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中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目

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中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目 Powered By Docstoc
					     35        3                                                                                                     Vol. 35 No. 3
  2 0 0 4      5                             OCEANOLOGIA ET LIMNOLOGIA SINICA                                           May 2 0 0 4




                                                                        pCO2                        -                               *

                                                               1                =                   =

                                                                                               266003
                                         =
                                                                                 266071


                       2001                                                         pCO2
                                                           pCO2
                                                                        pCO2                                                 Wan-
    ninkhof 1992                                                                                          CO2             123ºE
                                         CO2                        123ºE 32ºN
     CO2                                                                            15.3 × 104 t C
                                                pCO2
                         P593


                                                                             pCO2 Tsunogais             1999            PN
                                                                             pCO2                                        CO2
 IGBP                                                                                        1999                       GC -
               SOLAS                                                                           1997
                       CO2                                                   pCO2
          CO2
 Manabe et al 1993 Sarmiento 1995                                                                                  pCO2
          CO2                                                                         2001
CO2                                                                                     2001                              30
                                                       7.6%                                                       pCO2
 Sverdrup et al 1942
                                      CO2                           pCO2
            Tsunogais et al 1999 Roy et al 2000                              Wanninkhof 1992
Fankignoulle et al 2001                                                                 -                CO2

                                               Smith et al          1
1993 Liu et al 2000
                                                           -        1.1
                                                                                                           2001     7        27         8
 1997              -                                                     4
        G. C           1994


    *                                                KZCX2-207                  973                       2002CB412504
   E-mail china swallow@ 163 . com
    1                       E-mail   longjunz@ mail. ouc. edu. cn
               2003-04-25                     2003-12-16
    240                                                                                                                                   35


1
                                                                              3 4m                                    1
                                                                                        1L / min                                    5
                                                                                       10m


                                                                                                                      6mm      6mm




                                                                                                                      1.5min
                                                                                                          GC
                                                                                              pCO2                                      10m


                                                                                       CTD            YSI-6200
                                                                                                     Parson       1987
                                                                                              SKALAR                   SAN PLUS
                       1
      Fig.1    Location of survey stations in the west of the
                                                                              2
                           East China Sea

1.2                  pCO2                                                     2.1             pCO2

          -                     Cooper        1998                                     2001                                             pCO2
                                                                                                3a
                       2001                             2                                                                      pCO2




                                    2                         -                                                2001
          1.          2.            3             4.              5.              6.                 7.               8.       9.
                                     10 .              11 .            12 .                        13 .
                                                        ①         ②               ③
                        Fig.2   Flow chart of the laminar flow type equilibrator system after Zhanglongjun 2001
      1 . Pump 2 . Thermometer 3 . Equilibrator 4 . Buffer bottle 5 . Pump 6 . Standard gas 7 . Sampling loop 8 . Six-way valve
                       9. Chromatographic Column 10 . Transition Column 11 . Recorder 12 . FID 13 . Amplifier
                                              ① Atmosphere valve ② Aas sample valve ③ Reductor
 3                                                                        pCO2      -                                     241


                                                                                                                 pCO2
                                                                    301           617 atm
                                                                                     µ                        1999         1998


                                                                                 pCO2



                                                              2001    CO2                                          pCO2


                                                                                                   123ºE 32ºN
                                                                pCO2                                                    3b




                                                                                            Ning et al 1988
                                                              1991                         CO2
                                                              pCO2
                                                                a
                                                                                                   pCO2                    R =
                                                              - 0.7132 pCO2



                                                                             pCO2


                                                              2.2            pCO2                  a
                                                                                                          pCO2                  a


           3                 pCO2 a         b
 Fig.3   Horizontal distribution of pCO2 a and salinity b                                                 pCO2                  a
                       of surface water                                                       R = - 0.6269                      a
                                                                             pCO2
                                                pCO2                                             pCO2
Cooper et al 1998                                                                                         pCO2
                      pCO2                117 617 µatm                R                 - 0.6061       - 0.6115
                357 atm
                   µ                                                                         R = 0.6204                    a
                                                       pCO2                                                               R
                                                                     0.6894         0.6476
                                                pCO2           R = - 0.6637
                      R = 0.7325
               pCO2


                                                                      R             - 0.7102 - 0.6261
                         pCO2
     242                                                                                                                                     35


