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									        CHAPTER TWO
SPACE APPLICATIONS
                          CHAPTER TWO
               SPACE APPLICATIONS




                              Introduction

     From NASA’s inception, the application of space research and tech-
nology to specific needs of the United States and the world has been a pri-
mary agency focus. The years from 1979 to 1988 were no exception, and
the advent of the Space Shuttle added new ways of gathering data for
these purposes. NASA had the option of using instruments that remained
aboard the Shuttle to conduct its experiments in a microgravity environ-
ment, as well as to deploy instrument-laden satellites into space. In addi-
tion, investigators could deploy and retrieve satellites using the remote
manipulator system, the Shuttle could carry sensors that monitored the
environment at varying distances from the Shuttle, and payload special-
ists could monitor and work with experimental equipment and materials
in real time.
     The Shuttle also allowed experiments to be performed directly on
human beings. The astronauts themselves were unique laboratory ani-
mals, and their responses to the microgravity environment in which they
worked and lived were thoroughly monitored and documented.
     In addition to the applications missions conducted aboard the Shuttle,
NASA launched ninety-one applications satellites during the decade,
most of which went into successful orbit and achieved their mission
objectives. NASA’s degree of involvement with these missions varied. In
some, NASA was the primary participant. Some were cooperative mis-
sions with other agencies. In still others, NASA provided only launch
support. These missions are identified in this chapter.
     Particularly after 1984, NASA’s role in many applications missions
complied with federal policy to encourage the commercial use of space
and to privatize particular sectors of the space industry, while keeping
others under government control.1 Congress supported President Ronald


    1
     See Title VII, “Land Remote-Sensing Commercialization Act of 1984,”
Public Law 98–365, 98th Cong., 2d sess., July 17, 1984; “National Space
Strategy,” White House Fact Sheet, August 15, 1984.


                                      11
12                 NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

Reagan’s proposal to move land remote sensing (Landsat) to the private
sector but insisted that meteorological satellite activities remain a gov-
ernment enterprise. Legislation spelled out intentions of Congress in
these areas.
    This chapter discusses the applications missions that were launched
from 1979 through 1988 in which NASA had a role. It also addresses
other major missions that NASA developed during the decade but were
not launched until later.

The Last Decade Reviewed (1969–1978)

     From 1969 to 1978, NASA added monitoring the state of the envi-
ronment to its existing applications programs in advanced communica-
tions and meteorology research. Geodetic research was a fourth
responsibility. The Office of Applications divided these areas of respon-
sibility into four program areas (called by different names during the
decade): weather, climate, and environmental quality; communications;
Earth resources survey; and Earth and ocean dynamics.

Meteorology

    NASA conducted advanced research and development activities in
the field of meteorology and served as launch vehicle manager for the
fleet of operational satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA). In addition, NASA actively participated in the
Global Atmospheric Research Program, an international meteorological
research effort.
    NASA’s major meteorology projects consisted of TIROS (Television
Infrared Observation Satellite), the Synchronous Meteorological
Satellites (SMS), and Nimbus. TIROS began with the ESSA 9 polar-
orbiting satellite in 1969. The decade ended with the 1978 launch of
TIROS N, a new TIROS prototype. This satellite preceded the group of
NOAA satellites that NASA would launch in the following decade. The
advantage of SMS over TIROS was its ability to provide daytime and
nighttime coverage from geostationary orbit. NASA funded and managed
the SMS project but turned it over to NOAA for its operations. Following
SMS 1 and 2, this operational satellite was called Geostationary
Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Three GOES satellites
were launched through 1978.

Communications

    NASA’s research and development activities during this decade were
limited to the joint NASA-Canadian Communications Technology
Satellites (CTS) and experiments flown on Applications Technology
Satellites (ATS). CTS demonstrated that powerful satellite systems could
bring low-cost television to remote areas almost anywhere on the globe.
                        SPACE APPLICATIONS                          13

The remaining fifty-eight communications satellites NASA launched
were operational satellites that provided commercial communications,
military network support, or aids to navigation. NASA provided the
launch vehicles, the necessary ground support, and initial tracking and
data acquisition on a reimbursable basis. During this period, NASA
expanded its communications satellite launching service to include for-
eign countries, the amateur ham radio community, and the U.S. military.
The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat),
established in August 1964, was the largest user of NASA communica-
tions launch services.

Applications Technology Satellites

     The ATS program investigated and flight-tested technology common
to a number of satellite applications. NASA launched six ATS spacecraft
during the 1970s. These spacecraft carried a variety of communications,
meteorology, and scientific experiments. ATS 1 and ATS 3, launched in
1966 and 1967, respectively, provided service into the 1980s.

Earth Observations

    The Earth Observations program emphasized the development of
techniques to survey Earth resources and changes to those resources
and to monitor environmental and ecological conditions. It consisted of
three projects: (1) Skylab; (2) the Earth Resources Survey program,
consisting of specially equipped aircraft that tested cameras and
remote-sensing equipment; and (3) the Earth Resources Technology
Satellite (ERTS) program, later renamed Landsat. ERTS and Landsat
spacecraft were the first satellites devoted exclusively to monitoring
Earth’s resources.
    The Skylab project was a series of four orbital workshops that were
occupied by astronaut crews. A primary objective was to study the long-
term effects of weightlessness on humans. In addition, crew members
conducted experiments in many discipline areas, providing investigators
with hundreds of thousands of images, photographs, and data sets.
    An ERTS/Landsat-type program was first conceived in the 1960s.
The program grew with input from the Department of Agriculture, the
U.S. Geological Survey, NASA, the Department of the Interior, the
Department of Commerce, and academia. NASA’s efforts focused on
sensor development, and the agency launched ERTS 1 in 1972, fol-
lowed by three Landsat satellites—all of which surpassed their pre-
dicted operational lifetimes. Investigators applied satellite data
obtained from sensors aboard these satellites to agriculture, forestry,
and range resources; cartography and land use; geology; water
resources; oceanography and marine resources; and environmental
monitoring.
14                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

Other Earth Observation Activities

     NASA launched five other Earth-observation-type missions during
the 1970s: Seasat 1, a satellite designed to predict ocean phenomena; the
Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS), which demonstrated the capa-
bility of laser satellite tracking techniques to accurately determine the
movement of Earth’s crust and rotational motions; GEOS 3, which stud-
ied Earth’s shape and dynamic behavior; TOPO 1 for the U.S. Army
Topographic Command; and the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, which
was the first in a series of applications explorer missions. All were suc-
cessful except Seasat 1, which failed 106 days after launch.

Space Applications (1979–1988)

    As in the previous decade, most of the applications missions that NASA
launched from 1979 to 1988 were commercial missions or missions that
were managed by other government agencies. Table 2–1 lists all of the appli-
cations satellites that NASA launched during this decade. Only the
Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE or AEM-2) and the
Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat or AEM-C), both of which were part of the
Applications Explorer Mission (AEM), and the Earth Radiation Budget
Satellite (ERBS) were NASA satellites. NASA’s other applications missions
took place aboard the Space Shuttle. Table 2–2 lists these missions.
Additional applications experiments conducted on the Shuttle are discussed
under the appropriate STS mission in Chapter 3, “Space
Transportation/Human Spaceflight,” in Volume V of the NASA Historical
Data Book.

Environmental Observations

     NASA launched two satellites as part of its Applications Explorer
Mission. SAGE, launched from Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia, in
February 1979, profiled aerosol and ozone content in the stratosphere. The
satellite observed the violent eruptions of the volcano La Soufriere in the
Caribbean in April 1979, the Sierra Negra volcanic eruption on the
Galapagos Islands, and the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Magsat, launched
later in 1979, was part of NASA’s Resource Observations program.
     NASA’s other environmental observations missions consisted of two
series of meteorological satellites that were developed, launched, and
operated in conjunction with NOAA. The new polar-orbiting series of
satellites succeeded the TIROS system. This two-satellite weather satellite
system obtained and transmitted morning and afternoon weather data. The
GOES series continued the group of geosynchronous satellites that began
with SMS in the 1970s. Also intended to operate with two satellites, one
located near the east coast of the United States and the other near the west
coast, GOES provided almost continuous coverage of large areas.
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                             15

     In addition, Nimbus 5, launched in 1972, continued to operate until
April 1983. Nimbus 6, launched in 1975, ceased operations in September
1983. Nimbus 7, launched in October 1978, provided useful data until the
end of 1984. Its Total Ozone Monitoring System (TOMS) provided the
first global maps of total ozone with high spatial and temporal resolution.
This was the first time investigators could study short-period dynamic
effects on ozone distribution. A series of these measurements provided
information related to long-term, globally averaged ozone changes in the
atmosphere of both natural and human origin.
     NASA also continued to participate in the Global Weather
Experiment as part of the Global Atmospheric Research Program. The
goal of the program was to devise a way to improve satellite weather fore-
casting capabilities.
     In 1984, NASA launched the ERBS, the first part of a three-satellite
system comprising the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE).
(Other ERBE instruments flew on NOAA 9 and NOAA 10.) Part of
NASA’s climate observing program, ERBS data allowed scientists to
increase their understanding of the physical processes that governed the
interaction of clouds and radiation.
     The effects of ozone on the upper atmosphere received increasing
attention during the 1980s. The Nimbus series of satellites continued to
provide data on ozone levels from its backscatter ultraviolet instrument.
The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellites (UARS) program, which
NASA initiated with an Announcement of Opportunity in 1978, also
moved ahead. The program would make integrated, comprehensive, long-
term measurements of key parameters and would improve investigators’
abilities to predict stratospheric perturbations.
     NASA reported to Congress and the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency in January 1982 (as required by the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1977) its assessment of what was known about key
processes in the stratosphere, especially about the effect of human-pro-
duced chemicals on the ozone layer. This assessment was developed
from the findings of a workshop sponsored by NASA and the World
Meteorological Organization, in which approximately 115 scientists
from thirteen countries participated. The scientists concluded that a
continued release of chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12 (Freon-11 and -12)
at 1977 rates would decrease total global ozone by 5 to 9 percent by
about the year 2100, but the effects of other changes in atmospheric
composition could modify that result.
     During 1984, Congress approved the UARS mission, and work
began on the observatory and ground data-handling segments of the pro-
gram. UARS, initially scheduled for launch in late 1989 and later moved
to 1991, would be the first satellite capable of simultaneous measure-
ments of the energy input, chemical composition, and dynamics of the
stratosphere and mesosphere. The discovery of an Antarctic ozone hole
in 1985 and Arctic ozone depletion in 1988 further emphasized the
urgency of the mission.
16                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

Resource Observations

     NASA launched the Magsat satellite in October 1979. Magsat was
part of the Applications Explorer Mission and the first spacecraft specif-
ically designed to conduct a global survey of Earth’s vector magnetic
field. Placed into a significantly lower orbit than previous magnetic field-
measuring satellites, it provided more detailed and precise information
about the nature of magnetic anomalies within Earth’s crust than earlier
missions and improved large-scale models of crustal geology.
     Data obtained through remote sensing from space attracted a growing
number of government and private-sector users during this decade. New
ground stations were brought on-line and began receiving data transmit-
ted from the Landsat satellites. Remote-sensing techniques were also
used for geologic mapping as part of the NASA-Geosat Test Case Project,
a joint research project with private industry. The results indicated that an
analysis of remote-sensing measurements could yield geological infor-
mation not commonly obtained by conventional field mapping.
     President Jimmy Carter announced in 1979 that NOAA would man-
age all space-based operational civilian remote-sensing activities. NASA
would continue its involvement in these activities, centered primarily in
the Landsat program, through the launch and checkout of the spacecraft.
The Land Remote-Sensing Commercialization Act of 1984, passed dur-
ing the Reagan administration, moved remote-sensing activities from the
public to the private sector. In accordance with this legislation, the Earth
Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT) was chosen to begin operating
the Landsat system. EOSAT initiated the development of a satellite-
receiving center and an operations and control center that captured and
processed data and flight control for the next-generation Landsat 6 and
future spacecraft.
     NASA launched Landsat 4 and Landsat 5 in 1982 and 1984, respec-
tively. The Thematic Mapper instrument aboard these satellites, devel-
oped by NASA, provided data in several additional spectral bands and
had better than twice the resolution of the Multispectral Scanner, which
was the instrument used on earlier Landsat spacecraft. The satellites were
turned over to NOAA following their checkout and to EOSAT after it
assumed operation of the system.
     Congress approved the AgRISTARS project in 1979. This multi-
agency project—NASA, the Department of Agriculture, the Department
of the Interior, NOAA, and the Agency for International Development—
was to develop and test the usefulness of remote sensing for providing
timely information to the Department of Agriculture. NASA was respon-
sible for the selected research and development, exploratory and pilot
testing, and support in areas in which it had specialized capabilities. It
served as the lead agency for the Supporting Research project and the
Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting project, both of which
involved using remote-sensing techniques related to crop production and
development. In 1982, Congress reduced the scope of AgRISTARS to
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                               17

focus it primarily on the Department of Agriculture’s priority needs.
NASA phased out its participation in 1984, but the space agency also con-
ducted investigations in geodynamics and materials processing during
this period.

Communications

     From 1979 to 1988, NASA’s role in the communications satellite
field was primarily as a provider of launch services. The agency launched
sixty-five operational communications satellites. Operational satellites
included: ten Intelsat, four Westar, eight RCA Satcom, four Satellite
Business Systems (SBS), one Comstar, three Telstar, five Anik/Telesat
(Canada), one Arabsat (Saudi Arabia), two Morelos (Mexico), and two
Aussat (Australia). The government of India reimbursed NASA for the
launch of two Insat satellites, and the Republic of Indonesia paid for the
launch of three Palapa satellites. NASA launched one NATO defense-
related communications satellite. For the U.S. Department of Defense
(DOD), NASA launched six Fleet Satellite Communications (Fltsatcom)
satellites (U.S. Navy and Air Force) and four Leasat/Syncom satellites. In
addition, NASA launched seven navigation satellites for the U.S. Navy:
four SOOS and three Nova satellites. It also launched four other DOD
communications satellites with classified missions.
     These commercial missions enabled NASA to use some of its launch
capabilities for the first time. SBS-1 was the first to use the Payload Assist
Module (PAM) in place of a conventional third stage. The launch of SBS-
3 marked the first launch from the Shuttle’s cargo bay.
     NASA’s communications activities centered around its Search and
Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking system (SARSAT), its development of
the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), its contin-
ued work on its mobile satellite program, and its development of an infor-
mation systems program to handle the huge quantities of data returned
from space missions. In addition, NASA’s ATS program carried over into
the 1980s. ATS 1, launched in 1966, and ATS 3, launched in 1967, con-
tinued to provide important communications services, especially in areas
unreachable by more traditional means. ATS 1 operated until it was shut
down in October 1985; ATS 3 was still operating into 1996.
     SARSAT was an ongoing international project that used satellite
technology to detect and locate aircraft and vessels in distress. The United
States, the Soviet Union, Canada, and France developed the system.
Norway, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Finland, Bulgaria, Denmark, and
Brazil were other participants. The Soviet Union contributed a series of
COSPAS satellites, beginning with the launch of COSPAS 1 in 1982. This
was the first spacecraft that carried instruments specifically to determine
the position of ships and aircraft in distress. It was interoperable with the
SARSAT equipment on U.S. satellites and ground stations. During the
1980s, the United States operated instruments on NOAA’s polar-orbiting
spacecraft. The first was NOAA 8, which launched in March 1983.
18                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

The system became fully operational in 1984 and succeeded in saving
more than 1,000 lives during the 1980s.
     Work on NASA’s ACTS began in 1984. ACTS was to allow large
numbers of U.S. companies, universities, and government agencies to
experiment with spot beams, hopping beams, and switchboard-in-the-sky
concepts that were to enter the marketplace by the mid-1990s. The mis-
sion was originally planned to launch in 1988 but was delayed until
September 1993. The program was canceled and resurrected several
times; it was restructured in 1988 in response to congressional direction
to contain costs.
     The joint mobile satellite program among NASA, U.S. industry, and
other government agencies was to provide two-way, satellite-assisted com-
munication with a variety of vehicles in the early 1990s. As of the close of
1988, international frequencies had been allocated, and licensing approval
by the Federal Communications Commission was expected shortly.
     NASA’s information systems program, which had become part of the
newly formed Communications and Information Systems Division in
1987, operated large-scale computational resources used for data analy-
sis. It also worked with specialized programs to establish data centers for
managing and distributing data and developed computer networks and
exploited advanced technologies to access and process massive amounts
of data acquired from space missions. NASA established the National
Science Space Data Center at the Goddard Space Flight Center to archive
data from science missions and coordinate management of NASA data at
distributed data centers.

Management of the Applications Program at NASA

     From 1971, NASA managed applications missions independently
from science missions, first through the Office of Applications and then,
from 1977, through the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications
(OSTA). In November 1981, OSTA and the Office of Space Science
merged into the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA).
     OSTA’s objective was to “conduct research and development activi-
ties that demonstrate and transfer space-related technology, systems and
other capabilities which can be effectively used for down-to-earth practi-
cal benefits.”2 It was divided into divisions for materials processing in
space, communications and information systems, environmental observa-
tion, research observation, and technology transfer (Figure 2–1). Anthony
J. Calio, who had assumed the position of associate administrator in
October 1977, continued leading OSTA until the new OSSA was formed.
John Carruthers led the Materials Processing in Space Division until mid-
1981, when Louis R. Testardi became acting division director. John


     “Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications,” Research and Development
     2


Fiscal Year 1981 Estimates, Budget Summary (Washington, DC: NASA, 1981).
                                   SPACE APPLICATIONS                                                         19


                              Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications


                                         Associate Administrator for
                                            Space and Terrestrial
                                                Applications

                                   Deputy Associate
                                    Adminsitrator         Chief Scientist
                                     (Programs)



             Peoples Republic of                                             Administration and
            China Program Office                                             Management Office




    Materials         Communications          Environmental          Resource                Technology
  Processing in       and Information          Observation          Observation           Transfer Division
  Space Division      Systems Division          Division             Division




                   Figure 2–1. Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications

McElroy served as director of the Communications Division until late
1980, when Robert Lovell became division chief. Pitt Thome led the
Resource Observation Division, Floyd Roberson served as director of the
Technology Transfer Division, and Lawrence Greenwood led the
Environmental Observation Division.
     Andrew Stofan, who had been head of the Office of Space Science,
became associate administrator of the new OSSA until he was replaced
by Burton Edelson in February 1982. Edelson remained at the post until
he resigned in February 1987. Lennard A. Fisk was appointed to the posi-
tion in April of that year.
     Initially, two OSSA divisions and two offices handled applications—
the Environmental Observation and Communications Divisions and the
Information Systems and Materials Processing Offices (Figure 2–2). The
Information Systems Office was responsible for NASA’s long-term data
archives, institutional computer operations in support of ongoing research
programs, and advanced planning and architecture definition for future
scientific data systems. Anthony Villasenor served as acting manager of
this office until Caldwell McCoy, Jr., assumed the position of manager in
1983. McCoy held the post until the office merged with the
Communications Division in 1987.
     Robert Lovell led the Communications Division until he left in early
1987. The division director position remained vacant until Ray Arnold
became acting division director later that year. He was appointed perma-
nent director of the division, which had merged with the Information
Systems Office in September 1987 to become the new Communications
and Information Systems Division. This new division handled all the
communications and data transmission needs of OSSA.
     Shelby G. Tilford led the Environmental Observation Division until it
was disestablished in January 1984. He then assumed leadership of the
20                                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK


                                           Office of Space Science and Applications
                                                       (est. Nov. 9, 1981)

                                                      Associate Administrator
                                                         Deputy Associate
                                                          Administrator
                                                                                         Asst. Assoc. Admin. (Space Station)
                                                                                         Asst. Assoc. Admin. (Science & Applications)
                                                                                         Asst. Assoc. Admin. (Institution)

                       Information Systems                                               NASA Resident Office
                              Office                                                            JPL

                                            Goddard Space               Jet Propulsion
                          merge              Flight Center                Laboratory
                          Sept.
                          1987
          Communications          Life Sciences                     Astrophysics               Environmental           Administration
             Division                Division                         Division              Observation Division       and Resources
                                                                                            (disestablished Jan.        Management
                                                                                                   1984)


                                             Spacelab Flight                Earth and Planetary        Materials Processing
                Communications                   Division                   Exploration Division               Office
                and Information            (disestablished Jan.             (disestablished Jan.       (distestablished Jan.
                   Systems                        1984)                            1984)                       1984)




                       Microgravity          Shuttle Payload         Early Science          Solar System           Space Telescope
                       Science and             Engineering         and Applications      Exploration Division         Development
                   Applications Division        Division               Division            (est. Jan. 1984)          (est. mid-1983)
                      (est. Jan 1984)        (est. Jan. 1984)       (est. Jan. 1984)                                (became part of
                                                                                                                   Astrophysics Div.
                                                                                                                       Sept. 1987)
                                           renamed Sept. 1987
     Space Physics Division
     (formerly Space Plasms                                                                                           • Applications
      Physics and Solar and                  Flight Systems
     Heliosspheric Branches)                     Division                                                             • Science
         (est. Sept. 1987)
                                                                                                                      • Both Science and
                                                                                                                      Applications missions




                           Figure 2–2. Office of Space Science and Applications

newly established Earth Science and Applications Division. He remained
at that post throughout the decade.
     Louis R. Testardi managed the Materials Processing Office through
1982, when he left the position. The post remained vacant until Richard
Halpern became manager in the first half of 1983. He led the office until
it was disestablished in January 1984 and then led the new Microgravity
Sciences and Applications Division, where he remained until mid-1986.
The position of director of the Microgravity Science and Applications
Division then remained vacant until Kathryn Schmoll became acting
director in early 1987. Robert Naumann assumed the post of division
director in early 1988 and remained until later that year, when Frank
Lemkey replaced him as acting division director.
     The Shuttle Payload Engineering Division evolved from the Spacelab
Flight Division, which had managed the science-related elements of the
Spacelab missions. The new division had responsibility for developing
and integrating all science- and applications-related Space Shuttle pay-
loads. Michael Sander led the new Shuttle Payload Engineering Division
until late 1985, when Robert Benson became acting director of the divi-
sion. Benson became permanent division director in 1987 and continued
leading the renamed Flight Systems Division.
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                              21

                     Money for Space Applications

     Budget data (request or submission, authorization, and appropriation)
for the major budget categories are from the annual Budget Chronological
Histories. Request or submission data for the more detailed budget items
come from the annual budget estimates produced by NASA’s budget
office. No corresponding authorization or appropriations data were avail-
able. All programmed (actual) figures come from NASA’s budget esti-
mates. It should be noted that the amounts in this section reflect the value
of the funds at the time that they were submitted; inflation has not been
added. The funding histories of NASA applications from 1979 through
1988 appear in Tables 2–3 through 2–54.

                         Applications Programs

Space Shuttle Payloads

    As with NASA’s science missions, the Space Shuttle was a natural
environment for many applications investigations. NASA conducted three
on-board applications missions under the management of OSTA:
OSTA-1 in 1981, OSTA-2 in 1983, and OSTA-3 in 1984. It also partici-
pated in the Spacelab missions described in Chapter 4, “Space Science,”
in Volume V of the NASA Historical Data Book and in OAST-1, which
was managed by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology and is
addressed in Chapter 3, “Aeronautics and Space Research and
Technology,” in this volume.

OSTA-1

    OSTA-1 flew on STS-2, the second Space Shuttle test flight. It was
the Space Shuttle’s first science and applications payload. The objectives
of OSTA-1 were to:

•   Demonstrate the Shuttle for scientific and applications research in the
    attached mode
•   Operate the OSTA-1 payload to facilitate the acquisition of Earth’s
    resources, environmental, technology, and life science data
•   Provide data products to principal investigators within the constraints
    of the STS-2 mission

     The experiments selected for the OSTA-1 payload emphasized ter-
restrial sciences and fit within the constraints of the STS-2 tests.
Experiments relating to remote sensing of Earth resources, environmen-
tal quality, ocean conditions, meteorological phenomena, and life sci-
ences made up the payload. Five of the seven experiments were mounted
on a Spacelab pallet in the Shuttle payload bay (Figure 2–3); two were
carried in the Shuttle cabin. The Spacelab Program Office at the Marshall
22                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




                      Figure 2–3. OSTA-1 Payload Location

Space Flight Center was responsible for the design, development, and
integration of the overall orbital flight test pallet system. Table 2–55 lists
the principal investigators and a description of the experiments, including
the first Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A), which is depicted in Figure 2–4.
     During the flight, Columbia assumed an Earth-viewing attitude called
Z-axis local vertical, in which the instruments carried in the payload bay
were aimed at Earth’s surface. Figure 2–5 shows the payload ground cov-
erage and ground resolution of each instrument.
     Although most investigation objectives were accomplished, certain
conditions affected the quantity and quality of some of the data. During
the first twenty-eight hours of the mission, experiment data collection was
affected by the loss of one fuel cell and the crew’s focus on the orbiter
power situation. Instrument operations were restricted to minimize orbiter
power usage, and some targets were missed. In addition, the final orbiter
maneuvering system burn was delayed for one orbit because of power
considerations, which caused the time over specific Earth locations to
change and the need to develop new instrument on/off times.
     The delay in launch of two hours, forty minutes changed solar illu-
mination conditions along the ground track and the Sun elevation angle,
which affected the Ocean Color Experiment, the Shuttle Multispectral
Infrared Radiometer, and the Feature Identification and Location
Experiment. Cloud cover also affected the Ocean Color Experiment and
Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer targets.
     In addition, the shortened mission and intense crew activity limited
opportunities for the crew to operate the Nighttime/Daylight Optical
Survey of Thunderstorm Lightning (NOSL) experiment. The limited
amount of data collected did not allow this experiment to achieve its
                             SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      23




                         Figure 2–4. Shuttle Imaging Radar-A
   (The beam of the SIR-A side-looking radar hit the ground at an angle, giving the
   resultant image perspective and showing vertical objects in shadowed relief. The
   intensity of the echoes from the target surface controlled the brightness of a spot
  tracing a line across a cathode ray tube. An overlapping succession of these lines
  was recorded on a strip of photographic film moving past the cathode ray tube at a
 rate proportional to the speed of the Shuttle. Thus, the terrain echo was recorded on
  the data film with the cross-track dimension across the width of the film. Complex
      ground processing transformed the data film into an image of the terrain.)

objective of surveying lightning and thunderstorms from space, but the
data collected did demonstrate the feasibility of collecting thunderstorm
data with the equipment used on this mission. The experiment was
reflown on STS-6. The shortened mission also did not allow sufficient
time for the Heflex Bioengineering Test to achieve its objective of deter-
mining plant growth as a function of initial soil moisture. A mission dura-
tion of at least four days was required to permit sufficient growth of the
seedlings. This experiment was successfully reflown on STS-3.

OSTA-2

     OSTA-2 flew on STS-7. It was the first NASA materials process-
ing payload to use the orbiter cargo bay for experimentation and the
initial flight of the Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure
24                NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




              Figure 2–5. OSTA-1 Payload Ground Coverage




     Figure 2–6. Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS)
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                              25

(MPESS) carrier (Figure 2–6) and the Materials Experiment Assembly
(MEA) payload.
    OSTA-2 was a cooperative payload with the Federal Republic of
Germany and included three German Project MAUS payloads sponsored
by the German Ministry for Research and Technology.3 The Marshall
Space Flight Center developed the NASA facility, and the German facil-
ity was developed under the management of the German Aerospace
Research Establishment. The primary objectives of OSTA-2 were engi-
neering verifications of the following:

•   The MEA facility for the conduct of materials processing experi-
    ments
•   Materials processing experiment furnaces and apparatus
•   The Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure system as a car-
    rier of attached payloads

     One secondary objectives was to obtain MEA materials science
experiment specimens processed in a low-gravity space environment and
flight experiment data for scientific investigation. Another secondary
objective was to exchange results from MEA and MAUS data analysis
between NASA and the German Ministry for Research and Technology.
     The elements of the OSTA-2 payload were located on an MPESS in
the orbiter carrier bay. In addition to mechanical support, the MPESS pro-
vided a near-hemispherical space view for the MEA payload thermal
radiator. Payload on/off command switches were activated by the Shuttle
crew. Figure 2–7 shows the location of the payload on the MPESS.
     The NASA payload, the MEA, was a self-contained facility that con-
sisted of a support structure for attachment to the MPESS and thermal, elec-
trical, data, and structural subsystems necessary to support experiment
apparatus located inside experiment apparatus containers. The MEA con-
tained three experiment apparatus that were developed for the Space
Processing Applications Rocket project and modified to support OSTA-2
MEA experiments. Two of the three experiment furnaces in the MEA were
successfully verified, and scientific samples were processed for analysis.
The MEA experiments were selected from responses to an Announcement
of Opportunity issued in 1977. The MEA flew again with the German D-1
Spacelab mission on STS 61-A in 1985. The payload demonstrated and ver-
ified a cost-effective NASA-developed carrier system. In addition, it demon-
strated the reuse of materials processing experiment hardware on the Shuttle
that had been developed for suborbital, rocket-launched experiments.
     The MAUS experiments were part of the German materials science
program, which was established, in part, by the opportunity to fly in Get
Away Special (GAS) canisters on a low-cost, space-available basis. The
three containers had autonomous support systems, and each container had

    The acronym MAUS stands for the German name: Materialwissenschaftliche
    3


Autonome Experimente unter Schwerelosigkeit.
26                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




                    Figure 2–7. OSTA-2 Integrated Payload

its own service module containing experiment hardware, electrical power,
experiment control, data acquisition, and storage, as well as housekeep-
ing sensors. Two of the Get Away Special canisters contained identical
experiments. The first operated for almost the full programmed duration
of approximately eighty hours and shut down automatically. The second
shut down prematurely following the first experiment processing cycle.
The MEA and MAUS experiments are identified in Table 2–56.

OSTA-3

    OSTA-3 was the second in a series of Earth observation payloads that
flew on the Shuttle. It flew on STS 41-G. The mission objectives were to:

•    Evaluate the utility of advanced remote-sensing systems for various
     types of Earth observations
•    Use remote observations of Earth’s surface and its atmosphere to
     improve current understanding of surficial processes and environ-
     mental conditions on Earth

    The OSTA-3 payload consisted of four experiments: SIR-B, the
Large Format Camera, Measurement of Air Pollution From Satellites
(MAPS), and Feature Identification and Landmark Experiment (FILE).
All except the Large Format Camera had flown on OSTA-1 on STS-2.
SIR-B, MAPS, and FILE were mounted on a pallet carrier (Figure 2–8).
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                                27




      Figure 2–8. OSTA-3 Payload Configuration With FILE, MAPS, and SIR-B

     The Large Format Camera was mounted on an MPESS, such as the
one used on OSTA-2. It used orbital photography for cartographic map-
ping and land-use studies at scales of 1:50,000. It obtained 2,289 photo-
graphic frames.
     The MAPS experiment determined the distribution of carbon monox-
ide in Earth’s lower atmosphere on a global basis, developed an improved
understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon monoxide,
and monitored long-term changes in the total abundance of carbon
monoxide within Earth’s atmosphere. The data sets of atmospheric car-
bon monoxide concentration it collected at the start and conclusion of the
mission provided the first opportunity to study in situ temporal variations
in carbon monoxide distribution.
     FILE evaluated the utility of multispectral measurements obtained in
two spectral channels for classifying surface features or clouds. It was
part of an effort to develop advanced sensor systems that in the future
could be preprogrammed to acquire imagery of specific types of natural
terrain in an automatic fashion. The experiment acquired 240 images over
a wide range of environments and successfully classified these scenes.
     SIR-B was to use radar imagery acquired under different surface-
viewing conditions for various types of surface observations, determine
the extent to which subsurface radar penetration occurred in arid environ-
ments, and develop improved models of radar backscatter from vegetated
terrain and marine areas. The plan was to obtain forty-two hours of digital
data that would be analyzed by a science team of forty-three investigators,
28                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

and eight hours of optical data could be collected as backup. SIR-B actu-
ally acquired only seven and a half hours of digital data and eight hours of
optical data. Three problems affected the amount of data collected:

1. The Ku-band antenna gimbal failed. It could transmit only prerecord-
   ed tape data through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
   (TDRSS) with special orbiter attitudes. This resulted in acquiring
   only 20 percent of the planned science data. Therefore, only fifteen
   investigators received sufficient data (50 to 75 percent) to meet their
   objectives, twenty-three investigators received a limited amount of
   data (10 to 50 percent), and six investigators received only a token
   amount of data.
2. The TDRSS link was lost for twelve hours, forty-two minutes during
   the mission.
3. Anomalies in the radio frequency feed system to the SIR-B antenna
   reduced transmitter power and, therefore, degraded the data.

Environmental Observations Program

    NASA’s Environmental Observations program focused on obtaining
and interpreting processes in the magnetosphere, atmosphere, and oceans
and extending the capability to predict long- and short-term environmen-
tal phenomena and their interaction with human activities. NASA
launched two satellite missions in this area—the Stratospheric Aerosol
and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite
(ERBS)—and worked toward a 1991 launch of the Upper Atmospheric
Research Satellite (UARS). In addition, NASA participated in the devel-
opment and launch of a series of meteorological satellites with NOAA:
the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites and the Geostationary Operational
Environmental Satellites (GOES).

