According to National Safety Council statistics, work is the by eot15664

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									MANSCEN Safety Office
261 19th Street, Building 1000
Fort Leonard Wood, MO 65473

       573-596-0116
                                 February 2009
                                       Introduction
   According to National Safety Council statistics, work is the safest place to be. That is because most
employers adhere to strict safety precautions. This is not always the case at home. Each year,
approximately 18,000 persons are killed and 13 million are injured in accidents in the home. Awareness
of hazards and how to avoid them, and not being complacent or over confident, are the keys to
maintaining safety anywhere, including the home.

    So, why Take Risks at Home? Lulled by the misperception that home is inherently a safe place,
countless people who use safe practices on the job, sometimes take enormous risks at home. Why?
One reason is that people who are tired from working several days in a row are often almost as busy on
their days off - painting their homes, cutting lawns, clearing leaves from gutters and performing a
number of other tasks. Tackling a job at home when one is tired or one's heart or head isn't really „into
it‟ sets the stage for rushing, taking shortcuts, and not paying attention to the task being performed.
Also, many times, Family Members are not as aware of the same „safety procedures‟ as those employed
outside the home.

  You can learn to better manage your risks and make your home and family safer by following the
suggestions outlined in this booklet and you can also take your current safety knowledge to a higher
level by using this valuable safety resource.

   The leadership of MANSCEN and Fort Leonard Wood cares about your safety and that of your family
members and want you to be safe at home and at play. This booklet is designed to make it easy for you
to review basic safety procedures for many common home and family tasks and situations. Knowledge
is the best defense against accidents!

                If you have any questions contact the MANSCEN Safety Office 596-0116.


                              Safety should always be a priority!
                           No matter how much of an expert you are!




                                                                                                        2
                            Table of Contents
       Click on the page number to be linked directly to the page




21 Home Safety – MUST HAVES                              6


Transportation Safety
    - Pedestrian Safety                                  7

    - Bicycle Safety                                     8

    - ATV Safety                                         9

    - Motorcycle Safety and T-CLOCK Pre-ride Checklist   10-12

    - Privately Owned Vehicle (POV) Safety               13-18

    - POV Inspection Checklist                           19-20

    - Winter Driving                                     21-23

    - Child Car Safety Seats                             24-26


Home Fire Safety
   - Home Fire Prevention                                27

    - Home Fire Evacuation Plans & Steps                 28-29

    - Fire Extinguishers                                 30

    - Fireplaces, Space Heaters and Stoves               31-32

    - Kitchen Fire Prevention                            33


Carbon Monoxide Poisoning                                34




                                                                    3
Home Repairs and Common Home Maintenance
   - Home Repairs and Power Tools           35

    - Back Injury Prevention                36

    - Falls                                 37

    - Ladder Safety                         38

    - Electrical Safety                     39


Personal Weapon Safety
    - Firearm Safety                        40

    - Hunting Safety                        41

    - Tree Stand Safety                     42


Disaster Preparedness
    - Lightning                             47
    - Floods                                48-49
    -Tornados                               50-52
    - Earth Quakes                          53-54


Child Safety
     - Child Proofing Your Home             55-57

    - Poison Control                        58-64


Hot Weather Activities
    - Heat Injury Prevention                65-67

    - Water Safety (Swimming and Boating)   68-69

    - Lawn Care Safety                      70

    - Lawn Tool Safety                      71-72

    - Bar-B-Q Grill Safety                  73-75



                                                    4
Wildlife
     - Ticks                                                      76-78

     - Snakes                                                     79-81

     - Brown Recluse and Black Widow Spiders                      82-84


Cold Weather Injury Prevention                                    85


Back to School Safety                                             86


Holiday Safety
     - Independence Day / Fireworks Safety                        87

     - Halloween / Trick or Treating Safety                       88-89

     -Thanksgiving Turkey Fryer Safety                            90

     -Christmas Trees / Decorating Safety                         91-92


Housekeeping and Safety                                           93


Hand Sanitizers                                                   94


Stress                                                            95


Suicide Prevention                                                96-97


Pet Safety                                                        98-99


Resources                                                         100

Information provided in this guide has been compiled from sources believed to be
reliable. Material is provided for informational purposes only, and is not to be
substituted for equipment manuals, manufacturer’s guidance, or medical guidance.
Check manuals and follow manufacturer’s guidance to ensure safe and proper
operation of any equipment or tools.

