Mission NERD by bbw20691

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 54

									         Mission NERD
Nuclear Energy Rubble-Pile-Asteroid Deflection


             Final Design Review
               ASE 274L/174M
              December 1, 2006
                                                 1
                                                              Corwin Olson



                Mission Overview
  • Need Statement: Find a way to deflect a
    non-Earth-threatening “rubble pile”
    asteroid. Plan a mission to test your
    deflection method.
  • Mission NERD
      – Launch spacecraft containing 1 megaton
        nuclear warhead
      – Travel to, rendezvous with rubble pile asteroid
      – Perform stand-off nuclear detonatation
      – Measure ΔV imparted on asteroid using
        ground based monitors
Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 2
                                                              Corwin Olson



               Criteria for Success
  •   Launch
  •   Burn for trajectory
  •   Rendezvous
  •   Detonation
  •   Tracking




Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 3
                                                                                                Corwin Olson


                          Team Organization
                                                                       - Administrative tasks
                                              Team Lead                - Spacecraft Systems:
                                             Corwin Olson              - C&DH
                                                                       - GN&C




  Asteroid and                                          Chief Systems                 Mission Phases
                             Nuclear Specialist
  Orbit Analyst                                           Engineer                      Specialist
                              Sergei Reznikov
 Michelle De Leon                                       Charlie Rogers                 Andy Chan



- Asteroid selection         - Deflection method      - Spacecraft systems:        - Launch (including
- Asteroid orbital           determination            - Power                      booster selection)
mechanics                    - Nuclear Warhead        - Thermal                    - Mission Timing
-Asteroid Tracking and       selection                - Communications             - Coordinating pre-
ground analysis              - Needed Warhead Yield   - Structure                  launch, in-flight, and
- Spacecraft orbital         determination                                         post detonation mission
mechanics                    -Warhead payload                                      events
-Nuclear energy effects      design
on asteroid


Introduction              Asteroid        Nuclear      Mission Phases              Spacecraft Systems 4
                                                              Corwin Olson



                          Schedule




Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 5
                                                                                            Corwin Olson



                                       Budget
     Category               Item                 Total Hours       Hourly Rate        Total Cost

   Team Members          Team Lead                  100             $35/hour           $3500

                   Asteroid Orbit Analyst           100             $30/hour           $3000

                  Chief Systems Engineer            100             $30/hour           $3000

                     Nuclear Specialist             100             $30/hour           $3000

                  Mission Phases Specialist         100             $30/hour           $3000

     Equipment        Computer Usage                 80             $30/hour           $2400

                          Printing                  N/A               N/A                $15

                       Miscellaneous                N/A               N/A               $100

     Consulting      Dr. Wallace Fowler              20            $120/hour           $1800

                        Brent Barbee                 2             $100/hour            $200

                           Others                    10            $120/hour           $1200

       Total                                                                           $21,215

Introduction      Asteroid             Nuclear           Mission Phases          Spacecraft Systems 6
                                                              Corwin Olson

           NASA/Safety/International
               Requirements
  •    NASA Nuclear Launch Safety Approval
       process
  •    NASA General Safety Program Requirements
  •    Environmental impact statement for public
       awareness and legal purposes
  •    NASA Export Control Program (NPR 2190.1)
  •    International Traffic and Arms Regulations
       (ITAR)
  •    Seek exemption for Outer space treaty (1967)

Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 7
                                                            Michelle De Leon



               Rubble-Pile Asteroid
  • Definition:
    A rubble-pile asteroid is a weak aggregate
    of large (boulder-sized) and/or small
    (gravel-size) components held together by
    gravity instead of material strength.