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment

     SAGE was part of NASA’s Applications Explorer Mission. It repre-
sented the first global aerosol data set ever obtained. The experiment
complemented two other aerosol satellite experiments—the Stratospheric
Aerosol Measurement, flown on Apollo during the Apollo-Soyuz Test
Project in 1975, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II, flown on
Nimbus 7, which was launched in 1978 and gathered data at the same
time as SAGE. SAGE obtained and used global data on stratospheric
aerosols and ozone in various studies concerning Earth’s climate and
environmental quality. It mapped vertical profiles in the stratosphere of
ozone, aerosol, nitrogen dioxide, and molecular extinction in a wide band
around the globe. The ozone data extended from approximately nine to
forty-six kilometers, the aerosol data ranged from the cloud tops to thir-
ty-five kilometers, the nitrogen dioxide went from about twenty-five to
forty kilometers, and the molecular extinction was from about fifteen to
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                              29

forty kilometers. The mission obtained data from tropical to high latitudes
for more than three years.
     SAGE obtained its information by means of a photometric device. The
photometer “looked” at the Sun through the stratosphere’s gases and
aerosols each time the satellite entered and left Earth’s shadow. The device
observed approximately fifteen sunrises and fifteen sunsets each twenty-
four-hour day—a total of more than 13,000 sunrises and sunsets during its
lifetime. The photometer recorded the light in four color bands each time
the light faded and brightened. This information was converted to define
concentrations of the atmospheric constituents in terms of vertical profiles.
     The spacecraft was a small, versatile, low-cost spacecraft that used
three-axis stabilization for its viewing instruments. The structure consist-
ed of two major components: a base module, which contained the neces-
sary attitude control, data handling, communications, command, and
power subsystems for the instrument module, and an instrument module.
The instrument module consisted of optical and electronic subassemblies
mounted side by side. The optical assembly consisted of a flat scanning
mirror, Cassegrain optics, and a detector package. Table 2–57 contains the
instrument module’s characteristics. Two solar panels for converting sun-
light to electricity extended from the structure. Figure 2–9 shows the
SAGE orbit configuration.
     SAGE detected and tracked five volcanic eruption plumes that pene-
trated the stratosphere. It determined the amount of new material each
volcano added to the stratosphere. (Mount St. Helens, for example,




                     Figure 2–9. SAGE Orbit Configuration
30                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

contributed about 0.5 x 106 metric tons for a 100-percent enhancement in
background stratospheric aerosol mass.) The characteristics of SAGE are
listed in Table 2–58.

Earth Radiation Budget Satellite

     ERBS was part of NASA’s three-satellite Earth Radiation Budget
Experiment (ERBE), which investigated how energy from the Sun is
absorbed and re-emitted, or reradiated, by Earth. This process of absorp-
tion and reradiation, or reflectance, is one of the principal drivers of
Earth’s weather patterns. The absorbed solar radiation is converted to heat
energy, which increases Earth’s temperature and heat content. Earth’s
heat energy is continuously emitted into space, thereby cooling Earth.
The relationship among incident solar energy, reflected solar energy, and
Earth-emitted energy is Earth’s radiation or energy budget (Figure 2–10).
Although observations had been made of incident and reflected solar
energy and of Earth-emitted energy, data that existed prior to the ERBE
program were not sufficiently accurate to provide an understanding of cli-
mate and weather phenomena and to validate climate and long-range
weather prediction models. The ERBE program provided observations
with increased accuracy, which added to the knowledge of climate and
weather phenomena.
     Investigators also used observations from ERBS to determine the
effects of human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and the use of
chlorofluorocarbons, and natural occurrences, such as volcanic eruptions
on Earth’s radiation balance. The other instruments of the ERBE program
were flown on NOAA 9 and NOAA 10.
     ERBS was one of the first users of the TDRSS. It was also one of the
first NASA spacecraft designed specifically for Space Shuttle deploy-




              Figure 2–10. Components of the Earth Energy Budget
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                              31

ment; it was deployed using the Shuttle’s Remote Manipulator System.
The satellite was equipped with three scientific instruments: SAGE II, the
ERBE Non-Scanner, and the ERBE Scanner. Each instrument had one or
more contamination doors that protected the instrument’s sensitive detec-
tors and optics from accumulating outgassing products from the ERBS
spacecraft. Table 2–59 lists the instrument’s characteristics.
     ERBS provided scientists with the first-ever long-term global moni-
toring of stratospheric aerosols, including critical ozone data.
Investigators used the data to study atmospheric dynamics, ozone chem-
istry, and ozone depletion. The characteristics of ERBS are in Table 2–60.

Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite

     The UARS program continued NASA’s investigations of the upper
atmosphere carried out by the SAGE and ERBE programs. The national
mandate for UARS dates to 1976, when Congress, responding to the iden-
tification of new causes of ozone depletion, amended the Space Act and
directed NASA to undertake a comprehensive program of research into
the upper atmosphere. In 1977, Congress directed NASA to carry out
such research “for the purpose of understanding the physics and chem-
istry of the stratosphere and for the early detection of potentially harmful
changes in the ozone in the stratosphere.”
     NASA stated that the purpose of the mission was to better understand
Earth’s upper atmosphere, specifically the response of the ozone layer to
changes and the role of the upper atmosphere in climate and climate vari-
ability. The mission would focus on comprehensive investigations of
Earth’s stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere to understand
Earth’s upper atmosphere. The major areas to be studied would include
energy flowing into and from the upper atmosphere, how sunlight drives
chemical reactions in the upper atmosphere, and how gases moved with-
in and between layers of the atmosphere.
     NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center would provide the design and
definition work with contractor support from the General Electric Space
Division. The contractor would be responsible for integrating the instru-
ment module with the bus and flight instruments, conducting environ-
mental testing of the observatory, integrating the observatory into the
Space Shuttle, and providing post-launch checkout support. The Goddard
Space Flight Center would furnish the Multimission Modular Spacecraft
(MMS) bus and flight instruments and design the UARS ground station
and data handling facility. Goddard would award a contract for the
Central Data Handling Facility, remote analysis computers, and the devel-
opment of software to perform UARS-unique systems functions.
     NASA released its Announcement of Opportunity for the mission in
1978, and the agency selected sixteen experiments and ten theoretical
investigations from seventy-five proposals for definition studies in April
1980. In November 1981, NASA narrowed this down to nine instrument
32                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

experiments, two instruments flown on “flights of opportunity,” and ten
theoretical investigations. (One “instrument of opportunity,” the solar
backscattered ultraviolet sensor for ozone, was deleted from the payload
in 1984 because an identical instrument was designated to be flown on an
operational NOAA satellite during the same timeframe.)
    Congress funded the experiments in its fiscal year 1984 budget and
approved funding for UARS mission development in its fiscal year 1985
budget. NASA awarded the major observatory contract to General
Electric in March 1985 and initiated the execution phase in October 1985.
Following the Challenger accident, safety concerns led to a redesign of
one of the instruments and rebaselining of the mission timeline, with
launch rescheduled for the fall of 1991.
    Initially, the program concept involved two satellite missions, each
with a nominal lifetime of eighteen months and launched one year apart.
It was reduced to a single satellite mission in 1982.
    In its final configuration, the mission would use the MMS to place a
set of nine instruments in Earth orbit to measure the state of the stratos-
phere and provide data about Earth’s upper atmosphere in spatial and
temporal dimensions. The remote atmospheric sensors on UARS would
make comprehensive measurements of wind, temperature, pressure, and
gas species concentrations in the altitude ranges of approximately nine to
120 kilometers. In addition, a tenth instrument, not technically a part of
the UARS mission, would use its flight opportunity to study the Sun’s
energy output. Table 2–61 describes the instruments carried on aboard
UARS, what they measured, and their principal investigators. The space-
craft and its instruments were considerably larger than other remote-sens-
ing spacecraft flown up to that time. Figure 2–11 compares the size of
UARS with two earlier missions, Nimbus 7 and Landsat-D; Figure 2–12
shows the instrument placement and the MMS.
    A chronology of events prior to the September 1991 launch is present-
ed in Table 2–62. It is notable that even with the redesign of one instrument
and a rebaselining of the mission timeline because of the Challenger acci-
dent, NASA launched UARS approximately $30 million below its final
budget estimate of $669.5 million and with no schedule delays.

Meteorological Satellites

    NASA and NOAA launched and operated two series of meteorologi-
cal satellites: the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites and the Geostationary
Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)—a group of geosynchro-
nous satellites. A NASA-Department of Commerce agreement dated
July 2, 1973, governed both satellite systems and defined each agency’s
responsibilities. NOAA had responsibility for establishing the observa-
tional requirements and for operating the system. NASA was responsible
for procuring and developing the spacecraft, instruments, and associated
ground stations, for launching the spacecraft, and for conducting an on-
orbit checkout of the spacecraft.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      33




         Figure 2–11. Relative Sizes of Nimbus-7, Landsat D, and UARS
           (The width of UARS was essentially that of the Shuttle bay.)




                  Figure 2–12. View of the UARS Spacecraft
 (From the anti-Sun side, this shows instrument placement, solar array, and the
Multimission Modular Spacecraft. The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE)
and High Resolution Doppler Images instruments cannot be seen from this view.)
34                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

NOAA Polar-Orbiting Satellites

     The series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites that operated
during the late 1970s and into the 1990s began with TIROS-N,
launched in October 1978. TIROS-N was the operational prototype for
the third generation of low-Earth orbiting weather satellites designed
and developed by NASA to satisfy the increasing needs of the opera-
tional system. The satellites in this TIROS-N series were Sun synchro-
nous, near polar-orbiting spacecraft, and operated in pairs, with one
crossing the equator near 7:30 a.m. local time and the second crossing
the equator at approximately 1:40 p.m. local time. Operating as a pair,
these satellites ensured that nonvisible data for any region of Earth was
no more than six hours old.
     The NOAA series of satellites was a cooperative effort of the United
States (NOAA and NASA), the United Kingdom, and France. NASA
funded the development and launch of the first flight satellite (TIROS-N);
subsequent satellites were procured and launched by NASA using NOAA
funds. The operational ground facilities, including the command and data
acquisition stations, the Satellite Control Center, and the data processing
facilities (with the exception of the Data Collection System processing
facility), were funded and operated by NOAA. The United Kingdom,
through its Meteorological Office, Ministry of Defense, provided a
stratospheric sounding unit, one of three sounding instruments for each
satellite. The Centre Nationale d’Études Spatiales (CNES) of France pro-
vided the Data Collection System instrument for each satellite and the
facilities needed to process and make the data obtained from this system
available to users. CNES also provided facilities for the receipt of sounder
data during the blind orbit periods. Details of the TIROS-N satellite can
be found in Volume III of the NASA Historical Data Book.4 The satellites
launched from 1979 through 1988 are described below.
     Instruments on these satellites measured the temperature and humidity
of Earth’s atmosphere, surface temperature, surface and cloud cover, water-
ice-moisture boundaries, and proton and electron flux near Earth. They took
atmospheric soundings, measurements in vertical “slices” of the atmosphere
showing temperature profiles, water vapor amounts, and the total ozone
content from Earth’s surface to the top of the atmosphere. Sounding data
were especially important in producing global weather analyses and fore-
casts at the Weather Service’s National Meteorological Center. Table 2–63
summarizes the orbit and instrument complement of the NOAA satellites.
     The TIROS-N satellites also collected environmental observations
from remote data platforms—readings such as wave heights on the
oceans, water levels in mountainous steams, and tidal activity. The space-
craft also monitored solar particle radiation in space used, in part, to warn


    Linda Neuman Ezell, NASA Historical Data Book, Volume III: Programs
     4


and Projects, 1969–1978 (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4012, 1988).
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                              35

Space Shuttle missions and high-altitude commercial aircraft flights of
potentially hazardous solar radiation activity. The NOAA 6 and NOAA 7
satellites were almost identical to the 1978 TIROS-N. The NOAA 8, 9,
10, and 11 satellites were modified versions of TIROS-N and were called
Advanced TIROS-N.
     The Advanced TIROS-N generation of satellites included a new com-
plement of instruments that emphasized the acquisition of quantitative
data of the global atmosphere for use in numerical models to extend and
improve long-range (three- to fourteen-day) forecasting ability. In addi-
tion, the instruments on these satellites could be used for global search
and rescue missions, and they could map ozone and monitor the radiation
gains and losses to and from Earth.
     NOAA 6. This was the second of eight third-generation operational
meteorological polar-orbiting spacecraft. It was the first NOAA-funded
operational spacecraft of the TIROS-N series. The satellite greatly
exceeded its anticipated two-year lifetime and was deactivated on March
31, 1987. Identical to TIROS-N, NOAA 6 adapted applicable parts of the
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Block 5D spacecraft, built by
RCA Corporation and first launched in 1976.
     NOAA 6 filled in data-void areas, especially over the oceans, by
crossing the equator six hours after TIROS-N, in effect doubling the
amount of data made available to the National Meteorological Center in
Suitland, Maryland. TIROS-N and NOAA 6, each viewing every part of
the globe twice in one twenty-four-hour period, were especially important
in providing information from remote locations where more traditional
weather-gathering methods could not be used conveniently. Table 2–64
lists the characteristics of NOAA 6.
     NOAA B. This satellite went into a highly elliptical rather than the
planned circular orbit of 756 kilometers. This was because of one of the
Atlas F booster engines developing only 75 percent thrust. The satellite
could not operate effectively. It was to have been the second NOAA-
sponsored TIROS-N satellite. Its characteristics are in Table 2–65.
     NOAA 7. With the successful launch of NOAA 7, designed to replace
TIROS-N and join NOAA 6, meteorologists had two polar-orbiting satel-
lites in orbit returning weather and environmental information to NOAA’s
National Earth Satellite Service. Together, NOAA 6 and NOAA 7 could
view virtually all of Earth’s surface at least twice every twenty-four hours.
       In addition to the data transmitted by earlier NOAA satellites,
NOAA 7 provided improved sea-surface temperature information that
was of special value to the fishing and marine transportation industries
and weather forecasters. Its scanning radiometer, the Advanced Very High
Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), used an additional fifth spectral chan-
nel to gather visual and infrared imagery and measurements. Table 2–66
lists the characteristics of each channel. The satellite also carried a joint
Air Force-NASA contamination monitor that assessed possible environ-
mental contamination in the immediate vicinity of the spacecraft result-
ing from its propulsion systems.
36                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




            Figure 2–13. NOAA 6 and NOAA 7 Spacecraft Configuration

     NOAA 6 and NOAA 7 also served a communications function and
could distribute unprocessed sensor data to Earth stations in more than
120 countries in real time as the spacecraft passed overhead. Figure 2–13
shows the NOAA 6 and 7 spacecraft configuration.
     NOAA 7 was put in standby mode when its sounder failed and its
power system degraded. It was deactivated in June 1986 when the power
system failed. Its characteristics are listed in Table 2–67.
     NOAA 8. This was the fourth NOAA-funded operational spacecraft
of the TIROS-N series to be launched. It was a “stretched” version of the
earlier NOAA TIROS-N spacecraft (although not larger in size) and was
the first advanced TIROS-N spacecraft with expanded capabilities for
new measurement payloads. Because of the need to get an early flight of
the Search and Rescue (SAR) mission, NOAA 8 was launched prior to
NOAA-D, which did not have a SAR capability.
     The satellite experienced problems beginning in June 1984, about
14 months after launch, when it experienced a “clock interrupt” that
caused the gyros to desynchronize. Continued clock disturbances inter-
fered with the meteorological instruments, preventing investigators from
obtaining good data. In July 1984, NASA and NOAA announced that the
satellite appeared to have lost its latitude control system and was tum-
bling in orbit and unable to relay its signal effectively to Earth. Engineers
were able to stabilize the satellite in May 1985, when the defective oscil-
lator gave out and scientists could activate a backup oscillator and repro-
gram the satellite remotely. It resumed transmission of data and was
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                              37

declared operational in July 1985. It tumbled again on October 30, 1985,
and was recovered and reactivated on December 5. Use of the satellite
was finally lost on December 29, 1985, following clock and power sys-
tem failures. Table 2–68 lists NOAA 8’s characteristics.
     NOAA 9. This was the fifth NOAA-funded operational spacecraft of the
TIROS-N series and the second in the Advanced TIROS-N spacecraft series.
It carried two new instruments, as well as a complement of instruments on
previous NOAA satellites. The Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV)/2
spectral radiometer acquired data to determine atmospheric ozone content
and distribution. It was the successor to the SBUV/1, which flew on Nimbus
7. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) provided data comple-
menting the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) that NASA launched
in October 1984. It made highly accurate measurements of incident solar
radiation, Earth-reflected solar radiation, and Earth-emitted longwave radi-
ation at spatial scales ranging from global to 250 kilometers and at tempo-
ral scales sufficient to generate accurate monthly averages. Figure 2–14
shows the NOAA 9 spacecraft configuration.
     This satellite also carried SAR instrumentation provided by Canada
and France under a joint cooperative agreement. It joined similarly
equipped COSPAS satellites launched by the Soviet Union. The space-
craft replaced NOAA 7 as the afternoon satellite in NOAA’s two polar
satellite system. Its characteristics are in Table 2–69.
     NOAA 10. This spacecraft circled the globe fourteen times each day,
observing a different position on Earth’s surface on each revolution as
Earth turned beneath the spacecraft’s orbit (Figure 2–15). It replaced
NOAA 6 as the morning satellite in NOAA’s two polar orbit satellite sys-
tem and restored NOAA’s ability to provide full day and night environ-
mental data, including weather reports, and detect aircraft and ships in
distress after one of the two TIROS-N satellites shut down in December
1985. (NOAA 6 had been reactivated when NOAA 8 failed.) It was the
third of the Advanced TIROS-N spacecraft. The spacecraft was launched
from a twenty-five-year-old refurbished Atlas E booster, a launch that had
been delayed sixteen times during the previous year because of a series of
administrative changes and technical difficulties.
     To continue initial support for SAR using the 121.5/243 megahertz
(MHz) system and to begin the process for making the system operational
for the 406-MHz system, NOAA 10 carried special instrumentation for
evaluating a satellite-aided SAR system that would lead to the establish-
ment of a fully operational capability. Less than twenty-four hours after
being put into operation on NOAA 10, SARSAT (Search and Rescue
Satellite-Aided Tracking) equipment on board picked up the first distress
signals of four Canadians who had crashed in a remote area of Ontario.
NOAA’s characteristics are in Table 2–70.
     NOAA 11. This satellite replaced NOAA 9 as the afternoon satellite
in NOAA’s two polar satellite system. The satellite carried improved
instrumentation that allowed for better monitoring of Earth’s ozone layer.
The launch of NOAA 11 had originally been scheduled for October 1987,
38                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




                  Figure 2–14. NOAA 9 Spacecraft Configuration
but it had been postponed eight times because of management and tech-
nical delays.
     The Advanced TIROS-N system of satellites normally operated with
four gyroscopes—three for directional control and one backup. One gyro
on NOAA 11 failed in August 1989, and the backup was put into service.
A second gyro failed in 1990, but NASA had developed and transmitted
to the satellite software instructions that permitted the satellite to operate
fully on two gyros. The characteristics of NOAA 11 are in Table 2–71.

Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites

     The impressive imagery of cloud cover produced by the GOES series,
as viewed from geostationary (or geosynchronous) orbit, has become a
highlight of television weather forecasts. The GOES program has been a
joint development effort of NASA and NOAA. NASA provided launch
support and also had the responsibility to design, engineer, and procure
the satellites. Once a satellite was launched and checked out, it was turned
over to NOAA for its operations.
     The GOES program has provided systematic, continuous observa-
tions of weather patterns since 1974. The pilot Synchronous
Meteorological Satellite, SMS-A, was launched in 1974, followed by a
second prototype, SMS-B, and an operational spacecraft, SMS-C/
GOES-A. Subsequently, GOES-B was successfully launched in 1977,
with GOES-C launched in 1978. The GOES spacecraft obtained both day
and night information on Earth’s weather through a scanner that formed
images of Earth’s surface and cloud cover for transmission to regional
                        SPACE APPLICATIONS                            39




                        Figure 2–15. NOAA 10 Orbit

data-user stations for use in weather prediction and forecasting.
     The GOES satellites during this period (GOES 4 through 7) had sim-
ilar configurations (Figure 2–16). Beginning with the launch of GOES 4
in 1980 and continuing throughout the series, the instrument complement
included an improved Visible/Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR)
(Figure 2–17). The new VISSR, called the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder,
could receive the standard operational VISSR data and also sound the
atmosphere in twelve infrared bands, enabling meteorologists to acquire
temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere (Table 2–72).
     Normally, two GOES satellites operated concurrently. GOES-East
satellites were stationed at seventy-five degrees west longitude, and
GOES-West satellites were located at 135 degrees west longitude. GOES-
East observed North and South America and the Atlantic Ocean. GOES-
West observed North America and the Pacific Ocean to the west of
Hawaii. Together, these satellites provided coverage for the central and
eastern Pacific Ocean, North, Central, and South America, and the central
and western Atlantic Ocean.
     GOES 4. This was the sixth satellite in the GOES series. It provid-
ed continuous cloud cover observations from geosynchronous orbit.
Initially located at ninety-eight degrees west longitude, it was moved
into a geostationary orbit located at 135 degrees west longitude in
February 1981 to replace the failing GOES 3 (also known as GOES-C)
as the operational GOES-West satellite. GOES 4 was the first geosyn-
chronous satellite capable of obtaining atmospheric temperature and
40                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




                    Figure 2–16. GOES Satellite Configuration

water vapor soundings as a function of altitude in the atmosphere. The
data were extremely important in forecasting and monitoring the
strength and course of highly localized severe storms. It also had the
same imaging capability as previous GOES spacecraft.
    GOES 4 experienced several anomalies while in orbit. The most seri-
ous occurred on November 25, 1982, when the VISSR Atmospheric
Sounder’s scan mirror stopped during retrace after exhibiting excessively
high torque. Efforts to restore either the visible or infrared capability were
unsuccessful. The characteristics of GOES 4 are in Table 2–73.
    GOES 5. This satellite was placed into a geostationary orbit located
seventy-five degrees west longitude and became the operational GOES-
East satellite. The satellite failed on July 29, 1984, and GOES 6 (launched
in April 1983) was moved into a central location over the continental
United States. Table 2–74 lists the characteristics of GOES 5.
    GOES 6. This was placed into geostationary orbit located at
135 degrees west longitude and acted as the operational GOES-West
satellite. It was moved to ninety-eight degrees west longitude to provide
coverage after GOES 5 failed. After the successful launch and checkout
of GOES 7 in 1987, it was returned to its original location. GOES 6 failed
in January 1989. The satellite’s characteristics are in Table 2–75.
    GOES G. This satellite, which was planned to become the eastern
operational GOES satellite designated as GOES 7, did not reach opera-
tional orbit because of a failure in the Delta launch vehicle. NASA attrib-
uted this failure to an electrical shortage that shut down the engines on the
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                             41




                   Figure 2–17. VISSR Atmospheric Sounder

launch vehicle. GOES G had the same configuration and instrument com-
plement as earlier GOES spacecraft; its characteristics are in Table 2–76.
     GOES 7. The GOES 7 spacecraft was placed into a geostationary orbit
located at seventy-five degrees west longitude and acted as the operational
GOES-East satellite beginning on March 25, 1987. Its placement allowed
GOES 6 to return to its normal position of 135 degrees west longitude from
its location at ninety-eight degrees west longitude. GOES 7 was equipped
with two encoders: one with two of the same type of tungsten-filament
lamps as in the previous GOES spacecraft and the other with light-emitting
diodes, which had a longer life expectancy than the original lamps.
     The spacecraft was moved to ninety-eight degrees west longitude in
July 1989 following the January 1989 failure of GOES 6. It was moved
back to 108 degrees west in November 1989. It underwent several more
relocations during its more than eight-year lifetime. It was finally shut
down in January 1996. The characteristics of GOES 7 are in Table 2–77.

Resource Observations Program

     The goals of the Resource Observations program was to assist in
solving Earth resources problems of national and global concern through
the development and application of space technology and techniques and
to conduct research and observations to improve our understanding of the
dynamic characteristics of Earth. The program focused on developing and
transferring remote-sensing techniques to federal agencies, state, region-
al, and local governments, private industry, and the scientific community,
where these techniques would enhance or supplant existing capabilities or
42                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

provide a new capability. From 1979 to 1988, NASA launched three
resource observations satellites: two Landsat satellites and Magsat.

Landsat Satellites

     The Landsat program began in the late 1960s. NASA launched
Landsat 1 in July 1972, followed by the launch of Landsat 2 in January
1975 and Landsat 3 in March 1978. These three satellites successfully
used the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) to collect and measure the energy
reflected or emitted in discrete intervals of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The MSS surveyed both renewable and nonrenewable Earth resources. It
monitored the reflected solar energy in the green, red, and near-infrared
parts of the spectrum and added to the ability to monitor and understand
the dynamics and character of the various features and materials on and
below the surface of Earth.
     The data acquired by Landsat were used worldwide by government
agencies, research institutions, and other organizations and individuals
seeking information to assist in oil and mineral exploration; agriculture,
forestry, and water management; map making; industrial plant site iden-
tification and location; and general land-use planning. When Landsat 4
launched, eleven nations could receive and process data directly from the
satellite. In addition, more than 100 nations used Landsat data for
resource development and management.
     NASA was responsible for operating the Landsats through the early
1980s. In January 1983, operations of the Landsat system were trans-
ferred to NOAA. In October 1985, the Landsat system was commercial-
ized, and NOAA selected the Earth Observation Satellite Company
(EOSAT) to operate the system under a ten-year contract. Under the
agreement, EOSAT would operate Landsats 4 and 5, build two new space-
craft (Landsats 6 and 7), have exclusive rights to market Landsat data col-
lected prior to the date of the contract (September 27, 1985) until its
expiration date of July 16, 1994, have exclusive right to market data col-
lected after September 27, 1985, for ten years from date of acquisition,
and receive all foreign ground station fees.
     Landsat 4. This was fourth in a series of near-polar-orbiting space-
craft. In addition to the MSS flown on the earlier Landsat missions,
Landsat 4 introduced the Thematic Mapper (TM), whose configuration is
shown in Figure 2–18. The TM extended the data set of observations pro-
vided by the MSS. It provided data in seven spectral bands, with signifi-
cantly improved spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolution. Table 2–78
compares the major characteristics of the two instruments.
     Both Landsat 4 instruments imaged the same 185-kilometer swath of
Earth’s surface every sixteen days. The two instruments covered all of
Earth, except for an area around the poles, every sixteen days. Image data
were transmitted in real time via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite
(TDRS) to its ground terminal at White Sands, New Mexico, beginning
August 12, 1983. Prior to that time, the downlink communications mode
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                             43

for MSS data was through the Landsat 4 direct-access S-band link. TM
data were transmitted directly to the ground through the X-band.
     Landsat 4 consisted of NASA’s standard Multimission Modular
Spacecraft and the Landsat instrument module (Figure 2–19). The TM
was located between the instrument module and the Multimission
Modular Spacecraft modular bus, and the MSS was located at the forward
end of the instrument module.
     NASA launched and checked out the spacecraft, established the pre-
cise orbit, and demonstrated that the system was fully operational before
transferring management to NOAA. NOAA was responsible for control-
ling the spacecraft, scheduling the sensors, processing and distributing
data from the MSS, and reproducing and distributing public domain data
from the TM. NOAA assumed operational responsibility for Landsat 4 on
January 31, 1983. The TM remained an experimental development pro-
ject under direct NASA management.
     On February 15, 1983, the X-band transmitter on the spacecraft, which
sent data from the TM to ground stations, failed to operate. No further data
from the TM would be provided until the TDRS began transmitting TM data
in August 1983. The less detailed pictures, which were transmitted from the
Multimission Modular Spacecraft on the S-band, continued to be sent.
Another problem occurred in 1983 when two solar panels failed. The sys-
tem was able to continue operating with only two solar panels, but prepara-
tions were made to move the spacecraft into a lower orbit, and Landsat D’
(D “prime,” to become Landsat 5) was readied for a March 1984 launch.
However, it was decided to allow Landsat 4 to continue operating, which it
did into the 1990s. The satellite’s characteristics are in Table 2–79.




                  Figure 2–18. Thematic Mapper Configuration
44                 NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

     Landsat 5. NASA developed Landsat 5 as Landsat D’. It was intend-
ed first to back up and then to replace Landsat 4 when it seemed that
Landsat 4’s operational days were numbered. However, Landsat 4 con-
tinued operating, and Landsat 5 was able to double the amount of remote-
sensing data that the system transmitted by providing eight-day rather
than sixteen-day repeat coverage. It was virtually identical to Landsat 4,
but was modified to prevent the failures experienced on Landsat 4.
     Image data were transmitted in real time through the Ku-band via the
TDRS to its ground terminal at White Sands, New Mexico. Image data
could also be transmitted directly to ground stations through the X-band
in addition to or in lieu of transmission via the TDRS. A separate S-band
direct link compatible with Landsats 1 through 4 was also provided to
transmit MSS data to those stations equipped for receiving only S-band
transmissions.
     Landsat 5 was turned over to NOAA for management and operations
on April 6, 1984. It continued to transmit data into the 1990s. Table 2–80
lists its characteristics.




                  Figure 2–19. Landsat 4 Flight Configuration
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                             45

Magsat (AEM-C)

     Magsat (Magnetic Field Satellite) was the third spacecraft in the
Applications Explorer Mission series. From its launch on October 30,
1979, until its reentry on June 11, 1980, its instruments continually mea-
sured the near-Earth magnetic field. Magsat was the first spacecraft in
near-Earth orbit to carry and use a vector magnetometer to resolve ambi-
guities in field modeling and magnetic anomaly mapping. The anomalies
measured reflected important geologic features, such as the composition
and temperature of rock formation, remnant magnetism, and geologic
structure on a regional scale. Magsat provided information on the broad
structure of Earth’s crust with near-global coverage.
     Prior to the satellite era, magnetic data from many geographic regions
were nonexistent or sparse. The Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory
(POGO) and the Orbiting Geophysical Observatories 2, 4, and 6 satellites
made global measurements of the scalar field from October 1965 through
June 1971, and several geomagnetic field models based on POGO data
were published. Their magnetometers provided measurements of the
scalar field magnitude approximately every half second over an altitude
range of about 400 to 1,500 kilometers.
     These satellite geomagnetic field measurements mapped the main
geomagnetic field originating in Earth’s core, determined the long-term
temporal, or secular, variations in that field, and investigated short-term
field perturbations caused by ionospheric currents. Early in the POGO
era, it was thought to be impossible to map crustal anomalies from space.
However, while analyzing data from POGO, investigators discovered that
the lower altitude data contained separable fields because of anomalies in
Earth’s crust, thus allowing for the development of a new class of inves-
tigations. Magsat data enhanced POGO data in two areas:

1. Vector measurements were used to determine the directional charac-
   teristics of anomaly regions and resolved ambiguities in their inter-
   pretation.
2. Lower altitude data provided increased signal strength and resolution
   for detailed studies of crustal anomalies.

     Magsat was made of two modules. The base module housed the elec-
trical power supply system, the telemetry system, the attitude control
system, and the command and data handling system. The instrument
module comprised the optical bench, star cameras, attitude transfer sys-
tem, magnetometer boom and gimbal systems, scalar and vector magne-
tometers, and precision Sun sensor. Figure 2–20 shows the orbital
configuration.
     Magsat’s lifetime exceeded its planned minimal lifetime by nearly
three months, and it met or exceeded all the accuracy requirements of the
scalar and vector magnetometers as well as attitude and position determi-
nation. The program was a cooperative effort between NASA and the
46                 NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




                  Figure 2–20. Magsat Orbital Configuration

U.S. Geological Survey, which used the Magsat observations and models
to update the regional and global magnetic charts and maps that it pub-
lished. Table 2–81 lists Magsat’s characteristics, and Table 2–82 contains
the satellite’s investigations.

Communications Program

Advanced Communications Technology

     NASA’s participation in communications satellite programs had
been severely curtailed in 1973 because of budget constraints. Not until
late 1979, when it became apparent that current communications capa-
bilities would be inadequate to meet the rising demand foreseen for the
1990s, did NASA decide to renew its programs directed at advanced
communications satellite research and technology. It gave the Lewis
Research Center the lead responsibility for a program that NASA hoped
would culminate in the development and launch of a sophisticated com-
munications satellite in 1985 or 1986. NASA concluded that emphasis
needed to be placed on developing technology that would open the thir-
ty/twenty-gigahertz (GHz) frequency band (Ka-band) for commercial
use. The major advantage of the thirty/twenty-GHz band was the broad
frequency range allocated to communications satellite use—five times
the band allocated at the C-band and Ku-band that were presently in use.
     Although both NASA and Congress agreed on the necessity for such
a program, they debated for the next few years over whether the effort
should be funded primarily by the government or by industry. Funding
for ground-based research, already in the budget, would continue, but
money for a flight demonstration, which NASA and industry were con-
vinced would soon be necessary, was removed from both the initial fis-
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                              47

cal year 1982 and fiscal year 1983 budget requests. Congress contended
that industry should bear more of the cost, but industry representatives
responded that, while they were willing to contribute, the cost of a flight
demonstration was beyond their means. In hearings before the House
Space Subcommittee in July 1981, NASA Associate Administrator
Dr. Anthony Calio stated that the United States was already behind Japan
and Europe when it came to developing the thirty-twenty-GHz technol-
ogy. He also agreed that, given the small profit share awarded to satellite
builders, industry could not justify funding the demonstration itself.
     The initiative was popular with some members of Congress, however,
in spite of the Reagan administration’s statement that flight testing was not
in NASA’s mandate. In April 1982, experts in the communications field
testified that unless NASA was allowed to continue the program, foreign
competitors were likely to gain significantly in the communications mar-
ket. In May 1982, the Senate Committee on Appropriations earmarked
$15.4 million of NASA’s fiscal year 1982 budget for work on a
thirty/twenty-GHz test satellite by adding to the Urgent Supplemental Bill.
     In January 1983, funding for a new Advanced Communications
Technology Satellite (ACTS) was placed in the fiscal year 1984 budget.
In March, the Lewis Research Center released a request for proposal for
the design, development, building, and launch of ACTS, which was then
scheduled for a 1988 launch by the Space Shuttle. In August 1984, NASA
awarded an industry team headed by RCA’s Astro-Electronics Division a
$260.3 million contract for the design, development, and fabrication of
ACTS. Other major participants were TRW Electronics System Group,
Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat), Motorola Inc., Hughes
Aircraft Company, and Electromagnetic Sciences Inc. The ACTS program
was to develop advanced satellite communications technologies, including
satellite switching and processing techniques and multibeam satellite
antennas, using the thirty/twenty-GHz bands. The program would make
the ACTS spacecraft and ground systems capabilities for experimentation
available to corporations, universities, and government agencies.
     The program still did not progress smoothly, however, as funding
levels fluctuated during the next few years (see Tables 2–45 and 2–51).
NASA more than once reduced its funding request in response to the
Reagan administration’s attempt to terminate the program. Congress
directed NASA to continue the program as planned and restored its fund-
ing. These disputes took their toll, and ACTS was not launched until
September 1993.

