bene- benefits of the riches found under their feet.
mailing list should be submitted by e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org; by fax to fiting people. They are the ones who know There you go—hope you like the photo!
202-216-303, and by mail to Editor, FrontLines, USAID, Ronald Reagan Building, best what works and what doesn’t for their
Suite 6.10, Washington, D.C. 20523-6100; tel. 202-712-4330. own development. Laura Lartigue
The day I took this photo, I was focusing Technical Writing Specialist
on high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS in USAID/Guinea and Sierra Leone
Guinea. Since miners are considered a Conakry, Guinea
Staff Need Support, Forum Says high-risk group, I wanted to see firsthand
▲ FROM STAFF ON PAGE 13
The forum made 25 recommendations,
including the following:
◆ To remake personnel programs, give
managers flexibility in internal assign-
Letter to the Editor
ments and training; increase funding
◆ To change the culture, adopt family- for training and offer it to all Please let me express my compliments for the and recognition—I think an absolutely
friendly policies such as telecommuting employees; and use State Department great overall redo of FrontLines: its expan- vital element in terms of mission accom-
and job sharing; recognize efforts by and other agency training facilities. sion, color, layout, and extensive coverage all plishment.
foreign service nationals (FSNs) and make for a truly impressive publication. That’s almost gone in the new
contractors; and inform career staff ◆ To improve recruitment, inform the But… (of course!) while I realize every- FrontLines.
about Agency work around the world, general public about what the Agency thing changes as we move through life, I am For example, it’s hard to find an
especially if the Agency “continues to does; reinstate the International struck by the lack of focus on and recognition article/feature that mentions anybody
shift its workforce toward a collection Development Intern program; and col- of USAID personnel. involved in whatever it’s about (except, of
of short- or medium-term contract laborate with the State Department. I know that there are separate features course, for the ambassador or chief of
employees.” (such as the FSNs in the [March 2003] mission or other “top dog” politically).
The forum also proposed simplifying issue, specific awards stories, etc.) on per- Mission of the Month? Kenya? Who’s
◆ To rethink the concept of career at and clarifying the processes of promo- sonnel, but what seems to be different, in the mission director? Staff? USAID
USAID, recognize the shift toward tions and evaluation, creating a database my view, is that the entire publication now DARTS to Iraq? Who’s the team leader?
spending just a few years at the Agency, to keep track of and evaluate the thou- seems aimed mostly at providing Congress, Key team leaders? HQ coordinator(s)?
and away from lifetime employment; sands of personal services contractors, the Administration, and others outside of And so on….
increase pay and training for FSNs; and increasing funding for employee USAID with extensive/intensive back- I like the new FrontLines and you’re
send more program employees over- awards. ★ ground on USAID activities/objectives. doing a great job, but a few changes tar-
seas; put the best employee in a job, That’s fine, as a policy objective, and will geted on employees would be a big boost.
regardless of foreign service or civil www.businessofgovernment.org/pdfs/ probably be a major political boost over Thanks for listening.
service status; and send civil service QuaintonReport.pdf time to the Agency.
staff for periodic overseas excursions to But for more than a couple of decades Jesse Snyder
see Agency work in the field. until its demise, the old FrontLines was tar- USAID Retired 1990
geted on employee morale, performance,
May 2003 INSIDE DEVELOPMENT 15
Foreign Aid Adapts to a Changing World
Instead of focusing mainly on social serv- “America is now threatened less by con-
ices such as health and education, the United quering states than we are by failing ones,”
States is increasingly trying to help people the strategy says. “A world where some live
earn an adequate living through efforts to pro- in comfort and plenty while half of the
mote business startups, secure property rights, human race lives on less than $2 per day is
end corruption, support trade, and link devel- neither just nor stable.”
oping countries to the globalized economy, Natsios told the meeting that “develop-
Natsios told the Advisory Committee on ment does affect stability.” Under President
Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA) at the Bush, foreign aid is recognized as one leg of
National Press Club on May 14. a three-part strategy to defend the United
“Some are not happy with the emphasis States—defense and diplomacy being the
on economic growth rather than social serv- other legs of that strategy.
ices,” Natsios said in his keynote address. ACVFA is a federally chartered advisory
“Some NGOs say this damages the environ- body that includes senior officials of many
ment and erodes labor rights. But poor NGOs—such as Save the Children,
people say they have no income and need Technoserve, and the International Medical
jobs to feed their families.” Corps—that carry out many of USAID’s Administrator Andrew S. Natsios addresses the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid on May 14
Providing social services does not guar- development and humanitarian assistance
antee that people escape from poverty, projects.