  • Less Dense than Monolithic Asteroids



Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems    8
                                                            Michelle De Leon



           Asteroid Selection Criteria
  •      Safety
  •      Proximity
  •      Rubble-Pile
  •      Size
  •      Heritage



Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems    9
                                                            Michelle De Leon



               Asteroid Candidates
                          Mathilde              Itokawa

   Safety                 No Risk               No Risk

   Proximity              3.350 [AU]            1.6947 [AU]
   (Apohelion)
   Rubble-Pile            Conclusive            Conclusive
                          Evidence              Evidence
   Size                   ~66x48x46 [km]        ~0.5x0.3x0.2 [km]

   Heritage               NEAR Mission          Hayabusa
                                                Mission
Introduction   Asteroid    Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 10
Itokawa




          11
                                                           Michelle De Leon



                           Safety
  • Safety Requirement: The Asteroid does
    not pose a threat to Earth before the
    mission is executed and will not pose a
    threat to Earth after the mission is
    executed.
  • Before: Near Earth Object (NEO) Risk Analysis
    predicts Itokawa will not pose a threat to Earth
    until at least 2080.
  • After: Prediction of orbit for 100 years after
    Standoff Blast

Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 12
                                                              Michelle De Leon



                           Safety
  • Energy Equations:
                                 nE
                                  vv
                                 m

                                 nE
                            v 
                                 mv
                          v f  v  v
      E=energy of nuclear warhead=1Mt=4.184*10^15 [J]
      m=mass of asteroid=3.55*10^10 [kg]
      v=velocity of asteroid at impact=22916 [m/s]
      n=% of nuclear energy imparted to asteroid
      Δv=change in velocity imparted to asteroid

Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear      Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 13
                                                              Michelle De Leon



                           Safety
                                    n%             Min distance [AU]
  • Propagation of orbit                    100                 0.8309
    for 100 years:                            75                0.8285
                                              50                0.8261
                                              25                0.8237
                                              15                0.8228
                                              10                0.8223
                                               5                0.8218
                                             2.5                0.8216
                                               1                0.8215
                                             0.5                0.8214
                                            0.25                0.8214
                                               0                0.8214
Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear    Mission Phases     Spacecraft Systems 14
                                                            Michelle De Leon



                          Rubble Pile
  • Rubble Pile Requirement: Scientific
    evidence must indicate that the test
    asteroid is a rubble-pile asteroid.
  • Rotation Rate
  • Density
  • Boulders



Introduction   Asteroid    Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 15
                                                               Michelle De Leon



                      Rotation Rate
  • For a rubble-pile held together by gravity, there is a
    maximum rotation rate at which the pile would fall apart
    from centrifugal forces.
  • There is a critical period for which a rubble-pile asteroid’s
    period cannot be less than.
                           Prubble  pile  Pcritical
  • For asteroids smaller than 10 km^3, Pcritical = 2.27 hours
  • PItokawa = 12.132 hours > Pcritical




Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear       Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 16
                                                           Michelle De Leon



                          Density
                                                       g
  • The Density of Itokawa is             1.95  0.14
                                                      cm 3

  • Asteroid is composed of low iron chondritic

  • Bulk porosity of 40%




Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 17
                                                                            Michelle De Leon



                             Boulders
  • Large boulders indicate early collision
    break up followed by re-agglomeration into
    rubble pile




                  http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx?c=a&id=3754

Introduction   Asteroid        Nuclear        Mission Phases          Spacecraft Systems 18
                                                             Michelle De Leon



         Asteroid Orbital Mechanics
  • Maximum deflection of asteroid is produced
    by impacting at asteroids highest velocity.
      (11)

  • From Kepler’s 2nd Law:
                             v2 
                               const
                             2  r
    The highest velocity of asteroid occurs at
    perihelion
  • Standoff nuclear detonation will be imparted
    on asteroid perihelion date.

Introduction   Asteroid     Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 19
                                                                                                        Michelle De Leon



                        Spacecraft Trajectory
  •     Lambert Targeting Software COPERNICUS
        optimized launch date and arrival date.                                              Trial 2:

                                Trail 1           Trial 2      Trial 3         Trial 4       Perihelion:
                                                                                             7/27/2016
      Launch Date                  8/20/2015      5/20/2015     6/12/2017       3/18/2017
                                                                                             Earth Distance
      Transfer Time [days]            225.67          382.27             181        300.09
                                                                                             on Arrival:
      Arrival Date                  4/2/2016       6/6/2016     2/27/2018       1/12/2018    1.342 AU
      DVo mag                             4.458     2.047337      3.860597        3.789148   Earth Distance
      DVox                          1.740393        1.809376     -3.833252        -3.62882
                                                                                             on Perihelion
                                                                                             Date:
      DVoy                           -3.62959      -0.159557      0.375971       -0.232172   1.164 AU
      DVoz                          1.916739       -0.944609      0.262742        1.065552