                                                                                   5
                   21 Home Safety – MUST HAVES
                          1.    Smoke Detectors. According to the National Fire Protection Association, fire kills more than
                                 4,000 people and injures 27,000 others each year. Most fires that claim lives occur at night.

                               2.   Carbon-Monoxide Detectors. Carbon monoxide, an odorless, colorless and tasteless
                                    gas, killed 300 people last year and sent thousands more to the hospital.

                                    3.     Radon-Detector Kit. The Environmental Protection Agency says radon might be
                                          responsible for up to 30,000 lung cancer deaths each year.

                                    4.     Night Lights. Simple, inexpensive night-lights can prevent late-night falls.

                                    5.     Sturdy Step Stool. Instead of doing a circus act, invest in a sturdy step stool to keep
                                         on hand when your arms need a boost.

6.     Rubber Suction Bath Mats. A suction-type rubber mat or adhesive-backed appliqués will keep you steady in the stall
      and tub.

7.    Grab Bars. Hold on to a wall grab bar when you get in and out of the tub.

8.    Handrails. Every set of stairs, whether inside or outside your home, should have sturdy handrails securely mounted.

9.     Child-Resistant Locks. Put child-resistant locks on kitchen and bathroom cabinets. These areas are often where
      harmful chemicals are stored.

10. Baby Gates. Install gates at the top and bottom of stairs. Baby gates can keep curious kids away from danger zones,
    such as stairways.

11. Electrical Socket Protectors. Cover all outlets with plastic socket protectors.

12. Electrical Timers. Timers used on lights will allow your home to look lived in, even when you‘re out. This could deter
    intruders. Additionally, you will never have to enter a dark home.

13. Anti-Scald Devices. Purchase anti-scald devices that keep water temperature below a warm but safe 120 degrees F.

14. Deadbolt Locks. Put a deadbolt lock on every entrance to your home.

15. Sensor Lights. Outdoor motion-sensor lights can help you see your way at night and scare off intruders.

16. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters. GFCIs stop the ―juice‖ before electricity can leak out and hurt you. Use them
    throughout your home, especially in the kitchen, bathroom and laundry room.

17. Fire Extinguishers. Fire extinguishers have categories for different types of fires. For the home, a ―BC‖ or an ―ABC‖
    extinguisher should be used. Never purchase or use an ―A‖ extinguisher in your home. These water-based
    extinguishers can cause flames to splatter or cause shocks in an electrical fire. For professional advice consult with a
    physician.

18. First Aid Kit. The kit should include antiseptic ointment, bandages and gauze pads in assorted sizes, adhesive tape,
    cold packs, disposable gloves, hand cleaner, scissors and tweezers, syrup of ipecac and eyewash. Check expiration
    dates and periodically restock.

19.    Flashlights. Test regularly. Keep extra batteries close by so that you don‘t have to fumble blindly in an emergency.

20. Cordless Telephone. They are handy when you need to receive instructions from a professional (Medical or appliance
    related) and the corded phone does not allow you to roam freely.

21. Fire Escape Plan that is practiced. When a fire occurs, seconds count!

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                                                                                                                                 6
                                  Pedestrian Safety
On Fort Leonard Wood, regulations require the following:

   Pedestrians will obey all traffic control signs and will use sidewalks where available. If not available,
they will walk on the left side of the roadway facing oncoming traffic.

   Pedestrians crossing a roadway will yield the right-of-way to all approaching vehicles except when
in an intersection or marked crosswalk. But ensure the vehicles stop before you enter the roadway,
for your own safety!

