Outpost, KPC-3 Plus, and Packet Radio by zch19242

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									                                    Outpost, KPC-3 Plus, and Packet Radio

                                                                   A Tutorial
                                                              Mac Harper, W1FYM


Table of Contents
Objectives:.................................................................................................................................................1
Resetting the KPC-3 Plus...........................................................................................................................3
Download and Install Outpost:..................................................................................................................4
Using Outpost to configure your KPC-3 Plus............................................................................................4
Setting TNC Baud Rate..............................................................................................................................7
Setting the TNC Parameters.......................................................................................................................8
Locating nodes and BBS stations...............................................................................................................8
Keyboard Connect to a BBS......................................................................................................................9
Sending a packet message from the Keyboard........................................................................................10
Listing with paging...................................................................................................................................11
Setting up Outpost....................................................................................................................................11
   Select the TNC Comm Port tab. ........................................................................................................13
    Send/Receive Settings........................................................................................................................15
Getting your Messages Automatically.....................................................................................................16
   PBBS message retrieval automatically. ..............................................................................................17
   BBS Message Retrieval Automatically...............................................................................................18
Nodes and BBSs in the Northeast............................................................................................................19
Destinations within the Northeastern States Region:...............................................................................20
   Western Massachusetts Region:..........................................................................................................20
   Connecticut Region:............................................................................................................................20
   New York – Long Island Region:........................................................................................................20
   Eastern New York Region:..................................................................................................................21
   New Jersey Region:.............................................................................................................................21
   Eastern PA Region:..............................................................................................................................22
   Florida:................................................................................................................................................22
FBB User Commands..............................................................................................................................23

FBB BBS LIST sub-commands...............................................................................................................24



Objectives:
     1. You will perform a hardware reset on a Kantronics KPC-3 Plus TNC, which sets
        everything to factory defaults.
     2. You will download and install Outpost Packet Manager on your computer. Outpost is a
        program which simplifies packet operations such as connecting to a station and getting
        mail.
     3. You will upgrade Outpost to the latest version, currently Version 2.2.2.
4. Using Outpost in a manual mode, you will set up the TNC's communication with your
   computer. You will also set up your call and several other parameters.
5. After satisfactory completion of steps 1 to 4, you will set up Outpost for operation.
6. Using Outpost in manual mode, you will turn on your radio and listen for available
   BBSs, nodes, and other callsigns.
7. Still in manual mode (Keyboarding), you will connect to a BBS and leave yourself a
   message.
8. You will configure Outpost to automatically download that mail.
9. After turning on logging, you will tell Outpost to get your mail automatically.
Resetting the KPC-3 Plus
This procedure will clear all settings and initiate a baud-rate scan.
Remove the two cover screws and lift the cover from the TNC.
Locate the RESET jumper (RST) near the right rear corner of the circuit board cutout.
Remove this jumper (it's only on one pin).
Turn the power ON using the front panel switch.
Place the jumper over both pins for a couple of seconds, then remove it.
Turn the power OFF.
Replace the jumper over ONE PIN ONLY.
Replace the cover and cover screws.
Download and Install Outpost:
The website is http://www.outpostpm.org/
You will need to download Outpost v2.2 Install and Outpost v2.2.2 Update.
Other files, including help and documentation are available from the same page.
Expand (Winzip) and install Outpost 2.2 as with any other Windows program.
Expand v2.2.2 Update, and place these files in the same folder, overwriting existing files.
Upon completion, the following files will be in the Outpost folder:




Using Outpost to configure your KPC-3 Plus
If you have not yet done so, perform a hardware reset on your KPC-3 Plus.
Connect the TNC to a serial port on your computer. The following discussion will assume that
you are using COM1, with default baud rate settings 9600, No parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit.
Start Outpost from Windows: e.g.,
       START
       PROGRAM FILES
       OUTPOST
       OUTPOST
You will see the Initialization screen with the version you have just installed.
The Station Identification window appears. Enter your callsign and name. You can always
return to this screen. Press APPLY and OK.
Setting TNC Baud Rate
You are now at the Packet Message Manager Screen.
From the menu bar, click TOOLS – INTERACTIVE PACKET – SERIAL/COMM PORT




Turn the TNC on using the front panel switch. Do not turn on your radio yet. Your screen will
have a cycling series of garbage as the TNC tries all its baud rates. When you see the
message to press * to set the baud rate, you will have only about two seconds to do so. On a
full size keyboard, hold down the SHIFT key and get ready to tap the * key. On some
systems, you may have to also press ENTER.
Setting the TNC Parameters
The KPC-3 Plus is initially in NEWUSER mode, which does not accept many commands.
As you are still talking to the TNC, type: INTFACE
The TNC will respond as in the screen below.