      DVf mag                       5.798217        3.838361      7.290362        7.109751

      DVfx                          2.310154        3.530617      7.162033         3.26433

      DVfy                           -5.06677      -1.505086     -0.698033        -6.09159

      DVfz                          1.615654        0.049777     -1.169361       -1.668907




Introduction                 Asteroid               Nuclear               Mission Phases     Spacecraft Systems 20
Spacecraft Trajectory




Deflection Date Orbits




                         http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/db_shm?sstr=Itokawa&group=all&search=Search
                                                                                                       21
                                                            Sergei Reznikov



                Asteroid Deflection




Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 22
                                                                        Sergei Reznikov



  Overview of Deflection Techniques
 •      Annihilation
       –       Energize asteroid
               •   vaporize it using nuclear methods or
               •   pulverize it using a high-energy kinetic impactor (12)
       –       Good idea, but not enough energy sources currently
               available
 •      Particle dispersion
       –       Disperse into many smaller fragments, so they burn
               up in atmosphere
       –       Energetically feasible given current technology
       –       Will not work for a rubble-pile asteroid




Introduction        Asteroid    Nuclear       Mission Phases     Spacecraft Systems 23
                                                                        Sergei Reznikov



  Overview of Deflection Techniques
 •         Subsurface Nuclear Strike
       –       Place nuclear warhead under asteroid surface (burrow, etc.)
       –       Rubble-piles less dense then monoliths
               •   Sandstone block vs Sandbag
               •   Will not work
 •         Stand Off Nuclear Blast
       –       Rendezvous with asteroid, detonate nuclear warhead
               specified distance away (Clohessy-Wiltshire equations &
               GN&C)
       –       Detonation releases energy, composed of gamma and neutron
               radiation
       –       Outer layer vaporized, blown off to zero pressure off rubble-
               pile, momentum is imparted and deflection occurs
       –       Effectiveness is decreased for a rubble-pile asteroid due to its
               porosity (could be a problem)

Introduction        Asteroid    Nuclear         Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 24
                                                              Sergei Reznikov



               Why Nuclear Stand Off?
 •      Nuclear devices offer the highest energy per
        unit mass of any known system
 •      Simple in mission complexity, short mission
        duration
         –     Fewer things can go wrong
 •      Only requires rendezvous with target
         –     No anchoring


 •      Pre-curser Science Mission to NERD: nuclear
        detonation space-based test

Introduction     Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 25
                                                                          Sergei Reznikov

        Holsapple’s Theory of Nuclear
                 Deflection




               The total momentum imparted to a 1 km asteroid by a 1 Mt
               nuclear bomb as a function of the standoff distance.

Introduction        Asteroid     Nuclear       Mission Phases     Spacecraft Systems 26
                                                                                            Sergei Reznikov

     Holsapple’s Test Parameters and
                 Results
                  Quantity                            Value

 Neutron penetration depth, l                20 cm

 Mean NEO density,                          2.65 g/cm3
                                                                                 l
 NEO diameter (spherical NEO), D             1000.0 m

 Nuclear device yield,                      1 Mt

 Optimal standoff detonation distance, d s   23 m

 Momentum imparted to NEO, P                 1.4*10^10 kg-m/s

 Percent of NEO surface area affected, Ae    2.2%

 Percent of total neutron energy absorbed    35%

 Specific energy below detonation point, Q   1200.0 MJ/kg
                                                                                 
 Energy per unit mass of NEO material, Esp   100 J/kg

 Imparted velocity change, v                1 cm/s




Introduction               Asteroid          Nuclear            Mission Phases       Spacecraft Systems 27
                                                                      Sergei Reznikov



                     Scaled Results
 • NERD will need to scale the results as pertaining to Itokawa.
 • Need a plot of specific momentum as a function of specific
   energy below detonation point for the rubble-pile in question.
 • Special thanks to Keith A. Holsapple & Brent Barbee


                                                              y
                                                      Q
                                                           4d s2 l

                                                      Qactual  Q 1.636

                                                              Q
                                                      pA          2.026 105
                                                             1200

                                                             p A Ae
                                                      v 
                                                              M




Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 28
                                                                                               Sergei Reznikov