Search and Rescue

    NASA’s other major communications initiative was in the area of
search and rescue. In the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking
(SARSAT) System, survivors on the ground or on water send up an
Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB). Distressed planes
use the Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) to the SARSAT satellite.
48                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

A satellite equipped with SARSAT equipment receives the message from
the EPIRB or ELT unit and relays it to the Local User Terminal (LUT).
The LUT then relays the message to a mission control center, which alerts
the Rescue Coordination Center. The Rescue Coordination Center team
radios a search-and-rescue unit to look for the missing or distressed
persons or vehicles.
     The instruments on COSPAS/SARSAT satellites (COSPAS satellites
were the Soviet search-and-rescue satellites) were designed to receive
121.5/243- and 406-MHz distress signals from Earth. Signals sent on the
121.5/243-MHz frequencies allowed for location determination within
twenty kilometers of the transmission site. These signals were received by
the search-and-rescue repeater and transmitted in real time over 1,544.5
MHz to the LUT on the ground.
     The instruments could determine the frequency of the distress signal
“Doppler shift” caused by the motion of the spacecraft in relation to the
beacon. This shift provided a measurement for computation of the emer-
gency location. The distress location alerts were then relayed from the
spacecraft to the LUTs on the ground and from there to the mission control
centers. With four operational satellites in orbit (NOAA and Soviet satel-
lites), the time until contact between an individual in an emergency situa-
tion and a satellite varied from a few minutes to a few hours. Figure 2–21
shows the basic concept of satellite-aided search and rescue.
     The use of meteorological satellites for search-and-rescue operations
was first envisioned in the late 1950s. NASA began to experiment with
“random-access Doppler tracking” on the Nimbus satellite series in the
1970s. In these experiments, instruments located and verified transmis-
sions from remote terrestrial sensors (weather stations, buoys, drifting bal-
loons, and other platforms). The first operational random-access Doppler
system was the French ARGOS on the NOAA TIROS satellite series. The
406-MHz search-and-rescue system evolved from this ARGOS system.
     The COSPAS/SARSAT program became an international effort in
1976, with the United States, Canada, and France discussing the possibil-
ities of satellite-aided search and rescue. Joint SARSAT testing agree-
ments in 1979 stated that the United States would supply the satellites,
Canada would supply the spaceborne repeaters for all frequencies, and
France would supply the spaceborne processors for the 406-MHz fre-
quency. The Soviet Union joined the program in 1980, with the Ministry
of Merchant Marine agreeing to equip their COSMOS satellites with
COSPAS repeaters and processors. Norway joined the program in 1981,
also representing Sweden.
     COSPAS/SARSAT experimental operations began in 1982. The first
COSPAS launch took place on June 30, 1982, and the operations of four
North American ground stations began following a period of joint check-
out by the United States, the Soviet Union, Canada, and France. The first
satellite-aided rescue occurred not long after the launch. The United
Kingdom also joined the program. The first SARSAT satellite, NOAA 8,
was launched in 1983.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                            49




            Figure 2–21. Basic Concept of Satellite Search and Rescue

     By 1984, the system constellation consisted of two COSPAS and two
SARSAT satellites. Bulgaria and Finland also joined the program in
1984. A second SARSAT-Soviet agreement was signed that year, which
extended cooperation to 1990. In 1984, NASA turned over the U.S.
SARSAT leadership to NOAA, but the space agency continued its role in
the areas of research and development.
     The full use of the 406-MHz system, designed for global coverage by
satellite, was initiated in 1985. Signals sent on the 406-MHz frequency
allowed for location determination within five kilometers of the transmis-
sion site. In addition, on-board memories stored the 406-MHz data for
later transmission in case the signals that were sent in real time were not
within range of a ground station. This resulted in global coverage.
     The search-and-rescue mission objectives were to:

1. Continue the initial operational use of a spaceborne system to
   acquire, track, and locate the existing ELTs and EPIRBs that were in
   the field operating on 121.5 MHz and 243 MHz

2. Demonstrate and provide for operational use of the improved capa-
   bility for detecting and locating distress incidents utilizing new
   ELT/EPIRBs operating on 406 MHz (This new capability would pro-
   vide higher probability of detection and location, greater location
   accuracy, and coded user information and allow for the necessary
   growth of an increased population of users. In addition, this capabil-
   ity would allow for global coverage by providing spaceborne pro-
   cessing and storage of the 406-MHz data.)
50                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

Operational Communications Satellites

     NASA’s role in the many operational communications satellites
that were launched from 1979 to 1988 was generally limited to pro-
viding launch services, with NASA being paid for providing those
services. The satellite systems were developed, owned, and operated
by commercial enterprises, government agencies from other coun-
tries, various commercial or commercial-government consortiums, or
the U.S. military. The following sections describe these communica-
tions satellites.
     ASC Satellites. The American Satellite Company (ASC) began oper-
ations in 1974. It was a partnership between Fairchild Industries and
Continental Telecom, Inc. Its satellites supplied voice, data, facsimile,
and videoconferencing communications services to U.S. businesses and
government agencies. Service was provided through an ownership posi-
tion in the Westar Satellite System and a network of more than 170 Earth
stations located in the continental United States, Hawaii, Guam, and
Puerto Rico.
     Because of the increased demand for ASC’s services, in 1981, the
company filed an application with the Federal Communications
Commission to operate two wholly owned commercial communications
satellites. In March 1983, a contract was awarded to RCA Astro
Electronics in Princeton, New Jersey, for construction of two ASC space-
craft and the components for a third spacecraft to serve as a ground spare.
NASA launched ASC 1 from the Space Shuttle in August 1985 (Table
2–83). ASC 1 operated in both the six/four-GHz (C-band) and
fourteen/twelve-GHz (Ku-band) frequencies.
     AT&T Satellite System. The American Telephone and Telegraph
(AT&T) satellite system consisted of the Comstar satellites and the
Telstar satellites. The system began operations in 1976 using the Comstar
satellites. The development of the Telstar 3 satellites began in 1980, with
the first launch in 1983. Traffic was transferred from the older Comstars
to the Telstars, with AT&T maintaining a four-satellite constellation com-
posed of three Telstars and one Comstar. AT&T used its satellites for
long-distance high-capacity voice links, television service, and high-
speed data and videoconferencing.
     Comstar Satellites. Comstar D-4, the only Comstar launched during
the 1979–1988 period, was the last in a series of four Comstar satellites
that NASA launched for Comsat General Corporation (Table 2–84). Fully
leased to AT&T, the satellite had twelve transponders (channels), each
capable of relaying 1,500 two-way voice circuits, giving it an overall
communications capability of 18,000 simultaneous high-quality, two-way
telephone transmissions. Comstar used the same platform as the earlier
Intelsat IV series of satellites—the Hughes HS 351.
     Telstar 3 Satellites. The Telstar 3 satellites were the second genera-
tion of satellites in the AT&T system. AT&T procured them directly
rather than through the lease arrangement used for the Comstars. The
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                            51

satellites had the same configuration as the Anik C and SBS satellites and
could be launched from a Delta launch vehicle or the Space Shuttle
(Tables 2–85, 2–86, and 2–87).
     Galaxy Satellites. NASA launched Galaxy 1, 2, and 3 during the
early 1980s. The satellites formed the initial elements of the Hughes
Communications system of commercial satellites. These vehicles provid-
ed C-band television services as well as audio and business telecommu-
nications services. Hughes added to the system in 1988, when it acquired
the orbiting Westar 4 and Westar 5 satellites.
     The Galaxy spacecraft used the Hughes HS 376 spacecraft. Similar
satellites were used for the SBS system, the Telesat satellite system, the
Indonesian Palapa satellites, AT&T’s Telstar satellites, and the Western
Union satellites. Figure 2–22 shows the basic Galaxy spacecraft design.
     Each Galaxy satellite had twenty-four transponders and operated in
the six/four-GHz C-band. Hughes sold the transponders on Galaxy 1 and
Galaxy 3 to private programming owners for the life of each satellite.
Galaxy 2 transponders were offered for sale or lease. Galaxy 1 was devot-
ed entirely to the distribution of cable television programming and
relayed video signals throughout the contiguous United States, Alaska,
and Hawaii (Table 2–88). Galaxy 2 and Galaxy 3 relayed video, voice,
data, and facsimile communications in the contiguous United States
(Tables 2–89 and 2–90).
     RCA Satcom Satellites. RCA American Communications (RCA
Americom) launched eight RCA Satcom satellites during the 1979–1988
period. The C-band satellites were Satcom 3, 3R, 4, 5, 6, and 7. The
Ku-band satellites were Satcom K-1 and Satcom K-2.
     The RCA Satcom satellites formed a series of large, twenty-four-
transponder communications satellites. They consisted of a fixed, four-
reflector antenna assembly and a lightweight transponder of
high-efficiency traveling wavetube amplifiers and low-density microwave
filters. The twenty-four input and output multiplex filters and the wave-
guide sections and antenna feeds were composed of graphite-fiber epoxy
composite. Figure 2–23 shows the major physical features of the RCA
Satcom satellites.
     RCA Americom of Princeton, New Jersey, managed the RCA Satcom
program, including the acquisition of the spacecraft and the associated
tracking, telemetry, command systems, and launch vehicle support.
Spacecraft development and production were the responsibility of RCA’s
Astro Electronics Division. The Delta Project Office at NASA’s Goddard
Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, was responsible to NASA’s
Office of Space Transportation Operations for overall project manage-
ment of the launch vehicle. The Cargo Operations Office at NASA’s
Kennedy Space Center in Florida was responsible to Goddard for launch
operations management. All launch costs incurred by NASA, including
the vehicle hardware and launch services, were reimbursed by RCA
Americom. The Payload Assist Module (PAM) was procured by RCA
directly from the manufacturer, McDonnell Douglas Corporation.
52                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




                       Figure 2–22. Galaxy Components

    Satcom 3 was designed for launch by the Delta 3914 (Table 2–91).
Beginning with Satcom 3-R, the satellites were designed to be launched
either by the Delta 3910/PAM-D or by the Space Shuttle (Table 2–92). (See
Table 2–93 for information on Satcom 4.) Satcom 5 was the first RCA
satellite to use the Delta 3924 launch vehicle configuration, which used the
extended long tank Thor booster, nine Castor IV strap-on motors, and the
new Aerojet AJ-118 second stage, but it used the Thiokol
TE-364-4 third stage rather than the McDonnell Douglas PAM-D stage
(Table 2–94). See Tables 2–95 and 2–96 for information on Satcom 6 and
Satcom 7, respectively.) Satcom K-1 and Satcom K-2 (launched in reverse
sequence) were heavier spacecraft that were launched by the Space Shuttle,
with assistance from a PAM-DII upper stage (Tables 2–97 and 2–98).
    SBS Satellites. Satellite Business Systems (SBS) was created on
December 15, 1975, by IBM, Comsat, and Aetna Life and Casualty, Inc.
                             SPACE APPLICATIONS                                       53




                       Figure 2–23. RCA Satcom 3, 3R, and 4
    (Satcom 5, 6, and 7 were similar, but the solar panels were in three sections.)

It was the first private professional satellite digital communications net-
work and the first domestic system to use the twelve- and fourteen-GHz
frequencies. In July 1984, Comsat left the consortium and sold its shares
to the other two partners. Four satellites were then in orbit. In 1985,
IBM and Aetna sold SBS to MCI Communications Corporation. Aetna
received cash, and IBM received MCI stock plus ownership of SBS 4,
5, and 6, which it transferred to its subsidiary IBM Satellite Transponder
Leasing Corporation. (SBS 5 and SBS 6 had not yet been launched.) The
subsidiary and its three satellites were sold to Hughes Communications
in 1989.
54                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




                       Figure 2–24. SBS Satellite Features

    SBS 1 through SBS 5 were very similar in design to the Anik C and
several other domestic satellites. (Figure 2–24 illustrates the satellite fea-
tures.) During launch, the satellite was a compact cylinder. In orbit, the
satellite unfolded from one end, and a cylindrical solar array was
deployed axially at the other end. When the solar array was deployed, it
revealed the main cylindrical body of the satellite, which was also cov-
ered with solar cells, except for a mirrored band that served as a thermal
radiator. The satellites had ten channels and a capacity for 1,250 two-way
telephone conversations per channel, ten simultaneous color television
transmissions, or a combination of both. SBS 1 through SBS 4 were
launched from NASA vehicles (Tables 2–99, 2–100, 2–101, and 2–102).
SBS 5 was launched from an Ariane in September 1988 and is not
addressed here.
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                              55

     Westar Satellites. Originally established by Western Union, the
Westar satellite system was the first U.S. domestic satellite system. The
system relayed data, voice, video, and fax transmissions throughout the
continental United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Alaska, and the Virgin
Islands. Western Union ended its role as a satellite service provider
when it sold the Westar satellites to Hughes Communications in 1988.
At the time of the sale, the Westar 3, 4, and 5 satellites were operational.
Westar 1 and Westar 2 had already been retired from service (Westar 1
in April 1983 and Westar 2 in 1984). Westar 6 failed to achieve geosta-
tionary orbit following its deployment from STS 41-B in February
1984. NASA provided the launch services for the satellites.
     Westar 6 was captured and retrieved by an astronaut crew on
STS 51-A in February 1984 and returned to Earth for refurbishment.
Following its return, the satellite’s insurers resold the spacecraft to the
Pan Am Pacific Satellite Corporation, which in turn resold it to Asia
Satellite, who renamed it AsiaSat 1. The satellite was relaunched in
April 1990 aboard a Long March rocket.5
     The Westar 6S satellite, procured by Western Union as a replacement
for Westar 6, was still under development when Western Union was
bought out by Hughes. The vehicle was subsequently renamed Galaxy 6.
     Westar 1, 2, and 3 were nearly identical to the Canadian Anik A
satellites (discussed in Volume III of the NASA Historical Data Book).
The satellites were spin-stabilized, and the body and all equipment
within it spun; only the antenna was despun. The antennas were one
and a half meters in diameter and were fed by an array of three horns
that produced a pattern optimized for the continental United States. A
fourth horn provided a lower-level beam for Hawaii. The communica-
tions subsystems had twelve channels with a bandwidth of thirty-six
MHz each. Each of twelve spacecraft transponders could relay
1,200 voice channels, one color television transmission with program
audio, or data at fifty megabytes per second.
     Westar 4, 5, and 6 were larger and had more capacity than the ear-
lier satellites, with twenty-four available channels. Except for commu-
nications subsystem details, the satellites were the same as the SBS
satellites (addressed above). They had a cylindrical body that was cov-
ered with solar cells, except for a band that was a thermal radiator
(Figure 2–25). A cylindrical array that surrounded the main body dur-
ing launch and was deployed in orbit generated additional power. The
antenna and the communications equipment were mounted on a plat-
form that was despun during satellite operations. Table 2–103 compares
the features of the first generation and the second generation Westar
satellites. The characteristics of the Westar 3, 4, 5, and 6 satellites are
in Tables 2–104, 2–105, 2–106, and 2–107, respectively.


    Donald H. Martin, Communication Satellites, 1958–1992 (El Segundo, CA:
    5


The Aerospace Corporation, December 31, 1991), pp. 150–51.
56                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




                 Figure 2–25. Westar 4, 5, and 6 Configuration

    Intelsat Satellites. Intelsat (the International Telecommunications
Satellite Organization) is an extremely reliable (more than 99 percent)
global network of satellites that has provided nearly universal commu-
nications coverage except in the polar regions. Intelsat began develop-
ing satellites for international public use as soon as the early
experimental communications satellite technology had been proven.
Starting from a single satellite in 1964, the system grew to a global net-
work using many satellites. Six generations of satellites have been
brought into service.
    All nations may join Intelsat, and the organization has more than
100 member nations (see Table 2–108). Ownership percentages reflect
national investments in Intelsat and are adjusted to reflect each country’s
use of the system. When Intelsat began, the U.S. ownership was more
than 60 percent. As more nations began using the system, this percentage
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                 57

dropped and has been 22 to 27 percent since the late 1970s. Australia,
Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and the United
Kingdom are the other large owners, with percentages between 2 and
14 percent.6
     Intelsat was created through the adoption of interim agreements
signed by eleven countries that established a global commercial commu-
nications satellite system. Since February 12, 1973, Intelsat has operated
under definitive agreements, with an organizational structure consisting of
an Assembly of Parties (governments that are parties to the Intelsat agree-
ment), a Meeting of Signatories (governments or their designated telecom-
munications entities that have signed the Operating Agreement), a Board
of Governors (responsible for decisions relating to the design, develop-
ment, construction, establishment, operations, and maintenance of the
Intelsat space segment), and an Executive Organ headed by a Director
General. The members of the Board of Governors represent countries or
groups of countries with relatively large ownership percentages and geo-
graphic regions where countries do not have large ownership percentages.
     The Intelsat communications system includes the satellites them-
selves, a large number of ground terminals, and a control center. Intelsat
owns the satellites, but each member owns its own terminals. The system
has Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions.7 The number of ground ter-
minals has increased yearly since the system became operational in 1965.
Intelsat handles telephone, telegraph, data, and television traffic.
Telephone has been the major portion of the traffic. In the early years,
almost all Intelsat traffic was voice, but with the growth of television
transmissions and, more recently, the surge in nonvoice digital services,
revenue. Television accounted for about 10 percent of the revenues,
except in months with events of worldwide interest, such as the Olympic
Games. The Atlantic region has always had the majority of all Intelsat
traffic, almost 70 percent in the early years and decreasing later to about
60 percent. The Pacific region began earlier than the Indian Ocean region
because of earlier satellite availability. However, Indian Ocean traffic sur-
passed Pacific traffic when considerable Hawaiian and Alaskan traffic
was transferred to U.S. domestic systems. Pacific traffic, however, has


    6
     Ibid., p. 83.
    7
     Intelsat has four service regions. The Atlantic Ocean Region serves the
Americas, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East, India, and Africa and gener-
ally covers locations from 307 degrees east to 359 degrees east longitude. The
Indian Ocean Region serves Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, India, and
Australia and covers 327 degrees east to 66 degrees east. The Asia Pacific Region
serves Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, India, and Australia and covers 72
degrees east to 157 degrees east. The Pacific Ocean Region serves Asia,
Australia, the Pacific, and the western part of North America from
174 degrees east to 183 degrees east. In most discussions, the Asia Pacific Region
and the Pacific Ocean Region are treated as a single region.
58                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




                Figure 2–26. Growth of Intelsat Traffic (1975–1990)

continued to grow, as many small nations have begun to use the system.8
Figure 2–26 shows the growth of Intelsat traffic from 1975 to 1990.
    NASA’s Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center) man-
aged the Atlas-Centaur launches. Comsat was responsible for firing the
apogee kick motor that placed the satellites into near geosynchronous orbit.
    Intelsat V. The Intelsat IV-A satellites that were first used in 1975 had
a capacity of 6,000 voice circuits and two television channels. They pro-
vided a moderate capacity increase over previous satellites without
requiring significant ground terminal changes. However, further capacity
increases were not practical with a simple stretching of the
Intelsat IV/IV-A design, so the development of a new satellite began in
1976. The new series of satellites (Intelsat V) had a capacity of
12,000 voice circuits and two television channels. It has been used in all
the Intelsat regions.
    The Intelsat V satellites incorporated several new features. These were:

•    Frequency reuse through both spatial isolation and dual polarization
     isolation
•    Multiband communications—both fourteen/eleven GHz and six/four
     GHz
•    A contiguous band output multiplexer
•    Maritime communications subsystem
•    Use of nickel hydrogen batteries in later spacecraft

    Two of the new design features required significant ground terminal
changes. The use of dual-polarization uplinks and downlinks in the four-
and six-GHz bands required improvements at all ground terminals to
ensure isolation between the two polarizations. The dual-polarization
uplinks and downlinks tripled the satellite capacity in the four- and six-

     8
      Martin, Communication Satellites, pp. 83–85.
                           SPACE APPLICATIONS                              59




                         Figure 2–27. Intelsat 5 Spacecraft

GHz bands, compared with the Intelsat IV design. Also, the nations with
the largest traffic volumes used the new eleven- and fourteen-GHz bands
and two independent beams and needed to construct new terminals for
them.9
     The Intelsat V satellites had a rectangular body of more than one and a
half meters across. The Sun-tracking solar arrays, composed of three pan-
els each, were deployed in orbit. An antenna tower on the Earth-
viewing face of the body held both the communications and telemetry,
tracking, and command antennas and the feed networks for the large reflec-
tors. The tower was fixed to the satellite body, but the three largest reflec-
tors deployed in orbit. The tower was more than four and a half meters tall
and was constructed almost entirely of graphite fiber/epoxy materials for
strength, light weight, and thermal stability. The entire satellite weighed
about 1,928 kilograms at launch and 998 kilograms in orbit and spanned
about fifteen and a half meters across the solar array (Figure 2–27).
     The initial Intelsat V contract that was awarded to Ford Aerospace
and Communications Corporation of the United States called for seven
satellites; later an eighth and a ninth were added to the contract. An inter-
national team of manufacturers served as subcontractors. Members of the
international manufacturing team and their areas of concentration are list-
ed in Table 2–109.
     The first Intelsat V launch was in December 1980; the last, the only
failure, was in 1984. The eight satellites successfully launched were still
in use at the end of 1990. The Intelsat V characteristics are summarized
in Tables 2–110 through 2–116.

    9
     Ibid., pp. 56–57.
60                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

     Intelsat V-A Series. Intelsat V-A F-10 was the first in the Intelsat V-A
series of satellites. Intelsat V-A was a modified Intelsat V design. Its
development started in late 1979. As with previous changes to Intelsat
satellites, the primary goal was to increase satellite capacity to keep ahead
of traffic growth in the Atlantic region. Intelsat V-A satellites had a capac-
ity of 13,500 two-way voice circuits, plus two television channels.
     Externally, the satellite was almost identical to Intelsat V. Internally,
several changes were made to improve performance, reliability, and com-
munications capacity. Several weight-saving measures compensated for
the additional communications hardware. The internal arrangement of the
communications hardware was modified for thermal balance. Intelsat
V-A satellites did not have the maritime communication subsystem, which
was added to Intelsat V-5 launched in September 1982 and Intelsat V-6
through Intelsat V-9. (Intelsat V-7 and V-8 were not launched by NASA.)
     The first Intelsat V-A was launched in March 1985 (Table 2–117). Two
others were launched later in 1985 (Tables 2–118 and 2–119). A fourth was
lost in a launch vehicle failure in 1986. The last two were launched in 1988
and 1989. Only the three 1985 satellites were NASA launches.
     Fltsatcom Satellites. The Fltsatcom system (Fleet Satellite
Communications) provided worldwide, high-priority, ultrahigh frequency
(UHF) communications among naval aircraft, ships, submarines, and
ground stations and between the Strategic Air Command and the nation-
al command authority network. It supplied military communications
capability for the U.S. Air Force with narrowband and wideband channels
and the U.S. Navy for fleet relay and fleet broadcast channels. The satel-
lites provided two-way communication, in the 240- to 400-MHz frequen-
cy band, between any points on Earth visible from their orbital locations.
Between 1979 and 1988, NASA furnished launch services for six




                     Figure 2–28. Fltsatcom Coverage Areas
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                             61

Fltsatcom satellites for the U.S. Department of Defense, Fltsatcom 2
through Fltsatcom 7 (Tables 2–120 through 2–125).
    Fltsatcom and the Air Force Satellite Communications System shared
a set of four Fltsatcom satellites in synchronous equatorial orbits. Figure
2–28 shows the coverage areas of the five operational Fltsatcom satellites.
    The Fltsatcom satellites had an hexagonal body with two modules—
a spacecraft module and a payload module (Figure 2–29). Fltsatcom 7
had a third module for the extremely high frequency (EHF) communica-
tions package that it carried. The spacecraft module contained the attitude
control, power, and tracking, telemetry, and command subsystems, as
well as the apogee motor. The two solar arrays were mounted on booms
attached to this module. The satellite was three-axis stabilized by means
of redundant reaction wheels and hydrazine thrusters. This arrangement
allowed the antennas to face Earth continuously while being directly
attached to the satellite body. The payload module contained the commu-
nications subsystem. The transponders on board each satellite carried
twenty-three UHF communications channels and one superhigh frequen-
cy uplink channel. The Navy used ten of the channels for communications
among its land forces, ships, and aircraft. The Air Force used twelve of
the channels as part of its satellite communications system for command
and control of nuclear forces. One channel was reserved for U.S. nation-
al command authorities.
    Leasat Satellites. The Leasat satellites (also known by the name
Syncom) were leased by the Department of Defense from Hughes
Communications Services to replace older Fltsatcom spacecraft for




                      Figure 2–29. Fltsatcom Spacecraft
62                         NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

worldwide UHF communications among ships, planes, and fixed facili-
ties. The spacecraft were designed expressly for launch from the Space
Shuttle and used the “frisbee” or rollout method of deployment.
     A cradle structure helped install the spacecraft in the orbiter payload
bay. This cradle permitted the spacecraft to be installed lying on its side,
with its retracted antennas pointing toward the nose of the orbiter and its
propulsion system pointing toward the back. Mounting the antennas on
deployable structures allowed them to be stowed for launch.
     The Leasat satellites did not require a separately purchased upper
stage. They contained their own unique upper stage to transfer them
from the Shuttle deploy orbit to a geosynchronous circular orbit over
the equator.
     The satellites used the Hughes HS 381 bus. They were spin-
stabilized, with the spun portion containing the solar array and the Sun
and Earth sensors for attitude determination and Earth pointing refer-
ence, three nickel cadmium batteries for eclipse operation, and all the
propulsion and attitude control hardware. The despun platform contained
two large helical UHF Earth-pointing communications antennas, twelve
UHF communications repeaters, and the majority of the telemetry, track-
ing, and command equipment.
     The contract for Leasat development was awarded in September
1978 to Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation. The first
launch was scheduled for 1982. However, delays in the Shuttle program
postponed the launch dates and resulted in a two-year suspension of work
on the satellites. Work resumed in 1983, and NASA launched the first
two satellites in 1984. NASA launched the third Leasat in April 1985, but
the satellite failed to turn on. The Shuttle crew carried out a rescue
attempt but was unsuccessful. NASA launched the fourth Leasat in
August 1985. The same Shuttle mission then rendezvoused with Leasat
3 and carried out a successful repair, allowing ground controllers to turn
the satellite on and orient it. After ensuring that the propellants were
warm, Leasat 3 was placed into geosynchronous orbit in November 1985
and began operations in December. Unfortunately, Leasat 4 failed short-
ly after arriving in geosynchronous orbit, and the wideband channel on
Leasat 2 failed in October 1985. The characteristics of these four satel-
lites are in Tables 2–126 through 2–129. NASA launched the fifth and
last Leasat in January 1990.10
     NATO IIID. NATO IIID was the fourth and final NATO III satellite
placed in orbit by NASA for the U.S. Air Force and its Space Division
acting as agents for NATO. The satellite was spin-stabilized with a cylin-
drical body and a despun antenna platform on one end. All equipment
was mounted within the body, and a three-channel rotary joint connect-
ed the communications subsystem with the antennas (Figure 2–30). The
spacecraft transmitted voice, data, facsimile, and telex messages among
military ground stations.

     10
          Ibid., p. 115.
                                SPACE APPLICATIONS                         63




                              Figure 2–30. NATO III Spacecraft

     The NATO communications satellite program began in 1967. The first
NATO satellite was launched in 1970. A second satellite was launched in
1971. The NATO III satellites were larger and had significantly greater
capabilities than the earlier NATO satellites. NASA launched NATO IIIA
in April 1976. NATO IIIB was launched in January 1977 as an orbiting
spare. NATO loaned it to the United States to fill the east Pacific operating
location of the Defense Space Communications System (DSCS) until at
least four DSCS II satellites were available, which occurred in December
1978 with the launch of DSCS II. The United States removed DSCS traf-
fic from NATO IIIB and returned the satellite to its station over the Atlantic
Ocean. NATO traffic was switched to NATO IIIB in December 1982, and
NATO IIIA was used for ground terminal testing. The flight qualification
model was reworked into the third flight model and launched in November
1978; it was put into a dormant state known as orbital storage. NATO IIIC
was reactivated and became the primary NATO spacecraft in December
1986, and NATO IIIB became a test vehicle. In 1980, a follow-on contract
was issued for a fourth satellite, which NASA launched in November 1984
as NATO IIID (Table 2–130).11

    11
         Ibid., pp. 105–07.
64                         NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

     Anik Satellites. Telesat Canada Corporation operated the series of Anik
satellites and reimbursed NASA for the cost of its launch services. (Anik
means “little brother” in Inuit.) The system began operations in Canada at
the beginning of 1973. The first three satellites were designated the Anik A
series. Anik A-1 was the world’s first geostationary communications satel-
lite launched into orbit for a commercial company. The satellites provided
all types of communications services throughout Canada. A single Anik B
satellite supplemented the A series and provided additional experimental
channels.
     The Anik D series replaced the A satellites. The Anik C satellites oper-
ated at the same time as Anik D but had a different function. They added to
terrestrial communications on high-traffic-density paths and used the
twelve- and fourteen-GHz frequencies for service to terminals in urban
areas. The four- and six-GHz bands that were used by Anik D were unac-
ceptable because of interference from other users of the band.12
     The Anik satellites were designed for launch from either a Delta launch
vehicle or the Space Shuttle. The characteristics of the Anik C satellites are
in Tables 2–132, 2–133, and 2–135, while those of the Anik D satellites are
in Tables 2–131 and 2–134; these satellite descriptions are in order of
launch date.
     Anik C Satellites. Anik C was a spin-stabilized satellite. When in orbit,
the antenna was deployed from one end of the satellite, and a cylindrical
solar panel was extended from the opposite end. The communications sub-
system had sixteen repeaters and used the twelve- and fourteen-GHz bands.
Figure 2–31 shows the Anik C configuration.
     The Anik C satellites covered only the southern half of Canada because
they were designed to connect Canada’s urban centers. The use of the
twelve- and fourteen-GHz bands allowed the ground terminals to be placed
inside cities without interference between the satellite system and terrestri-
al microwave facilities. Anik C complemented the Anik A and Anik D satel-
lites, which covered all of Canada and were best suited to the distribution of
national television or message services that required nationwide access.
     The development of Anik C began in April 1978. The first launch (Anik
C-3) took place from STS-5 in November 1982. Anik C-3 was the first C
series satellite launched because the other C satellites were not as readily
accessible; they had been put into ground storage awaiting launch vehicle
availability. The second C satellite was launched in June 1983, and the third
in April 1985. Traffic did not grow as much as expected when the C series
was planned, and Anik C-1 was put into orbital storage and offered for sale.
A purchase agreement was made in 1986 by a group that planned to use it
for transpacific services, but the agreement was canceled in 1987. By 1989,
Telesat began to use the satellite in a limited way, and in 1990, additional
traffic was transferred to it in preparation for the introduction of Anik E-1.13

     12
          Ibid., p. 131.
     13
          Ibid., p. 136.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                              65




                       Figure 2–31. Anik C Configuration

     Anik D Satellites. The Anik D satellites replaced the Anik A satellites.
The satellites were also spin-stabilized, and the structure, support subsys-
tems, thermal radiator, and deployable solar array were almost identical
to those of Anik C.
     The major difference between the two satellites was in the communi-
cations subsystem. Anik D had twenty-four repeaters in the four- and six-
GHz bands as compared to the sixteen repeaters in the twelve- and
fourteen-GHz bands on Anik C. Figure 2–32 shows the typical geograph-
ical coverage of the Anik D satellites from an approximate location of
104 degrees west longitude.
     Arabsat Satellite. NASA launched Arabsat-1B from the Space Shuttle
in June 1985 (Table 2–136). It was the second in a series of satellites owned
by the Arabsat Satellite Communications Organization (or Arabsat).
(Arabsat-1A was launched from an Ariane in February 1984.) It was a
communications satellite with a coverage area that included the Arab-
speaking countries of North Africa and the Middle East (Figure 2–33).
     Arabsat was formed in 1976. Saudi Arabia had the largest investment
share. The objective of the system was to promote economic, social, and
cultural development in the Arab world by providing reliable communi-
cations links among the Arab states and in rural areas, developing Arab
66                         NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK




      Figure 2–32. Anik D Geographical Coverage at 104 Degrees West Longitude

industrial capabilities in space-related technologies, and introducing new
communications services to the area.
     The Arabsat Organization purchased the satellites, launch services, and
major ground facilities but developed some of the ground equipment with-
in the member nations. The organization awarded a contract to
Aerospatiale in May 1981 for three satellites. The satellites included equip-
ment used for other satellites, particularly the Intelsat V series and Telecom
1. It was a three-axis-stabilized design with solar arrays and antennas. The
solar arrays were partially deployed in the transfer orbit; the antennas were
deployed in synchronous orbit. The satellites contained twenty-five C-band
transponders and one television (C/S-band) transponder.14
     Aussat Satellites. Australia first considered a domestic satellite sys-
tem in 1966. In 1969, the country began routing some transcontinental
telephone circuits through the Intelsat system. During 1970, experiments
were conducted using ATS 1 to gather data that would be useful in plan-
ning a domestic satellite system.
     Studies continued throughout the 1970s. In mid-1979, the govern-
ment decided to institute a satellite system. In the fall of 1979, the
Canadian Hermes satellite (actually CTS) was used for demonstrations of
television broadcasting to small terminals at numerous locations. The dis-
tribution of television to fifty isolated communities began in 1980 using
an Intelsat satellite. Between mid-1979 and April 1982, satellite specifi-
cations were developed, a government-owned operating company, Aussat
Proprietary, Ltd., was formed, and a satellite contract was signed with
Hughes Communications International to develop Australia’s first satel-
lite program. Under the contract, Hughes Space and Communications
Group built three satellites and two telemetry, tracking, command, and