because such services don’t address the fun- USAID fights instability directly through threats—help get people back to work so they society—one of USAID’s key missions in
damental issue of creating wealth through programs for conflict management and pre- can earn a living and not need assistance. recent years.
productive farming, industry, or other vention. But the Agency also employs indirect Natsios referred to his meeting with L. The nearly $600 million annual USAID
employment, he said. means of fighting instability and improving Paul Bremer III, named in May by President budget for assisting developing countries to
Extreme poverty tends to destabilize weak productivity and economic growth, such as Bush to be the new civilian administrator for build trade capacity and enter global markets
states; this provides a haven for terrorists, support for improved education, especially for Iraq. Natsios said that he and Bremer shared is a sign of the new focus in U.S. foreign aid,
Natsios contended, citing sections of girls. Other efforts—such as fighting the belief that the key to creating a stable, Natsios concluded. ★
President Bush’s National Security Strategy. HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other health peaceful Iraq was the building up of civil
In Development, Culture Matters The Marshall Plan and the MCA
Some countries fail to develop because Early childhood education, parenting When President Bush asked his advisors achieved in Western Europe in the wake
of culture and habits that must be classes, religion, journalism, entertain- to design the Millennium Challenge of World War II,” said former Kennedy
changed through education over many ment media, and public policy are some Account to fight the poverty that breeds administration official and development
years, said former USAID Mission areas where a culture can be influenced, terrorism, attention turned to the suc- expert Walt Rostow. “Unlike these areas,
Director Lawrence E. Harrison, cur- said Harrison, who was Mission cessful Marshall Plan, the basis of Western Europe did not need to be
rently a professor at Tufts University Director in Nicaragua, Haiti, modern foreign assistance. invented—it simply had to be recalled.”
and author of the book Culture Matters. Guatemala, Costa Rica, and the President Truman launched the plan in Rostow said that two Marshall Plan prin-
Harrison told about 50 USAID staff at Dominican Republic before his retire- 1948, when the war-torn nations of ciples should guide U.S. assistance today:
a seminar the necessary values include ment in 1982. Europe proved unable to rebuild on their bipartisan support and a multilateral
an emphasis on individual accomplish- Harrison said when he joined the own and began to experience instability approach. The latter he said, “provided an
ment, trust in others, and an expansive Agency in 1962, the development from communist movements sponsored essential element of dignity and partner-
identity beyond family and clan. approach of the Alliance for Progress by the Soviet Union. ship to even the smallest powers.”
Harrison said that the very same had failed. It was modeled on the From 1948 to 1952, the Marshall Plan Other Marshall Plan scholars empha-
development plans that revived Europe Marshall Plan, which had brought sig- funneled over $13 billion in commodities size that recovery plans required countries
after World War II failed to work in nificant benefits to Europe and and assistance from the United States so to adopt sound macroeconomic policies.
some parts of the developing world effectively forestalled the rise of com- Western Europe could recover its strength. James Silberman, 92, veteran of the
because of differing cultures. munism there. ◆ Countries signed agreements and pre- Marshall Plan, stresses the contribution
Economic development surged in The Europeans had a strong work pared recovery plans approved by the made by technical assistance, an unher-
Taiwan, South Korea, Thailand, and ethic and quickly rebuilt their industries. Marshall Plan administration and other alded aspect of the program that allowed
Indonesia, in part, according to He cautioned that other countries have participating countries. thousands of Europeans and, later, Asians
Harrison, because of the strong work not experienced such rapid recovery ◆ Recovery plans addressed how coun- to visit farms and factories in the United
ethic of the ethnic Chinese in those because of “values and attitudes that got tries would balance their budgets, States. Extensive anecdotal evidence sug-
countries. On the other hand, in areas in the way.” restore financial stability, and stabilize gests the visits contributed to the 3–4
such as Haiti, Nicaragua, and much of Even globalization will not help a their exchange rates. percent gains in industrial productivity
Africa, development failed to ignite. country that has a stagnant economy, no ◆ All grants, loans, and technical assis- before macroeconomic policies were har-
For many years, development experts resources, and a culture of corruption, he tance required a match: $13.3 billion monized and private investment began.