            Nuclear Weapon Selection
 • Mk-43 Rocket                                       • W-59 Warhead
                                                        (French Equivalent)




               Width    Length   Weight                           Width    Length    Weight
     Type      (m)      (m)      (kg)       Yield       Type      (m)      (m)       (kg)      Yield


     Bomb        .457     3.81      934.2   1 Mt        Warhead     .414     1.21        250   1 Mt




Introduction            Asteroid            Nuclear   Mission Phases                Spacecraft Systems 29
                                                                     Sergei Reznikov



                                 Problems
 •      Porous materials very effective at
        absorbing energy
         –     Not good for this mission

 •      No way to tell how much energy will be
        transferred from the blast to the asteroid.
         –     Nuclear effect in space is unknown




Introduction      Asteroid       Nuclear     Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 30
                                                            Sergei Reznikov



  Asteroid Deflection Conclusions
 •      1Mt explosion @ 23 m standoff would deflect
        a 1 km non-porous asteroid 1 cm/s with
        1.4*10^10 Kg*m/s of momentum.

 •      NERD will use 1 Mt warhead at ~130 m
        standoff to test deflection of porous asteroid.

 •      Results will fill Hollsapple’s chart with actual
        values pertaining to Itokawa and thus give us
        insight on many other rubble-piles of similar
        density and material.


Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 31
                                                              Corwin Olson



               Deep Space Network
  • Provides radio communications for all of
    NASA's interplanetary spacecraft
  • Continuous 24-hour coverage requires
    several Earth-based stations ~120° apart
    in longitude
  • Acquire data from spacecraft
  • Transmit commands to spacecraft
  • Track spacecraft position and velocity
    (using transponder signal, Doppler shift)

Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 32
                                                                                                        Corwin Olson



                          Booster Selection
                    Ariane 5                           Delta II                 Delta IV Medium
      Cost         $125-155 million **                $36.7 million ***               $140-170 million *

                 scarcely populated and         populated and launched over     populated and launched over
     Safety
                     mainly forested ***                 water or land *                 water or land *

                 Sun-Synchronous, GTO,
   Capabilties                                  GEO, GTO, Polar, and LEO ***    GTO, GEO, Polar, and LEO ***
                      GEO, and LEO ***

    Launch                                     Cape Canaveral (28.5 deg N) &    Cape Canaveral (28.5 deg N) &
                  Equatorial (5°3‘ N) ***
     Site                                         Vandenberg(34.7 deg N) **        Vandenberg(34.7 deg N) **

      Flight       13 / 16 successful          122 / 124 successful launches
                                                                                 3 / 3 successful launches *
     record               launches *                           ***

    Available                                  Cape Canaveral(28.5-51 deg), &   Cape Canaveral(28.5-51 deg) &
                    5.2-100.5 deg ***
  Inclinations                                     Vandenberg(63-120 deg) **       Vandenberg(63-120 deg) **

     Thrust          2,562,800 lbf ***                 699,250 lbf **                   650,000 lbf *

  Total Points              18                               16                              11

                 *-rates importance on a
                  scale of 3 (number of
                          points)



Introduction        Asteroid                Nuclear         Mission Phases               Spacecraft Systems 33
                                                                                            Corwin Olson



                      Characteristics
  •   Ariane 5 G
  •   Height – 46 to 52 m
  •   Diameter - 5.4 m
  •   Liftoff mass - 746 tonnes
  •   Payload mass - 6 tonnes
       – Designed to place payloads
         weighing up to 6 tonnes into
         geostationary transfer orbit

                                       http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Launchers_Access_to_Space/SEM0LR2PGQD_0.html



Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases                        Spacecraft Systems 34
                                                                      Corwin Olson


                  Mission Sequence
  •   Launch window: ±10 days on 5/20/2015
  •   Countdown
  •   Launch
  •   Injection into orbit trajectory and spacecraft separation 27 minutes
      after liftoff
  •   Deploy Solar Arrays
  •   Transfer time: 382.267 days
  •   Spacecraft enters Hibernation mode to conserve energy
  •   Orbit correction burns if necessary
  •   Shortly before arrival: subsystems power up, begin rendezvous
      sequence
  •   Perform final delta V burn
  •   Arrive at Asteroid on 6/6/2016
  •   Asteroid arrives at perihelion on 7/27/2016
  •   Positioning S/C at stand-off distance
  •   Final confirmation
  •   Detonation
  •   Observe new asteroid orbit – Near Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT)
Introduction   Asteroid     Nuclear     Mission Phases       Spacecraft Systems 35
                                                                 Corwin Olson