     14
          Ibid., p. 268.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                             67




                      Figure 2–33. Arabsat Coverage Area

monitoring stations. The contract also provided for launch and opera-
tional services and ground support.
     Aussat provided a wide range of domestic services to the entire con-
tinent, its offshore islands, and Papua, New Guinea. This included direct-
television broadcast to homesteads and remote communities, high-quality
television relays among cities, digital data transmission for both telecom-
munications and business use, voice applications for urban and remote
areas, centralized air traffic control services used as a very high-frequen-
cy (VHF) repeater station, and maritime radio coverage.
     NASA launched two Aussat satellites for Aussat Proprietary. The sys-
tem used the Hughes HS 376 spacecraft, the same spacecraft used by
Anik, Telstar, Galaxy, and Palapa. Aussat 1 and Aussat 2 were located at
geosynchronous orbits at the equator just north of Papua, New Guinea, at
156 degrees east and 164 degrees east longitude (Table 2–137 and
2–138). The satellites were designed to be launched from the Space
Shuttle, a Delta, or an Ariane. The Aussat satellites carried fifteen chan-
nels, each forty-five MHz wide.
     Insat Satellites. NASA launched the Insat satellites for the India
Department of Space. The satellites were multipurpose telecommunica-
tions/meteorology spacecraft with the capability for nationwide direct
broadcasting to community television receivers in rural areas. The space-
craft were built by Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation
under a joint venture of the Department of Space, the Posts and Telegraphs
Department of the Ministry of Communications, the India Meteorological
Department of the Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation, and the
Doordarshan of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
     The satellites included twelve transponders operating at 5,935–6,424
MHz (Earth-to-satellite) and 3,710–4,200 MHz (satellite-to-Earth) for thick
route, thin route, and remote area communications and television program
distribution. They also had two transponders operating at 5,855–5,935 MHz
68                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

(Earth-to-satellite) and 2,555–2,635 MHz (satellite-to-Earth) for direct-
television broadcasting to augmented low-cost community television
receivers in rural areas for which direct-television broadcast coverage has
been identified as more economical, radio program distribution, national
television networking, and disaster warning. The telecommunications com-
ponent could provide more than 8,000 two-way long-distance telephone cir-
cuits potentially accessible from any part of India.
     NASA launched Insat 1A from a Delta launch vehicle in 1982 (Table
2–139). The space agency also launched Insat 1B from the Space Shuttle
in 1983 (Table 2–140). Insat 1C was launched from an Ariane in 1988 and
is not addressed here.
     Morelos Satellites. Mexico started domestic use of satellite commu-
nications in 1980 by leasing Intelsat capacity on a satellite that was
moved to 53 degrees west longitude to provide domestic services for the
Western Hemisphere. Mexico also owned one transponder on a U.S.
domestic satellite that was used for transmission of television to the
United States. In the spring of 1983, Mexico awarded a contract for the
construction of a Mexican domestic communications satellite to Hughes
Communications. The satellite and the satellite system were called
Morelos in honor of a notable person in Mexican history.
     The satellite system provided advanced telecommunications to the
most remote parts of Mexico, including educational television, commer-
cial programs over the national television network, telephone and facsim-
ile services, and data and business transmissions. The system used
eighteen channels at C-band and four channels at Ku-band. The satellites
used the popular Hughes HS 376 design.
     NASA launched two satellites for the Secretariat of Communications
and Transportation, Mexico. Morelos 1 was launched in June 1985, and
all traffic from the Intelsat satellite was transferred to it (Table 2–141).
NASA launched Morelos 2 in November 1985 (Table 2–142). It was put
into a drifting storage orbit just above synchronous altitude. In 1986, it
was stabilized at 116 degrees longitude in an orbit with a few degrees
inclination. That orbit was phased so that the inclination decreased to zero
by 1990 from natural forces. This allowed the satellite to use its sched-
uled launch date yet not use fuel for stationkeeping until its communica-
tions services were required.
     Palapa Satellites. The Palapa satellites form Indonesia’s domestic
satellite system. Meaning “fruits of labor,” Palapa satellites provided
regional communications among the country’s more than 6,000 inhabited
islands. The system was operated by a government-owned company,
Perumetel until 1993, when a private Indonesian company took over sys-
tem management.
     NASA launched Palapa A1 on July 8, 1976. Operational service began
the following month. Palapa A1 and Palapa A2 were removed from service
in July 1985 and January 1988, respectively, following the introduction of
the Palapa B series, which increased coverage to include the Philippines,
Malaysia, and Singapore. Palapa B-1 was launched on STS-7 in 1983
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                              69

(Table 2–143). Palapa B-2, originally launched by NASA from STS 41-B
in February 1984, did not successfully reach orbit and was subsequently
retrieved by STS 51-A in November 1984 (Table 2–144). Following the
failure of Palapa B-2, Perumetel ordered an identical replacement satellite,
Palapa B-2P, which NASA launched in March 1987 on a Delta launch
vehicle (Table 2–145). The satellite was sold by its insurers to Sattel
Technologies; it was refurbished, relaunched in April 1990, and then
resold to Perumetel, with which it was known as Palapa B-2R.15
     The Palapa B satellites were four times more powerful and twice the
size of the Palapa A series. They were based on the frequently used
Hughes HS 376 design. Each carried twenty-four C-band transponders
and six spares.
     UoSAT Satellites. The UoSAT satellites were part of the Oscar pro-
gram of HAM radio satellites. (Oscar stood for Orbiting Satellite
Carrying Amateur Radio.) The satellites were carried as secondary pay-
loads on missions that had excess payload space. NASA launched
UoSAT 1 with the Solar Mesospheric Explorer (Table 2–146) and UoSAT
2 with Landsat 5 (Table 2–147).
     The UoSATs emphasized microelectronics technology and involved
direct contact with the satellites from simple ground terminals located at
schools of all levels. UoSAT 1 was the ninth Oscar launch and the first
satellite built by the University of Surrey in England. The goal of UoSAT
1 and the UoSAT program was to demonstrate the development of low-
cost sophisticated satellites and to use these satellites to promote space
science and engineering in education. The satellite was the first satellite
designed to transmit data, including pictures of Earth’s surface, in a form
that could be readily displayed on a domestic television set. It carried a
voice synthesizer for “speaking” (in English) information on telemetry,
experimental data, and spacecraft operations. The synthesizer had a
vocabulary of approximately 150 words, and most standard amateur VHF
receivers could listen in with a simple fixed antenna. It carried a series of
radio beacons transmitting at different frequencies, two particle counters
that provided information on solar activity and auroral events, a magne-
tometer for measuring the Earth’s magnetic field, and an Earth-point cam-
era that covered an area of 500 square kilometers and transmitted images
that could be received and stored by simple receivers and displayed on
home television sets.
     UoSAT 2 was the eleventh Oscar launch. It carried a particle wave
experiment, a store-and-forward digital communications experiment, a
solid-state slow-scan imaging experiment, VHF/UHF and superhigh fre-
quency (SHF) data downlinks, a multichannel command decoder, a
microprocessor-based housekeeping system and data collection facility,
digital Sun sensors, horizon sensors, a navigation magnetometer, three
axis magnetorquers, a gravity-gradient stabilization system, and an exper-
imental telemetry system.

    15
         Ibid., p. 256.
70                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

Navigational Satellites

     NASA launched two series of navigational satellites from 1979 to 1988:
the NOVA satellites and the SOOS satellites. Both series were launched for
the Navy Transit System from Scout launch vehicles, and both used Oscar
spacecraft. The Transit Program was an operational navigation system used
by the U.S. Navy and other vessels for worldwide ocean navigation.
     Transit was developed at Johns Hopkins University’s Applied Physics
Laboratory from 1958 to 1962 to provide precision periodic position fixes
for U.S. Navy submarines. Subsequently, several commercial companies
were contracted to build production models of the spacecraft, which were
kept in controlled storage until needed, as well as signal receiver and
position computer equipment.
     The constellation consisted of two types of spacecraft designated as
Oscar and NOVA. The satellites were launched into a polar orbit with a
nominal 1,112-kilometer altitude. The last Transit satellite launch was
SOOS-3 in August 1988. The program was terminated on December 31,
1996.
     NASA and DOD entered into agreements in June 1962 that established
the basis for joint utilization of the Scout launch vehicle. These initial
agreements were reflected in a memorandum of understanding between
NASA and the Air Force Systems Command, dated April 19, 1977. Under
this agreement, NASA maintained the Scout launch vehicle system, and
DOD used the system capabilities for appropriate missions. DOD request-
ed that NASA provide Scout launches for the Navy Transit and NOVA pro-
grams. The Navy reimbursed NASA for the cost of the Scout launch
vehicles, Western Strategic Missile Command launch services and mission
support requirements, and supporting services, as required.
     NOVA Satellites. NOVA was the new-generation, improved Transit
navigation satellite. RCA Astro-Electronics performed the initial hard-
ware work under contract to the U.S. Navy’s Strategic Systems Project
Office, but because of contractual changes, the satellites were returned to
the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University for comple-
tion and processing for launch. NASA launched the satellites on a four-
stage Scout vehicle into an initial orbit of 342.6 kilometers by
740.8 kilometers. A multiple-burn hydrazine motor then raised and circu-
larized the orbit.
     The NOVA spacecraft was an improved Oscar. Improvements includ-
ed electronics hardened against the effects of radiation, a disturbance
compensation system designed to provide stationkeeping capability and
remove atmospheric drag and radiation pressure effects, and greater data
storage capacity that permitted retention of a long-arc, eight-day naviga-
tion message. The NOVA transmitting system consisted of dual five-MHz
oscillators, phase modulators, and transmitters operating at 400 MHz and
150 MHz. Dual incremental phase shifters were used to control oscillator
offset. The characteristics of the three NOVA satellites are in Tables
2–148, 2–149, and 2–150.
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                            71

     SOOS Satellites. SOOS stands for “Stacked Oscars on Scout.” The
Navy SOOS mission configuration consisted of two Transit satellites in a
stacked configuration. The stacked launch of two satellites and a separa-
tion technique placed the two Oscars in virtually the same orbit plane. To
make the piggyback launch possible, the lower Oscar spacecraft was
modified with a permanently attached graphite epoxy cradle that sup-
ported the upper spacecraft in the launch configuration. The characteris-
tics of the four SOOS satellites are in Tables 2–151 through 2–154.
72                      NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                 Table 2–1. Applications Satellites (1979–1988)
  Launch             Satellite        Type of           Owner/          Launch
   Date                               Mission           Sponsor         Vehicle
 Feb. 18, 1979     SAGE (AEM-2)     Explorer         NASA                Scout
 May 4, 1979       Fltsatcom 2      Communications   Dept. of Defense Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 June 27, 1979     NOAA 6           Meteorological   NOAA                Atlas-F
 Aug. 9, 1979      Westar 3         Communications   Western Union       Delta
 Oct. 30, 1979     Magsat (AEM-C)   Explorer         NASA                Scout
 Dec. 6, 1979      RCA Satcom 3*    Communications   RCA Corp.           Delta
 Jan. 17, 1980     Fltsatcom 3      Communications   Dept. of Defense Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 May 29, 1980      NOAA B*          Meteorological   NOAA                Atlas-F
 Sept. 9, 1980     GOES 4           Meteorological   NOAA                Delta
 Oct. 30, 1980     Fltsatcom 4      Communications   Dept. of Defense Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 Nov. 15, 1980     SBS 1            Communications   Satellite Business Delta
                                                     Systems
 Dec. 6, 1980      Intelsat V F-2   Communications   Intelsat            Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 Feb. 21, 1981     Comstar D-4      Communications   AT&T Corp.          Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 May 15, 1981      NOVA 1           Navigational     U.S. Navy           Scout
 May 21, 1981      GOES 5           Meteorological   NOAA                Delta
 May 23, 1981      Intelsat V F-1   Communications   Intelsat            Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 June 23, 1981     NOAA 7           Meteorological   NOAA                Atlas-F
 Aug. 6, 1981      Fltsatcom 5      Communications   Dept. of Defense Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 Sept. 24, 1981 SBS 2               Communications   Satellite Business Delta
                                                     Systems
 Nov. 19, 1981     RCA Satcom 3R    Communications   RCA Corp.           Delta
 Dec. 15, 1981     Intelsat V F-3   Communications   Intelsat            Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 Jan. 16, 1982 RCA Satcom 4         Communications   RCA Corp.           Delta
 Feb. 25, 1982 Westar 4             Communications   Western Union       Delta
 March 4, 1982 Intelsat V F-4       Communications   Intelsat            Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 April 10, 1982    Insat 1A         Communications   India               Delta
 June 8, 1982      Westar 5         Communications   Western Union       Delta
 July 16, 1982     Landsat 4        Remote Sensing   NOAA                Delta
 Aug. 25, 1982     Anik D-1         Communications   Canada              Delta
 Sept. 28, 1982    Intelsat V F-5   Communications   Intelsat            Atlas
                                                                         Centaur
 Oct. 27, 1982     RCA Satcom 5     Communications   RCA Corp.           Delta
 Nov. 11, 1982     SBS 3            Communications   Satellite Business STS-5
                                                     Systems
 Nov. 12, 1982 Anik C-3             Communications   Canada              STS-5
 March 28, 1983 NOAA 8              Meteorological   NOAA                Atlas-E
 April 11, 1983 RCA Satcom 6        Communications   RCA Corp.           Delta
                              SPACE APPLICATIONS                                    73

                               Table 2–1 continued
 Launch         Satellite              Type of           Owner/            Launch
  Date                                 Mission           Sponsor           Vehicle
April 28, 1983 GOES 6                Meteorological   NOAA                  Delta
May 19, 1983 Intelsat V F-6          Communications   Intelsat              Atlas
                                                                            Centaur
June 18, 1983    Anik C-2            Communications   Canada                STS-7
June 18, 1983    Palapa B-1          Communications   Indonesia             STS-7
June 28, 1983    Galaxy 1            Communications   Hughes                Delta
                                                      Communications
July 28, 1983    Telstar 3-A         Communications   AT&T Corp.            Delta
Aug. 31, 1983    Insat 1B            Communications   India                 STS-8
Sept. 8, 1983    RCA Satcom 7        Communications   RCA Corp.             Delta
Sept. 22, 1983   Galaxy 2            Communications   Hughes                Delta
                                                      Communications
Feb. 3, 1984     Westar 6*           Communications   Western Union         STS 41-B
Feb. 6, 1984     Palapa B-2          Communications   Indonesia             STS 41-B
March 1, 1984    Landsat 5           Remote Sensing   NOAA                  Delta
March 1, 1984    UoSAT 2             Communications   University of         Delta
                                                      Surrey
June 9, 1984     Intelsat V F-9*     Communications   Intelsat              Atlas
                                                                            Centaur
Aug. 31, 1984    SBS 4               Communications   Satellite Business    STS 41-D
                                                      Systems
Aug. 31, 1984  Leasat 2              Communications   Hughes (leased by     STS 41-D
               (Syncom IV-2)                          Dept. of Defense)
Sept. 1, 1984  Telstar 3-C           Communications   AT&T Corp.            STS 41-D
Sept. 21, 1984 Galaxy 3              Communications   Hughes                Delta
                                                      Communications
Oct. 5, 1984     Earth Radiation     Environmental    NASA                  STS 41-G
                 Budget Satellite    Observations
                 (ERBS)
Oct. 12, 1984    NOVA 3              Navigational     U.S. Navy             Scout
Nov. 9, 1984     Anik D-2            Communications   Canada                STS 51-A
Nov. 10, 1984    Leasat 1            Communications   Hughes (leased by     STS 51-A
                 (Syncom IV-1)                        Dept. of Defense)
Nov. 13, 1984    NATO IIID       Communications       NATO                  Delta
Dec. 12, 1984    NOAA 9          Environmental        NOAA                  Atlas-E
                                 Observations
Jan. 24, 1985  DOD               n/a                  Dept. of Defense  STS 51-C
March 22, 1985 Intelsat V-A F-10 Communications       Intelsat          Atlas
                                                                        Centaur
April 12, 1985   Anik C-1            Communications   Canada            STS 51-D
April 13, 1985   Leasat 3            Communications   Hughes (leased by STS 51-D
                 (Syncom IV-3)                        Dept. of Defense)
June 17, 1985    Morelos 1           Communications   Mexico            STS 51-G
June 18, 1985    Arabsat-1B          Communications   Saudi Arabia      STS 51-G
June 19, 1985    Telstar 3-D         Communications   AT&T Corp.        STS 51-G
June 29, 1985    Intelsat V-A F-11   Communications   Intelsat          Atlas
                                                                        Centaur
74                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                                Table 2–1 continued
  Launch            Satellite         Type of           Owner/            Launch
   Date                               Mission           Sponsor           Vehicle
 Aug. 3, 1985      SOOS-I           Navigational      U.S. Navy            Scout
                   (Oscar 24 and 30)
 Aug. 27, 1985     ASC 1             Communications   American            STS 51-I
                                                      Satellite Corp.
 Aug. 27, 1985  Aussat 1          Communications      Australia           STS 51-I
 Aug. 29, 1985  Leasat 4          Communications      Hughes (leased by   STS 51-I
                (Syncom IV-4)                         Dept. of Defense)
 Sept. 28, 1985 Intelsat V-A F-12 Communications      Intelsat            Atlas
                                                                          Centaur
 Oct. 3, 1985      DOD              n/a               Dept. of Defense    STS 51-J
 Nov. 26, 1985     Morelos 2        Communications    Mexico              STS 61-B
 Nov. 27, 1985     Aussat 2         Communications    Australia           STS 62-B
 Nov. 28, 1985     RCA Satcom K-2   Communications    RCA Corp.           STS 61-B
 Dec. 12, 1985     AF-16            n/a               Dept. of Defense    Scout
 Jan. 12, 1986     RCA Satcom K-1   Communications    RCA Corp.           STS 61-C
 May 5, 1986       GOES G*          Meteorological    NOAA                Delta
 Sept. 5, 1986     DOD (SDI)        n/a               Dept. of Defense    Delta
 Sept. 17, 1986    NOAA 10          Meteorological    NOAA                Atlas-E
 Dec. 4, 1986      Fltsatcom F-7    Communications    Dept. of Defense    Atlas
                                                                          Centaur
 Feb. 26, 1987 GOES 7               Meteorological    NOAA                Delta
 March 20, 1987 Palapa B-2P         Communications    Indonesia           Delta
 March 26, 1987 Fltsatcom F-6*      Communications    Dept. of Defense    Atlas
                                                                          Centaur
 Sept. 16, 1987    SOOS-2           Navigational      U.S. Navy           Scout
 April 25, 1988    SOOS-3           Navigational      U.S. Navy           Scout
 June 16, 1988     NOVA 2           Navigational      U.S. Navy           Scout
 Aug. 25, 1988     SOOS-4           Navigational      U.S. Navy           Scout
 Sept. 24, 1988    NOAA 11          Meteorological    NOAA                Atlas-E
 Sept. 29, 1988    DOD              n/a               Dept. of Defense    STS-27
 *Mission failed
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                                   75

             Table 2–2. Science and Applications Missions
                    Conducted on the Space Shuttle

     Date                        Payload                         STS Mission
Nov. 12, 1981         OSTA-1                                       STS-2
March 22, 1982        OSS-1 (primarily science payload             STS-3
                      with some applications experiments)
June 18, 1983         OSTA-2                                       STS-7
Nov. 28, 1983         Spacelab 1 (international mission with ESA) STS-9
Aug. 30, 1984         OAST-1 (sponsored by the Office of           STS 41-D
                      Aeronautics and Space Technology with
                      some experiments contributed by OSTA)
Oct. 5, 1984          OSTA-3                                       STS 41-G
April 29, 1985        Spacelab 3 (international mission with ESA) STS 51-B
July 29, 1985         Spacelab 2 (international mission with ESA) STS 51-F
Oct. 30, 1985         Spacelab D-1 (German Spacelab with NASA STS 61-A
                      oversight)
Note: OAST-1 is addressed in Chapter 3, “Aeronautics and Space Research and
Technology.” OSS-1 and the Spacelab missions are addressed in Chapter 4,
“Space Science,” in Volume V of the NASA Historical Data Book.
76                        NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

             Table 2–3. Total Space Applications Funding History
                           (in thousands of dollars)
    Year      Request           Authorization         Appropriation             Programmed
                                                                                  (Actual)
    1979      274,300               280,300                     a                274,800 b
    1980      332,300               338,300                     c                331,620 d
    1981      381,700               372,400             331,550 e                  331,550
    1982    372,900 f               398,600             328,200 g                324,267 h
    1983     316,300 i              336,300               341,300                  347,700
    1984      289,000               313,000               293,000                  314,000
    1985      344,100               390,100               384,100                  374,100
    1986      551,800               537,800             519,800 j                  487,500
    1987    491,100 k               552,600               578,100                  562,600
    1988      559,300               651,400               641,300                567,500 l
a     Undistributed. Total R&D amount = $3,477,200,000.
b     Included Resource Observations, Environmental Observations, Applications Systems, Technology
      Transfer, Materials Processing in Space, and Space Communications funding categories.
c     Undistributed. Total R&D amount = $4,091,086,000.
d     Communications funding category renamed Communications and Information Systems.
e     Reflected recission.
f     Amended submission. Original FY 1982 budget submission = $472,900,000.
g     Reflected general supplemental appropriation approved September 10, 1982.
h     Programmed funding for FY 1982 included Solid Earth Observations, Environmental
      Observations, Materials Processing in Space, Communications, and Information Systems
      funding categories. Reflects merger of OSS and OSTA.
i     The Offices of Space Science and Space and Terrestrial Applications merged to form the
      Office of Space Science and Applications. Budget amounts reflected only items that were
      considered applications. Remaining OSSA budget items (science) can be found in Chapter 4.
j     Reflected general reduction of $5,000,000 as well as other cuts made by Appropriations
      Committee.
k     Revised submission. Original FY 1987 budget submission = $526,600,000.
l     New Earth Science and Applications funding category incorporated Solid Earth Observations
      and Environmental Observations.
                              SPACE APPLICATIONS                                          77

       Table 2–4. Programmed Budget by Major Budget Category
                        (in thousands of dollars)
Budget Category/Fiscal Year            1979         1980      1981    1982   1983
Space Applications                   274,800      331,620    331,550 324,267 347,700
 Earth Observations                  139,400      150,953    151,350 149,400 128,900
 Environmental Observations           67,750      105,990    104,100 133,023 156,900
 Applications Systems                 13,950       24,567     18,100
 Technology Transfer                  10,700       10,087      8,100
 Materials Processing in Space        20,400       19,768     18,700 16,244 22,000
 Communications                       22,600       20,255     31,200 21,300 32,400
 Information Systems                                                           7,500

Budget Category/Fiscal Year            1984         1985      1986    1987   1987
Space Applications                   314,000      374,100    487,500 562,600 567,500
 Solid Earth Observations             76,400       57,600     70,900 72,400        a
 Environmental Observations          162,000      212,700    271,600 318,300       b
 Earth Science and Applications                                              389,200
 Materials Processing in Space        25,600       27,000     31,000 47,300 62,700
 Communications                       41,100       60,600     96,400 103,400 94,800
 Information Systems                   8,900       16,200     17,600 21,200 20,800
a   Combined with Environmental Observations to form new Earth Science and Applications fund-
    ing category.
b   Combined with Solid Earth Observations to form new Earth Science and Applications funding
    category.
78                         NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

         Table 2–5. Resource Observations/Solid Earth Observations
                 Funding History (in thousands of dollars) a
    Year (Fiscal)    Submission        Authorization       Appropriation        Programmed
                                                                                  (Actual)
        1979        139,150I b                    c                   d           139,400 e
        1980           141,400              143,400                    f         150,953 g
        1981         170,300 h              182,600            151,350 i            151,350
        1982         165,400 j              165,400             165,400           149,400 k
        1983           132,200              132,200             132,200             128,900
        1984            74,400              83,400 l           75,400 m            76,400 n
        1985            63,600               63,600              63,600            57,600 o
        1986            74,900               74,900              74,900              70,900
        1987            74,100               74,100              74,100              72,400
        1988            76,900               80,800              76,800                   p
a     Renamed Solid Earth Observations beginning with FY 1982 programmed funding.
b     Source of data is the NASA Budget Office’s FY 1980 Budget Estimate. The Chronological
      History for the FY 1979 budget did not include submission or authorization data for the
      Resource Observations funding category.
c     See note b above. FY 1979 authorization categories and amounts as stated in the
      Chronological History FY 1979 Budget Estimates were: Earth Resources Detection and
      Monitoring—$157,500,000; Earth Dynamics Monitoring and Forecasting—$8,600,000;
      Ocean Condition Monitoring and Forecasting—$12,400,000; Environmental Quality
      Monitoring—$20,200,000; Weather Observation and Forecasting—$22,800,000; Climate
      Research Program—$12,200,000; and Applications Explorer Missions—$4,200,000.
d     Undistributed. Total FY 1979 R&D appropriation = $3,477,200,000.
e     Included Landsat D, Operational Land Observing System, Magnetic Field Satellite,
      Shuttle/Spacelab Payload Development, Extended Mission Operations, Geodynamics, Applied
      Research and Data Analysis, AgRISTARS, Landsat 3, and Heat Capacity Mapping Mission.
f     Undistributed. Total R&D appropriation = $4,091,086,000.
g     Removed Landsat 3 and Heat Capacity Mapping Mission from total Resource Observations
      funding.
h     Amended submission. Original budget submission = $162,300,000.
i     Reflected recission.
j     Amended submission. Original budget submission = $187,200,000.
k     Removed Payload Development from Solid Earth Observations program funding category.
      Magsat now included in Extended Operations funding category.
l     House Authorization Committee added $4,000,000 for Research and Analysis to support
      applications studies related to spaceborne radars and the Global Resource Information
      System, $2,000,000 to partially restore the OMB reduction of NASA’s request for
      AgRISTARS, and $3,000,000 for Technology Transfer activities, specifically for tests to veri-
      fy and demonstrate the validity and usefulness of space applications systems. The Senate
      Authorization Committee added $5,000,000 more to Research and Analysis funding,
      $1,000,000 to AgRISTARS, and no additional funds to Technology Transfer. The Conference
      Committee modified this to allow $4,000,000 for Research and Analysis, $2,000,000 for
      AgRISTARS, and $3,000,000 for Technology Transfer.
m     The Senate Appropriations Committee added $1,000,000 for the multispectral linear array and
      eliminated all other additional funding.
n     Removed Extended Missions Operations and AgRISTARS from Solid Earth Observations
      program funding category
o     Removed Landsat 4 from Solid Earth Observations program funding category
p     Programmed amount (calculated in FY 1989) included under new program category: Earth
      Science and Applications. See Table 2–13.
                                 SPACE APPLICATIONS                                          79

               Table 2–6. Landsat D/Landsat 4 Funding History
                           (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                Submission                      Programmed (Actual)
         1979                      97,500                               97,500
         1980                      98,663                              104,413
         1981                      88,500                               88,500
         1982                      83,900                               81,900
         1983                      61,700                               58,400
         1984                      16,800                               16,800


              Table 2–7. Magnetic Field Satellite Funding History
                          (in thousands of dollars) a
    Year (Fiscal)               Submission                      Programmed (Actual)
        1979                       3,900                                3,900
        1980                       1,600                                1,600
        1981                         500                                  500
a     Included under Extended Mission Operations beginning with FY 1982.



     Table 2–8. Shuttle/Spacelab Payload Development Funding History
                          (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                 Submission                     Programmed (Actual)
        1979                         6,000                               6,200
        1980                         1,850                               2,031
        1981                         2,000                               2,000
        1982                         3,300                              12,300
        1983                        13,800                              14,500
        1984                        16,000                              17,000
        1985                        12,100                              12,100
        1986                        23,100                              21,800
        1987                        21,600                            21,400 a
        1988                      20,800 b                            27,700 c
a     Renamed Payload and Instrument Development.
b     Submission did not reflect integration of Solid Earth Observations and Environmental
      Observations into new Earth Sciences Payload and Instrument Development funding category.
c     This amount reflected new Earth Science and Applications funding category. There was now
      one Earth Science Payload and Instrument Development category that encompassed both the
      former Solid Earth Observations and Environmental Observations Payload and Instrument
      Development.
80                         NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

          Table 2–9. Extended Mission Operations Funding History
                          (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission               Programmed (Actual)
       1979                              350                            358
       1980                            1,582                          1,904
       1981                            2,700                          2,700
       1982                            2,800                        2,800 a
       1983                            1,800                          1,100
a     Included funding for the operation of Magsat.



    Table 2–10. Geodynamics Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission               Programmed (Actual)
       1979                            8,200                         8,200
       1980                           12,600                        12,600
       1981                           23,400                        23,400
       1982                           22,900                        22,900
       1983                           26,200                        28,100
       1984                           28,000                        28,000
       1985                           29,900                        29,900
       1986                           31,700                        30,000
       1987                           32,100                        31,600
       1988                           32,400                      32,300 a
a     Included under Earth Science and Applications Program funding category.
                                  SPACE APPLICATIONS                                         81

Table 2–11. Geodynamics Research and Data Analysis Funding History
                    (in thousands of dollars) a
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission                 Programmed (Actual)
       1979                                 22,200                        22,242
       1980                                 12,908                        12,405
       1981                                 12,800                        12,800
       1982                                 19,500                        15,500
       1983                                 13,700                        11,800
       1984                                 14,600                        14,600
       1985                                 15,600                        15,600
       1986                                 20,100                        19,100
       1987                                 21,900                        19,400
       1988                                 21,100                        21,400 b
a     Beginning in FY 1982, all applied research and data analysis funding categories were
      renamed Research and Analysis.
b     Renamed Land Processes Research and Analysis and included in Earth Science and
      Applications Program funding.



     Table 2–12. AgRISTARS Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission                 Programmed (Actual)
       1980                           16,000                          16,000
       1981                           31,400                          21,450
       1982                           14,000                          14,000
       1983                           15,000                          15,000
82                         NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

          Table 2–13. Environmental Observations Funding History
                          (in thousands of dollars)
     Year      Submission        Authorization         Appropriation         Programmed
    (Fiscal)                                                                    (Actual)
     1979        67,900 a                  b                    c               67,750 d
     1980         117,200            121,200                    e              105,990 f
     1981      109,600 g             112,600            104,100 h              104,100 i
     1982       135,300 j            145,300                    k              133,023 l
     1983         128,900            128,900              128,900             156,900 m
     1984         163,000          170,000 n            164,000 o                162,000
     1985         220,700            220,700              220,700             212,700 p
     1986         317,500            311,500              290,500                271,600
     1987    336,900 q, r            313,900              346,900              318,300 s
     1988         393,800            393,800              378,000              389,200 t
a     Source of data is the NASA Budget Office’s FY 1980 Budget Estimate. The Chronological
      History for the FY 1979 budget does not include submission and authorization data for the
      Environmental Observations funding category.
b     See note a above. FY 1979 authorization categories and amounts as stated in the
      Chronological History FY 1979 Budget Estimates were: Earth Resources Detection and
      Monitoring—$157,500,000; Earth Dynamics Monitoring and Forecasting—$8,600,000;
      Ocean Condition Monitoring and Forecasting—$12,400,000; Environmental Quality
      Monitoring—$20,200,000; Weather Observation and Forecasting—$22,800,000; Climate
      Research Program—$12,200,000; and Applications Explorer Missions—$4,200,000
c     Undistributed. Total FY 1979 R&D appropriation = $3,477,200,000.
d     Included Upper Atmosphere Research Program, Applied Research and Data Analysis,
      Shuttle/Spacelab Payload Development, Operational Satellite Improvement Program, ERBE,
      Halogen Occultation Experiment, Extended Mission Operations, National Oceanic Satellite
      System (NOSS), TIROS N, Nimbus 7, and Seasat.
e     Undistributed. Total R&D appropriation = $4,091,086,000.
f     Removed TIROS N and Seasat from Environmental Observations funding total.
g     Amended submission. Original budget submission = $137,600,000.
h     Reflected recission.
i     Removed Nimbus 7 from Environmental Observations funding total and added NOSS.
j     Amended submission. Original budget submission = $194,600,000.
k     Undistributed. Total FY 1982 R&D appropriation = $4,740,900,000.
l     Removed Applied Research and Data Analysis from Environmental Observations funding cat-
      egory. Added Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Experiments and Mission
      Definition to Environmental Observations funding category.
m     Removed Halogen Occultation Experiment from Environmental Observations funding history.
n     The House Authorization Committee added $2,000,000 for Technology Development and
      $1,000,000 for the Sun-Earth Interaction Study to the NASA submission. The Senate
      Authorization Committee added $2,000,000 for Space Physics/Technology Development,
      specifically for university research teams conducting experiments on the origin of plasmas in
      the Earth’s neighborhood (OPEN), $4,000,000 for UARS Experiments, $2,000,000 for
      Atmospheric Dynamics, and $2,000,000 for Oceanic Research and Analysis to the NASA
      submission. The Conference Committee modified this authorization to allow $2,000,000 for
      OPEN and $5,000,000 for UARS Experiments and Atmospheric and Ocean Sensors.
                               SPACE APPLICATIONS                                            83

                                Table 2–13 continued
o   The Senate Appropriations Committee added $2,000,000 to the NASA submission for
    UARS/OPEN Definition Studies. The Conference Committee reduced this by $1,000,000.
p   Added Payload and Instrument Development, Interdisciplinary Research and Analysis,
    Tethered Satellite System, and Scatterometer to Environmental Observations program funding
    category. Removed Operational Satellite Improvement Program from Environmental
    Observations program funding category.
q   Revised submission. Original FY 1987 budget submission = $367,900,000.
r   Submission, authorization, and appropriation data did not reflect new program budget catego-
    ry: Earth Science and Applications. See Table 2–5.
s   Removed ERBE and added Ocean Topography Experiment and Airborne Science and
    Applications funding categories.
t   Renamed Earth Science and Applications Program. New funding category incorporated
    Geodynamics from former Solid Earth Observations category and combined Payload and
    Instrument Development from both Solid Earth Observations and Environmental
    Observations funding categories.
84                        NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

Table 2–14. Upper Atmospheric Research Program Funding History (in
                       thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission                Programmed (Actual)
         1979                       (14,500)                     (14,500) a
         1980                         12,500                         12,400
         1981                         13,500                         13,500
         1982                         13,000                       20,500 b
         1983                         27,700                         27,700
         1984                         28,500                         28,435
         1985                         31,000                         31,000
         1986                         33,000                         31,100
         1987                         33,400                         32,700
         1988                         32,700                         32,700
a     Program was transferred from Space Science to Space Applications in January 1979; FY 1979
      funding was not included in total.
b     Renamed Upper Atmosphere Research and Analysis with FY 1984 budget submission and FY
      1982 actuals.



