TEACHING GRAMMAR Presentation, Practice and Production. 1 Presentation Stage (micro-stages) CONTEXT SETTING What is the purpose of context setting? - to show the meaning of the TL - to introduce examples of the TL in context. If a context is going to be effective it should be: Quick to build up Easy to explain Clear Interesting Relevant Memorable "Contexts act as hooks on which students can hang their memories of the TL after class." ELICITING TARGET LANGUAGE What was the TL in the video? Past perfect. How did the T elicit the TL? She described the story up to the point where they needed the language and then tried to get them to give her the language, which they did, eventually. Why did she do this? ie why didn't the T just give the TL to ss? - she wanted to make ss think - she thought some of them many already have met the tense - she wanted to involve the ss more actively - involving ss like this, making them think and find things in their own minds should all help them to remember better. NB This is not the only way of eliciting the TL. You tell the Ss the story and then try to get them to remember the exact words you used. If they can't do this, you can show them a written version of the story and ask them to find the exact words. CONCEPT CHECKING The T on the video elicited "When I got to Wembley, the concert had started." Then she asked these CCQs: Did I hear music? Yes Did I hear Simply Red? No How many actions? ` 2 Which was first? concert started. So, what is the T checking? That students understand the meaning of the past perfect tense. The concept she is checking is the meaning of the past perfect tense. CHORAL REPETITION (drilling) Why do it? Let students get mouth round new TL Safe way to practise new TL Practise pronunciation, stress, intonation TEACHING GRAMMAR Presentation, Practice and Production. 2 EXPLANATION How did the T do it? She elicited several examples from the students. She wrote them on the board. She elicited grammatical information, eg past simple, past perfect, had+past participle She highlighted the form using different coloured pens. Now, when a T is introducing new grammar, she needs to focus on (amongst other things): form pronunciation when to use it What did this T focus on mainly at the explanation stage? (on Form) Why didn't she focus on pronunciation and use? (She'd already done this.) What language did she use? English (TL) Notice, that by using a context to explain the use of the TL, the T doesn't have to try to explain it in words, which is what Ts here usually do in Czech. What's the purpose of the explanation stage? To make explicit what has been covered implicitly. To make sure everyone has followed To provide a sort of summary. READING: I suggest you read them in this order: 1. Harmer, J. Teaching and Learning Grammar. Longman. Chapts 1-4 1. Cross, D. A Practical Handbook of Language Teaching. Chapts 3+4 2. And have a look at Aitken, R. Teaching Tenses PRACTICE/PRODUCTION Obviously, in addition to presenting new grammar, you have to give Ss lots of practice so they can learn it. Remember, they need to learn not only the form, but also when to use the new grammar. Making this automatic takes a LONG time (ie we are talking about months at least, years in some cases). During this time, Ss practise in many different ways and gradually become better at forming the grammar point correctly AND using it in the right place. Let's now look at some different ways of practicing grammar. Below are some controlled, less controlled and free activities. What is the difference between them? Which activities are controlled and why? 1. Shopping list Have a list of groceries with ticks and crosses by them. Underneath, are two model sentences: Have we got any (eggs)? Yes, we have. Have we got any (potatoes)? No, we haven't Explain situation. You are making a shopping list with your mum. She's asking and you are telling her the answers. 2. Dialogue: Nosy parent! TEACHING GRAMMAR Presentation, Practice and Production. 3 A Where are you going? B I'm going to the station. A Why? B Because I want to to buy a ticket. a) cinema b) hospital c). Pod lampou d) Prague e) ... f) ... 3. Problems. Think of a problem you have like, eg always forgetting your keys, or arriving late. Each person, tell your problem. Other person has to suggest some things you could do to avoid the problem. Which were controlled and why? A controlled activity is one in which the language you use is decided (ie controlled) by the teacher or activity. The more freedom you have in choosing what language to use, the freer activity. 1. is very controlled 2. is less controlled (why Q) and even less controlled at the end (You choose place), but not free because you still have to follow the dialogue outline. 3. is free NB Controlled does not mean that the T controls the ss. S/he controls the language. You can do both very controlled and free activities when working with the whole class, in PW, in GW, etc. The grouping is irrelevant. Practice continuum : |____________________________X______________________________| Totally controlled less controlled Totally free (Production) ACCURACY versus FLUENCY Which sort of activities do you think are designed to focus on accuracy and which on fluency? (Answer: controlled activities focus on accuracy. The freer the activity, the more it focuses on fluency.) Which sort of practice do you think beginners need most of? (Answer: Accuracy. And therefore? Controlled and less controlled activities.) INDUCTIVE versuss DEDUCTIVE Let's go back to presenting grammar now. We've looked at two basic models. One where the T explains first and then gives you some exercises, and one where you have to work things out for yourself and then the T explains at the end. Look at this continuum: TEACHING GRAMMAR Presentation, Practice and Production. 4 DEDUCTIVE INDUCTIVE |_____________________________________________________________| I tell you You find out for yourself I help you to find out for yourself (GUIDED DISCOVERY) In a nutshell Deductive: Rules Examples Inductive: Examples Rules. The pure inductive technique would leave the job of finding the rules completely up to you. In guided discovery, the T guides the students to make sure they do find what she wants them to look for!!! TEACHING GRAMMAR VS TEACHING STRUCTURES Here's a structure: I'd like + (an ice-cream), please. Modern textbooks introduce some structures like this early on without explaining the grammar. What tense is I'd like? (Conditional.) Do you need to know this in order to be able to use this expression to ask for lots of different things? (No.) Beginners can be taught useful structures early on before they meet the actual grammar of the structures. Structures can be introduced through situations, like grammar, and also need practising in the same way. Make sure you read chapt 2 of Cross. READING Again, I suggest you read them in this order. 1. Harmer, J. Teaching and Learning Grammar. Longman. Chapt 5 on Practice techniques. 2. Cross, D. A Practical Handbook of Language Teaching. Chapt 2 3. Scrivener, J. Learning Teaching. pp 32 - 37 on 4 different kinds of lesson. We've been looking at no 1. 4, Harmer, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman. Chapt 6, chapt 7 and 8. Much more detailed than the other Aitken, R. 1992. Teaching Tenses. Nelson.
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