               Spacecraft Subsystems
   • All modeled after NEAR Spacecraft

   •   Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C)
   •   Command and Data Handling (C&DH)
   •   Communication and Tracking (C&T)
   •   Thermal Control Systems (TCS)
   •   Electrical Power Systems (EPS)
   •   Spacecraft Structure

Introduction    Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 36
                                                                   Corwin Olson



                                 GN&C
   • GNC Subsystem Selection Criteria:
        – Orbit determination (Guidance) and orbit
          control (Propulsion)
        – Attitude Determination and Control
               • Pointing requirements – Specified by EPS, C&T,
                 TCS
        – Relative navigation with asteroid




Introduction      Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 37
                                                                                      Corwin Olson


                                       GN&C
     • NEAR GN&C System


                                                         (Four)

                                                              Seven 4.5 N Attitude Control Thrusters
4 Hemispherical Gyros
                                                              Four 22 N Fine Velocity Thrusters
    4 Accelerometers
                                                              One 450 N Large Velocity Thruster




 Introduction           Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases        Spacecraft Systems 38
                                                                Corwin Olson


                              GN&C
   • Transponder Signal to Earth for State
   • Hayabusa LIDAR (Laser Altimeter) for
     Relative navigation with asteroid




Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 39
                                                                Corwin Olson



                              C&DH
• C&DH Subsystem
  Requirements/Selection Criteria:
• 2 main functions:
     – Send and receive commands
     – Process mission data for downlink or use on-
       board
• Additional functions:
     – Spacecraft time keeping
     – Health Monitoring (watchdog timers)
     – Security

Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 40
                                                                   Corwin Olson


                                 C&DH
   • NEAR C&DH System
        – Hardware (fully redundant, two mech.
          Assem., Honeywell):
               • Command & Telemetry Processors (CTP)
                 Assemblies
               • 1553B data buses (Military Standard)
               • Solid-State Data Recorders
               • EEPROM (within boards of CTP assemblies)
        – Software



Introduction      Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 41
                                                                Corwin Olson


                                C&T
   • Requirements:
        – be able to transmit/receive data to/from
          ground station (DSN) at all times in the
          mission after launch

   • Component Selection Criteria:
        – spacecraft’s distance from Earth
        – sun-spacecraft-Earth geometry
        – How much information will need to be
          sent/received (how complex the spacecraft is
          and if it’s doing any science)

Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 42
                                                                Corwin Olson


                                C&T
• NEAR Telecommunication System

• 2 Low Gain Antennas
• Fanbeam Antenna
  (medium gain)
• High Gain Antenna
• X-band (7.2-GHz
  uplink/8.4-GHz
  downlink)




Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 43
                                                                 Corwin Olson


                                 TCS
   • Requirements:
        – protect hardware from damage
        – minimize heat transfer from high power devices (e.g.
          solar arrays) to other components


   • Component Selection Criteria:
        –   passive vs. active control
        –   cost
        –   power consumption
        –   hardware temperature sensitivity
        –   mass

Introduction    Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 44
                                                                Corwin Olson


                                TCS
• NEAR TCS:
    – Passive control devices:
         • Heat radiated to space through louvers
         • Thermal Coating
         • Multilayer Insulation
    – Active Control Devices:
         • Heaters used for batteries
         • Controlled with Resistive
           Temperature Device (RTD)
           input


Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 45
                                                                  Corwin Olson


                                  EPS
   • Requirements:
        –   Sufficient power for all mission phases
        –   Load shedding capability for critical power levels
        –   Continuous power source
        –   Power storage
        –   Excess power redirection


   • Component Selection Criteria:
        –   Cost
        –   Efficiency
        –   Total Output
        –   Mass

Introduction     Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 46
                                                                   Corwin Olson


                                   EPS
   • NEAR EPS (almost):
        – Bus Voltage Regulator
        – Power Control Unit (PCU)
        – Nickel Cadmium Batteries
        – Two 1.83 x 12.2 m Gallium Arsenide Solar
          arrays
               • Power supplied: 940 W ±100W > 327.5 W
                 required nominally – recharge batteries