         Table 2–15. Upper Atmospheric Research and Data Analysis
                  Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission                Programmed (Actual)
         1979                        33,876                         33,726
         1980                        48,670                         48,750
         1981                        48,100                         48,100
         1982                        47,000                              a
a     Programmed amounts found under new funding categories: Atmospheric Dynamics and
      Radiation Research and Analysis (Table 2–25) and Oceanic Processes Research and
      Development (Table 2–26)



    Table 2–16. Interdisciplinary Research and Analysis Funding History
                          (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1985                            1,000                          1,000
      1986                            1,000                          1,000
      1987                            1,100                          1,100
      1988                            1,100                          1,100
                                SPACE APPLICATIONS                                         85

        Table 2–17. Shuttle/Spacelab Resource Observations Payload
          Development Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission               Programmed (Actual)
      1979                             7,750                        7,750
      1980                             9,600                        9,600
      1981                             1,700                        1,700
      1982                             4,100                        4,100
      1983                             3,700                        3,700
      1984                             7,600                        7,600
      1985                             7,800                      7,800 a
      1986                             5,600                        5,300
      1987                            12,000                        9,700
      1988                           4,100 b                     27,700 c
a     Renamed Payload and Instrument Development.
b     Payload and Instrument Development funding category was only for Environmental
      Observations Program and did not reflect new funding category of Earth Science and
      Applications Program.
c     Incorporated amounts from both Solid Earth Observations and Environmental Observations
      Payload and Instrument Development funding categories.



      Table 2–18. Operational Satellite Improvement Program Funding
                     History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission               Programmed (Actual)
      1979                            6,100                         6,100
      1980                            7,400                         7,400
      1981                            9,200                         7,200
      1982                            6,000                         6,000
      1983                            6,000                         6,000
      1984                              600                           600


      Table 2–19. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Funding History
                         (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission               Programmed (Actual)
      1979                            7,000                         7,000
      1980                           17,000                        13,720
      1981                           20,300                        20,300
      1982                           24,000                        24,000
      1983                           24,000                        24,000
      1984                           15,500                        15,500
      1985                            8,100                         8,100
      1986                               —                          1,900
86                       NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

       Table 2–20. Halogen Occultation Experiment Funding History
                        (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission         Programmed (Actual)
      1979                           3,600                   3,600
      1980                           8,000                   8,000
      1981                           4,500                   4,500
      1982                           5,000                   5,000


       Table 2–21. Halogen Occultation Extended Mission Operations
                 Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission         Programmed (Actual)
      1979                           1,250                   1,250
      1980                           5,800                   5,800
      1981                           8,000                   8,000
      1982                          11,400                  16,100
      1983                          22,800                  22,800
      1984                          27,400                  27,400
      1985                          29,500                  29,500
      1986                          37,000                  35,000
      1987                          33,600                33,600 a
      1988                          14,800                  14,700
a     Renamed Mission Operations and Data Analysis.



       Table 2–22. National Oceanic Satellite System Funding History
                         (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission         Programmed (Actual)
      1981                           5,800                   800


      Table 2–23. Nimbus 7 Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission         Programmed (Actual)
      1979                           3,624                   3,624
      1980                             500                     500
                                 SPACE APPLICATIONS                                 87

    Table 2–24. Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite Experiments and
       Mission Definition Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1982                            6,000                          6,000
      1983                           14,000                       14,000 a
      1984                           20,000                         20,000
      1985                           55,700                         55,700
      1986                          124,000                        114,000
      1987                          114,200                        113,800
      1988                           89,600                         89,200
a     Renamed Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Mission.



      Table 2–25. Atmospheric Dynamics and Radiation Research and
             Analysis Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1982                                a                         22,300
      1983                           26,500                         26,500
      1984                           27,500                         27,465
      1985                           28,500                         28,500
      1986                           30,300                         28,700
      1987                           31,900                         31,300
      1988                           31,400                         31,400
a     Included under Applied Research and Data Analysis (see Table 2–15).



    Table 2–26. Oceanic Processes Research and Development Funding
                    History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1982                                a                         16,900
      1983                           17,000                         17,000
      1984                           18,200                         18,200
      1985                           19,400                         19,400
      1986                           20,600                         17,400
      1987                           20,800                         18,000
      1988                           20,200                         20,100
a     Included under Applied Research and Data Analysis (see Table 2–15).
88                        NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

     Table 2–27. Space Physics/Research and Analysis Funding History
                         (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission                 Programmed (Actual)
      1982                    No submission                         12,123
      1983                          15,200                          15,200
      1984                          16,700                          16,800
      1985                          16,700                          16,700
      1986                          17,800                          16,800
      1987                          21,000                          20,800


            Table 2–28. Tethered Satellite System Funding History
                          (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1985                            3,000                          3,000
      1986                            4,500                          6,400
      1987                            1,000                        5,500 a
a     Renamed Tethered Satellite Payloads.



    Table 2–29. Scattermometer Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1985                           12,000                         12,000
      1986                           14,000                         14,000
      1987                           32,900                         32,900
      1988                           22,700                         22,600


         Table 2–30. Ocean Topography Experiment Funding History
                         (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                   Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1987                           19,000                         18,900
      1988                           75,000                         74,500


       Table 2–31. Airborne Science and Applications Funding History
                          (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission                 Programmed (Actual)
      1987                    No submission                      (27,600) a
      1988                          21,900                          21,800
a     Previously funded under Physics and Astronomy Suborbital Program funding category.
                                 SPACE APPLICATIONS                                           89

               Table 2–32. Applications Systems Funding History
                           (in thousands of dollars)
Year (Fiscal)       Submission        Authorization        Appropriation        Programmed
                                                                                  (Actual)
    1979             15,700                    a                                 13,950 b
    1980             24,200               24,200                    c              24,567
    1981             18,100               18,100             18,100 d             18,100 e
    1982            13,200 f              13,200               13,200                    g
    1983             11,700               11,700               11,700                    h
a     Applications Systems funding category did not appear in Chronological History of FY 1979
      budget.
b     Included Airborne Instrumentation Research Program, Shuttle/Spacelab Mission Design and
      Integration, and NASA Integrated Payload Planning.
c     Undistributed. Total FY 1980 R&D appropriation = $4,091,086,000.
d     Reflected recission.
e     Included only Airborne Instrumentation Research Program.
f     Amended submission. Original budget submission = $14,400,000.
g     Programmed amounts for Applications Systems appropriation included with Suborbital
      Program in Physics and Astronomy funding category (Space Science funding).
h     Applications System Airborne Instrumentation Research Program efforts continued under
      Suborbital Program (Space Science funding). Program budget category eliminated in FY
      1982.



      Table 2–33. Airborne Instrumentation Research Program Funding
                      History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1979                             5,800                          6,530
      1980                            15,547                         15,567
      1981                            18,100                         18,100
      1982                            13,200                              a
a     Programmed amounts for Applications Systems appropriation included with Suborbital
      Program in Physics and Astronomy funding category (Space Science funding).



    Table 2–34. Shuttle/Spacelab Mission Design and Integration Funding
                      History (in thousands of dollars) a
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1979                             6,400                          6,260
      1980                             7,300                          7,300
a     Funding responsibility for FY 1981 and subsequent years transferred from Space Applications
      to Space Science.
90                        NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

      Table 2–35. NASA Integrated Payload Planning Funding History
                       (in thousands of dollars) a
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1979                             2,000                          1,160
      1980                             1,700                          7,400
a     Funding responsibility for FY 1981 and subsequent years transferred from Space Applications
      to Space Science.



         Table 2–36. Materials Processing in Space Funding History
                         (in thousands of dollars)
Year (Fiscal)       Submission        Authorization        Appropriation        Programmed
                                                                                  (Actual)
     1979             20,400               20,400                   a            20,400 b
     1980             19,800               19,800                   c            19,768 d
     1981             22,200               24,900            18,700 e             18,700 f
     1982           27,700 g               31,700                   h             16,244 i
     1983             23,600               28,600             23,600               22,000
     1984             21,600               26,600             23,600               25,600
     1985             23,000               28,000             23,000               27,000
     1986             34,000               36,000             34,000              31,000 j
     1987           39,400 k               43,900             39,400               47,300
     1988             45,900               50,000             65,900               62,700
a     Undistributed. Total FY 1979 R&D appropriation = $3,477,200,000.
b     Included Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) project, Applied Research and Data
      Analysis, and Shuttle/Spacelab Payload Development.
c     Undistributed. Total FY 1980 R&D appropriation = $4,091,086,000.
d     Added Materials Experiment Operations to FY 1980 Materials Processing funding categories.
e     Reflected recission.
f     Removed SPAR project from Materials Processing funding categories.
g     Amended submission. Original FY 1982 budget submission = $32,100,000.
h     Undistributed. Total FY 1982 R&D appropriation = $4,740,900,000.
i     Removed Shuttle/Spacelab Payload Development funding category
j     Added Microgravity Shuttle/Space Station Payloads funding category. Removed Materials
      Experiment Operations funding category from Materials Processing in Space.
k     Revised submission. Original FY 1987 budget submission = $43,900,000.
                                  SPACE APPLICATIONS                                            91

    Table 2–37. Materials Processing Research and Data Analysis Project
                 Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                     Submission                 Programmed (Actual)
      1979                              4,400                           4,850
      1980                              6,450                           7,200
      1981                             10,950                           9,230
      1982                             12,000                          14,000
      1983                             13,100                          13,100
      1984                             11,000                          11,000
      1985                             11,700                          11,700
      1986                             12,400                          12,100
      1987                             13,900                          13,900
      1988                             12,900                          12,900


         Table 2–38. Shuttle/Spacelab Materials Processing Payload
           Development Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                     Submission                 Programmed (Actual)
      1979                             12,400                          11,950
      1980                             11,218                          10,468
      1981                             10,750                           8,157
      1982                              8,800                               a
a     Activities and funding transferred to the Physics and Astronomy Shuttle Payload
      Development and Mission Management area.



         Table 2–39. Materials Processing Experiment Operations
       (Microgravity Shuttle/Space Station Payloads) Funding History
                        (in thousands of dollars) a
    Year (Fiscal)                     Submission                 Programmed (Actual)
      1980                                  —                          (533) b
      1981                           (1,900) c                          1,310
      1982                               3,000                          4,244
      1983                               8,900                          8.900
      1984                             12,600                          14,600
      1985                             15,300                          15,300
      1986                             22,600                        18,900 d
      1987                             34,000                          33,400
      1988                             49,800                          49,800
a     Renamed Microgravity Shuttle/Space Station Payloads in FY 1986.
b     Included under Materials Processing Shuttle/Spacelab Payload Development funding category.
c     Included under Materials Processing Shuttle/Spacelab Payload Development funding category.
d     Funding category was renamed and restructured as Microgravity Shuttle/Space Station
      Payloads. This category consolidated ongoing activities that provided a range of experimental
      capabilities for all scientific and commercial participants in the Microgravity Science and
      Applications program. These included Shuttle mid-deck experiments, the Materials
      Experiment Assembly, and the Materials Science Laboratory, which was carried in the orbiter
      bay. Included activities had been included under Materials Experiment Operations.
92                          NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

               Table 2–40. Technology Transfer Funding History
                           (in thousands of dollars)
Year (Fiscal)       Submission         Authorization       Appropriation        Programmed
                                                                                  (Actual)
     1979           10,950 a                   n/a                  n/a          10,700 b
     1980             10,300               10,300                     c          10,087 d
     1981            7,500 e               11,500                8,100              8,100
    1982 f             5,000                   —                    —                  —
a     Source of data is the FY 1979 current estimate found in the FY 1980 budget estimates. No
      Technology Transfer funding category appears in the Chronological History of the FY 1979
      budget submissions. Therefore, no authorization or appropriations figures are available.
b     Included Applications Systems Verification and Transfer, Regional Remote Sensing
      Applications, User Requirements and Supporting Activities, and Civil Systems.
c     Undistributed. Total FY 1980 funding category = $4,091,086,000.
d     Removed Civil Systems from Technology Transfer funding total.
e     Amended submission. Original submission = $12,500,000.
f     Technology Transfer program funding eliminated beginning with FY 1982.



     Table 2–41. Applications Systems Verification and Transfer Funding
                      History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1979                             1,150                            900
      1980                             1,700                          1,700
      1981                             1,400                            700


    Table 2–42. Regional Remote Sensing Applications Funding History
                         (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1979                             3,500                          3,500
      1980                             3,657                          3,655
      1981                             2,700                          2,400
      1982                             2,000                              a
a     Funding eliminated.
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                         93

     Table 2–43. User Requirements and Supporting Activities Funding
                     History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)             Submission        Programmed (Actual)
      1979                      4,500                  4,500
      1980                      4,730                  4,732
      1981                      6,000                  5,000
      1982                      3,000                      a
a     Funding eliminated.



    Table 2–44. Civil Systems Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)             Submission        Programmed (Actual)
      1979                      1,800                  1,800
94                         NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

              Table 2–45. Space Communications Funding History
                           (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)     Submission        Authorization        Appropriation        Programmed
                                                                                    (Actual)
      1979             22,000               22,000                   a             22,600 b
      1980             19,400               19,400                   c           20,255 d, e
      1981             29,000               29,000             31,200 f            31,200 g
      1982           20,900 h               34,000                    i          21,300 j, k
      1983             19,900             34,900 l            39,900 m               32,400
      1984             21,100               24,100              21,100             41,100 n
      1985             20,600             60,600 o              60,600               60,600
      1986            106,200              101,200             101,200               96,400
      1987             19,500             99,500 p              96,500            103,400 q
      1988             20,500            104,500 r              97,500             94,800 s
a      Undistributed. Total FY 1979 R&D appropriation = $3,477,200,000.
b      Included Search and Rescue Mission, Technical Consultation and Support Studies, Applied
       Research and Data Analysis, Follow-On Data Analysis and Operations, Applications Data
       Service Definition, Data Management, and Adaptive Multibeam Phased Array (AMPA)
       System.
c      Undistributed. Total FY 1980 R&D appropriation = $4,091,086,000.
d      Referred to as Communications and Information Systems in FY 1980 programmed budget data
       material and NASA FY 1982 budget estimate.
e      Removed Follow-On Data Analysis, Applications Data Service Definition, and Data
       Management from FY 1980 Communications and Information Systems funding total.
f      Reflected recission.
g      Added Experiment Coordination and Operations Support and Information Systems funding
       categories.
h      Final revised submission. Original FY 1982 budget submission (January 1981) = $35,600,000.
       Amended submission (March 1981) = $30,300,000.
i      Undistributed. Total FY 1982 R&D appropriation = $4,740,900,000.
j      Added Experiment Coordination and Operations Support to Communications funding category.
k      Budget category referred to as Communications Program in FY 1984 NASA budget estimate
       (FY 1982 actual cost data).
l      The House Authorization Committee added $5,000,000 for 30/20-GHz test and evaluation
       flights. The Senate Authorization Committee added $15,000,000 to allow for a large proof-of-
       concept of communications operations in the 30/20-GHz frequency range. The final authoriza-
       tion added a total of $15,000,000 to NASA’s budget submission.
m      The Appropriations Committee restored the entire $20,000,000 addition to NASA’s budget
       submission. See Table 2–51.
n      Large difference between programmed and appropriated amounts reflected an increase in fund-
       ing to the ACTS program. See Table 2–51.
o      Increase reflected Authorization Committee disagreement with NASA’s restructuring of ACTS
       flight program. The Committee directed NASA “to proceed with the flight program and make
       the necessary future requests for budget authority as required.” See Table 2–51.
p      The Authorization Committee directed NASA to continue the ACTS program in spite of the
       Reagan administration’s attempts to terminate it.
q      Technical Consultation and Support Studies renamed Radio Science and Support Studies.
       Research and Analysis renamed Advanced Communications Research.
r      The Authorization Committee once again restored funds for the ACTS program that were
       removed by the Reagan administration. See Table 2–51.
s      Added Communications Data Analysis funding category.
                                SPACE APPLICATIONS                       95

       Table 2–46. Space Communications Search and Rescue Mission
                 Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission      Programmed (Actual)
      1979                           8,000                8,000
      1980                           5,000                2,530
      1981                           4,800                4,800
      1982                           2,300                2,300
      1983                           3,700                3,700
      1984                           3,800                3,800
      1985                           2,400                2,400
      1986                           1,300                1,100
      1987                           1,000                1,385
      1988                           1,300                1,300


Table 2–47. Space Communications Technical Consultation and Support
          Studies Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission      Programmed (Actual)
      1979                           3,100                3,100
      1980                           2,982                3,182
      1981                           3,100                3,145
      1982                           2,600                2,600
      1983                           2,600                2,600
      1984                           2,700                2,700
      1985                           2,900                2,900
      1986                           2,600                2,518
      1987                           3,200              3,050 a
      1988                           2,542                2,586
a     Renamed Radio Science and Support Studies.



      Table 2–48. Space Communications Research and Data Analysis
                 Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission      Programmed (Actual)
      1979                           3,900                3,900
      1980                           6,200                6,200
      1981                          16,600               16,600
      1982                          10,000               15,400
      1983                           5,100                5,100
      1984                           8,500                8,500
      1985                           9,100                9,100
      1986                          10,400                9,770
      1987                          13,000             13,384 a
      1988                          14,136               13,992
a     Renamed Advanced Communications Research.
96                        NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

        Table 2–49. Communications Data Analysis Funding History
                        (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1988                             1,322                          1,322




     Table 2–50. Applications Data Service Definition Funding History
                         (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                  Submission                  Programmed (Actual)
      1979                No category listed                            100
      1980                            2,400                           2,245
      1981                                —                               a
a     Funding category not broken out separately.



    Table 2–51. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite Funding
                     History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                    Submission                Programmed (Actual)
      1983                             20,000                        20,000
      1984                            5,000 a                        25,000
      1985                             45,000                        45,000
      1986                             85,000                        81,900
      1987                             85,000                        84,600
      1988                             75,600                        75,600
a     Reflected NASA’s restructuring of the program to encompass only an experimental ground
      test program. Congress disagreed with the restructuring and directed NASA to continue with
      the program as originally planned. See Table 2–45.
                                   SPACE APPLICATIONS                                            97

          Table 2–52. Information Systems Program Funding History
                           (in thousands of dollars)
Year (Fiscal)         Submission        Authorization         AppropriationProgrammed
                                                                             (Actual)
     1981            Included in Communications and Information Systems figures
                     (see Table 2–45)
     1982            Included in Communications and Information Systems figures
                     (see Table 2–45)
    1983 a            7,500 b       Included in Communications and             7,500
                              Information Systems figures (see Table 2–45)
    1984 c               8,900             8,900              8,900          8,900 d
     1985               16,200            16,200            16,200            16,200
     1986               19,200            19,200            19,200            17,600
     1987               21,200            21,200            21,200            21,200
     1988               22,300            22,300            22,300            20,800
a      Included only Data Systems funding category.
b      New program-level funding category.
c      FY 1984 was the first year that the Information Systems Program appeared as a separate
       appropriation in the Chronological History budget submissions. Previous programmed
       amounts were a subcategory under the Communications and Information Systems appropria-
       tion category.
d      Information Systems Program included Data Systems and Information Systems funding
       categories.



    Table 2–53. Data Systems Funding History (in thousands of dollars)
    Year (Fiscal)                     Submission            Programmed (Actual)
      1980                               4,500                    10,600
      1981                                      No category
      1982                           No submission                 4,300
      1983                             7,500 a                     7,500
      1984                               7,900                     7,900
      1985                               8,400                     8,400
      1986                               9,000                     8,500
      1987                               9,400                    10,000
      1988                               9,700                     9,600
a      Included in Information Systems funding category.



                Table 2–54. Information Systems Funding History
                           (in thousands of dollars) a
    Year (Fiscal)                      Submission                 Programmed (Actual)
      1984                               1,000                           1,000
      1985                               7,800                           7,800
      1986                                                               9,100
      1987                                                              11,200
      1988                                                              11,200
a      Information Systems funding category was a subcategory under the Information Systems program.
98                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                       Table 2–55. OSTA-1 Payload
Principal         Institution                       Experiment
Investigator
Charles Elachi   Jet Propulsion         Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A)
                 Laboratory,            evaluated using spaceborne imaging
                 Pasadena, California   radar for geologic exploration, with
                                        emphasis on mineral and petroleum explo-
                                        ration and fault mapping. A secondary goal
                                        was to determine the capability to combine
                                        SIR-A data with Landsat data and improve
                                        the usefulness of both (Figure 2–4).

Alexander        Jet Propulsion         Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer
F.H. Goetz       Laboratory,            obtained radiometric data in 10 spectral
                 Pasadena, California   bands from a statistically significant
                                        number of geological areas around the
                                        world.

Roger T.         Martin Marietta        Feature Identification and Location
Schappell        Aerospace,             Experiment developed video techniques
                 Denver, Colorado       to provide methods for identifying,
                                        spectrally classifying, and physically locat-
                                        ing surface features or clouds.

Henry G.         NASA Langley           Measurement of Air Pollution From
Reichle, Jr.     Research Center,       Satellites measured the distribution of
                 Hampton, Virginia      carbon monoxide in the middle and upper
                                        troposphere and traced its movement
                                        between the Northern and Southern
                                        Hemispheres.

Hongsuk H. Kim   NASA Goddard           Ocean Color Experiment evaluated
                 Space Flight Center,   a passive ocean color sensing technique
                 Greenbelt, Maryland    for mapping the concentration of chloro-
                                        phyll-producing phytoplankton in the open
                                        ocean.

Bernard Vonnegut State University of    Night-Day Optical Survey of Lightning
                 New York at Albany     studied the convective circulation in
                                        storms and the relationship to lightning dis-
                                        charges using a motion picture camera to
                                        film the lightning flashes of nighttime thun-
                                        derstorms.

Allan H. Brown   University of          Heflex Bioengineering Test determined the
                 Pennsylvania           effect of near weightlessness and soil
                                        moisture content on dwarf sunflower
                                        growth.
                              SPACE APPLICATIONS                                     99

                         Table 2–56. OSTA-2 Experiments
Investigation              Principal Investigator              Institution

                                  MEA Experiments

Liquid Phase Miscibility   Stanley H. Gelles             S.H. Gelles Associates,
Gap Materials                                            Columbus, Ohio

Vapor Growth of            Herbert Wiedemeier            Rensselaer Polytechnic
Alloy-Type                                               Institute, Troy, New York
Semiconductor Crystals

Containerless Processing   Delbert E. Day                University of Missouri–Rolla
of Glass Forming Melts

                                 MAUS Experiments

Stability of Metallic      Guenther H. Otto              German Aerospace Research
Dispersions                                              Establishment (DVFLR),
                                                         Federal Republic of
                                                         Germany

Particles at a             Hermann Klein                 German Aerospace Research
Solid/Liquid Interface                                   Establishment (DVFLR),
                                                         Federal Republic of
                                                         Germany




          Table 2–57. OSTA-2 Instrument Module Characteristics
Detector wavelength                             0.385, 0.45, 0.6, 1.0 microns
Field of view                                   0.15 milliradians (0.5 km)
Altitude range                                  10 km to 100 km above Earth horizon
Altitude resolution                             1 km
Detector operating temperature                  19 degrees to 30 degrees C
Scan rate                                       15 km/sec
Sampling rate                                   64 samples/sec
Information bandwidth                           1 Hz/km/channel
Radiometer resolution                           3,000:1
Signal-to-noise ratio (1.0 micron channel)      1.5 x 155 at peak
100                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                Table 2–58. SAGE (AEM-2) Characteristics
Launch Date                February 18, 1979
Launch Vehicle             Scout
Range                      Wallops Flight Center
Lead NASA Center           Goddard Space Flight Center/Langley Research Center
Owner                      NASA
NASA Mission Objectives    Determine a global database for stratospheric aerosols and
                           ozone and use these data sets for a better understanding of
                           Earth’s environmental quality and radiation budget; specif-
                           ically:
                           • Develop a satellite-based remote-sensing technique for
                             measuring stratospheric aerosols and ozone
                           • Map vertical extinction profiles of stratospheric aerosols
                             and ozone from 78 degrees south to 78 degrees north
                             latitude
                           • Investigate the impact of natural phenomena, such as
                             volcanoes and tropical upwellings, on the stratosphere
                           • Investigate the sources and sinks of stratospheric ozone
                             and aerosols
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               661
 Perigee (km)              548
 Inclination (deg.)        54.9
 Period (min.)             96.7
Weight (kg)                147
Dimensions                 Base module: 65 cm; overall height including antenna:
                           161.85 cm; six-sided prism
Power Source               Solar paddles and batteries
Instruments                Four-spectral channel radiometer
Contractor                 Ball Aerospace Systems Division, Ball Corp.; Boeing
                           Aerospace Company
Remarks                    The satellite was turned off April 15, 1982, after the
                           spacecraft’s battery failed. It decayed in April 1989.
                             SPACE APPLICATIONS                                   101

               Table 2–59. ERBS Instrument Characteristics
                               No. of                Spectral
             Measured        Channels/           Range/Frequency
  Sensor     Quantities     Frequencies                Range        Resolution
ERBE        Total energy of     1–4              0.2–3.5 µm      100 km across
Non-Scanner Sun’s radiant                        1.2–50.0 µm     swath
            heat and light                       0.2–50.0 µm     Full solar disk

ERBE          Reflected solar radiation,
Scanner       Earth-emitted radiation

SAGE II       Stratospheric           7          0.385–1.02 µm       0.5 km
              aerosols, O3,
              NO2, water vapor



      Table 2–60. Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Characteristics
Launch Date                 October 5, 1984
Launch Vehicle              STS 41-G (Challenger)
Range                       Kennedy Space Center
Lead NASA Center            Goddard Space Flight Center; Langley Research Center
Owner                       NASA
NASA Mission Objectives     Increase knowledge of Earth’s climate and weather sys-
                            tems, particularly how climate is affected by radiation
                            from the Sun by measuring the distribution of aerosols and
                            gases in the atmosphere
Orbit Characteristics
  Apogee (km)               603
  Perigee (km)              602
  Inclination (deg.)        57.0
  Period (min.)             96.8
Weight (kg)                 2,307 at launch
Dimensions                  4.6 m x 3.8 m x 1.6 m
Power Source                Solar panels and batteries
Instruments                 ERBE Non-Scanner had five sensors: two wide field-of-
                            view sensors viewed the entire disc of Earth from limb to
                            limb; two medium field-of-view sensors viewed a
                            10-degree region; and the fifth sensor measured the total
                            output of radiant heat and light from the Sun.

                            ERBE Scanner instrument was a scanning radiometer that
                            measured reflected solar radiation and Earth-emitted
                            radiation.

                            Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) was
                            a Sun-scanning radiometer that measured solar radiation
                            attenuation caused by the constituents in the atmosphere.
Contractor                  TRW Defense and Space Systems; Ball Brothers
Remarks                     It was still operating as of October 1994.
102                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

              Table 2–61. UARS Instruments and Investigators
   Instrument       Description and Primary   Principal Investigator   Institution
                         Measurements

                    UARS Species and Temperature Measurements

CLAES                Neon and CO2 cooled      A.E. Roche               Lockheed Palo
(Cryogenic Limb      interferometer sensing                            Alto Research
Array Etalon         atmospheric infrared                              Laboratory,
Spectrometer)        emissions; T, CF2,                                Palo Alto,
                     Cl2, CFCl3, ClONO2,                               California
                     CH4, O3, NO2, N2O,
                     HNO3, and H2O

ISAMS                Mechanically cooled      F.W. Taylor              Oxford
(Improved            radiometer sensing                                University,
Stratospheric and    atmospheric infrared                              Oxford,
Mesospheric          emissions; T, O3, NO,                             United Kingdom
Sounder)             NO2, N2O, HNO3,
                     H2O, CH4, and CO

MLS                  Microwave radiometer     J.W. Waters              Jet Propulsion
(Microwave           sensing atmospheric                               Laboratory,
Limb Sounder)        emissions; ClO and                                Pasadena,
                     H2O2                                              California

HALOE                Gas filter/radiometer    J.M. Russell, III        NASA Langley
(Halogen             sensing sunlight                                  Research
Occultation          occulted by the                                   Center,
Experiment)          atmosphere; HF and                                Hampton,
                     HCl                                               Virginia

                              UARS Wind Measurements

HRDI                 Fabry-Perot              P.B. Hays                University of
(High                spectrometer sensing                              Michigan,
Resolution           atmospheric emission                              Ann Arbor,
Doppler Imager)      and scattering;                                   Michigan
                     two-component wind:
                     10–110 km

WINDII               Michelson                G.G. Shepherd            York
(Wind Imaging        interferometer sensing                            University,
Interferometer)      atmospheric emission                              York, Canada
                     and scattering;
                     two-component wind:
                     80–110 km
                               SPACE APPLICATIONS                                   103

                                Table 2–61 continued
   Instrument        Description and Primary    Principal Investigator   Institution
                          Measurements

                           UARS Energy Input Measurements

SUSIM                 Full disk solar irradiance G.E. Brueckner          Naval Research
(Solar Ultraviolet    spectrometer incorporating                         Laboratory,
Spectral              on-board calibration; solar                        Washington,
Irradiance            spectral irradiance:                               D.C.
Monitor)              120–400 nm

SOLSTICE              Full disk solar irradiance G.J. Rottman            University of
(Solar Stellar        spectrometer incorporating                         Colorado,
Irradiance            stellar comparison; solar                          Boulder,
Comparison            spectral irradiance:                               Colorado
Experiment)           115–440 nm

PEM                   X-ray proton and            J.D. Winningham        Southwest
(Particle             electron spectrometers;                            Research
Environment           in situ energetic electrons                        Institute,
Monitor)              and protons; remote sensing                        San Antonio,
                      of electron energy deposition                      Texas

                               Instrument of Opportunity

ACRIM II              Full disk solar           R.C. Willson             Jet Propulsion
(Active Cavity        irradiance radiometer;                             Laboratory,
Irradiance            continuation of solar                              Pasadena,
Monitor II)           constant measurements                              California
104                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                 Table 2–62. UARS Development Chronology
Date           Event
1978           The UARS project concept is developed. The objective of UARS, as
               stated by OSSA, is to provide the global database necessary for under-
               standing the coupled chemistry and dynamics of the stratosphere and
               mesosphere, the role of solar radiation in driving the chemistry and
               dynamics, and the susceptibility of the upper atmosphere to long-term
               changes in the concentration and distribution of key atmospheric con-
               stituents, particularly ozone. OSSA defines the project as a crucial ele-
               ment of NASA’s long-term program in upper atmospheric research—a
               program initiated in response to concerns about ozone depletion.
July 1978      UARS Science Working Group final report is published.
Sept. 1978     UARS Announcement of Opportunity is released.
April 25, 1980 NASA selects 26 investigations to be studied for possible inclusion on
               the UARS mission proposed for the late 1980s. Of the 26 investiga-
               tions, 23 are from the United States, 2 are from the United Kingdom,
               and 1 is from France. Each country is responsible for funding its inves-
               tigation. The initial study phase cost to the United States, including its
               investigations, is estimated to be $5 million over the next
               2 years. The mission is to have two satellites launched 1 year apart
               from the Space Shuttle.
Feb. 18, 1981 The current cost of UARS is estimated at $400–$500 million.
May 12, 1981 Because of a $110 million cutback in space applications funding, the
               development of instruments for UARS is delayed.
Nov. 1981      NASA selects nine experimental and ten theoretical teams for UARS.
               The experimental teams are to develop instruments to make direct
               measurements of upper atmospheric winds, solar ultraviolet irradiance,
               energetic particle interactions with the upper atmosphere, and densities
               of critical chemical species as a function of altitude. The theoretical
               teams are to develop and apply models of the upper atmosphere, which,
               when combined with the new data to be acquired, should increase
               understanding of the upper atmospheric chemistry and dynamics and
               improve the capability to assess the impact of human activities on the
               delicate chemical processes in the stratosphere.
Dec. 24, 1981 UARS instrument developers are selected.
Jan. 26, 1982 NASA reprograms FY 1982 funds so that the UARS experiment budget
               is increased from $5 million to $6 million to enhance the long lead
               development work on selected payloads.
Aug. 1982      The mission is reduced from two to one spacecraft. The project now
               calls for 11 instruments. Instruments (including one each from Britain
               and France) enter Phase C/D development (Design and Development or
               Execution). Run-out cost for instruments through projected 1988
               launch is estimated at $200 million. Total estimated mission cost of
               $500 million includes procurement of the MMS (at $200 million).
Aug. 4, 1982   Goddard Space Flight Center director states hope that UARS will
               receive FY 1984 new start funding. The UARS would use the MMS.
               The spacecraft was planned to be launched in 1988.
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                  105