  Use of headphones for radios, cassette, IPOD‘S, etc. when walking, standing, or jogging on
roadways is prohibited. They prevent you from hearing the traffic and warning signs such as
screeching brakes or tires, honking car horns and emergency vehicle sirens.

  Joggers will maintain maximum use of sidewalks and troop trails. Where none exist, joggers will
use the left side of the roadway and run in single file facing and yielding to oncoming traffic except at
authorized crosswalks. All joggers will wear reflective material (visible from both front and back)
during the hours of darkness or restricted visibility when jogging on any road (paved or unpaved).

  Soliciting of rides in any manner on roadways is prohibited. This does not preclude the use of
existing courtesy ride stations, acceptance of a voluntary offer, and use of taxicabs.

   Marching troop columns have right-of-way over all traffic except emergency vehicles and will march
on the right side of the roadway. Troops will march on roads or marked trails. Road guards will wear
reflective safety equipment and maintain sufficient distance from the column to ensure ample warning
to vehicle drivers. (Additional information can be found in FLW Regulation 385-4, Soldier Movement
on Foot.)

  Speed limit when approaching or passing a troop formation from the front or rear is 10 MPH.
During limited visibility motorists should use additional caution.

   Vehicle drivers are encouraged not to pass formations (when approaching from the rear), but to
take an alternate route if possible.

Ensure Children:
    Do not cross the street alone if they‘re younger than 10 years old.
    Stop at the curb before crossing the street.
    Walk-don‘t run-across the street.
    Cross at corners, using traffic signals and crosswalks.
    Look left, right, and left again before crossing.
    Walk facing traffic.
    Make sure drivers see them before crossing in front of the vehicle.
    Do not play in driveways, streets, parking lots or unfenced yards by the street.
    Wear white clothing or reflectors when walking at night.
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                                                                                                            7
                                    Bicycling Safety
  About 900 people, including more than 200 children, are killed each year in bicycle-related
incidents, and about 60 percent of these deaths involve a head injury. Research indicates that a
helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by up to 85 percent.

On Fort Leonard Wood bicyclists will –

     (1) Ride only on a seat attached to the bike.

     (2) Carry only the number of people the bicycle is designed and equipped to carry. Passengers
must sit in an authorized, attached seat. Tandem bicycles may carry as many passengers as there
are seats and sets of pedals. Bicycle infant seats must be securely fastened to the bicycle.

     (3) Not carry bundles, packages, or other articles that prevent the bicyclist from keeping at least
one hand on the handlebars.

     (4) Not ride a bicycle while using a cell phone or any type of earphones for music players.

     (5) Ride as far to the right of the road as is possible.

     (6) Bicyclists will not ride other than astride the bicycle seat except that standing on the pedals is
permitted.

     (7) Bicyclists will not ride more than two abreast on a roadway.

     (8) Be careful when passing a stopped vehicle or a vehicle going in the same direction.

     (9) Bicycles will not be parked upon a street or sidewalk.

     (10) All personnel, including children riding in carriers, attached or towed, must wear a DOT
approved helmet.

Bicycles shall not be operated in the dark unless equipped with the following:

     (1) A white head light facing front that is visible for a distance of 500 feet.

     (2) A red light (or reflector) facing rear that is visible for a distance of 600 feet.

      (3) A clear or amber reflector facing each side, mounted on both wheels that is visible for a
distance of 300 feet.

      (4) Clear or amber reflectors mounted on both front and rear surfaces of each pedal that is
visible for a distance of 200 feet.

     (5) Reflective vest or belt visible at night from both front and rear views.
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                                                                                                         8
             All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety
  No matter what the season, ATV‘s can be fun. We all like to get out and enjoy a day in the great
outdoors. But, no one wants an ATV outing to turn into a tragedy! Consider these topics before you
operate or ride as a passenger on an ATV.