were loathe to discuss culture as a factor said. According to Harrison, the lack of from the United States generated an When Silberman visited 50 European
in the lack of development. Economists education for women in most Muslim and additional $8.6 billion in local currency. factories in 1948, he found that produc-
thought that every society would grow some African countries is an example of ◆ Staff size started out at 400 in tion, management, and marketing
with the proper economic incentives— one cultural factor that inhibits growth Washington and 600 in Paris, but practices stuck in a pre-industrial era. He
an idea later proved wrong. and keeps people mired in poverty. quickly expanded. recommended bringing Europeans to the
Since culture is not genetically inher- The U.N.’s Arab Human Development Many scholars say that the Marshall United States so they would “believe the
ited—but rather is passed on at home, Report, prepared by Arab experts last Plan’s success is not easily repeated difference.”
and through various institutions such as year, criticized Arab societies for lack of because it provided food and machinery Upon their return, factory owners and
schools and religion—Harrison claims democracy, women’s rights, and innova- to fix material problems. They say that foremen reorganized industrial plants to
it can be slowly and purposefully tion. Harrison said he hoped “the new Europe’s prewar experience with markets, lower costs, raise quality, increase pro-
changed to further democratic, eco- Iraqi leaders hire the authors of the entrepreneurship, property rights, bank- duction, and manufacture and market
nomic, and political change. report as permanent consultants.” ruptcy codes, and the rule of law goods on a mass scale. The program was
Harrison is currently heading a project Regarding Iraq, Harrison said educa- contributed to the rapid recovery. so extensive that every factory in France
studying two dozen countries to determine tion would pay off in the long term, and “The success of the Marshall Plan has and Britain with more than 50 people was
how their cultures affect development and he advised getting the Iraqi religious generated the false hope that the applica- able to send at least one person on a four-
how they have been or can be changed if leadership involved in the process of tion of capital and technology could do to six-week tour. Silberman calls these
development is their key priority. development. ★ for Third World countries, inner cities, study tours the “largest mass transfer of
and post-communist Europe what was technology in world history.” ★
16 GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS May 2003
World Vision International reported that
Agency PMA Hunger Increasing in Ethiopia
The number of Ethiopians affected by
approximately 50,000 people were fleeing
Bunia on foot, heading toward Eringeti, 90
Bush Annouces Volunteer Program
In his commencement address at the U.S.
Scores Improve: hunger is expected to increase to 14 million
when the Horn of Africa enters its tradi-
miles south. OFDA’s representative arrived
in Eringeti on May 16. OFDA-funded
Coast Guard Academy, President Bush
announced the creation of Volunteers for
Three Greens tional “hungry period” before the next
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
NGOs, including MERLIN, Solidarities,
Première Urgence, SCF/UK, and German
Agro-Action were preparing to receive the
Prosperity, which will mobilize highly
skilled volunteers to take part in interna-
tional development and humanitarian work,
▲ FROM PMA ON PAGE 1 Prevention report that death rates—especially Congolese. especially in programs supported by USAID.
among children—are above emergency Two Congolese Red Cross Society volun- Volunteers for Prosperity will be a new
The activities of two BTEC subcom- benchmarks in 20 out of 32 districts examined teers were killed while carrying out program under the USA Freedom Corps, the
mittees were cited as reasons for in drought-affected areas. Acute malnutrition humanitarian duties in Bunia on May 11. White House coordinating council for vol-
receiving the improved progress scores and diseases are spreading. Ironically, while unteerism created by the President in 2002.
for e-government and financial manage- seasonal rains are below average in some Indonesia Bars Aid Workers The new program will be different from
ment. areas, flooding is a threat in others. the Peace Corps, which trains and deploys
The Enterprise Architecture (EA) sub- The United States has already shipped As an Indonesian military offensive intensi- volunteers for postings of two years. Instead,
committee vetted a plan to develop a 755,000 metric tons of food valued at $342 fied against Muslim fundamentalist Volunteers for Prosperity will arrange for
blueprint of the Agency’s business lines million, and provided over $28 million for separatists in the province of Aceh, foreign highly skilled volunteers to work for flexible
and information technology systems. The emergency health, nutrition, water, sanita- aid workers were advised May 27 to leave periods—from as brief as two weeks to as
Capital Planning and Investment Control tion, and agricultural recovery. USAID sent the province because of security concerns. long as several years.
(CPIC) subcommittee presented broader a five-person Disaster Assistance Response Indonesia’s foreign ministry said foreign President Bush has proposed doubling the
policy guidance for selecting information Team (DART) to Ethiopia May 9 to assess assistance should be channeled through the size of the Peace Corps—from 7,500 to
technology investments. ★ the potential of famine. Indonesian Red Cross. 15,000 volunteers—over the next five years.