                             Table 2–62 continued
Date          Event
Aug. 31, 1982 NASA officials state that UARS could be helpful in understanding the
              cloud of volcanic dust currently covering the lower latitudes of the
              globe and that UARS will provide insight on how this volcanic cloud
              affects climate.
Feb. 3, 1983  NASA declares that it does not need the fifth orbiter for UARS. UARS
              mission is not included by OMB (Office of Management and Budget)
              in FY 1984 budget. NASA proceeds with instrument development and
              now expects to seek UARS as a FY 1985 new start.
Feb. 10, 1983 OMB wants NASA to find a way to reduce the price of the design for
              UARS. Because funding for instruments was previously approved,
              eventual project approval is not in question.
Feb. 17, 1983 Goddard investigates modifying the command and data handling mod-
              ule of the MMS so it will be compatible with UARS.
Sept. 9, 1983 Goddard announces plans to issue a preliminary RFP, for industry com-
              ment, for system design of the UARS observatory and design and fabri-
              cation of an instrument module compatible with the MMS bus.
Aug. 19, 1983 NASA announces plans to build UARS on a spare MMS bus. It will
              also include a refurbished attitude control system from the Solar
              Maximum Mission. The mission now includes nine instruments. The
              launch date has been delayed until the fall of 1989 because UARS is
              not included in the FY 1984 budget.
Dec. 1983     Objectives state that UARS will study energy flowing into and from the
              upper atmosphere, chemical reactions in the upper atmosphere, and how
              gases are moved within and between layers of the atmosphere. UARS
              will be located 600 kilometers high. The current estimated costs are
              $570–$670 million. NASA currently has $27.7 million for upper atmos-
              phere research and $14 million for UARS experiments and definition.
              By using the MMS design, NASA hopes to save $30–$36 million.
Jan. 31, 1984 NASA requests FY 1985 funding for UARS.
March 1984    RFP is issued for system design of UARS observatory and design and
              fabrication of instrument module compatible with MMS bus.
April 9, 1984 Lockheed Missile and Space Co. begins building the CLAES sensor,
              which will be used on UARS. The instrument is designed to measure
              concentrations of nitrogen oxides, ozone, chlorine compounds, carbon
              dioxide, and methane, among other atmospheric constituents, and to
              record temperatures.
May 31, 1984 NASA states that using the MMS attitude control module will save
              75 percent of the costs over building a new attitude control module.
July 1984     UARS Execution Phase Project Plan is approved.
July 1984     NASA proposes that the WINDII instrument replaces the French
              WINTERS instrument.
Nov. 7, 1984  Goddard announces plans to award a sole source contract to Fairchild
              Space Co. to build the MMS for UARS.
Feb. 4, 1985  NASA’s FY 1985 budget includes UARS.
March 6, 1985 NASA awards a $145.8 million contract to General Electric Co.’s
              Valley Forge Space Center in Philadelphia for UARS observatory. The
              GE Space Center will be responsible for the design of the observatory
              system and the design and fabrication of a module compatible with the
              MMS. The launch is scheduled for October 89.
106                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                               Table 2–62 continued
Date           Event
April 18, 1985 The estimated cost for UARS is currently at $630–$700 million.
June 25, 1985 A review of UARS Support Instrumentation Requirements Document is
               requested. The document requests a review of the deep space network
               as a backup to TDRSS for emergency support.
Aug. 27, 1985 Goddard awards a $16.3 million contract to the Fairchild Space Co. in
               Germantown, Maryland. Fairchild will be responsible for providing the
               MMS for UARS. Under the contract, Fairchild will fabricate the struc-
               ture and harness for the spacecraft, refurbish a spare Communications
               and Data Handling Mode, and integrate and test the assembled space-
               craft. Fairchild will also be responsible for the refurbishing of the ther-
               mal louvers on the Solar Max module.
Oct. 1985      Observatory work plan review is complete; execution phase is initiated.
Nov. 1985      The central data handling facility contract is awarded to Computer
               Sciences Corporation.
Jan. 1986      The WINDII contract is awarded.
June 1986      The central data handling facility hardware contract is awarded to
               Science Systems and Applications, Inc.
March 1987     The CLAES cryogen redesign is to comply with recommendations aris-
               ing from the Challenger investigation.
April 1987     Observatory Preliminary Design Review is conducted.
Fall 1987      Rebaseline results from the Challenger accident; launch is rescheduled
               for the fall of 1991.
March 1988     Observatory Critical Design Review is conducted.
Jan. 1989      Technicians at Goddard make final adjustments to the MMS being fit-
               ted for the UARS spacecraft. UARS is scheduled for deployment from
               the Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991.
July 6, 1989   ACRIM II is delivered.
July 21, 1989 SOLSTICE is delivered.
July 27, 1990 The United States and the Soviet Union announce that they will share
               the information they have regarding the hole in the ozone layer over
               Antarctica. The Soviet Union has been acquiring information about the
               hole in the ozone layer through its Meteor-3; the United States has
               been collecting information through NASA’s TOMS (Total Ozone
               Mapping Spectrometer).
Aug. 22, 1989 SUSIM is delivered.
Sept. 13, 1989 HALOE is delivered.
Dec. 19, 1990 NASA announces the crew members for UARS, which is scheduled for
               launch in November 1991.
March 21, 1991 The projected launch date for UARS is October 1991. The Tracking
               Data Relay Satellite mission originally scheduled to launch in July has
               been pushed to August. The Defense support mission has been moved
               from August to December. These changes were made to preserve the
               NASA’s capability to fly Discovery with the UARS payload during its
               required science window.
Sept. 12, 1991 UARS is launched from STS-48 (Discovery).
                                              Table 2–63. NOAA Satellite Instruments (1978–1988)
  Satellite   Orbit     AVHRR a           HIRS/2          MSU          SSU            ERBE          SBUV/2        SEM         DCS                    SAR
  TIROS N      PM            1               X             X             X                                          X          X
  NOAA 6       AM            1               X             X             X                                          X          X
  NOAA 7       PM            2               X             X             X                                          X          X
  NOAA 8       AM            1               X             X             X                                          X          X                          X
  NOAA 9       PM            2               X             X             X               X            X             X          X                          X
  NOAA 10      AM            1               X             X             X               X                          X          X                          X
  NOAA 11      PM            2               X             X             X                            X             X          X                          X
Legend: AVHRR—Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer; DCS—Data Collection and Location System; ERBE—Earth Radiation Budget Experiment;
HIRS—High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder; MSU—Microwave Sounding Unit; SAR—Search and Rescue; SBUV—Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectral
Radiometer; SEM—Space Environment Monitor; and SSU—Stratospheric Sounding Unit.
a    Two versions of the AVHRR were flown. The AVHRR/1 had four channels, and the AVHRR/2 had five channels, resulting in different response functions.
                                                                                                                                                              SPACE APPLICATIONS
                                                                                                                                                              107
108                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                    Table 2–64. NOAA 6 Characteristics
Launch Date                June 27, 1979
Launch Vehicle             Atlas F
Range                      Western Test Range
Lead NASA Center           Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                      National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives    Launch the spacecraft into a Sun-synchronous orbit of suf-
                           ficient accuracy to enable it to accomplish its operational
                           mission requirements and conduct an in-orbit evaluation
                           and checkout of the spacecraft
NOAA Objectives            Collect and send data of Earth’s atmosphere and sea sur-
                           face as part of the National Operational Environmental
                           Satellite System (NOESS) to improve forecasting ability
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               801
 Perigee (km)              786
 Inclination (deg.)        98
 Period (min.)             100.7
Weight (kg)                1,405
Dimensions                 3.71 m high and 1.88 m diameter unstowed; 4.91 m high
                           and 2.37 m diameter with solar arrays extended
Power Source               Solar array and two 30 AH nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments                1. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
                              (AVHRR) provided digital data for each of four spec-
                              tral intervals.
                           2. Data Collection and Location System (DCS) was a ran-
                              dom-access system that located and/or collected data
                              from remote fixed and free-floating terrestrial and
                              atmospheric platforms.
                           3. High Energy Proton-Alpha Detector (HEPAD) sensed
                              protons and alphas from a few hundred MeV up
                              through relativistic particles above 850 NeV
                           4. Medium Energy Proton Electron Detector (MEPED)
                              sensed protons, electrons, and ions with energies from
                              30 keV to several tens of MeV.
                           5. Space Environment Monitor (SEM) was a multichannel
                              charged-particle spectrometer that provided measure-
                              ments on the population of Earth’s radiation belts and
                              on particle precipitation phenomena resulting from
                              solar activity.
                           6. Total Energy Detector (TED) used a programmed swept
                              electrostatic curved-plate analyzer to select particle
                              type/energy and a channeltron detector to sense/qualify
                              the intensity of the sequentially selected energy bands.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                                       109

                           Table 2–64 continued
                          7. TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) deter-
                             mined radiances needed to calculate temperature and
                             humidity profiles of the atmosphere from the planetary
                             surface into the stratosphere. It consisted of three
                             instruments: HIRS/2, SSU, and MSU.
                             – High Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS/2) mea-
                                sured incident radiation in 20 spectral regions of the
                                infrared spectrum, including long and short wave
                                regions.
                             – Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) used a selective
                                absorption technique to make temperature measure-
                                ments in three channels.
                             – Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) provided four
                                channels for the TOVS in the 60-GHz oxygen
                                absorption region. These were accurate in the pres-
                                ence of clouds. The passive microwave measure-
                                ments could be converted into temperature profiles
                                of the atmosphere from Earth’s surface to 20 km.
Contractor                RCA Astro Electronics



                    Table 2–65. NOAA B Characteristics
Launch Date               May 29, 1980
Launch Vehicle            Atlas F
Range                     Western Space and Missile Center
Lead NASA Center          Goddard Space and Flight Center
Owner                     National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives   Launch the spacecraft into a Sun-synchronous orbit of suf-
                          ficient accuracy to enable it to accomplish its operational
                          mission requirements and to conduct an in-orbit evaluation
                          and checkout of the spacecraft
NOAA Objectives           Collect and send data of Earth’s atmosphere and sea sur-
                          face as part of the NOESS to improve forecasting ability
Orbit Characteristics     Did not reach proper orbit
Weight (kg)               1,405
Dimensions                3.71 m high and 1.88 m diameter unstowed; 4.91 m high
                          and 2.37 m diameter with solar arrays extended
Power Source              Solar array and two 30 AH nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments               Same as NOAA 6
Contractor                RCA Astro Electronics
110                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

Table 2–66. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Characteristics
                                                       Channels
      Characteristics                   1          2       3       4       5
Spectral range (micrometers)         0.58 to   0.725 to 3.55 to 10.3 to 11.4 to
                                       0.68       1.0    3.93    11.3    12.4
Detector                             Silicon   Silicon InSb (HgCd)T (HgCd)T
                                                                   e       e
Resolution (km at nadir)              1.1         1.1     1.1     1.1     1.1
Instantaneous field of view         1.3 sq.     1.3 sq. 1.3 sq. 1.3 sq. 1.3 sq.
(milliradians)
Signal-to-noise ratio at 0.5 albedo >3:1     >3:1       —          —         —
Noise-equivalent temperature          —        —     <0.12 K <0.12 K <0.12 K
difference at (NE∆T) 300 degrees K
Scan angle (degrees)                 ±55      ±55      ±55         ±55      ±55
Optics—8-inch diameter afocal Cassegrain telescope
Scanner—360-rpm hysteresis synchronous motor with beryllium scan mirror
Cooler—Two-stage radiant cooler, infrared detectors controlled at 105 or 107 degrees K
Data output—10-bit binary, simultaneous sampling at 40-kHz rate



                     Table 2–67. NOAA 7 Characteristics
Launch Date                    June 23, 1981
Launch Vehicle                 Atlas F
Range                          Western Space and Missile Center
Lead NASA Center               Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                          National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives        Launch the spacecraft into a Sun-synchronous orbit of suf-
                               ficient accuracy to enable it to accomplish its operational
                               mission requirements and to conduct an in-orbit evaluation
                               and checkout of the spacecraft
NOAA Objectives                Collect and send data of Earth’s atmosphere and sea sur-
                               face as part of the NOESS to improve forecasting ability
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                   847
 Perigee (km)                  829
 Inclination (deg.)            98.9
 Period (min.)                 101.7
Weight (kg)                    1,405
Dimensions                     3.71 m high and 1.88 m diameter unstowed; 4.91 m high
                               and 2.37 m diameter with solar arrays extended
Power Source                   Solar array and two 30 AH nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments                    Same as NOAA 6 with the exception of the AVHRR,
                               which had five channels rather than four. In addition, the
                               U.S. Air Force provided a contamination monitor to assess
                               contamination sources, levels, and effects for considera-
                               tion on future spacecraft. This instrument flew for the first
                               time on this mission.
Contractor                     RCA Astro Electronics
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                 111


                    Table 2–68. NOAA 8 Characteristics
Launch Date             March 28, 1983
Launch Vehicle          Atlas E
Range                   Western Space and Missile Center
Lead NASA Center        Goddard Space and Flight Center
Owner                   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives Launch the spacecraft into a Sun-synchronous orbit of suf-
                        ficient accuracy to enable it to accomplish its operational
                        mission requirements and to conduct an in-orbit evaluation
                        and checkout of the spacecraft
NOAA Mission Objectives To collect and send data of Earth’s atmosphere and sea sur-
                        face as part of the NOESS to improve forecasting ability
Orbit Characteristics
  Apogee (km)           825.5
  Perigee (km)          805
  Inclination (deg.)    98.6
  Period (min.)         101.2
Weight (kg)             1,712
Dimensions              3.71 m high and 1.88 m diameter unstowed; 4.91 m high
                        and 2.37 m diameter with solar arrays extended
Power Source            Solar array and two 30AH nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments             Same as NOAA 6 instruments with the addition of the
                        Search and Rescue (SAR) system. The SAR on NOAA 8
                        could detect and locate existing emergency transmitters
                        operating at 121.5 MHz and 245 MHz, as well as experi-
                        mental transmitters operating at 406 MHz (see
                        “Communications Program” section in this chapter).
Contractor              RCA Astro Electronics
112                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                    Table 2–69. NOAA 9 Characteristics
Launch Date             December 12, 1984
Launch Vehicle          Atlas E
Range                   Vandenberg Air Force Base
Lead NASA Center        Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives • Launch the spacecraft into a Sun-synchronous orbit of
                          sufficient accuracy to enable it to accomplish its opera-
                          tional mission requirements, conduct an in-orbit evalua-
                          tion and checkout of the spacecraft, and, upon
                          completion of this evaluation, turn the operational con-
                          trol of the spacecraft over to the NOAA National
                          Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service
                          (NESDIS)
                        • Successfully acquire data from the Earth Radiation
                          Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments for application
                          in scientific investigations aimed at improving our
                          understanding of the processes that influence climate
                          and climate changes
                        • Acquire data from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet
                          (SBUV/2) instrument to determine stratospheric ozone
                          concentrations on a global basis
NOAA Mission Objectives Collect and send data of Earth’s atmosphere and sea sur-
                        face as part of the NOESS in acquiring daily global
                        weather information for the short- and long-term forecast-
                        ing needs of the National Weather Service
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)            863
 Perigee (km)           839
 Inclination (deg.)     99.1
 Period (min.)          102.2
Weight (kg)             1,712
Dimensions              4.91 m high; 1.88 m diameter with solar array extended
Power Source            Solar array and two 30AH nickel cadmium batteries
              SPACE APPLICATIONS                                    113

               Table 2–69 continued
Instruments   Same instruments as NOAA 8 with the addition of
              SBUV/2 and ERBE:
              • ERBE consisted of a medium and wide field-of-view
                nonscanning radiometer and a narrow field-of-view
                scanning radiometer. The radiometers would measure
                Earth radiation energy budget components at satellite
                altitude; make measurements from which monthly aver-
                age Earth radiation energy budget components can be
                derived at the top of the atmosphere on regional, zonal,
                and global scales; and provide an experimental proto-
                type for an operational ERBE instrument for future
                long-range monitoring programs.
              • SBUV/2 consisted of two instruments: the
                Monochrometer and the Cloud Cover Radiometer. The
                Monochrometer was a spectral scanning ultraviolet
                radiometer that could measure solar irradiance and
                scene radiance (back-scattered solar energy) over a
                spectral range of 160 to 400 nanometers. The Cloud
                Cover Radiometer detected clouds that would contami-
                nate the signal. Experiment objectives were to make
                measurements from which total ozone concentration in
                the atmosphere could be determined to an accuracy of
                1 percent, make measurements from which the vertical
                distribution of atmospheric ozone could be determined
                to an accuracy of 5 percent, and measure the solar
                spectral irradiance from 160 to 400 nanometers.
Contractor    RCA Astro Electronics
114                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                   Table 2–70. NOAA 10 Characteristics
Launch Date             September 17, 1986
Launch Vehicle          Atlas E
Range                   Vandenberg Air Force Base
Lead NASA Center        Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives Launch the spacecraft into a Sun-synchronous orbit of suf-
                        ficient accuracy to enable it to accomplish its operational
                        mission requirements, conduct an in-orbit evaluation and
                        checkout of the spacecraft, and, upon completion of this
                        evaluation, turn the operational control of the spacecraft
                        over to the NOAA NESDIS
NOAA Mission Objectives Collect and send data of Earth’s atmosphere and sea sur-
                        face as part of the NOESS to improve forecasting ability
Orbit Characteristics
  Apogee (km)           823
  Perigee (km)          804
  Inclination (deg.)    98.7
  Period (min.)         101.2
Weight (kg)             1,712
Dimensions              4.91 m high; 1.88 m diameter with solar panels expanded
Power Source            Solar array and two 30 AH nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments             Same as NOAA 9 instruments, including NASA’s ERBE,
                        but with a “dummy” SBUV and a “dummy” SSU. The
                        SSU, which was provided by the United Kingdom through
                        its Meteorological Office, Ministry of Defense, was flown
                        only on “afternoon” satellites beginning with NOAA 9.
Contractor              RCA Astro Electronics
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                 115

                   Table 2–71. NOAA 11 Characteristics
Launch Date             September 24, 1988
Launch Vehicle          Atlas E
Range                   Western Space and Missile Center
Lead NASA Center        Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives Launch the spacecraft into a Sun-synchronous orbit of suf-
                        ficient accuracy to enable it to accomplish its operational
                        mission requirements, to conduct an in-orbit evaluation
                        and checkout of the spacecraft, and upon, completion of
                        this evaluation, to turn the operational control of the
                        spacecraft over to the NOAA NESDIS
NOAA Mission Objectives Collect and send data of Earth’s atmosphere and sea sur-
                        face as part of the NOESS to improve forecasting ability
Orbit Characteristics
  Apogee (km)           865
  Perigee (km)          849
  Inclination (deg.)    98.9
  Period (min.)         102.1
Weight (kg)             1,712
Dimensions              4.91 m high; 1.88 m diameter
Power Source            Solar array and two 30 AH nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments             Same instruments as NOAA 9 with the exception of
                        ERBE
Contractor              RCA Astro Electronics



    Table 2–72. VISSR Atmospheric Sounder Infrared Spectral Bands
Spectral       Central        Spatial             Weighting Function Absorbing
 Band      Wavelength (mm) Resolution (km)            Peak (mb)      Constituent
   1            14.73           13.8                      70            CO2
   2            14.48           13.8                     125            CO2
   3            14.25       6.9 and 13.8                 200            CO2
   4            14.01       6.9 and 13.8                 500            CO2
   5            13.33       6.9 and 13.8                 920            CO2
   6            4.525           13.8                     850            CO2
   7            12.66       6.9 and 13.8                 Surf.          H20
   8            11.17       6.9 and 13.8                 Surf.        Window
   9            11.17       6.9 and 13.8                 600            H20
  10            6.725       6.9 and 13.8                 400            H20
  11            4.444           13.8                     300            CO2
  12            3.945           13.8                     Surf.        Window
116                    NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–73. GOES 4 Characteristics
Launch date             September 9, 1980
Launch vehicle          Delta 3914
Range                   Eastern Test Range
Lead NASA Center        Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives Launch the satellite into a synchronous orbit of sufficient
                        accuracy to enable the spacecraft to provide the capability
                        for continuous observations of the atmosphere on an oper-
                        ational basis, flight-test the satellite in orbit and, when
                        checked out, turn the spacecraft over to NOAA for opera-
                        tional use, and demonstrate, validate, and assess the tempera-
                        ture and moisture soundings from the VISSR Atmospheric
                        Sounder
NOAA Mission Objectives Collect and relay weather data to enable forecasters and
                        other scientists to study severe storms and storm-spawned
                        phenomena, such as hail, flash floods, and tornadoes, by
                        monitoring weather over Canada, the United States, and
                        Central and South America
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)            35,795
 Perigee (km)           35,780
 Inclination (deg.)     4.1
 Period (min.)          1,436.2
Weight (kg)             444 (in orbit)
Dimensions              4.43 m high from the S-band omni antenna rod to the
                        apogee boost motor nozzle aperture; 2.15 m diameter spin-
                        stabilized drum
Power Source            Solar panels and two nickel cadmium batteries
              SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      117

               Table 2–73 continued
Instruments   1. VISSR Atmospheric Sounder was capable of simulta-
                 neous imaging in the visible portion of the spectrum
                 with a resolution of 0.9 km and the infrared portion of
                 the spectrum with a resolution of 6.9 km, multispectral
                 imaging simultaneously in five spectral bands (one visi-
                 ble and four selectable from the 12 infrared bands), and
                 a dwell sounding mode from which moisture, tempera-
                 ture, and vertical structure of the atmosphere may be
                 determined.
              2. Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) provided direct
                 quantitative measurements of the major effects of solar
                 activity for use in real-time solar forecasting and subse-
                 quent research, detected unusual solar flares with high
                 levels of radiation, measured the strength of solar
                 winds, and measured the strength and direction of
                 Earth’s magnetic field.
              3. Data Collection and Location System (DCS) provided
                 communications relay from data collection platforms
                 on land, at sea, and in the air to the Command and Data
                 Acquisition Station (CDA), as well as the interrogation
                 of platforms from the CDA via the satellite.
              4. Telemetry, Tracking, and Command used S-band fre-
                 quencies for transmission of wideband visual data to
                 the CDA, for relay of “stretched” data from the CDA
                 via the spacecraft to facilities operated by NOAA, and
                 for transmission of weather facsimile data to local
                 ground stations equipped to receive S-band automatic
                 picture transmission data; UHF for transmissions from
                 data collection platforms to the spacecraft and then to
                 the CDA on the S-band; and VHF and S-band for com-
                 manding the spacecraft, for telemetry, and for transmit-
                 ting the space environment monitoring data.
Contractors   Hughes Aircraft, Ball Aerospace, Panametrics, Ford
              Aerospace and Communications Corp.
118                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK


                    Table 2–74. GOES 5 Characteristics
Launch date             May 22, 1981
Launch vehicle          Delta 3914
Range                   Eastern Test Range
Lead NASA Center        Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives Launch the satellite into a synchronous orbit of sufficient
                        accuracy to enable the spacecraft to provide the capability
                        for continuous observations of the atmosphere on an oper-
                        ational basis, flight test the satellite in orbit and, when
                        checked out, turn the spacecraft over to NOAA for opera-
                        tional use, and continue the demonstration and validation
                        of the temperature and moisture soundings from the
                        VISSR Atmospheric Sounder
NOAA Mission Objectives Collect and relay weather data to enable forecasters and
                        other scientists to study severe storms and storm-spawned
                        phenomena such as hail, flash floods, and tornadoes, by
                        monitoring weather over Canada, the United States, and
                        Central and South America
Orbit Characteristics
  Apogee (km)           35,792
  Perigee (km)          35,782
  Inclination (deg.)    1.2
  Period (min.)         1,435.9
Weight (kg)             444 (in orbit)
Dimensions              4.43 m high from the S-band omni antenna rod to the
                        apogee boost motor nozzle aperture; 2.15 m diameter spin-
                        stabilized drum
Power Source            Solar panels and two nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments             Same as GOES 4
Contractors             Hughes Aircraft, Ball Aerospace, Panametrics, Ford
                        Aerospace and Communications Corp.
                             SPACE APPLICATIONS                                   119

                     Table 2–75. GOES 6 Characteristics
Launch date             April 28, 1983
Launch vehicle          Delta 3914
Range                   Eastern Space and Missile Center
Lead NASA Center        Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives Launch the satellite into a synchronous orbit of sufficient
                        accuracy to enable the spacecraft to provide the capability
                        for continuous observations of the atmosphere on an oper-
                        ational basis and flight-test the satellite in orbit and, when
                        checked out, turn the spacecraft over to NOAA for opera-
                        tional use
NOAA Mission Objectives Collect and relay weather data to enable forecasters and
                        other scientists to study severe storms and storm-spawned
                        phenomena such as hail, flash floods, and tornadoes, by
                        monitoring weather over Canada, the United States, and
                        Central and South America
Orbit Characteristics
  Apogee (km)           35,891
  Perigee (km)          35,776
  Inclination (deg.)    0.1
  Period (min.)         1,436.4
Weight (kg)             444 in orbit
Dimensions              4.43 m high from the S-band omni antenna rod to the
                        apogee boost motor nozzle aperture; 2.15 m diameter spin-
                        stabilized drum
Power Source            Solar panels and two nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments             Same as GOES 4
Contractors             Hughes Aircraft, Ball Aerospace, Panametrics, Ford
                        Aerospace and Communications Corp.
120                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                    Table 2–76. GOES G Characteristics
Launch date             May 3, 1986
Launch vehicle          Delta 3914
Range                   Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Lead NASA Center        Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives Launch the satellite into a synchronous orbit of sufficient
                        accuracy to enable the spacecraft to provide the capability
                        for continuous observations of the atmosphere on an oper-
                        ational basis, flight-test the satellite in orbit and, when
                        checked out, turn the spacecraft over to NOAA for opera-
                        tional use, and determine usefulness of instant alert capa-
                        bilities of geosynchronous search and rescue systems and
                        to develop and test processing techniques for geosynchro-
                        nous search and rescue data
NOAA Mission Objectives Collect and relay weather data to enable forecasters and
                        other scientists to study severe storms and storm-spawned
                        phenomena, such as hail, flash floods, and tornadoes
Orbit Characteristics   Did not achieve orbit
Weight (kg)             1,712 at launch
Dimensions              4.43 m high from the S-band omni antenna rod to the
                        apogee boost motor nozzle aperture; 2.15 m diameter spin-
                        stabilized drum
Power Source            Solar panels and two nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments             Same as GOES 4
Contractors             Hughes Aircraft, Ball Aerospace, Panametrics, Ford
                        Aerospace and Communications Corp.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                                         121

                    Table 2–77. GOES 7 Characteristics
Launch date               February 26, 1987
Launch vehicle            Delta 3924
Range                     Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Lead NASA Center          Goddard Space Flight Center
Owner                     National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NASA Mission Objectives   Launch the satellite into a geosynchronous orbit of suffi-
                          cient accuracy to enable the spacecraft to provide the
                          capability for continuous observations of the atmosphere
                          on an operational basis, flight-test the satellite in orbit and,
                          when checked out, turn the spacecraft over to NOAA for
                          operational use, determine the usefulness of instant alert
                          capabilities of geosynchronous search and rescue systems,
                          and develop and test processing techniques for geosyn-
                          chronous search and rescue data
NOAA Mission Objectives   Transmit cloud cover images from a geosynchronous orbit and
                          atmospheric temperature profiles, collect space environmental
                          data, and conduct an experiment for detecting emergency dis-
                          tress signals on the ground from geosynchronous orbit
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)              35,796
 Perigee (km)             35,783
 Inclination (deg.)       4.3
 Period (min.)            1,436.2
Weight (kg)               456 in orbit
Dimensions                4.43 m high from the S-band omni antenna rod to the
                          apogee boost motor nozzle aperture; 2.15 m diameter spin-
                          stabilized drum
Power Source              Solar array and two nickel cadmium batteries
Instruments               Same as GOES 4
Contractors               Hughes Aircraft, Ball Aerospace, Panametrics, Ford
                          Aerospace and Communications Corp.
122                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

             Table 2–78. Landsat 4 Instrument Characteristics
                          Thematic Mapper             Multispectral Scanner
                                       Radiometric                    Radiometric
                                        Sensitivity                    Sensitivity
Spectral Band       Micrometers         (NE∆P) %      Micrometers      (NE∆P) %
       1              0.45–0.52             0.8         0.5–0.6           0.57
       2              0.52–0.60             0.5         0.6–0.7           0.57
       3              0.63–0.69             0.5         0.7–0.8           0.65
       4               0.76–0.9             0.5         0.8–1.1           0.70
       5              1.55–1.75             1.0
       6              2.08–2.35             2.4
       7             10.40–12.50      0.5K (NE∆T)
 Ground IFOV               30M (bands 1–6)               83M (bands 1–4)
 Data Rate                      85 Mb/s                       15 Mb/s
 Quantization Levels              256                            64
 Weight (kilograms)               246                            58
 Size (meters)              1.1 x 0.7 x 2.0               0.35 x 0.4 x 0.9
 Power (watts)                    345                            81
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                     123

                     Table 2–79. Landsat 4 Characteristics
Launch Date                July 16, 1982
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3920
Range                      Vandenberg Air Force Base
Lead NASA Center           Goddard Space Flight Center
Customer/Sponsor           National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Mission Objectives         • Acquire multispectral, high-spatial resolution images
                              of solar radiation reflected from Earth’s surface and, for
                              the Thematic Mapper, the emitted radiation in the ther-
                              mal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum
                           • Provide continuing Earth remote-sensing information
                              and to encourage continued national and international
                              participation in land remote-sensing programs
                           • Assess the capabilities of the new Thematic Mapper
                              sensing system and to exploit new areas of the infrared
                              and visible light spectrum at higher resolution
                           • Establish a technical and operational proficiency that
                              can be used to help define the characteristics necessary
                              for potential future operational land remote-sensing
                              systems
Orbit Characteristics
  Apogee (km)              700
  Perigee (km)             699
  Inclination (deg.)       98.2
  Period (min.)            98.8
Weight (kg)                1,941
Dimensions                 4 m long; 2 m wide (deployed)
Power Source               Solar array and batteries
Instruments                1. Multispectral Scanner (MSS) scanned cross-track
                              swaths of 185 km imaging six scan lines across in each
                              of the four spectral bands simultaneously, focusing the
                              scanned Earth image on a set of detectors. The instanta-
                              neous field of view of each detector subtended an Earth
                              area square of 83 cm.
                           2. Thematic Mapper (TM) was a seven-band multispectral
                              high-resolution scanner that collected, filtered, and
                              detected radiation from Earth in a swath 185 km wide.
Contractor                 General Electric (Landsat 4 spacecraft), Hughes Aircraft
                           (TM and MSS), Fairchild Industries (Multimission
                           Modular Spacecraft)
124                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–80. Landsat 5 Characteristics
Launch Date                March 1, 1984
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3920
Range                      Western Test Range
Lead NASA Center           Goddard Space Flight Center
Customer/Sponsor           National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Mission Objectives         • Acquire multispectral, high-spatial resolution images
                             of solar radiation reflected from Earth’s surface and, for
                             the TM, the emitted radiation in the thermal infrared
                             region of the electromagnetic spectrum
                           • Launch the spacecraft into a polar orbit of sufficient
                             accuracy to enable the spacecraft to provide the capa-
                             bility of acquiring MSS and TM scenes on a global
                             basis for a period of 1 year
                           • Flight-test the spacecraft in orbit and, when checked
                             out, turn the spacecraft and MSS over to NOAA for
                             operational use
                           • Demonstrate the capability to process up to 50 TM
                             scenes per day to produce tapes and film masters and
                             complete the transfer of TM operations and data pro-
                             cessing to NOAA as agreed to by NASA and NOAA
                           • Perform evaluations of TM and MSS data quantifying
                             some of the observational advantages of TM versus
                             MSS imagery
Orbit Characteristics
  Apogee (km)              700
  Perigee (km)             699
  Inclination (deg.)       98.2
  Period (min.)            98.8
Weight (kg)                1,941
Dimensions                 4 m long, 2 m wide (deployed)
Power Source               Solar array and batteries
Instruments                Same as Landsat 4
Contractor                 General Electric (spacecraft), Hughes Aircraft (TM and
                           MSS), Fairchild Industries (MMS)
                           SPACE APPLICATIONS                                    125

                     Table 2–81. Magsat Characteristics
Launch Date               October 30, 1979
Launch Vehicle            Scout
Date of Reentry           June 11, 1980
Range                     Western Test Range
Customer/Sponsor          NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications and
                          U.S. Geological Survey
Lead NASA Center          Goddard Space Flight Center
Mission Objectives        Develop a worldwide vector magnetic field model
                          suitable for the U.S. Geological Survey update and refine-
                          ment of world and regional magnetic charts, compile
                          crustal magnetic anomaly maps with spatial resolution of
                          350 km or better, interpret anomalies in conjunction with
                          correlative data in terms of geologic/geophysical models
                          of Earth’s crust, and increase understanding of the origin
                          and nature of the geomagnetic field and its temporal
                          variations
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)              551
 Perigee (km)             350
 Inclination (deg.)       96.8
 Period (min.)            93.6
Weight (kg)               183
Dimensions                Instrument module: height—874 cm with trim boom
                          extended, diameter—77 cm with solar panels and magne-
                          tometer boom extended, width—340 cm tip to tip with
                          solar array deployed, length—722 cm along flight path
                          with magnetometer boom and solar array deployed
                          Base module: diameter—66 cm, height—61 cm
Power Source              Solar panels
Instruments               1. Scalar Magnetometer was a dual lamp cesium vapor
                             magnetometer that measured the magnitude of Earth’s
                             crustal magnetic field.
                          2. Vector Magnetometer was a three-axis fluxgate magne-
                             tometer that measured magnetic field direction as well
                             as magnitude.
Experiments               Thirty-two investigations were selected in response to an
                          Announcement of Opportunity issued September 1, 1978.
                          They included 13 foreign investigations from Australia,
                          Brazil, Canada, France, India, Italy, Japan, and the United
                          Kingdom, as well as investigations from the United States.
                          The general resources categories were: geophysics, geolo-
                          gy, field modeling, marine studies, magnetosphere/ionos-
                          phere, and core/mantle studies. Data distribution was
                          through the National Space Science Data Center. Table
                          2–82 lists the investigations.
Contractor                Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University
126                  NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–82. Magsat Investigations
Principal Investigator          Organization               Research Area
Geophysics
R.L. Coles             The Geomagnetic Service          Reduction, Verification, and
                       of Canada                        Interpretation of Magsat
                                                        Data Over Canada
B.N. Bhargava         Indian Institute of               Magnetic Anomaly and
                      Geomagnetism                      Magnetic Field Map Over
                                                        India
W.J. Hinze            Purdue University                 Processing and Interpretation
                                                        of Magnetic Anomaly Data
                                                        Over South America
G.R. Keller           University of Texas, El Paso      Synthesis of Data for Crustal
                                                        Modeling of South America
P. Gasparini          University of Naples, Italy       Crustal Structures Under the
                                                        Active Volcanic Areas of the
                                                        Mediterranean
N. Fukushima          University of Tokyo               Proposal From Japanese
                                                        National Team for Magsat
                                                        Project
C.R. Bentley          University of Wisconsin           Investigation of Antarctic
                                                        Crust and Upper Mantle
M.A. Mayhew           Business and Technology           Magsat Anomaly Field
                      Systems, Inc., Seabrook,          Inversion and Interpretation
                      Maryland                          for the United States
J.L. leMouel          Institut de Physique              Data Reduction, Studies of
                      du Globe, Toulouse, France        Europe, Central Africa, and
                                                        Secular Variation
J.C. Dooley           Bureau of Mineral                 The Regional Field and
                      Resources, Canberra, Australia    Crustal Structure of
                                                        Australia and Antarctica
B.D. Johnson          Macquarie University, Australia   Crustal Properties of
                                                        Australia and Surrounding
                                                        Regions
Geology
R.S. Carmichael       University of Iowa                Crustal Structure and
                                                        Mineral Resources in the
                                                        U.S. Midcontinent
D.H. Hall             University of Manitoba, Canada    Lithostratographic and
                                                        Structural Elements in the
                                                        Canadian Shield
I. Gill Pacca         Universidade de                   Structure, Composition, and
                      Sao Paulo, Brazil                 Thermal State of the Crust in
                                                        Brazil
D.A. Hastings         Michigan Technological            Precambrian Shields and
                      University                        Adjacent Areas of West
                                                        Africa and South America
D.W. Strangeway       University of Toronto, Canada     Analysis of Anomaly Maps
                                                        Over Portions of the
                                                        Canadian and Other Shields
                             SPACE APPLICATIONS                                   127

                              Table 2–82 continued
Principal Investigator           Organization                Research Area
I.J. Won               North Carolina State University,   Compatibility Study of the
                       Raleigh, North Carolina            Magsat Data and Aero-
                                                          magnetic Data in the Eastern
                                                          Piedmont, United States
S.E. Haggerty          University of Massachusetts,       The Mineralogy of Global
                       Amherst, Massachusetts             Magnetic Anomalies
M.R. Godiver           ORSTROM, Paris, France             Magnetic Anomaly of
                                                          Bangui
Field Modeling
D.R. Baraclough        Institute of Geological            Spherical Harmonic
                       Sciences, Edinburgh, UK            Representation of the Main
                                                          Geomagnetic Field
D.P. Stern             NASA/Goddard                       Study of Enhanced Errors
                       Space Flight Center                and of Secular Variation
M.A. Mayhew            Business and Technology            Equivalent Source Modeling
                       Systems, Inc.,                     of the Main Field
                       Seabrook, Maryland
B.P. Gibbs             Business and Technology            Field Modeling by Optimal
                       Systems, Inc.,                     Recursive Filtering
                       Seabrook, Maryland
Marine Studies
C.G.A. Harrison        University of Miami, Florida       Investigations of Medium
                                                          Wavelength Anomalies in
                                                          the Eastern Pacific
J.L. LaBrecque         Lamont-Doherty Geological          Analysis of Intermediate
                       Observatory, Palisades,            Wavelength Anomalies Over
                       New York                           the Oceans
R.F. Brammer           The Analytical Sciences, Corp.,    Satellite Magnetic and
                       Reading, Massachusetts             Gravity Investigation of the
                                                          Eastern Indian Ocean
Magnetosphere/Ionosphere
D.M. Klumpar        University of Texas,                  Effects of External Current
                    Richardson, Texas                     Systems on Magsat Data
                                                          Utilizing Grid Cell Modeling
J.R. Burrows           National Research Council          Studies of High Latitude
                       of Canada                          Current Systems Using
                                                          Magsat Vector Data
T.A. Potemra           Johns Hopkins University           Corrective Information on
                                                          High-Latitude External
                                                          Fields
R.D. Regan             Phoenix Corporation,               Improved Definition of
                       McLean, Virginia                   Crustal Magnetic Anomalies
                                                          in Magsat Data
Core/Mantle Studies
E.R. Benton            University of Colorado,            Field Forecasting and Fluid
                       Boulder, Colorado                  Dynamics of the Core
J.F. Hermance          Brown University,                  Electromagnetic Deep-
                       Providence, Rhode Island           Probing of the Earth’s
                                                          Interior: Crustal Resource
128                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                        Table 2–83. ASC-1 Characteristics
Launch Date                  August 27, 1985
Launch Vehicle               STS 51-I (Discovery)/PAM-D
Range                        Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives           Launch the satellite with sufficient accuracy to allow the
                             PAM-D and spacecraft propulsion system to place the
                             spacecraft into stationary geosynchronous orbit while
                             retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the
                             mission lifetime requirements
Owner                        American Satellite Company
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                 35,796
 Perigee (km)                35,777
 Inclination (deg.)          0.1
 Period (min.)               1,436.1
Weight (kg)                  665 (in orbit)
Dimensions                   Main body: 1.625 m x 1.320 m x 1.320 m
                             Spans: 14 m with solar array extended
Shape                        Cube
Power Source                 Solar array panels and two nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                   RCA Astro Electronics
Remarks                      ASC-1 was the first satellite to have encrypted command
                             links, a security feature that prevented unauthorized access
                             to the satellite command system. It was in a geosynchro-
                             nous orbit at approximately 128 degrees west longitude.