Experience
   Take an ATV training course. Be thoroughly familiar with the machine and how to operate it
properly. Read and comply with manufacturer‘s instructions for safe operations. Realize that
experience and knowing your limits are crucial and there are repercussions of exceeding those limits
such as accidents (falls, rollovers, collisions) and how will emergency responders be able to find you
or get to you. Never ride with a passenger unless the ATV is specifically designed by the
manufacturer to carry a passenger. Just because an ATV has what seems to be, a second seat does
not mean it was meant for a passenger by the manufacturer. After- market seat backs can be
purchased and added onto ATVs that are designed for only one rider. Always check manufacturer
specifications to be sure whether the ATV is meant for 1 or 2 passengers. If the second seat is in line
with or behind the rear tire, there is a good possibility that the ATV has been ‗customized‘ with a rear
seat that it was not originally intended to have.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
   Ensure PPE is worn no matter what speed or how short of a ride you plan to go on. Fatalities occur
even when just taking a spin around the yard! Don‘t be over confident or complacent. Ensure you
wear a DOT approved helmet, goggles, boots, gloves, long sleeve shirt or jacket, and long pants.
Although some of the ATV riding you perform may not seem like all of this equipment is needed, think
about the reason it is recommended. If you feel you are about to turn over it is instinctive to put your
foot out to brace yourself. Boots may help to keep you from spraining or even breaking an ankle, if
this occurs. Goggles can help keep small rocks or dirt from hitting you in your eyes. Gloves keep
branches from scraping hands.

Becoming stranded or lost
  Don‘t travel alone, in remote or unpopulated areas, and avoid splitting up if traveling with a group.
Let someone know where you‘re going and when to expect your return. Have a map and/or Global
Positioning System (GPS). Only ride in areas that you are familiar with and only travel in areas where
ATVs are permitted. Avoid slippery, muddy trails, and steep hillsides. Do not operate in water such
as streams or rivers. Never operate an ATV on paved surfaces. They are designed for off road use
only. Before operation, ensure your ATV is mechanically sound.

Impaired Riding
  Never consume alcohol or drugs before or while operating an ATV. As with any motor vehicle,
impaired riding affects your judgment and reaction time.

Weather (wind, rain, cold, and heat)
   Check the weather prior to starting. Depending on duration and location of travel, get a forecast of
the weather and plan accordingly. Remember the weather can change abruptly, so always prepare
for the worst.

Wildlife See pages 76-84 for information on local wildlife hazards
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                                                                                                       9
                                Motorcycle Safety
   In recent years, Fort Leonard Wood has experienced tragic losses from motorcycle crashes.
Review the following Basic Guidelines and if you plan to plan to purchase a motorcycle for the first
time or trade a current bike in for another, call the Safety Office for more information and guidance:
(573) 596-0016.

On Fort Leonard Wood:
    Army Regulation 385-10 requires every motorcycle operator to satisfactorily complete a
    Motorcycle Safety Foundation Riders Course. To find out more information, contact the Safety
    Office at (573) 596-3426.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
    All motorcyclists are reminded that PPE improves your survivability in any accident scenario.
    Motorcycles provide virtually no protection in a crash. Always wear:

     HELMET:
      This is the most important piece of equipment. Safety helmets save lives by reducing the
      extent of head injuries in the event of a crash. In choosing a helmet, look for the U.S.
      Department of Transportation (DOT) label on the helmet.
     GLOVES:
      Durable gloves are recommended. They should be of the non-slip type to permit a firm grip on
      the controls. Leather gloves are excellent, as are special fabric gloves with leather palms and
      grip strips on the fingers.
     EYE PROTECTION:
      Even the wind can cause the eyes to tear and blur vision, and good vision is imperative when
      riding. Choose good quality goggles, glasses with plastic or safety lenses, or a helmet
      equipped with a face shield. Goggles, glasses and face shields should be scratch free, shatter
      proof and well-ventilated to prevent fog buildup. Even if your motorcycle has a windshield, eye
      protection is recommended.
     JACKETS & TROUSERS:
      Clothing worn when riding a motorcycle should provide some measure of protection from
      abrasion in the event of a spill. These should be of durable material (e.g., special synthetic
      material or leather). Jackets should have long sleeves. Trousers (not shorts) should not be
      baggy or flared at the bottom to prevent entanglement with the chain, kick starter, foot pegs or
      other protrusions on the side of a motorcycle.
     FOOTWEAR:
      Proper footwear offers protection for the feet, ankles, and lower parts of the legs. Leather
      boots are the best. Durable athletic shoes that cover the ankle are a good second choice.
     REFLECTIVE MATERIAL:
      A total of 75 square inches of reflective material is required for all personnel riding on Fort
      Leonard Wood. Military personnel must also wear this when riding off the installation.
      Material must be able to be seen from the front and the rear. If a pack back is worn then,
      material must still be visible from the rear. The average yellow PT belt meets this requirement,
      but a reflective vest is recommended.