Introduction      Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 47
                                                                Corwin Olson


               Spacecraft Structure
   • Requirements:
        – Three axis stability
        – Sufficient support for nuclear payload
        – Rigid enough to prevent thermal warping


   • Component Selection Criteria:
        – Mission heritage (NEAR, Hayabusa,
          Clementine)
        – Mass
        – Cost
Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 48
                                                                Corwin Olson


               Spacecraft Structure
   • Similar to NEAR:
   • Body surface, aft deck composed of
     aluminum honeycomb




Introduction   Asteroid   Nuclear   Mission Phases   Spacecraft Systems 49
                                                                        Corwin Olson



                             Mass Budget
                              Mass Totals by Subsystem
                  Component                                Mass (kg)
                  Instruments                                 5.1
          Propulsion (no propellant)                         118.2
                    Batteries                                 42
                   Telecomm                                  18.4
               Guidance & Control                            34.9
         Command & Data Handling                             18.7
                  Mechanical                                 198.8
                    Thermal                                   11
                    Harness                                  38.8
                      Total                                  485.9

Introduction      Asteroid      Nuclear   Mission Phases     Spacecraft Systems 50
                                                                     Corwin Olson



                           Power Budget
                           Power Totals by Subsystem
                Component                               Power (W)
          Structures & Mechanisms                          14
                   Power                                   50
                   C&DH                                    45
                   Comm                                    61
               Attitude Control                           57.5
                  Thermal                                 100
                    Total                                 327.5




Introduction    Asteroid     Nuclear   Mission Phases     Spacecraft Systems 51
                                                                            Corwin Olson



                       Financial Budget
                                  Financial Totals
                                                           Amount ($ mil)
               Spacecraft Systems                               80
                  Construction                                  35
                     MODA                                       10
                   Man Hours                                     5
                      Total                                     130