                 Table 2–84. Comstar D-4 Characteristics
Launch Date                  February 21, 1981
Launch Vehicle               Atlas Centaur
Range                        Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives           Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit which that would
                             enable the spacecraft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft
                             into a synchronous orbit
Owner                        American Telephone and Telegraph Co. (AT&T)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                 35,794
 Perigee (km)                35,784
 Inclination (deg.)          1.9
 Period (min.)               1,436.2
Weight (kg)                  1,484 (before launch)
Dimensions                   6.1 m high; 2.44 m diameter
Shape                        Cylindrical
Power Source                 Solar array and batteries
Contractor                   Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                      Comstar D-4 became operational on May 5, 1981. It was
                             located at approximately 127 degrees west longitude.
                             SPACE APPLICATIONS                                     129

                     Table 2–85. Telstar 3-A Characteristics
Launch Date                 July 28, 1983
Launch Vehicle              Delta 3920/PAM-D
Range                       Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite on a two-stage Delta 3920 with suffi-
                            cient accuracy to allow the MDAC PAM-D and spacecraft
                            propulsion system to place the spacecraft into stationary
                            geosynchronous orbit while retaining sufficient station-
                            keeping propulsion to meet the mission lifetime require-
                            ments
Owner                       AT&T
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,796
 Perigee (km)               35,778
 Inclination (deg.)         0
 Period (min.)              1,436.1
Weight (kg)                 653 (in orbit)
Dimensions                  6.48 m high (deployed); 2.74 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                     Also called Telstar 301, the spacecraft was placed in a
                            geosynchronous orbit at approximately 96 degrees west
                            longitude above the equator.


                     Table 2–86. Telstar 3-C Characteristics
Launch Date                 September 1, 1984
Launch Vehicle              STS 41-D (Discovery)/PAM-D
Range                       Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite with sufficient accuracy to allow the
                            MDAC PAM-D and spacecraft propulsion system to place
                            the spacecraft into stationary geosynchronous orbit while
                            retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the
                            mission lifetime requirements
Owner                       AT&T
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,791
 Perigee (km)               35,782
 Inclination (deg.)         0
 Period (min.)              1,436.1
Weight (kg)                 653 (in orbit)
Dimensions                  6.48 m high (deployed); 2.74 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                     Telstar 3-C was placed into a geosynchronous orbit at
                            approximately 85 degrees west longitude. It was also
                            called Telstar 302.
130                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–87. Telstar 3-D Characteristics
Launch Date                 June 19, 1985
Launch Vehicle              STS-51 G (Discovery)/PAM-D
Range                       Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite with sufficient accuracy to allow the
                            MDAC PAM-D and spacecraft propulsion system to place
                            the spacecraft onto stationary geosynchronous orbit while
                            retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the
                            mission lifetime requirements
Owner                       AT&T
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,804
 Perigee (km)               35,770
 Inclination (deg.)         0
 Period (min.)              1,436.1
Weight (kg)                 653 (in orbit)
Dimensions                  6.48 m high (deployed); 2.74 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                     Telstar 3-D was placed in a geostationary orbit at approxi-
                            mately 125 degrees west longitude. It was also called
                            Telstar 303.


                      Table 2–88. Galaxy 1 Characteristics
Launch Date                 June 28, 1983
Launch Vehicle              Delta 3920/PAM-D
Range                       Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite on a two-stage Delta 3920 launch
                            vehicle with sufficient accuracy to allow the MDAC PAM-
                            D and the spacecraft propulsion system to place the satel-
                            lite into a stationary geosynchronous orbit while retaining
                            sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the mission
                            lifetime requirements
Owner                       Hughes Communications Inc.
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,797
 Perigee (km)               35,780
 Inclination (deg.)         0
 Period (min.)              1,436.2
Weight (kg)                 519 at beginning of life
Dimensions                  2.16 m diameter; 2.8 m long (stowed); 6.8 m long (with
                            solar panel and antenna reflector deployed)
Shape                       Cylinder
Power Source                K-7 solar cells and two nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Communications
Remarks                     Galaxy 1 was devoted entirely to distributing cable television
                            programming. It had a geostationary orbit at approximately
                            133 degrees west longitude. It operated until April 1994.
                           SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      131

                     Table 2–89. Galaxy 2 Characteristics
Launch Date                September 22, 1983
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3920/PAM-D
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite on a two-stage Delta 3920 with suffi-
                           cient accuracy to allow the MDAC PAM-D and the satellite
                           propulsion system to place the satellite into a stationary
                           geosynchronous orbit while retaining sufficient stationkeep-
                           ing propulsion to meet the mission lifetime requirements
Owner                      Hughes Communications Inc.
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,799
 Perigee (km)              35,782
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                519 at beginning of life
Dimensions                 2.16 m diameter; 2.8 m long (stowed); 6.8 m long (with
                           solar panel and antenna reflector deployed)
Shape                      Cylinder
Power Source               K-7 solar cells and two nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Communications
Remarks                    Galaxy 2 had a geostationary orbit above the equator at
                           approximately 74 degrees west longitude. It operated until
                           May 1994.


                     Table 2–90. Galaxy 3 Characteristics
Launch Date                September 21, 1984
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3920/PAM-D
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite on a two-stage Delta 3920 launch
                           vehicle with sufficient accuracy to allow the MDAC PAM-
                           D and the satellite propulsion system to place the satellite
                           into a stationary geosynchronous orbit while retaining suf-
                           ficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the mission life-
                           time requirements
Owner                      Hughes Communications Inc.
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,792
 Perigee (km)              35,783
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                519 at beginning of life
Dimensions                 2.16 m diameter; 2.8 m long (stowed); 6.8 m long (with
                           solar panel and antenna reflector deployed)
Shape                      Cylinder
Power Source               K-7 solar cells and two nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Communications
Remarks                    Galaxy 3 was placed in a geosynchronous orbit at approxi-
                           mately 93.5 degrees west longitude. It operated until
                           September 30, 1995.
132                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–91. Satcom 3 Characteristics
Launch Date                December 6, 1979
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3914
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Place the RCA satellite into a synchronous transfer orbit
                           of sufficient accuracy to allow the spacecraft propulsion
                           systems to place the spacecraft into a stationary synchro-
                           nous orbit while retaining sufficient stationkeeping propul-
                           sion to meet the mission lifetime requirements
System Objectives          Provide communications coverage for all 50 states, be
                           capable of operating all 24 transponder channels at speci-
                           fied power throughout the minimum 8-year life, and be
                           compatible with the Delta 3914 launch vehicle
Owner                      RCA American Communications (RCA Americom)
Orbit Characteristics      Transfer orbit—did not achieve final orbit
 Apogee (km)               35,798
 Perigee (km)              162
 Inclination (deg.)        23.9
 Period (min.)             630
Weight (kg)                895
Dimensions                 Base plate: 119 cm x 163 cm; main body height: 117 cm
Shape                      Rectangular with two solar panels extended on booms
                           from opposite sides and an antenna and reflector mounted
                           on one end
Power Source               Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    The satellite was destroyed during the firing of the apogee
                           kick motor on December 10, 1979. This was the third
                           RCA satellite launched by NASA.
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                   133

                    Table 2–92. Satcom 3-R Characteristics
Launch Date                November 19, 1981
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3910
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the RCA satellite along a suborbital trajectory on
                           a two-stage Delta 3910 launch vehicle with sufficient
                           accuracy to allow the payload propulsion system to place
                           the spacecraft into a stationary synchronous orbit while
                           retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the
                           mission lifetime requirements
System Objectives          Provide communications coverage for Alaska, Hawaii,
                           and the contiguous 48 states, be capable of operating all
                           24 transponder channels at specified power throughout the
                           minimum 10-year life, including eclipse periods, and be
                           compatible with the Delta 3910 launch vehicle
Owner                      RCA Americom
Orbit characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,794
 Perigee (km)              35,779
 Inclination (deg.)        0.1
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                1,082 (at launch)
Dimensions                 Baseplate: 119 cm x 163 cm; main body height: 117 cm
Shape                      Rectangular with two solar panels extended on booms
                           from opposite sides and an antenna and reflector mounted
                           on one end
Power Source               Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    RCA Satcom 3-R was placed into geosynchronous orbit at
                           approximately 132 degrees west longitude above the equa-
                           tor. This spacecraft and future RCA spacecraft were
                           designed for launch by the Space Shuttle or by the Delta
                           3910/PAM-D launch vehicle.
134                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–93. Satcom 4 Characteristics
Launch Date                January 19, 1982
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3910
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the RCA satellite along a suborbital trajectory on
                           a two-stage Delta 3910 launch vehicle with sufficient
                           accuracy to allow the payload propulsion system to place
                           the spacecraft into a stationary synchronous orbit while
                           retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the
                           mission lifetime requirements
System Objectives          Provide communications coverage for Alaska, Hawaii, and
                           the contiguous 48 states, be capable of operating all
                           24 transponder channels at specified power throughout the
                           minimum 10-year life, including eclipse periods, and be
                           compatible with the Delta 3910 launch vehicle
Owner                      RCA Americom
Orbit characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,795
 Perigee (km)              35,781
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                1,082 at launch; 598 in orbit
Dimensions                 Baseplate: 119 cm x 163 cm; main body height: 117 cm
Shape                      Rectangular with two solar panels extended on booms
                           from opposite sides and an antenna and reflector mounted
                           on one end
Power Source               Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    RCA Satcom 4 was placed into geosynchronous orbit
                           located at approximately 83 degrees west longitude.
                           SPACE APPLICATIONS                                       135

                     Table 2–94. Satcom 5 Characteristics
Launch Date                October 27, 1982
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3924
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the RCA spacecraft into a synchronous transfer
                           orbit on a three-stage Delta 3924 launch vehicle with suf-
                           ficient accuracy to allow the spacecraft apogee kick motor
                           to place the spacecraft into a stationary synchronous orbit
                           while retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to
                           meet the mission lifetime requirements
System Objectives          Increase traffic capacity per satellite, assure longer satel-
                           lite life with improved reliability, and make the satellite
                           compatible with existing terrestrial and space facilities
Owner                      RCA Americom
Orbit characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,792
 Perigee (km)              35,783
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                1,116 at launch; 598.6 in orbit
Dimensions                 Main body: 142 cm x 163 cm x175 cm
Shape                      Rectangular with two solar panels extended on booms
                           from opposite sides and an antenna and reflector mounted
                           on one end
Power Source               Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    RCA Satcom 5 (also called Aurora) was the first in a new
                           series of high-traffic-capacity, 24-transponder communica-
                           tions satellites. It was the first RCA satellite to be
                           launched from the Delta 3924 launch vehicle. The space-
                           craft was placed into a geosynchronous orbit located at
                           approximately 128 degrees west longitude.
136                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–95. Satcom 6 Characteristics
Launch Date                April 11, 1983
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3924
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the RCA satellite into synchronous transfer orbit
                           on a three-stage Delta 3924 launch vehicle with sufficient
                           accuracy to allow the spacecraft apogee kick motor to
                           place the spacecraft into a stationary synchronous orbit
                           while retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to
                           meet the mission lifetime requirements
System Objectives          Serve the commercial, government, video/audio, and
                           Alaskan domestic communication traffic markets:
                           • Government: provide voice/video and high-speed data
                              to federal agencies via RCA-owned Earth stations
                              located on various government installations
                           • Video/audio services: provide point-to-point and point-
                              to-multipoint distribution of TV, radio, and news ser-
                              vices to broadcasters, cable TV operators, and publishers
                           • Alascom services: provide Alascom, Inc., the long-
                              distance common carrier for Alaska, the satellite capac-
                              ity for interstate and intrastate message and video
                              transmission
Owner                      RCA Americom
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,794
 Perigee (km)              35,779
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                1,116 at launch, 598.6 in orbit
Dimensions                 Main body: 142 cm x 163 cm x175 cm
Shape                      Rectangular with two solar panels extended on booms
                           from opposite sides and an antenna and reflector mounted
                           on one end
Power Source               Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    RCA Satcom 6 (also called Satcom IR) was the second of
                           a new series of high-traffic-capacity, 24-transponder com-
                           munications satellites. It replaced the RCA Satcom 1,
                           which was launched in 1975. It was placed in a geosyn-
                           chronous orbit at approximately 128 degrees west longi-
                           tude.
                           SPACE APPLICATIONS                                     137


                     Table 2–96. Satcom 7 Characteristics
Launch Date                September 8, 1983
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3924
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the RCA spacecraft into a synchronous orbit on a
                           three-stage Delta 3924 launch vehicle with sufficient accu-
                           racy to allow the spacecraft apogee kick motor to place the
                           spacecraft into a stationary synchronous orbit while retain-
                           ing sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the mis-
                           sion lifetime requirements
System Objectives          Serve the commercial, government, video/audio, and
                           Alaskan domestic communication traffic markets:
                           • Government: provide voice/video and high-speed data
                              to federal agencies via RCA-owned Earth stations
                              located on various government installations
                           • Video/audio services: provide point-to-point and point-
                              to-multipoint distribution of TV, radio, and news
                              services to broadcasters, cable TV operators, and pub-
                              lishers
                           • Alascom services: provide Alascom, Inc., the long-
                              distance common carrier for Alaska, the satellite capac-
                              ity for interstate and intrastate message and video
                              transmission
Owner                      RCA Americom
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,794
 Perigee (km)              35,779
 Inclination(deg.)         0
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                1,116 at launch; 598.6 in orbit
Dimensions                 Main body: 142 cm x 163 cm x175 cm
Shape                      Rectangular with two solar panels extended on booms
                           from opposite sides and an antenna and reflector mounted
                           on one end
Power Source               Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    RCA Satcom 7 (also called Satcom 2R) replaced the RCA
                           Satcom 2 that was launched in 1976. It was placed in geo-
                           synchronous orbit at approximately 72 degrees west longi-
                           tude.
138                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK


                  Table 2–97. Satcom K-2 Characteristics
Launch Date                November 28, 1985
Launch Vehicle             STS-61B (Atlantis)/PAM-DII
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch communications satellite successfully
System Objectives          Provide communications coverage for the 48 continental
                           U.S. states or either the eastern half or western half
Owner                      RCA Americom
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,801
 Perigee (km)              35,774
 Inclination (deg.)        0.1
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                7,225.3 (includes PAM-DII)
Dimensions                 Main structure: 170 cm x 213 cm x 152 cm
Shape                      Three-axis stabilized rectangular box and two deployable
                           arms
Power Source               Solar array and three-battery system back-up
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    RCA Satcom K-2 was the first in a series of communica-
                           tions satellites operating in the Ku-band part of the spec-
                           trum. The PAM-DII was used for the satellite’s upper
                           stage because of the satellite’s heavy weight. The satellite
                           was placed into a geosynchronous orbit at approximately
                           81 degrees west longitude.




                  Table 2–98. Satcom K-1 Characteristics
Launch Date                January 12, 1986
Launch Vehicle             STS 61-C (Columbia)/PAM-DII
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch communications satellite successfully
System Objectives          Provide communications coverage for the 48 continental
                           states or either the eastern or the western half of the country
Owner                      RCA Americom
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,795
 Perigee (km)              35,780
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                7225.3 (includes PAM DII)
Dimensions                 Main structure: 170 cm x 213 cm x 152 cm
Shape                      Three-axis stabilized rectangular box and two deployable
                           arms
Power Source               Solar array and three-battery system back-up
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    Satcom K-1 was the second in a series of three planned
                           communications satellites operating in the Ku-band part of
                           the spectrum. It was placed into an orbital position at
                           approximately 85 degrees west longitude.
                             SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      139


                        Table 2–99. SBS-1 Characteristics
Launch Date                  November 15, 1980
Launch Vehicle               Delta 3910/PAM-D
Range                        Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives           Launch the satellite along a suborbital trajectory on a two-
                             stage Delta 3910 vehicle with sufficient accuracy to allow
                             the spacecraft propulsion systems to place the spacecraft
                             into a stationary synchronous orbit while retaining suffi-
                             cient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the mission life-
                             time requirements
Owner                        Satellite Business Systems: IBM, Comsat General, Aetna
                             Insurance
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                 35,797
 Perigee (km)                35,777
 Inclination (deg.)          0.7
 Period (min.)               1,436.1
Weight (kg)                  555 on orbit
Dimensions                   6.6 m high (deployed); 2.16 m diameter
Shape                        Cylindrical
Power Source                 Solar cells and two nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                   Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                      This launch marked the first use of the Payload Assist
                             Module (PAM-D) in place of a conventional third stage.
                             SBS-1 was the first satellite capable of transmitting point-
                             to-point data, voice, facsimile, and telex messages within
                             the continental United States as routine commercial ser-
                             vice in the 12/14 GHz (K-) band; prior K-band service on
                             ATS-6, CTS, and Telesat-D was experimental. SBS-1 was
                             placed into geosynchronous orbit at approximately
                             106 degrees west longitude.
140                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK


                     Table 2–100. SBS-2 Characteristics
Launch Date                September 24, 1981
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3910/PAM-D
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite along a suborbital trajectory on a two-
                           stage Delta 3910 vehicle with sufficient accuracy to allow
                           the spacecraft propulsion system to place the spacecraft
                           into a stationary synchronous orbit while retaining suffi-
                           cient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the mission life-
                           time requirements
Owner                      Satellite Business Systems: IBM, Comsat General, Aetna
                           Insurance
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,789
 Perigee (km)              35,785
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                555 on orbit
Dimensions                 6.6 m high (deployed); 2.16 m diameter
Shape                      Cylindrical
Power Source               Solar cells and two nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                    SBS-2 was placed in geostationary orbit at approximately
                           97 degrees west longitude


                     Table 2–101. SBS-3 Characteristics
Launch Date                November 11, 1982
Launch Vehicle             STS-5 (Columbia)/PAM-D
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite with sufficient accuracy to allow the
                           spacecraft propulsion system to place the spacecraft into a
                           stationary synchronous orbit while retaining sufficient sta-
                           tionkeeping propulsion to meet the mission lifetime
                           requirements
Owner                      Satellite Business Systems: IBM, Comsat General, Aetna
                           Insurance
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,788
 Perigee (km)              35,786
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                555 on orbit
Dimensions                 6.6 m high (deployed); 2.16 m diameter
Shape                      Cylindrical
Power Source               Solar cells and two nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                    This was the first launch from the Shuttle cargo bay.
                           SBS-3 was placed in geostationary orbit at approximately
                           SPACE APPLICATIONS                                     141

                          95 degrees west longitude
                     Table 2–102. SBS-4 Characteristics
Launch Date               August 31, 1984
Launch Vehicle            STS 41-D (Discovery)
Range                     Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives        Launch the satellite with sufficient accuracy to allow the
                          spacecraft propulsion system to place the spacecraft into a
                          stationary synchronous orbit while retaining sufficient sta-
                          tionkeeping propulsion to meet the mission lifetime
                          requirements
Owner                     Satellite Business Systems: IBM, Comsat General, Aetna
                          Insurance
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)              35,793
 Perigee (km)             35,781
 Inclination (deg.)       0
 Period (min.)            1,436.1
Weight (kg)               555 on orbit
Dimensions                6.6 m high (deployed); 2.16 m diameter
Shape                     Cylindrical
Power Source              Solar cells and two nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                   SBS-4 was placed in geostationary orbit at approximately
                          91 degrees west longitude
142                   NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                  Table 2–103. Westar Satellite Comparison
         Feature                                First         Second
                                            Generation       Generation
                                            Westar 1, 2,     Westar 4, 5,
                                                and 3          and 6
 Launch Vehicle                           Delta 2914         Delta 3910

 Weight, Beginning of Life (kg)           306                584

 Service, GHz                             6/412              6/424
   Channels

 Dimensions (cm)
     Height                               345                659 (deployed)
                                                             279 (stowed)
      Diameter                            190                216

 Power Capability, Watts
   Beginning of Life                      307                262
   End of Life                            822                684

 Traveling Wave Tube (TWT)                5.0                7.5
 Output Power, Watts

 Design Life, Years                       7                  10

 Performance
   EIRP, dBW                              33.0 (CONUS)       34.0 (CONUS)
                                          24.5 (Alaska,      31.0 (Alaska)
                                          Hawaii)            28.3 (Hawaii)
                                                             27.2 (Puerto
                                                             Rico)

 G/T, dB/°K                               -7.4 (CONUS)       -6.0 (CONUS)
                                          -14.4 (Alaska,     31.0 (Alaska)
                                          Hawaii)            -10.9 (Hawaii)
                                                             -10.9 (Puerto
                                                              Rico)
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      143

                     Table 2–104. Westar 3 Characteristics
Launch Date                August 9, 1979
Launch Vehicle             Delta 2914
Range                      Eastern Test Range
Mission Objectives         Place the satellite into a synchronous transfer orbit of suf-
                           ficient accuracy to allow the spacecraft propulsion system
                           to place the spacecraft into stationary synchronous orbit
                           while retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to
                           meet the mission lifetime requirements
Owner                      Western Union
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,794
 Perigee (km)              35,780
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                572 in transfer orbit
Dimensions                 1.56 m high; 1.85 m diameter
Shape                      Cylindrical (drum)
Power Source               Solar cells and battery system
Contractor                 Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                    Because Westar 1 and Westar 2 were still operating at the
                           time Westar 3 was launched, it was placed into a storage
                           geosynchronous orbit over the equator at approximately 91
                           degrees west longitude until Westar 1 was removed from
                           service. Westar 3 was in use until it was turned off in
                           January 1990.

                     Table 2–105. Westar 4 Characteristics
Launch Date                February 25, 1982
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3910
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite along a suborbital trajectory on a two-
                           stage Delta 3910 launch vehicle with sufficient accuracy
                           to allow the payload propulsion system to place the space-
                           craft into a stationary synchronous orbit while retaining
                           sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the mission
                           lifetime requirements
Owner                      Western Union
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,796
 Perigee (km)              35,778
 Inclination (deg.)        0.1
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                585 (after apogee motor was fired)
Dimensions                 6.84 m high (deployed); 2.16 m diameter
Shape                      Cylindrical (drum)
Power Source               Solar cells and battery system
Contractor                 Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                    The satellite was positioned at approximately 99 degrees
                           west longitude above the equator. It operated until
                           November 1991.
144                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–106. Westar 5 Characteristics
Launch Date                June 8, 1982
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3910
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite along a suborbital trajectory on a two-
                           stage Delta 3910 launch vehicle with sufficient accuracy
                           to allow the payload propulsion system to place the space-
                           craft into a stationary synchronous orbit while retaining
                           sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the mission
                           lifetime requirements.
Owner                      Western Union
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,796
 Perigee (km)              35,783
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.3
Weight (kg)                585 (after apogee motor was fired)
Dimensions                 6.84 m high (deployed); 2.16 m diameter
Shape                      Cylindrical (drum)
Power Source               Solar cells and battery system
Contractor                 Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                    Westar 5 was placed in a geostationary position at approx-
                           imately 123 degrees west longitude. It replaced Westar 2.
                           It operated until May 1992.


                     Table 2–107. Westar 6 Characteristics
Launch Date                February 3, 1984
Launch Vehicle             STS 41-B (Challenger)/PAM-D
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite along a suborbital trajectory on a two-
                           stage Delta 3910 launch vehicle or on the Space Shuttle
                           with sufficient accuracy to allow the payload propulsion
                           system to place the spacecraft into a stationary synchro-
                           nous orbit while retaining sufficient stationkeeping propul-
                           sion to meet the mission lifetime requirements
Owner                      Western Union
Orbit Characteristics      Did not reach proper orbit
Weight (kg)                607.8 (after apogee motor was fired)
Dimensions                 6.84 m high (deployed); 2.16 m diameter
Shape                      Cylindrical (drum)
Power Source               Solar cells and battery system
Contractor                 Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                    Westar 6 failed to reach its intended geostationary orbit
                           because of a failure of the PAM-D. It was retrieved by the
                           STS 51-A mission in November 1984 and returned to
                           Earth for refurbishment.
                              SPACE APPLICATIONS                                 145

                       Table 2–108. Intelsat Participants
                       Intelsat Member Countries (as of 1985)

Afghanistan                   Guinea, People’s            Norway
Algeria                         Revolutionary Republic    Oman
Angola                          of                        Pakistan
Argentina                     Haiti                       Panama
Australia                     Honduras                    Paraguay
Austria                       Iceland                     Peru
Bangladesh                    India                       Philippines
Barbados                      Indonesia                   Portugal
Belgium                       Iran, Islamic Republic of   Qatar
Bolivia                       Iraq                        Saudi Arabia
Brazil                        Ireland                     Senegal
Cameroon                      Israel                      Singapore
Canada                        Italy                       South Africa
Central African Republic      Ivory Coast                 Spain
Chad                          Jamaica                     Sri Lanka
China, People’s Republic of   Japan                       Sudan
Chile                         Jordan                      Sweden
Columbia                      Kenya                       Switzerland
Congo                         Korea, Republic of          Syria
Costa Rica                    Kuwait                      Tanzania
Cyprus                        Lebanon                     Thailand
Denmark                       Libya                       Trinidad and Tobago
Dominican Republic            Liechtenstein               Tunisia
Ecuador                       Luxembourg                  Turkey
Egypt                         Madagascar                  Uganda
El Salvador                   Malaysia                    United Arab Emirates
Ethiopia                      Mali                        United Kingdom
Fiji                          Mauritania                  United States
Finland                       Mexico                      Upper Volta
France                        Monaco                      Vatican City State
Gabon                         Morocco                     Venezuela
Germany, Federal Republic     Netherlands                 Viet Nam
  of                          New Zealand                 Yemen Arab Republic
Ghana                         Nicaragua                   Yugoslavia
Greece                        Niger                       Zaire
Guatemala                     Nigeria                     Zambia
146                NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                      Table 2–108 continued
                        Intelsat Non-Signatory
Users                  Hungary                   Romania
Bahrain                Kiribati                  Seychelles
Botswana               Liberia                   Sierra Leone
Brunei                 Malawi                    Solomon Islands
Burma                  Maldives                  Somalia
Cook Islands           Mauritius                 Surinam
Cuba                   Mozambique                Togo
Czechoslovakia         Nauru, Republic of        Tonga
Djibouti               New Guinea                U.S.S.R.
Gambia                 Papua                     Western Samoa
Guyana                 Poland

                        Other Territory Users

American Samoa            French Guiana                Netherlands Antilles
Ascension Island          French Polynesia             New Caledonia
Azores                    French West Indies           Van Uatu
Belize                    Gibraltar
Bermuda                   Guam
Cayman Islands            Hong Kong
                             SPACE APPLICATIONS                                  147

                Table 2–109. International Contributors to Intelsat
   Manufacturer (Country)                                 Contribution
Aerospatiale (France)                Initiated the structural design that formed the
                                     main member of the spacecraft modular design
                                     construction; supplied the main body structure
                                     thermal analysis and control
GEC-Marconi (United Kingdom)         Produced the 11-GHz beacon transmitter used
                                     for Earth station antenna tracking
Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm           Designed and produced the satellites’ control
(Federal Republic of Germany)        subsystem and the solar array
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation      Designed and produced the 6-GHz and the
(Japan)                              4-GHz Earth coverage antennas; also manufac-
                                     tured the power control electronics and, from an
                                     FACC design, the telemetry and command digi-
                                     tal units
Senia (Italy)                        Designed and built the six telemetry, command,
                                     and ranging antennas, two 11-GHz beacon
                                     antennas and two 14/11-GHz spot beam anten-
                                     nas; also built the command receiver and teleme-
                                     try transmitter, which combined to form a
                                     ranging transponder for determining the
                                     spacecraft position in transfer orbit
Thomson-CSF (France)                 Built the 10W, 11-GHz traveling wave tubes
                                     (10 per spacecraft)
148                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                Table 2–110. Intelsat V F-2 Characteristics
Launch Date                December 6, 1980
Launch Vehicle             Atlas-Centaur
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                           spacecraft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a
                           synchronous orbit
Comsat Objectives          Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its
                           planned geostationary position, and operate and manage
                           the system for Intelsat
Owner                      International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,801
 Perigee (km)              35,774
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                1,928 at launch
Dimensions                 Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                           array span: 15.5 m
Shape                      Box
Power Source               Solar arrays and rechargeable batteries
Contractor                 Ford Aerospace and Communication
Remarks                    Intelsat V F-2 (also designated 502) was the first of the
                           Intelsat V series. It was positioned in an orbit at approxi-
                           mately 22 degrees west longitude in the Atlantic region.


                Table 2–111. Intelsat V F-1 Characteristics
Launch Date                May 23, 1981
Launch Vehicle             Atlas-Centaur
Range                      Cape Kennedy
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                           spacecraft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a syn-
                           chronous orbit
Comsat Objectives          Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its
                           planned geostationary position, and operate and manage
                           the system
Owner                      Intelsat
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,800
 Perigee (km)              35,778
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                1,928 at launch
Dimensions                 Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                           array span: 15.5 m
Shape                      Box
Power Source               Solar array and rechargeable batteries
Contractor                 Ford Aerospace and Communication
Remarks                    Also designated Intelsat 501, it was positioned in the
                           Atlantic region and later moved to the Pacific region.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                                    149

                Table 2–112. Intelsat V F-3 Characteristics
Launch Date              December 15, 1981
Launch Vehicle           Atlas-Centaur
Range                    Cape Canaveral
Mission Objectives       Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                         spacecraft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a syn-
                         chronous orbit
Comsat Objectives        Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its
                         planned geostationary position, and operate and manage
                         the system
Owner                    Intelsat
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)             35,801
 Perigee (km)            35,772
 Inclination (deg.)      0
 Period (min.)           1,436.1
Weight (kg)              1,928 at launch
Dimensions               Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                         array span: 15.5 m
Shape                    Box
Power Source             Solar array and rechargeable batteries
Contractor               Ford Aerospace and Communication
Remarks                  Also designated Intelsat 503, it was positioned in the
                         Atlantic region and later moved into the Pacific region.