Note: You can type in either lowercase or uppercase.
Type the following:
       INTFACE TERMINAL
       MYCALL <Your call>
       MYPBBS <your call dash-1>          e.g., W1FYM-1
       MYNODE <your call dash-2)>         e.g., W1FYM-2
       USERS 4        (This allows you to still get into your TNC when 3 others are using it).
       CD SOFTWARE          (This will allow your TNC to operate, even with squelch open).
       NUMNODES 4           (This will cause a soft reset)


You are now ready to use your TNC with the radio. Remember, you are still in the Interactive
mode within Outpost. Outpost has two windows open: this one and the Packet Message
Manager window. Close the Interactive Packet/Serial Port window. If it is left running, even
minimized, Outpost will not be able to make automatic connections.

Locating nodes and BBS stations.
The easiest way to do this is to turn your radio on and allow it to 'collect' calls. The following
frequencies are commonly used for digital modes on VHF.
144.99        145.01        145.03        145.05        145.07         145.09
You can get a list of stations heard by typing: MH
That list can be emptied by typing MH CLEAR
There is a list of nodes and BBSs in the NorthEast later in this document.
Remember that you use the frequency of the nearest node when connecting VIA that node to
another node or BBS, even though the other BBS may operate on a different frequency. They
are all connected by the BACKBONE. User nodes have a numbered ssid following the basic
callsign; e.g., W1EDH-2, W1HAD-4. In the Northeast, BBSes are usually a dash-4.



Keyboard Connect to a BBS
Let's say that you can hear W1EDH-4 on 145.090, and that you have never registered there.
Furthermore, you wish to choose to use it as your full-service BBS. You only need a very few
commands to get your messages or read bulletins.
C<space><callsign>         Connect
L       List
R       Read
Bye
Help
Help <command>


c w1edh-4      C is the short form of CONNECT. Follow with a space and the callsign
cmd:*** CONNECTED to W1EDH-4
[FBB-7.00i-AB1FHMRX$]
W1EDH BBS, Glastonbury.
Hello Mac. 983 active messages, last is 27666, last listed is 26710.
The system recognizes me because I have logged on before and registered my name and
callsign.


Assigned channels:
Ch. 1 (NETWORK) : W1FYM-0 - Fri 29/08/08 19:45
    via : W1EDH-2
Ch. 8 (NETWORK) : WA1ARC-4 - Fri 29/08/08 19:45


       *** Welcome to the W1EDH.CT.USA.NOAM Packet Bulletin Board ***
          *** at Glastonbury, Hartford County, CT [FN31sr] ***
Sending a packet message from the Keyboard.

(1) W1EDH BBS> This is a prompt from W1EDH. I want to send a message
sp w1fym             SP means Send Personal
Routing (from WP) to W1EDH.CT.USA.NOAM                 From W1EDH White Pages
                                                       I previously registered my home BBS.
Enter the title for this message to W1FYM :            Prompt from W1EDH.
Demonstration Mail         This is the title
Enter the text for the message, end with Ctrl-Z or /EX on a blank line) :
This mail is to demonstrate how Outpost can retrieve mail and place it in your Outpost Inbox.
That's all, folks!
/ex                        All alone on the line, this tells the BBS that the message is done.
Mid: 27667_W1EDH Size: 113 bytes                 This is the Message ID. It remains with the
                                                 message for its lifespan.


You have 1 new (unread) message(s).              This comes up because I sent it to myself.


(1) W1EDH BBS>
lm                         Short for List Mine


Msg# TSLD Dim To         @ BBS From Date/Time Title            (LC-choice: *)
27667 PNL       113 W1FYM        W1FYM 0829/1947 Demonstration Mail


You have 1 new (unread) message(s).