Introduction      Asteroid     Nuclear    Mission Phases       Spacecraft Systems 52
                                                    References
1.    Wilkins, Peter A. Computer rendering of asteroid model using Lightwave software (11/2005)
2.    NASA Procedural Requirements 8020.12C – Planetary Protection Provisions for Robotic Extraterrestrial Missions (10/06/2006)
3.    NASA’s Coordinate Nuclear Launch Safety Approval (NLSA) Process (1/17/2006)
4.    NASA Procedural Requirements 8715.3A (10/11/2006)
5.    NASA Procedural Requirements 2190.1 (10/11/2006)
6.    “The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology Astronomy and Spaceflight,” http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/R/rubble-pile_asteroid.html Accessed Sept. 15, 2006.
7.    “Neo Dys Risk Page” http://newton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/neodys/neoibo?riskpage:0;main, Accessed Oct. 11, 2006
8.    “Evidence for Rubble Pile Asteroids,” http://www.boulder.swri.edu/~bottke/rubble/node2.html#SECTION00020000000000000000 Accesed Sept. 15, 2006.
9.    “Mass and Local Topography Measurements of Itokawa by Hayabusa,” http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/312/5778/1344, Accessed Nov. 20, 2006
10.   “The Rubble-Pile Asteroid Itokawa as Observed by Hayabusa,” http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/312/5778/1330 Accessed Oct. 18, 2006
11.   Brent Barbie Thesis
12.   “The NEAR Guidance and Control System,” Thomas E. Strikwerda, J. Courtney Ray, David R. Haley, http://near.jhuapl.edu/tech_digest/strikw.pdf Accessed Nov.
      29, 2006
13.   “LIDAR in Hayabusa Mission,” Takahide Mizuno, Katsuhiko Tsuno, Eisuke Okumura, https://escies.org/GetFile?rsrcid=2451 Accessed Nov. 29, 2006
14.   “The NEAR Command and Data Handling System”, JOHNS HOPKINS APL TECHNICAL DIGEST, VOLUME 19, NUMBER 2 (1998) 220, David D.Scott, David A.
      Artis, Brian K. Heggestad, Jerry E. Kroutil, Robert O. Krueger, Lloyd A. Linstrom, James A. Perschy, Paul D. Schwartz, and Glen F. Sweitzer,
      http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/NEARdb/documents/mission/cdhs.txt Accessed Nov. 29, 2006.
15.   “25143 Itokawa” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25143_Itokawa, Accessed Oct. 10, 2006
16.   “Asteroid’s a ball of rubble” http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/2006/1653705.htm, Accessed Oct. 10, 2006
17.   “Near Earth Object Program” http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/db_shm?sstr=Itokawa , Accessed Oct. 10, 2006
18.   “The Deflection of Menacing Rubble Pile Asteroids”, Keith A. Holsapple, http://keith.aa.washington.edu/papers/mitigation.pdf date accessed Oct. 12th 2006.
19.   “The Clohessy Wiltshire equations (CW), Hills Equations”, http://ccar.colorado.edu/asen5050/lecture12.pdf, date accessed Sept 29th.
20.   “Optimal Impulsive Deflection of Near Earth Objects and Mission Planning for Threatening NEO Mitigation”, Brent Barbee, date accessed Oct 16th.
21.   “List of all U.S. Nuclear Weapons”, http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Weapons/Allbombs.html, date accesed Oct 6th.
22.   “Whacking and Zapping Squashy NEO’s”, http://www.planetarydefense.info/resources/pdf/holsapple.pdf, date accessed Nov 16th.
23.   Isakowitz, S. J., Hopkins, J. B., Hopkins Jr., J. P., International Reference Guide to Space Launch Systems, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
      Reston, Virginia, 2004
24.   NASA Deep Space Network, http://deepspace.jpl.nasa.gov/dsn/index.html, date accessed: October 17th, 2006
25.   “Hayabusa Landed on and Took Off from Itokawa successfully, Detailed Analysis Revealed,” Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,
      http://www.isas.ac.jp/e/snews/2005/1124_hayabusa.shtml, October 16, 2006.
26.   “Telemetry, Tracking & Command Subsystems,” Ulysses – Spacecraft Antennae, http://ulysses-ops.jpl.esa.int/ulsfct/spacecraft/hga.html, October 12, 2006.
27.   “Analog-to-Digital Converter,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog_to_digital_converter, October 5, 2006.
28.   “An Evaluation of Thermally-Induced Structural Disturbances of Spacecraft Solar
      Arrays,”http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel3/4058/11973/00552835.pdf?arnumber=552835, October 16, 2006.
29.   “Aluminum Honeycomb Panels,” Portatab, http://www.portafab.com/aluminum_honeycomb_panels.shtml
30.   Larson, Wiley J. and James R. Wertz, ed. Space Mission Analysis and Design, 2nd ed. Dordrecht: W.J. Larson and Microcosm, 1992.
31.   “Near Spacecraft and Instrumentation,” http://near.jhuapl.edu/PDF/SC_Inst.pdf
32.   “Spacecraft bus regulation using solar panel position,” http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5394075.html, Accessed October 24, 2006.
33.   “Spacecraft Multi-Layer Insulation,” http://www.rossie.com/mli.htm, October 24, 2006.
34.   “Delta IV rocket”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delta_IV_rocket, date accessed Nov 12th
35.   Isakowitz, S. J., Hopkins, J. B., Hopkins Jr., J. P., International Reference Guide to Space Launch Systems, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
      Reston, Virginia, 2004
36.   “ESA Launchers”, http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Launchers_Access_to_Space/ASEVLU0TCNC_0.html, date accessed Nov 10th
37.   “Delta II”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delta_II, date accessed Nov 10th
38.   “Delta II Launch Vehicle”, http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=97, date accessed Nov 20th
39.   “Delta IV Medium”, http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/deledium.htm, date accessed Nov 27th
40.   “Arianespace”, http://www.arianespace.com/site/spaceport/ariane5_sub_index.html, date accessed Nov 27th
41.   “Cost Estimating Website”, http://www1.jsc.nasa.gov/bu2/MOCM.html, date accessed Nov 27th
42.   “Optimal Impulsive Deflection of Near Earth Objects and Mission Planning for Threatening NEO Mitigation”, Brent Barbee, date accessed Nov 16th.


                                                                                                                                                                         53
              The End
• No Questions

• Visit our website:
  http://www.ae.utexas.edu/~olsoncg/




                                       54

								
To top