                  123ºE 32ºN                                                                                                 2
                                                                                    B1 + B2 T / 100 + B3 T / 100
                                                               3
                                 a             43.8mg / m                   pCO2                 T                                     K S
        117.8 atm
             µ                                                                       α                    mol / L atm              A1 = - 58.0931
           122.48ºE 29.67ºN                                                        A2 = 90.5069 A3 = 22.2940 B1 = 0.027766 B2 =
                                           a      8.4mg / m3                       - 0.025888 B3 = 0.0050578
pCO2                      407 atm
                             µ                                                                                               ΔpCO2
                                 123ºE 32ºN                                                  -                               1               4b
                                                                                     4b
                                                                                                               CO2
      CO2                   O2                       pCO2                          123ºE                         CO2                     123ºE 32ºN
122.48ºE 29.67ºN                                                                                                                 CO2
                                                                       a                             4b                                      2001



                      pCO2
2.3                                            CO2
2.3.1 ΔpCO2
       pCO2                     365 385 atm
                                       µ
374.2 atm
     µ
                                     pCO2
3a           4a                                                     ΔpCO2
      ΔpCO2                                                        pCO2
           sea    air
ΔpCO2 = pCO2 - pCO2

CO2
123ºE 32ºN                               ΔpCO2                 - 256.4 atm
                                                                      µ
2.3.2             -                    CO2
                      -               CO2
                  F = K × ΔpCO2 K
             K = k ×α      k
               α                       CO2
              -
          Wanninkhof 1992
      Rehder et al 2001 Ternon et al 2000
            Wanninkhof 1992
                            CO2      -


       k = 0.31 × U2 × 660 / Sct
                   10
                                                         1/2

       U10                           10m                                    m/ s
Sct         t℃            CO2         Schmidt                  Sct = 2073.1 -          4                                 -         pCO
                                                                                                                                  Δ 2 a       CO2
                                 2                   3
125.62t + 3.6276t - 0.043219t t ℃                                                                                    b
       α            Weiss 1974                                                      Fig.4                    pCO
                                                                                            Distribution of Δ 2 a and the flux of CO2 b at
       ln = A1 + A2 100 / T + A3 ln T / 100 + S ×
        α                                                                           air-sea interface in the west of the East China Sca in summer
  3                                                                                                   pCO2                     -                                                 243

                                   1 2001                                              -                                               mol / m2 a
                              Tab.1     flux of CO2 at all stations at air-sea interface in survey area in summer 2001




                                                ═ ══════════




                                                                                                               ═ ══════════
                                                 ═ ══════════




                                                                                                                ═ ══════════
                                                 ═




                                                                                                                ═
          101                      - 0.025                              301                      4.858                                       405                        0.281
          102                      - 0.098                              302                      4.974                                       406                        0.863
          103                      - 3.097                              303                    - 0.251                                       501                        2.245
          104                      - 0.950                              304                    - 1.460                                       502                       - 1.245
          105                      - 0.522                              305                    - 0.421                                       503                       - 1.247
          203                         1.511                             306                    - 0.213                                       504                        0.543
          205                      - 7.345                              401                      6.249                                       505                        0.775
          206                      - 4.143                              402                      1.174                                       506                        0.918
          207                      - 1.953                              403                    - 1.158
          208                      - 2.821                              404                      0.837


         122º 125ºE 28.5º 32.5ºN                                                                                                       CO2
      0.5º × 0.5º                                               ΔpCO2
                                                                                           3
                                               -
                                   2001                                                           1
          -                                                                                               pCO2
14.4 × 104 km2                                                                                    2
   15.3 × 104 tC                                                                                                                               pCO2                                    a
              pCO2                    357.0 atm
                                           µ                                  pCO2
                 374.2 atm
                      µ                                                                           3
 5.07m / s                            2001                                                 CO2                                 123ºE
                          4
               17.5 × 10 tC                                                                       CO2                                                 123ºE 32ºN
                                                                                                                                             CO2
                          30                                                  3                                                                               15.3 × 104 tC
                                                          30                                      4                                     30
                4    2
   8.03 × 10 km                                                          19.0 ×                                           CO2
104 tC
           14.4 × 104 km2                                                15.3 ×
  4
10 tC                                     30                                                                                                    2001 .         pCO2                    -
                                CO2                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                           31 4 573 578
                                                                                                      C              1991 .                                                 a
                                      CO2                                                        ATP POC                                                                .
                                                                                                 13 6 831 838
                                                                   Xu et al
                                                                                                                                             1999 .
1994
                                                                                                                                   .                             29 149 153
2000                                                                    5 9
                                                                                                      2000 .                                       100    .
                                                                                                 123 134
                                                205 206 401 402
                                                                                                                                               1997 .
                                                                                                                        .                          16 37 41
           5.2 × 104 tC                                                           30                                                           2001 .                                  .
                                7.9 × 104 tC                                                                                             140 149
                              30                                                                                                             2001 .
  244                                                                                                                      35