(1) W1EDH BBS>
bye                               I'm disconnecting from the BBS
You have been connected 1mn 47s - Computer-time : 1s
Bye, Mac, and welcome back.
*** DISCONNECTED
cmd:
Listing with paging

You do NOT want to list everything. It takes a L-O-N-G time!
Paging forces a break every n lines. The command OP toggles paging on and off.
OP <n>        turn paging on, pausing every n lines.
OP 20         pauses the display every 20 lines, awaiting a prompt to
              Abort, Continue without paging, or list the next 20 lines.
If you do get a long listing and the BBS doesn't recognize your “Abort” or “A” command, do a
CTRL-C to get the TNC's attention, then type D to disconnect.
A list of FBB commands is found later in this document.

Setting up Outpost
So far, you have been using keyboard commands to communicate with the BBS. Outpost's
strength lies in its ability to do most of the keyboarding itself, even automatically, and that's
what we're going to do now.
Use ALT-TAB to leave the IPSerial with Outpost window, and return to the Outpost Packet
Message Manager window.
On the menu toolbar, click SETUP.




On the pulldown menu, clidk TNC. The Interface Type tab appears.
Click the NEW button. In the Device Name box, enter KPC-3 PLUS.
Click the TNC radio button.
Enter a description if you wish.
Click APPLY and OK.
Select the TNC Comm Port tab.
You may accept the defaults of 9600, n, 8, 1. If you wish to change the baud rate, you will
have to re-initialize the TNC afterwards. If it is not already checked, set Flow Control to CTS/
RTS.
Click on APPLY and OK.
On the Outpost Packet Message Manager menu bar, select Setup – Identification.
Your callsign and name should be as you had entered them earlier. If not, enter them now.


From the Outpost Packet Message Manager menu bar, select Setup – BBS.
Click NEW, and enter the BBS name with ssid; e.g, w1edh-4
Click on the radio button to “Let Outpost determine the BBS and set up the prompts.”
On the same screen, select the BBS Path tab. Click the Direct radio button (meaning that you
can connect direct to the BBS).




Press OK.
Send/Receive Settings.
On the Outpost Packet Message Manager menu bar, select Tools – Send/Receive Settings
Review each tab. DO NOT download and kill any NTS messages unless you are the
designated NTS message handler. This can be avoided by leaving all messages on the BBS,
located on the Receiving tab.
Save any changes you have made by clicking APPLY and OK.

Getting your Messages Automatically.
Switch to the Packet Message Manager screen. Pull down SETUP – BBS and select the
BBS you wish to use, using the down-arrow to display all BBSs you have set up. Click OK.
On the second menu bar, click on SEND/RECEIVE. The messages retrieved will appear in
your inbox. If you have logging enabled, you can examine the transaction under PROGRAM
FILES\OUTPOST\LOGS.

PBBS message retrieval automatically.
Messages may be left on an individual's TNC in the mailbox. The following is a log of an
automatic connection to K1PL-1, a PBBS (within K1PL's TNC).


===================================================
---------------------------------------------------
30-Aug 14:30:02: Outpost v2.2.2 c27: TNC Session # 49
---------------------------------------------------
cmd:D
Can't DISCONNECT, A Link state is: DISCONNECTED
cmd:b
BEACON EVERY 0 (disabled)
cmd:Echo on
ECHO was ON
cmd:my W1FYM
cmd:Mon off
MONITOR was ON
cmd:daytime 080830143003
cmd:connect K1PL-1
cmd:*** CONNECTED to K1PL-1
[KPC3P-9.1-HM$]
99168 BYTES AVAILABLE IN 4 BLOCK(S)
THERE ARE NO MESSAGES
YOU ARE CONNECTED TO K1PL-1 in CROMWELL, CT FN31po
ENTER COMMAND: B,J,K,L,R,S, or Help >
LM
ENTER COMMAND: B,J,K,L,R,S, or Help >
B
*** DISCONNECTED
cmd:
BBS Message Retrieval Automatically
---------------------------------------------------
30-Aug 14:46:19: Outpost v2.2.2 c27: TNC Session # 50
---------------------------------------------------


cmd:D
Can't DISCONNECT, A Link state is: DISCONNECTED
cmd:b
BEACON EVERY 0 (disabled)
cmd:Echo on
ECHO was ON
cmd:my W1FYM
cmd:Mon off
MONITOR was OFF
cmd:daytime 080830144619
cmd:connect W1EDH-4
cmd:*** CONNECTED to W1EDH-4
[FBB-7.00i-AB1FHMRX$]
W1EDH BBS, Glastonbury.
Hello mac. 963 active messages, last is 27687, last listed is 26710.