                Table 2–113. Intelsat V F-4 Characteristics
Launch Date              March 3, 1982
Launch Vehicle           Atlas-Centaur
Range                    Cape Canaveral
Mission Objectives       Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                         spacecraft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a syn-
                         chronous orbit
Comsat Objectives        Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its
                         planned geostationary position, and operate and manage
                         the system
Owner                    Intelsat
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)             35,808
 Perigee (km)            35,767
 Inclination (deg.)      0.1
 Period (min.)           1,436.2
Weight (kg)              1,928 at launch
Dimensions               Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                         array span: 15.5 m
Shape                    Box
Power Source             Solar array and rechargeable batteries
Contractor               Ford Aerospace and Communication
Remarks                  Also designated Intelsat 504, it was positioned in the
                         Indian Ocean region.
150                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                Table 2–114. Intelsat V F-5 Characteristics
Launch Date                September 28, 1982
Launch Vehicle             Atlas-Centaur
Range                      Cape Canaveral
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                           spacecraft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a syn-
                           chronous orbit
Comsat Objectives          Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its
                           planned geostationary position, and operate and manage
                           the system
Owner                      Intelsat
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,805
 Perigee (km)              35,769
 Inclination (deg.)        0.1
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                1,928 at launch
Dimensions                 Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                           array span: 15.5 m
Shape                      Box
Power Source               Solar array and rechargeable batteries
Contractor                 Ford Aerospace and Communication
Remarks                    Also designated Intelsat 505, it was positioned in the
                           Indian Ocean region. This flight carried a Maritime
                           Communications Services package for the first time for the
                           Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat) to provide
                           ship/shore/ship communications.
                                SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      151

                  Table 2–115. Intelsat V F-6 Characteristics
Launch Date                    May 19, 1983
Launch Vehicle                 Atlas-Centaur
Range                          Cape Canaveral
Mission Objectives             Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                               spacecraft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a syn-
                               chronous orbit
Comsat Objectives              Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its planned
                               geostationary position, and operate and manage the system
Owner                          Intelsat
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                   35,810
 Perigee (km)                  35,765
 Inclination (deg.)            0
 Period (min.)                 1,436.2
Weight (kg)                    1,996 at launch
Dimensions                     Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                               array span: 15.5 m
Shape                          Box
Power Source                   Solar array and rechargeable batteries
Contractor                     Ford Aerospace and Communication
Remarks                        Also designated Intelsat 506, it was positioned in the
                               Atlantic region. It carried the Marine Communications
                               Services package for Inmarsat.


                Table 2–116. Intelsat V F-9 Characteristics a
Launch Date                    June 9, 1984
Launch Vehicle                 Atlas-Centaur
Range                          Cape Canaveral
Mission Objectives             Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                               spacecraft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a
                               synchronous orbit
Comsat Objectives              Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its planned
                               geostationary position, and operate and manage the system
Owner                          Intelsat
Orbit Characteristics          Did not reach useful orbit
Weight (kg)                    1,928 at launch
Dimensions                     Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                               array span: 15.5 m solar array span
Shape                          Box
Power Source                   Solar array and rechargeable batteries
Contractor                     Ford Aerospace and Communication
Remarks                        The satellite did not reach useful orbit. A leak in the
                               Centaur liquid oxygen tank at the time of Atlas and
                               Centaur separation and the accompanying loss of liquid
                               oxygen through the tank opening precipitated events that
                               compromised vehicle performance and resulted in loss of
                               the mission. This was the first launch of the new length-
                               ened Atlas Centaur rocket.
a   Intelsat F-7 and F-8 were launched by an Ariane and are not addressed here.
152                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

               Table 2–117. Intelsat V-A F-10 Characteristics
Launch Date                March 22, 1985
Launch Vehicle             Atlas-Centaur
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
NASA Objectives            Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit, orient it, and spin
                           it at 2 rpm about its longitudinal axis, enabling the space-
                           craft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a synchro-
                           nous orbit
Intelsat Objectives        Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its planned
                           geostationary position, and operate and manage the system
Owner                      Intelsat
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,807
 Perigee (km)              35,768
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                1,996 at launch
Dimensions                 Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                           array span: 15.5 m
Shape                      Box
Power Source               Solar array with rechargeable batteries
Contractor                 Ford Aerospace and Communications
Remarks                    The first in a series of improved commercial communica-
                           tion satellites, the satellite was positioned in the Pacific
                           Ocean region.


               Table 2–118. Intelsat V-A F-11 Characteristics
Launch Date                June 30, 1985
Launch Vehicle             Atlas-Centaurr
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
NASA Objectives            Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit, orient it, and spin
                           it a 2 rpm about its longitudinal axis, enabling the space-
                           craft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a synchro-
                           nous orbit
Intelsat Objectives        Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its planned
                           geostationary position, and operate and manage the system
Owner                      Intelsat
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,802
 Perigee (km)              35,772
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                1,996 at launch
Dimensions                 Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                           array span: 15.5 m
Shape                      Box
Power Source               Solar panels and rechargeable batteries
Contractor                 Ford Aerospace and Communications
Remarks                    The satellite was placed into a geostationary final orbit at
                           332.5 degrees east longitude.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                                        153

               Table 2–119. Intelsat V-A F-12 Characteristics
Launch Date               September 29, 1985
Launch Vehicle            Atlas-Centaur
Range                     Eastern Space and Missile Center
NASA Objectives           Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit, orient it, and spin
                          it at 2 rpm about its longitudinal axis, enabling the space-
                          craft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a synchro-
                          nous orbit
Intelsat Objectives       Fire the apogee motor, position the satellite into its planned
                          geostationary position, and operate and manage the system
Owner                     Intelsat
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)              35,802
 Perigee (km)             35,772
 Inclination (deg.)       0
 Period (min.)            1,436.1
Weight (kg)               1,996 at launch
Dimensions                Main body: 1.66m x 2 m x 1.77 m; height: 6.4 m; solar
                          array span: 15.5 m
Shape                     Box
Power Source              Solar panels and rechargeable batteries
Contractor                Ford Aerospace and Communications
Remarks                   The satellite was positioned in the Atlantic Ocean region.
                          This was the last commercial mission for the Atlas
                          Centaur rocket. Future Intelsat missions were planned to
                          be launched from the Space Shuttle or the Ariane.
154                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                 Table 2–120. Fltsatcom 2 Characteristics
Launch Date                May 4, 1979
Launch Vehicle             Atlas-Centaur
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                           spacecraft apogee motor to inject the satellite into a syn-
                           chronous orbit
Owner                      U.S. Department of Defense
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,837
 Perigee (km)              35,736
 Inclination (deg.)        4.7
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                1,005 (in orbit)
Dimensions                 Main body: 2.5 m diameter x 1.3 m high; height including
                           antenna: 6.7 m
Shape                      Hexagonal spacecraft module and attached payload module
Power Source               Solar arrays and batteries
Contractor                 TRW Systems
Remarks                    Fltsatcom 2 was initially placed into a geostationary orbit
                           at approximately 23 degrees west longitude after
                           Fltsatcom 3 was deployed, Fltsatcom 2 was moved to a
                           position at approximately 72.5 degrees east longitude to
                           carry Indian Ocean traffic. This marked the 50th Atlas
                           Centaur launch.


                 Table 2–121. Fltsatcom 3 Characteristics
Launch Date                January 17, 1980
Launch Vehicle             Atlas-Centaur
Range                      Eastern Test Range
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                           spacecraft apogee motor to inject the spacecraft into a syn-
                           chronous orbit
Owner                      Department of Defense
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,804
 Perigee (km)              35,767
 Inclination (deg.)        4.3
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                1,005 (in orbit)
Dimensions                 Main body: 2.5 m diameter x 1.3 m high; height including
                           antenna: 6.7 m
Shape                      Hexagonal spacecraft module and attached payload module
Power Source               Solar arrays and batteries
Contractor                 Defense and Space Systems Group, TRW, Inc.
Remarks                    Fltsatcom 3 was placed in geostationary orbit at approxi-
                           mately 23 degrees west longitude.
                         SPACE APPLICATIONS                                        155

                 Table 2–122. Fltsatcom 4 Characteristics
Launch Date              October 30, 1980
Launch Vehicle           Atlas-Centaur
Range                    Eastern Test Range
Mission Objectives       Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                         spacecraft apogee motor to inject the satellite into syn-
                         chronous orbit
Owner                    Department of Defense
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)             35,811
 Perigee (km)            35,765
 Inclination (deg.)      4.0
 Period (min.)           1,436.2
Weight (kg)              1,005 (in orbit)
Dimensions               Main body: 2.5 m diameter x 1.3 m high; height including
                         antenna: 6.7 m
Shape                    Hexagonal spacecraft module and attached payload module
Power Source             Solar arrays and batteries
Contractor               Defense and Space Systems Group, TRW, Inc.
Remarks                  Fltsatcom 4 was placed into a geostationary orbit at approx-
                         imately 172 degrees east longitude above the equator.


                 Table 2–123. Fltsatcom 5 Characteristics
Launch Date              August 6, 1981
Launch Vehicle           Atlas-Centaur
Range                    Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives       Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that enables the
                         spacecraft apogee motor to inject the satellite into syn-
                         chronous orbit
Owner                    U.S. Department of Defense
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)             36,284
 Perigee (km)            36,222
 Inclination (deg.)      4.6
 Period (min.)           1,460.0
Weight (kg)              1,039 (in orbit)
Dimensions               Main body: 2.5 m diameter x 1.3 m high; height including
                         antenna: 6.7 m
Shape                    Hexagonal spacecraft module and attached payload module
Power Source             Solar arrays and batteries
Contractor               Defense and Space Systems Group, TRW, Inc.
Remarks                  The satellite reached geostationary orbit, but an imploding
                         payload shroud destroyed the primary antenna, rendering
                         the satellite useless.
156                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                 Table 2–124. Fltsatcom 7 Characteristics
Launch Date                December 4, 1986
Launch Vehicle             Atlas-Centaur
Range                      Cape Canaveral
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into an inclined transfer orbit and ori-
                           ent the spacecraft in its desired transfer orbit attitude
Owner                      Department of Defense
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,875
 Perigee (km)              35,703
 Inclination (deg.)        4.3
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                1,128.5
Dimensions                 Main body: 2.5 m diameter x 1.3 m high; height including
                           antenna: 6.7 m
Shape                      Hexagonal spacecraft module and attached payload module
Power Source               Solar arrays and batteries
Contractor                 Defense and Space Systems Group, TRW, Inc.
Remarks                    Fltsatcom 7 carried an experimental EHF package in
                           addition to the equipment carried on previous missions.
                           The satellite was placed into a geosynchronous orbit at
                           approximately 100 degrees west longitude.


                 Table 2–125. Fltsatcom 6 Characteristics
Launch Date                March 26, 1987
Launch Vehicle             Atlas-Centaur
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into an inclined transfer orbit and ori-
                           ent the spacecraft in its desired transfer orbit attitude
Owner                      Department of Defense
Orbit Characteristics      Did not achieve orbit
Weight (kg)                1,048 (after firing of apogee boost motors)
Dimensions                 Main body: 2.5 m diameter x 1.3 m high; height including
                           antenna: 6.7 m
Shape                      Hexagonal spacecraft module and attached payload module
Power Source               Solar arrays and batteries
Contractor                 Defense and Space Systems Group, TRW, Inc.
Remarks                    Fltsatcom 6 did not achieve proper orbit because of a
                           lightning strike.
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                    157

                     Table 2–126. Leasat 2 Characteristics
Launch Date                September 1, 1984
Launch Vehicle             STS-41D (Discovery)
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into successful transfer orbit
Owner                      Leased from Hughes Communications Inc. by U.S.
                           Department of Defense
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,788
 Perigee (km)              35,782
 Inclination (deg.)        0.7
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                1,315 on orbit
Dimensions                 6 m long (deployed); 4.26 m diameter
Shape                      Cylinder
Power Source               Solar array and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Communications
Remarks                    The launch of Leasat 2 was postponed from June 1984
                           because the Shuttle launch was delayed. The satellite
                           occupied a geostationary position located at approximately
                           177 degrees west longitude


                     Table 2–127. Leasat 1 Characteristics
Launch Date                November 10, 1984
Launch Vehicle             STS 51A (Discovery)
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into successful transfer orbit
Owner                      Hughes Communications (leased to Department of
                           Defense)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,890
 Perigee (km)              35,783
 Inclination (deg.)        0.9
 Period (min.)             1,436.0
Weight (kg)                1,315 on orbit
Dimensions                 6 m long (deployed); 4.26 m diameter
Shape                      Cylinder
Power Source               Solar array and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Communications
Remarks                    Leasat 1 was positioned in geostationary orbit at approxi-
                           mately 16 degrees west longitude.
158                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–128. Leasat 3 Characteristics
Launch Date                April 13, 1985
Launch Vehicle             STS-51-D (Discovery)
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into successful transfer orbit
Owner                      Hughes Communications (leased to Department of
                           Defense)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,809
 Perigee (km)              35,768
 Inclination (deg.)        1.4
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                1,315 on orbit
Dimensions                 6 m long (deployed); 4.26 m diameter
Shape                      Cylinder
Power Source               Solar array and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Communications
Remarks                    The Leasat 3 sequencer failed to start despite attempts by
                           the crew to activate it. The satellite remained inoperable
                           until it was repaired in orbit by the crew of STS 51-I in
                           August 1985. It was placed in geosynchronous orbit in
                           November 1985 and began operations in December.


                     Table 2–129. Leasat 4 Characteristics
Launch Date                August 29, 1985
Launch Vehicle             STS-51-I (Discovery)
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into successful transfer orbit
Owner                      Hughes Communications (leased to Department of
                           Defense)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               36,493
 Perigee (km)              35,079
 Inclination (deg.)        1.4
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                1,315 on orbit
Dimensions                 6 m long (deployed); 4.26 m diameter
Shape                      Cylinder
Power Source               Solar array and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Communications
Remarks                    Leasat 4 was placed into geosynchronous orbit on
                           September 3, 1985. It functioned normally for about
                           2 days, at which time the communications payload failed.
                           Efforts to restore the satellite were unsuccessful.
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      159

                  Table 2–130. NATO IIID Characteristics
Launch Date                 November 14, 1984
Launch Vehicle              Delta 3914
Range                       Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives          Place the satellite into synchronous transfer orbit of suffi-
                            cient accuracy to allow the spacecraft propulsion system to
                            place the satellite into a stationary synchronous orbit while
                            retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the
                            mission lifetime requirements
Owner                       North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,788
 Perigee (km)               35,783
 Inclination (deg.)         3.2
 Period (min.)              1,436.1
Weight (kg)                 388 (after apogee motor fired)
Dimensions                  3.1 m long including antennas; 2.18 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar array and battery charge control array
Contractor                  Ford Aerospace and Communications
Remarks                     NATO-IIID was positioned at approximately 21 degrees
                            west longitude.


                     Table 2–131. Anik D-1 Characteristics
Launch Date                 August 26, 1982
Launch Vehicle              Delta 3920/PAM-D
Range                       Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite on a two-stage Delta 3920 vehicle
                            with sufficient accuracy to allow the MDAC PAM-D and
                            the spacecraft propulsion system to place the spacecraft
                            into a stationary synchronous orbit while retaining suffi-
                            cient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the mission life-
                            time requirements
Owner                       Telesat Canada Corporation
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,796
 Perigee (km)               35,776
 Inclination (deg.)         0
 Period (min.)              1,436.0
Weight (kg)                 730 in orbit
Dimensions                  6.7 m high with solar panel and antenna deployed;
                            2.16 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                     Anik D-1 was the first of two satellites built for
                            Telesat/Canada to replace the Anik A series. It was located
                            in geostationary orbit at approximately 104.5 degrees west
                            longitude. It remained in service until February 1995.
160                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–132. Anik C-3 Characteristics
Launch Date                November 12, 1982
Launch Vehicle             STS-5 (Columbia)/PAM-D
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into transfer orbit, permitting the
                           spacecraft propulsion system to place it in stationary syn-
                           chronous orbit for communications coverage over Canada
Owner                      Telesat Canada Corporation
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,794
 Perigee (km)              35,779
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.1
Weight (kg)                567 in orbit
Dimensions                 2 m high; 1.5 m diameter
Shape                      Cylindrical
Power Source               Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                    Anik C-3 was placed in geostationary orbit at approxi-
                           mately 114.9 degrees west longitude.


                     Table 2–133. Anik C-2 Characteristics
Launch Date                June 18, 1983
Launch Vehicle             STS-7 (Challenger)
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite into transfer orbit, permitting the
                           spacecraft propulsion system to place it in stationary syn-
                           chronous orbit for communications coverage over Canada
Owner                      Telesat Canada Corporation
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,791
 Perigee (km)              35,782
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                567 in orbit
Dimensions                 2 m high; 1.5 m diameter
Shape                      Cylindrical
Power Source               Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                    Anik C-2 was placed in geostationary orbit at approxi-
                           mately 110 degrees west longitude
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                       161

                     Table 2–134. Anik D-2 Characteristics
Launch Date                 November 9, 1984
Launch Vehicle              STS 51-A (Discovery)/PAM-D
Range                       Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite with sufficient accuracy to allow the
                            MDAC PAM-D and the spacecraft propulsion system to
                            place the spacecraft into a stationary synchronous orbit
                            while retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to
                            meet the mission lifetime requirements
Owner                       Telesat Canada Corporation
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,890
 Perigee (km)               35,679
 Inclination (deg.)         0.9
 Period (min.)              1,436.0
Weight (kg)                 730 in orbit
Dimensions                  6.7 m high with solar panel and antenna deployed;
                            2.16 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                     Anik D-2 was placed in geostationary orbit at approxi-
                            mately 110 degrees west longitude. It was removed from
                            service in March 1995.


                     Table 2–135. Anik C-1 Characteristics
Launch Date                 April 13, 1985
Launch Vehicle              STS-51D (Discovery)/PAM-D
Range                       Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite into transfer orbit, permitting the
                            spacecraft propulsion system to place it in stationary syn-
                            chronous orbit for communications coverage over Canada
Owner                       Telesat Canada Corporation
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,796
 Perigee (km)               35,777
 Inclination (deg.)         0.1
 Period (min.)              1,436.0
Weight (kg)                 567 in orbit
Dimensions                  2 m high; 1.5 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Aircraft
Remarks                     Anik C-1 was placed in geostationary orbit at approxi-
                            mately 107 degrees west longitude.
162                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                 Table 2–136. Arabsat-1B Characteristics
Launch Date                June 18, 1985
Launch Vehicle             STS 51-G (Discovery)/PAM-D
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Launch satellite into transfer orbit of sufficient accuracy to
                           allow the spacecraft propulsion systems to place it in sta-
                           tionary synchronous orbit for communications coverage
Owner                      Saudi Arabia
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,807
 Perigee (km)              35,768
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                700 kg in orbit
Dimensions                 2.26 m x 1.64 m x1.49 m with a two-panel solar array
                           20.7 m wide
Shape                      Cube
Power Source               Solar array and batteries
Contractor                 Aerospatiale
Remarks                    The satellite was placed in geosynchronous orbit at approx-
                           imately 26 degrees east longitude. It began drifting east in
                           October 1992 and went out of service in early 1993.


                     Table 2–137. Aussat 1 Characteristics
Launch Date                August 27, 1985
Launch Vehicle             STS 51-I (Discovery)/PAM-D
Range                      Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives         Successfully launch the satellite into transfer orbit
Owner                      Australia
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,794
 Perigee (km)              35,781
 Inclination (deg.)        0
 Period (min.)             1,436.2
Weight (kg)                655 in orbit
Dimensions                 2.8 m long stowed; 6.6 m deployed; 2.16 m diameter
Shape                      Cylindrical
Power Source               Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Hughes Communications
Remarks                    Aussat 1 (also called Optus A1) was placed in geosyn-
                           chronous orbit at approximately 160 degrees east
                           longitude.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                                     163

                   Table 2–138. Aussat 2 Characteristics
Launch Date              November 27, 1985
Launch Vehicle           STS 61-B (Atlantis)/PAM-D
Range                    Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives       Successfully launch the satellite into transfer orbit
Owner                    Australia
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)             35,794
 Perigee (km)            35,780
 Inclination (deg.)      0
 Period (min.)           1,436.2
Weight (kg)              655 in orbit
Dimensions               2.8 m long stowed; 6.6 m deployed; 2.16 m diameter
Shape                    Cylindrical
Power Source             Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor               Hughes Communications
Remarks                  Aussat 2 (also called Optus A2) was placed in geosynchro-
                         nous orbit at approximately 156 degrees east longitude.
164                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–139. Insat 1A Characteristics
Launch Date                April 10, 1982
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3910
Range                      Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Launch the satellite along a suborbital trajectory on a two-
                           stage Delta 3910 launch vehicle with sufficient accuracy
                           to allow the payload propulsion system to place the space-
                           craft into a stationary synchronous orbit while retaining
                           sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to meet the mission
                           lifetime requirements
Owner                      Department of Space for India
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               35,936
 Perigee (km)              35,562
 Inclination (deg.)        0.1
 Period (min.)             1,434.2
Weight (kg)                650 in orbit
Dimensions                 1.6 m x 1.4 m x 2.2 m
Shape                      Cube
Power Source               Solar arrays and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 Ford Aerospace and Communications
Remarks                    The initial attempt to open the C-band uplink antenna was
                           unsuccessful. Deployment was finally accomplished by
                           blasting the antenna with reaction control jets beneath it.
                           The S-band downlink antenna was successfully deployed,
                           but the accompanying release of the solar sail did not occur.
                           This resulted in the Moon being in the field of view of the
                           active Earth sensor. The unpredicted Moon interference
                           caused the satellite attitude reference to be lost. The com-
                           mand link was broken as the satellite attitude changed. As a
                           result, safing commands could not be received, all fuel was
                           consumed, and the satellite was lost in September 1982.
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      165

                     Table 2–140. Insat 1B Characteristics
Launch Date                 August 31, 1983
Launch Vehicle              STS-8 (Challenger)
Range                       Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite along a suborbital trajectory with suf-
                            ficient accuracy to allow the payload propulsion system to
                            place the spacecraft into a stationary synchronous orbit
                            while retaining sufficient stationkeeping propulsion to
                            meet the mission lifetime requirements
Owner                       Department of Space for India
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,819
 Perigee (km)               35,755
 Inclination (deg.)         0.1
 Period (min.)              1,436.2
Weight (kg)                 650 in orbit
Dimensions                  1.6 m x 1.4 m x 2.2 m
Shape                       Cube
Power Source                Solar arrays and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Ford Aerospace and Communications
Remarks                     Insat 1B was placed in geosynchronous orbit at approxi-
                            mately 74 degrees east longitude.


                     Table 2–141. Morelos 1 Characteristics
Launch Date                 June 17, 1985
Launch Vehicle              STS 51-G (Discovery)/PAM-D
Range                       Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite into transfer orbit, permitting the
                            spacecraft propulsion system to place it in stationary syn-
                            chronous orbit for communications coverage
Owner                       Mexico
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,794
 Perigee (km)               35,780
 Inclination (deg.)         1.1
 Period (min.)              1,436.1
Weight (kg)                 645 in orbit
Dimensions                  6.6 m long (deployed); 2.16 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Communications
Remarks                     The satellite was positioned at approximately 113.5
                            degrees west longitude.
166                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–142. Morelos 2 Characteristics
Launch Date                 November 27, 1985
Launch Vehicle              STS 61-B (Atlantis)/PAM-D
Range                       Kennedt Space Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite into transfer orbit, permitting the
                            spacecraft propulsion system to place it in stationary syn-
                            chronous orbit for communications coverage
Owner                       Mexico
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,794
 Perigee (km)               35,780
 Inclination (deg.)         1.1
 Period (min.)              1,436.1
Weight (kg)                 645 in orbit
Dimensions                  6.6 m long (deployed); 2.16 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Communications
Remarks                     Morelos 2 was not activated once it achieved its geosyn-
                            chronous storage orbit. It was allowed to drift to its opera-
                            tional orbit at approximately 116.8 degrees west longitude.
                            It began operations in March 1989.


                 Table 2–143. Palapa B-1 Characteristics
Launch Date                 June 18, 1983
Launch Vehicle              STS-7 (Challenger)
Range                       Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives          Launch the satellite into a transfer orbit that permits the
                            spacecraft propulsion system to place it in stationary geo-
                            synchronous orbit for communications
Owner                       Indonesia
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)                35,788
 Perigee (km)               35,783
 Inclination (deg.)         0
 Period (min.)              1,436.1
Weight (kg)                 630 at beginning of life in orbit
Dimensions                  2 m high; 1.5 m diameter
Shape                       Cylindrical
Power Source                Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                  Hughes Communications
Remarks                     This satellite replaced Palapa A-1 in geosynchronous orbit
                            at approximately 83 degrees east longitude.
                          SPACE APPLICATIONS                                     167

                 Table 2–144. Palapa B-2 Characteristics
Launch Date              February 6, 1984
Launch Vehicle           STS 41-B (Challenger)/PAM-D
Range                    Kennedy Space Center
Mission Objectives       Launch the satellite into a circular orbit with sufficient
                         accuracy to allow the PAM-D stage and the spacecraft
                         apogee kick motor to place the spacecraft into a stationary
                         geosynchronous orbit while retaining sufficient station-
                         keeping propulsion to meet the mission lifetime require-
                         ments
Owner                    Indonesia
Orbit Characteristics    Did not achieve proper orbit
 Apogee (km)             1,190
 Perigee (km)            280
 Inclination (deg.)      28.2
 Period (min.)           99.5
Weight (kg)              630 in orbit
Dimensions               2 m high; 1.5 m diameter
Shape                    Cylindrical
Power Source             Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor               Hughes Communications
Remarks                  Palapa B-2 was to be placed into geostationary orbit, but it
                         did not reach its location because the PAM failed. The
                         spacecraft was retrieved by STS 51-A and returned to
                         Earth for refurbishment. The satellite was relaunched as
                         Palapa B-2R in April 1990.


                 Table 2–145. Palapa B-2P Characteristics
Launch Date              March 20, 1987
Launch Vehicle           Delta 3920
Range                    Eastern Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives       Launch the satellite into a circular orbit on a two-stage
                         Delta 3920 launch vehicle with sufficient accuracy to
                         allow the PAM-D stage and the spacecraft apogee kick
                         motor to place the spacecraft into a stationary geosynchro-
                         nous orbit while retaining sufficient stationkeeping propul-
                         sion to meet the mission lifetime requirements
Owner                    Indonesia
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)             35,788
 Perigee (km)            35,788
 Inclination (deg.)      0
 Period (min.)           1,436.2
Weight (kg)              630 in orbit
Dimensions               2 m high; 1.5 m diameter
Shape                    Cylindrical
Power Source             Solar panels and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor               Hughes Communications
Remarks                  The satellite was positioned in geosynchronous orbit at
                         approximately 113 degrees east longitude.
168                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–146. UoSAT 1 Characteristics
Launch Date                October 6, 1981
Launch Vehicle             Delta 2310
Range                      Western Test Range
Mission Objectives         Provide radio amateurs and educational institutions with
                           an operational satellite that could be used with minimal
                           ground stations for studying ionosphere and radio propa-
                           gation conditions
Owner                      University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               470
 Perigee (km)              469
 Inclination (deg.)        97.6
 Period (min.)             94
Weight (kg)                52
Dimensions                 42.5 cm square, 83.5 cm high
Shape                      Rectangular
Power Source               Batteries
Contractor                 University of Surrey
Remarks                    UoSAT 1 was a piggyback payload with the Solar
                           Mesospheric Explorer. It had some initial difficulty with
                           transmitting data because of interference from a 145-MHz
                           telemetry transmitter that was overcome by shifting to a
                           redundant 435-MHz command system.
                            SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      169

                     Table 2–147. UoSAT 2 Characteristics
Launch Date                March 1, 1984
Launch Vehicle             Delta 3920
Range                      Western Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Stimulate interest in space science and engineering among
                           radio amateurs, school children, students, colleges, and
                           universities; provide professional and amateur scientists
                           with a low-Earth-orbit reference for magnetospheric stud-
                           ies to be carried out concurrently with AMPTE and Viking
                           missions, while supporting ground-based studies of the
                           ionosphere; and advance further developments in cost-
                           effective spacecraft engineering with a view to estab-
                           lishing a low-cost spacecraft system design for use in
                           future STS Get-Away Special launches and other sec-
                           ondary payload opportunities
Owner                      University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               692
 Perigee (km)              674
 Inclination (deg.)        98.1
 Period (min.)             98.4
Weight (kg)                60
Dimensions                 35 cm x 35 cm x 65 cm
Shape                      Cube
Power Source               Batteries
Contractor                 University of Surrey
Remarks                    UoSAT 2 was a piggyback payload with Landsat 5.


                     Table 2–148. NOVA 1 Characteristics
Launch Date                May 15, 1981
Launch Vehicle             Scout
Range                      Western Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Place the Navy satellite in a transfer orbit to enable the
                           successful achievement of Navy objectives
Owner                      Department of Defense (Navy)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               1,182
 Perigee (km)              1,164
 Inclination (deg.)        90
 Period (min.)             109.2
Weight (kg)                166.7
Dimensions                 Body: 52.07 cm diameter; attitude control section:
                           26.7 cm diameter, 76.2 cm length
Shape                      Octagonal body topped by a cylindrical attitude control
                           section
Power Source               Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 RCA Astro Electronics and Applied Physics Laboratory
Remarks                    NOVA 1 was the first in a series of advanced navigational
                           satellites built for the Navy. The satellite failed in March
                           1991.
170                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

                     Table 2–149. NOVA 3 Characteristics
Launch Date                October 12, 1984
Launch Vehicle             Scout
Range                      Western Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Place the satellite in a transfer orbit to enable the success-
                           ful achievement of Navy objectives
Owner                      Department of Defense (Navy)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               1,200
 Perigee (km)              1,149
 Inclination (deg.)        90
 Period (min.)             108.9
Weight (kg)                166.7
Dimensions                 Body: 52.07 cm diameter; attitude control section:
                           26.7 cm diameter, 76.2 cm length
Shape                      Octagonal body topped by a cylindrical attitude control
                           section
Power Source               Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 RCA Astro Electronics and Applied Physics Laboratory
Remarks                    NOVA 3 was the second in the series of improved transit
                           navigation satellites. The satellite failed in December 1993.


                     Table 2–150. NOVA 2 Characteristics
Launch Date                June 16, 1988
Launch Vehicle             Scout
Range                      Western Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Place the satellite in a transfer orbit to enable the success-
                           ful achievement of Navy objectives
Owner                      Department of Defense (Navy)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               1,199
 Perigee (km)              1,149
 Inclination (deg.)        89.9
 Period (min.)             108.9
Weight (kg)                166.7
Dimensions                 Body: 52.07 cm diameter; attitude control section:
                           26.7 cm diameter, 76.2 cm length
Shape                      Octagonal body topped by a cylindrical attitude control
                           section
Power Source               Solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries
Contractor                 RCA Astro Electronics and Applied Physics Laboratory
Remarks                    Third in a series of improved transit navigation satellites
                           launched by NASA for the U.S. Navy, the satellite failed
                           in June 1996.
                        SPACE APPLICATIONS                                      171

       Table 2–151. SOOS-I (Oscar 24/Oscar 30) Characteristics
Launch Date             August 3, 1985
Launch Vehicle          Scout
Range                   Western Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives      Place the Navy SOOS-I mission into an orbit that will
                        enable the successful achievement of Navy objectives
Owner                   Department of Defense (Navy)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)            Oscar 24: 1,257; Oscar 30: 1,258
 Perigee (km)           1,002
 Inclination (deg.)     89.9
 Period (min.)          107.9
Weight (kg)             128 (both Oscars and interface cradle)
Dimensions              25 cm long; 46 cm diameter
Shape                   Octagonal prism
Power Source            Four solar panels
Contractor              RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                 Oscar 24 and Oscar 30 were part of U.S. Navy Transit
                        (Navy Navigation Satellite System). The satellites were
                        launched into polar orbit at the same time.


       Table 2–152. SOOS-2 (Oscar 27/Oscar 29) Characteristics
Launch Date             June 16, 1987
Launch Vehicle          Scout
Range                   Western Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives      Place the Navy SOOS-2 mission into an orbit that will
                        enable the successful achievement of Navy objectives
Owner                   Department of Defense (Navy)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)            1,175 and 1,181
 Perigee (km)           1,017 and 1,181
 Inclination (deg.)     90.3
 Period (min.)          107.2
Weight (kg)             128 (both Oscars and interface cradle)
Dimensions              25 cm long; 46 cm diameter
Shape                   Octagonal prism
Power Source            Four solar panels
Contractor              RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                 This was in use through 1996.
172                     NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK

        Table 2–153. SOOS-3 (Oscar 23/Oscar 30) Characteristics
Launch Date                April 25, 1988
Launch Vehicle             Scout
Range                      Western Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Place the Navy SOOS-3 mission into an orbit that will
                           enable the successful achievement of Navy objectives
Owner                      Department of Defense (Navy)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               1,302 and 1,316
 Perigee (km)              1,017 and 1,018
 Inclination (deg.)        129.6
 Period (min.)             108.6 and 108.7
Weight (kg)                128 (both Oscars and interface cradle)
Dimensions                 25 cm long; 46 cm diameter
Shape                      Octagonal prism
Power Source               Four solar panels
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    This had an improved downlink antenna and a frequency
                           synthesizer that gave the capability of selecting other
                           downlink frequencies. This allowed monitoring of stored-
                           in-orbit spacecraft on a frequency offset that did not inter-
                           fere with satellites broadcasting on “operational”
                           frequency. It was operational through 1996.


      Table 2–154. SOOS-4 (Oscar 25 and Oscar 31) Characteristics
Launch Date                August 24, 1988
Launch Vehicle             Scout
Range                      Western Space and Missile Center
Mission Objectives         Place the Navy SOOS-4 mission into an orbit that will
                           enable the successful achievement of Navy objectives
Owner                      Department of Defense (Navy)
Orbit Characteristics
 Apogee (km)               1,176 and 1,178
 Perigee (km)              1,032 (both)
 Inclination (deg.)        90.0
 Period (min.)             107.4
Weight (kg)                128 (both Oscars and interface cradle)
Dimensions                 25 cm long; 46 cm diameter
Shape                      Octagonal prism
Power Source               Four solar panels
Contractor                 RCA Americom Astro-Electronics Division
Remarks                    This had an improved downlink antenna and a frequency
                           synthesizer that gave the capability of selecting other
                           downlink frequencies. This allowed monitoring of stored-
                           in-orbit spacecraft on a frequency offset that did not inter-
                           fere with satellites broadcasting on “operational”
                           frequency. It was operational through 1996.

								
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