                  .             23 3     57 65                           process study in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Deep-Sea Re-
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    tion. Marine Chemistry 60 147 164                                    pogenic carbon. US JGOFS New York press 4 6
Fankignoulle M Borges A 2001 . European continental shelf as a      Smith S V Hollibaugh J T 1993 . Coastal metabolism and the
     significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Global Bio-        oceanic carbon balance. Review of Geophysics 31 75 89
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Liu K-K Atkinson L Chen C T 2000 . Are continental margin                Their Physics Chemistry and General Biology. Englewood
     carbon fluxes significant to the global ocean carbon budget         Cliffs NJ Prentice-Hall 108 121
     Trans Am Geophys 81 641 644                                    Ternon J F Oudot C Dessier A 2000 . A seasonal tropical sink for
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    creased. atmospheric CO2 on the ocean-atmospheric CO2 on             zon River discharge. Marine Chemistry 68 183 201
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  3                                                                         pCO2      -                              245




       SUMMER SURFACE WATER pCO2 AND CO2 FLUX AT AIR-SEA INTERFACE
                              IN WESTERN PART OF THE EAST CHINA SEA

                                 TAN Yan ZHANG Long-Jun WANG Fan= HU Dun-Xin=
Ocean University of China Key Laboratory for Marine Ecological and Environmental Science of Shandong Province Qingdao 266003
                          =
                              Institute of Oceanology   Chinese Academy of Sciences Qingdao 266071


Abstract       In the study of the global carbon cycle the continental margin is considered as one of probable sinks
for missing term of carbon and has come under increasing attention in recent years. It is of great importance for the
discussion of global carbon cycle and for the consummation of global carbon database to study the CO2 flux over the
East China Sea a major marginal sea in the northwest Pacific.
      This paper investigated CO2 flux over the East China Sea using the data collected during summer 2001 27 Jul
04 Aug . The procedures of sampling and analyses of surface water pCO2 were as followed when the ship stayed
still pump surface water from a side intake at a depth of 3 4m via an adiabatic conduit to equilibrator of laminary
flow type Cooper 1998         which was presented by Plymouth Marine Laboratory. UK turn on the air pump at the
same time and pump clean air that from 10m above the surface water to the laminary flow type equilibrator in order
to replace with water sample fully then measure the samples of water and atmospheric pCO2 by G. C Gas Chro-
matogram simultaneously. The intake from which atmospheric air was pumped was installed at 10m above the water
surface to avoid contamination from the ship. Temperature and salinity were measured synchronously by CTD Con-
ductivity Temperature Depth system. Chlorophyll a was analyzed with the mensuration of Parsons Parson 1987 .
Nutrients were determined by SAN PLUS automatism SKALAR company of Holand .
      The results indicated that it was mainly the freshwater of Changjiang Yangtzi River that disturbed the pCO2
distribution in the surface water of survey area and made it uneven. Because of strong influence of fluvial carbonates
the pCO2 of surface water in the areas of Changjiang estuarine area and Hangzhou Bay were obviously higher than that
of the rest area. There were positive correlation between the pCO2 of surface water and corresponding salinity but
negative correlation between the pCO2 of surface water and corresponding temperature and chlorophyll a except for
the very muddy freshwater area near the Changjiang estuary. Using the gas exchange coefficient calculated from the
Wanninkhof model Wanninkhof 1992 and the wind speed in situ it is concluded that the Changjiang River estuar-
ine area and offshore area near Zhejiang Province were source of CO2 while the area east to 123ºE were sink of CO2
especially to the vicinity of 123ºE 32ºN due to biological activities. The freshwater bring abundant nutrients which
enhanced significantly biological activities and thus largely increased consumption of CO2 which made the seawater
 the area east to 123ºE to become the sink of atmospheric CO2 . As far as the whole area of the western part of the
East China Sea the survey area is 14 . 4 × 104 km2 is concerned 15.3 × 104 tC was absorbed from atmosphere in
summer . If the salinity of fresh water was considered to be less than 30 the area was 8 . 03 × 104 km2 19 . 0 × 104 tC
would be absorbed from atmosphere in summer by calculation. So it is mainly the freshwater of Changjiang River that
resulted in the sink of CO2 in the western part of the East China Sea in summer .
Key words        The East China Sea Partial pressure of CO2 Flux of CO2

				
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