Assigned channels:
Ch. 1 (NETWORK) : W1FYM-0 - Sat 30/08/08 14:48
  via : W1EDH-2
Ch. 8 (NETWORK) : K1YON-4 - Sat 30/08/08 14:48
  via : W1EDH-2


      *** Welcome to the W1EDH.CT.USA.NOAM Packet Bulletin Board ***
           *** at Glastonbury, Hartford County, CT [FN31sr] ***



You have 1 redundant message(s).
Please kill them with KM.
(2) W1EDH BBS>
LM


Msg# TSLD Dim To            @ BBS From Date/Time Title                (LC-choice: *)
27667 PYL       113 W1FYM            W1FYM 0829/1947 Demonstration Mail
(2) W1EDH BBS>
B
You have been connected 12s - Computer-time : 0s
Bye, mac, and welcome back.
*** DISCONNECTED
cmd:

Nodes and BBSs in the Northeast.
USA Eastnet/FlexNet Network Destinations
In the USA NorthEastern States Region:
In the USA State of Florida:


Rev. 08/13/07


 The following list of known destination calls are ax25 packet systems that
*may* be linked to the FlexNet network. Most of these destinations calls are
nodes running PC/FlexNet-Digi or Xnet software. Others are non FlexNet systems
as indicated.
 Please note: Calls in this destination call list will *only* be included in
network destination tables if they are currently operational and a route to
them exist.
Destinations within the Northeastern States Region:

Western Massachusetts Region:
CALL     SSID            USER           NOTES       AREA LOCATION
N1URO    145.01            WMA Springfield. Hampden County, MA
"        1-5             -1 Flexnet Hub -2 DXNet -3 URONode/axMail -4 LinFBB -5 DXSpider
"         6-8   3Net/xnet 145.01 user
"        9-9    3Net/xnet RF 9k6 link to K1YON-2
"        10-10 LinuxXnet
"        11-11 Convers
"        14-14 MFNOS Mail/Gateway/FlexIP router



Connecticut Region:
K1YON    2-4    145.07 -4=BBS       CT E Hartland, Hartford County, CT
KD1RY    2-4    145.03 -4=BBS-0=HFGate CT Bethel, Fairfield County, CT
N4GAA    441.05            CT West Haven, New Haven County, NY
"        3-3    URONode
"         4-4   LinFBB
"        7-7    X1J4 NetRom Node 441.05 1k2 with link to W1HAD
"        11-11 Convers
"        15-15 LinuxXNet
W1EDH     0-4   145.09 -4=BBS        CT Glastonbury, Hartford Cty, CT
W1HAD     0-7   145.05 -4=BBS        CT Shelton, Fairfield County, CT
W1WCG     0-0   145.05 -4=BBS-0=HFGate CT North Haven, New Haven Cty, CT
W1WCG     2-5   145.05 -4=BBS-0=HFGate CT North Haven, New Haven Cty, CT
WX1CT    7-14 145.09             CT Bridgeport, Fairfield Cty, CT



New York – Long Island Region:
K1IMD     2-8   144.91 BBS=WA2PNU-4         LI Jamesport, Suffolk Cty, NY
K2APL    12-12 145.05 -4=BBS            NYC Queens County, NY
KB2VLX    0-4   145.05 -4=BBS        NYC East Bronx County, NY
KC2COJ   0-15 145.05 -4=BBS IPGate NYC Far Rockaway, Queens County, NY
CALL     SSID             USER       NOTES         AREA LOCATION
N2NEI    0-12 145.07 -4=BBS          LI Wainscott, Suffolk Cty, NY
N2NSA    1-1    NetLnks     IPGate NYC Far Rockaway, Queens County, NY
N2NSA     9-15 NetLnks BBS=KB2VLX-4         NYC Manhattan, New York Cty, NY
N2RQ     0-7    145.01 -4=BBS       NLI East Meadow, Nasssau County, NY
NY2LI    0-7    145.05           LI Yaphank, Suffolk Cty, NY
NY2LI    8-15 147.03             LI Hauppague, Suffolk Cty, NY
WA2GUG   10-10 Telpack node via KC2COJ LI New Hyde Park, Nassau County, NY
WB2CIK    0-14 145.07 BBS=WA2PNU-4         LI West Hills, Suffolk, Cty, NY
WA2FNQ    0-15 145.05 -4=BBS          LI Northport, Suffolk, Cty, NY
WA2PNU    0-13 145.99 -4=BBS          LI Huntington, Suffolk, Cty, NY