The State Department issued a diplomatic
alert relating to the crisis to all donor coun- Aid Increased for Bangladesh $15 Billion HIV/AIDS Bill Signed
tries and to countries, such as China and
AS OF MARCH 31, 2003 Russia, that do not normally grant assistance. World Bank aid to Bangladesh will climb President Bush signed the U.S. Leadership
PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTING The European Union has pledged 293,000 from $300 million to $554 million in the Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
PRESIDENT’S MANAGEMENT AGENDA tons of food, Japan pledged 50,000, and 2003 fiscal year, according to Frederick Act of 2003 into law May 27. The law pro-
petroleum exporters pledged 27,000 tons, Temple, country director for the bank. vides $15 billion over the next five years to
but these shipments are yet to be completed. The World Bank increased its aid because the most HIV/AIDS-afflicted countries in
of better financial management, macroeco- Africa and the Caribbean: Botswana, Côte
Human Comp- Financial E-Gov Budget/
Capital Sourcing Mgmt Perf Congo Chaos Continues nomic stability, and other efforts to alleviate d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Kenya,
poverty in Bangladesh, Temple told reporters. Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda,
According to a representative of USAID’s “Good governance, law and order, security, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.
A stoplight scoring system is used: ● Green for success, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and human rights are important issues The target countries have nearly 20 million
● Yellow for mixed results, ● Red for unsatisfactory (OFDA), the basic needs of the Congolese needed to attract foreign assistance and HIV-infected people-—almost 70 percent of
were being met, but the security situation is investment,” he added. About half of the the total in Africa and the Caribbean.
www.results.gov/agenda/scorecard02.html precarious. Since May 12, the United country’s 130 million people are still without This is the largest single commitment for
Nations and NGOs have been delivering enough food or other basic necessities, offi- an international public health initiative
medical aid and setting up water points in cials say. involving a specific disease. The President
the camps. Medical services and a thera- will nominate a global AIDS coordinator to
Afghan Update peutic feeding center were established near
the main U.N. compound.
work closely with State, Health and Human
Services, USAID, and the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention.
▲ FROM AFGHAN UPDATE ON PAGE 1
Although there remain deep-rooted prob-
lems in Afghanistan—such as attacks by
Exhibit Opens at USAID
followers of the Taliban and terrorist leader
Osama bin Laden, many launched from
hideouts in Pakistan’s border regions—
much useful work has been accomplished to
Cubans and Their Loved Ones
restore normal life.
In past 18 months ,more than 15 million Mel Martínez, Secretary
textbooks were distributed to Afghan of Housing and Urban
schoolchildren—including girls, who are Development, and
in school for the first time in years. Some Administrator Natsios
1,000 schools are to be built or rehabili- opened May 21 an
tated, and 30,000 teachers have been exhibit of 30 photos of
trained. In addition, while basic health care Cuban political prisoners
services are being provided to 2 million and their families.
people in 21 provinces, 72 clinics and hos- USAID will host the
pitals have been rehabilitated, and 4 million exhibit for 44 days to
children have been vaccinated against remember 44 years of
measles and polio. oppression under the
Work continues on schedule to restore Castro regime. The
the Kabul-Kandahar-Herat highway—the exhibit is on loan from
critical road link between the country’s the Center for a Free
major cities and with the rest of the world. Cuba.
USAID will complete the first layer of “We call upon the
paving for the 300-mile section between Cuban regime to release
Kabul and Kandahar by the end of 2003. those brave prisoners of
On May 14, USAID announced the conscience and end sys-
award of a three-year $100 million con- temic human rights
tract to Management Sciences for Health abuses once and for all,” said Martínez. Security Council; Adolfo A. Franco, were persecuted by the Castro regime for
to strengthen the overall health system in The opening ceremony was attended by Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Latin questioning it.
Afghanistan. The program, entitled Rural Rep. Ileana Ros-Letinen (R-Fla.); Rep. America and the Caribbean; and Frank The exhibit will run through July 3 at
Expansion of Afghanistan’s Community- Lincoln Díaz-Balart (R-Fla.); Rep. Mario Calzón, Executive Director of the Center the USAID Information Center. ★
based Healthcare (REACH), will provide Díaz-Balart (R-Fla.); Rep. Mark Foley (R- for a Free Cuba.
basic and essential health services Fla.); Otto J. Reich, Special Envoy for “Cubans and their Loves Ones” tells the By Luigi Crespo, Public Affairs Officer,
to an estimated 16.5 million people Western Hemisphere Initiatives, National story of people from all walks of life who LPA
each year. ★