Eastern New York Region:
K2PUT    0-4    145.61 -4=BBS       ENY Mt Ninham, Carmel, Putnam Cty, NY
KC2CWT   1-1    NetLnks     IPGate ENY Mt Ninham, Carmel, Putnam Cty, NY
W2DMC    0-4    145.51 -4=BBS       ENY Pomona, Rockland County, NY
WB2QJA   0-8    145.05 -4=BBS       ENY White Plains, Westchester Cty, NY
WB2ZII   2-6    145.05 BBS=WB2QJA-4       ENY N Valhalla, Westchester, NY
WB2ZII    9-14 145.09 -1=NOS-14=DXC ENY S Valhalla, Westchester, NY



New Jersey Region:
K2UL     0-15 145.07 -4=BBS          CNJ Hamilton Square, Mercer Cty, NJ
N2QAE     0-4   145.51 -4=BBS        NNJ Schooleys Mtn, Morris County, NJ
NJ2AR     0-14 145.03 -4=BBS          CNJ Lakehurst, Ocean County, NJ
W2LI     2-2    145.05 -4=BBS NetRom NNJ Murray Hill, Union County, NJ
W2LV      0-5   144.91 -4=BBS        NWJ Culvers Lake, Sussex County, NJ
W2ZQ     0-4    145.05 -4=BBS       CNJ W Trenton, Mercer County, NJ
WB2FTX    0-4   NetLnks -4=BBS-0=Pactor NNJ (NNJ NTS) Butler, Morris County, NJ
WB2ONA   1-1    NetLnks      IP Gate CNJ East Brunswick, Middlesex Cty, NJ
WA2SNA   0-4    145.01 -4=BBS       NNJ Wanaque, Passaic County, NJ
WB2SNN   0-14 145.51 -4=BBS          CNJ Sayreville, Middlesex Cty, NJ
Eastern PA Region:
K3YTL          0-15 145.05 BBS=WA3LWR-4             EPA Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne Cty, PA
N3ED           0-0    145.01 via WA3LWR-0-14 EPA Clarks Summit Lackawanna, Cty, PA
WA3LWR         0-14 145.01 -4-BBS DXC=N3ED EPA Scranton, Lackawanna, Cty, PA



Florida:
CALL           SSID            USER          NOTES          AREA LOCATION
#
K2BJG         145.09 -4=BBS           ECFL Palm Bay, Brevard County, FL
"              1-1    LinFBB
"              2-4    -2 Flexnet 145.09 User -4 BBS
"              5-5    LinuxXnet
"              6-6    DXSpider
"              10-10 MFNOS FlexIP router
"              11-11 Convers
"              12-12 URONode/axMail
KA1VRF         0-4    145.09 -4=BBS         ESFL Vero Beach, Indian River Cty, FL
KD4YAL         14-14 LinuxXnet             WCFL Clearwater, Pinellas County, FL
KI4URF        145.01 v N4LEM-2          ECFL Cocoa, Brevard County, FL
"              5-5    URONode/axMail
"              6-6    DXSpider
K4NBR          0-4    144.99 -4=BBS         ECFL Mims, Brevard County, FL
N4LEM          2-4    145.01 -4=BBS         ECFL Cocoa, Brevard County, FL
WA2UPK         2-4    145.07 -4-BBS         CFL Orelando, Orange County, FL
-----
 On a FlexNet network, each FlexNet node uses regular polling of its linked
neighbors to verify that these links are currently available for network
routing. An autorouter at each FlexNet node exchanges network wide routing
data with its FlexNet node neighbors. Whenever link conditions change
anywhere within the network, routing data is updated network wide very
quickly.
 A destination table with current network status info is maintained by each
FlexNet node. It can be displayed by use of the <D>estination command. In
this table all destinations, where the autorouter knows a way to, are shown.


 This destination list can usually be found by use of the <A> command on any
FlexNet-Digi node or within the FBB BBS Users directory of an associated bbs.


 This list is distributed via the Packet Network whenever it has been updated
with new information. Look for a Bulletin, FLXDST @ NESBBS


 This list is maintained by Bob, K2BJG. Please forward: additions,
corrections, etc to: Packet: K2BJG@K2BJG.#ECFL.FL.USA.NOAM
             Internet: k2bjg@cfl.rr.com

FBB User Commands

- Type ? [COMMAND] for HELP with a command.
Examples:
 - type ? H for a list of all the most common commands.
 - type ? O for help on available options (languages, paging etc).
   (Paging is toggled on/off with the OP command)
 - Type ? REQDIR or ? REQFIL for help on these servers.
Remember to press <Enter> or <Return> after each command (hi).

X toggles your status between EXPERT and NORMAL user.
A can be used to abort listings.
I shows information about this system.
Last used message-number can be repeated with the use of the #-character.
Example: R 1235. Next command: K #

List of available commands:
A : Abort      - Abort listing.
B : Bye        - Log off the BBS.
C : Conference - Access to conference.
D : DOS        - Access to FBBDOS, or to download a file.
F : FBB        - Access to the server mode.
G : Gateway    - Access to the other frequences by 'gateway'.
H : Help       - Help.
I : Info       - Information about the system.
J : Jheard     - List of the last few connected stations.
K : Kill       - Kill messages.
L : List       - List messages.
M : Make       - Copy a message to a file.
N : Name       - Change your name.
NZ: Zip        - State your zip-code.
NH: homeBBS    - Type your home-BBS.
O : Option     - Select options (paging, language, list/read personal etc).
PS: Servers    - Show which servers are available in this BBS.
PG:     Program     -   Run (show) certain DOS-programs.
R :     Read        -   Read messages.
S :     Send        -   Send messages.
T :     Talk        -   Talk to SYSOP.
U :     Upload      -   Upload a file to the BBS.
V :     Verbose     -   Verbose read of messages (like R, but with forwarding
                        headers).
W   :   What        -   Which files are available.
X   :   Expert      -   Change between Normal and Expert.
Y   :   Yapp        -   Transfer binary files with the Yapp transfer protocol.
Z   :   Delete      -   Delete a file.
+   :   Append      -   Only for sysops: Append a file after a message.
>   :   Send text   -   To send a text to another station connected to the BBS.
=   :   Connect     -   To connect another station connected to the BBS.
!   :   Info        -   Short version of the I-command.
$   :   Forwarded   -   Only for sysop: Show what BBSs that will receive, or
                        already have received a message.
* : Wildcard        -   Many possibilities, like @,?,#,=,*

For detailed help on each command, type ? [command].



FBB BBS LIST sub-commands

? List
L-command LISTS all messages in the mailbox.
 L lists all new messages since you last issued a L-command.
 LA lists messages with A-status
 LB lists only bulletins.
 LC for very special listings. See further down..
 LD< YYMMDD list all messages received before the specified date.
 LD> YYMMDD list all messages received after the specified date.
 LE lists messages that could not be forwarded.
 LF lists messages that have been forwarded.
 LH lists held messages.
 LK lists all killed messages
 LM lists all messages TO YOU [List Mine].
 LN lists all UNREAD messages to you [List New].
 LL 10 lists the last 10 messages in the mailbox [List Last].
 LP list personal messages.
 LS [Text] lists messages with [text] in the subject.
 LT lists NTS Traffic messages
 LX lists messages with status X.
 LY lists messages that have been read (status Y)
 L< [callsign] lists messages FROM [callsign].
 L> [callsign] lists messages TO [callsign].
 L$ lists bulletins with status $
 L@ lists local bulletins with no @BBS-field.
 L@ [callsign] lists messages @[callsign].
 L [message#]- lists ONLY messages with higher number than [messages#].
 L [message#]-[message#] lists all messages between these numbers.
 LU lists all UNREAD messages (status N) to and from you.
 LR lists messages in revers order, starting with the oldest one.
   LR can replace L in most contexts (ex: LR 1-100)

Examples:
- To list messages over #325, type L 325-
- To list messages from #300 to #350, type L 300-350

PS: Check number of active messages before doing a list-command, to avoid
  listing every messages in the system. This is easy to check with the
  V-command.

								
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