                                                                                                         10
                                Motorcycle Safety
   Be especially alert at intersections. Approximately 70 percent of motorcycle-vehicle collisions occur
    there! Watch for vehicles that may unexpectedly turn in front of you or pull out from a side street or
    driveway. At intersections where vision is limited by shrubbery, parked vehicles, or buildings, slow
    down, check for traffic and be prepared to react quickly.

   Check the rearview mirrors before changing lanes or stopping. A quick stop without checking rear traffic
    may result in a rear-end crash. When changing lanes, use signals and make a visual check to assure
    that you can change lanes safely.

   Watch the road surface and traffic ahead to anticipate problems and road hazards. Road hazards that
    are minor irritations for an automobile can be a major hazard for a rider. Hazards include potholes, oil
    slicks, puddles, debris or other objects on the roadway, ruts, uneven pavement and railroad tracks.
    Painted roadway markings and manhole covers can be extremely slippery when wet.

   Look ahead for hazards so you may avoid them. Slow down before reaching the obstacle and make
    sure you have enough room before changing direction. Railroad tracks should be crossed at an angle,
    as close to 90 degrees as possible. Experienced motorcyclists often have this advice for new riders:
    Assume that you are invisible to other motorists and operate your motorcycle accordingly.

   Position yourself to be seen. Ride in the portion of the lane where it is most likely that other motorists
    will see you. Avoid the car‘s ―No Zone‖ (i.e., blind spot). All motor vehicles have blind spots where
    other vehicles cannot be seen with mirrors. These blind spots are to the left and right rear of the
    vehicle. Do not linger in motorists‘ blind spot.

   Use your headlights, day and night.

   Maintain a safe speed consistent with driving conditions and your capabilities. Gravel on the road and
    slippery road surfaces can be hazardous. Avoid sudden braking or turning.

   If caught in a sudden shower while riding, pull off the highway under some shelter (e.g., overpass) and
    wait for the rain to stop. If you must ride in the rain, remember that conditions are most dangerous
    during the first few minutes of rainfall because of oil and other automobile droppings on the roadway. If
    possible, sit out the beginning of a rain shower.

   When riding in the rain, riders find they get better traction by driving in the tracks of vehicles in front of
    them. But avoid following too closely and riding on painted lines and metal surfaces such as manhole
    covers, because they offer less traction.

   Don‘t tailgate. Following too closely behind another vehicle may make it difficult for you to brake
    suddenly. Further, you won‘t have time to avoid road hazards and traffic situations ahead. If another
    vehicle is following too closely, wave it off with a hand signal or tap your brake pedal. If they continue to
    follow too closely, change lanes or pull off the road and let them pass.

   Pass only when it is safe to do so. Do not pass or ride on the shoulder. Pull over to the left third of the
    lane before passing and make sure that you are at a safe following distance. Use turn signals and avoid
    crowding the other vehicle as you pass. Remember to always check for traffic before changing lanes.

   Use brakes wisely. Use both brakes together. Brake firmly and progressively and bring the motorcycle
    upright before stopping. Remember that driving through water can adversely affect the brakes.




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                          T-CLOCK
                     Pre-Ride Checklist
T – Tires and wheels
       Tire conditions – tread depth, weathering, bulges, imbedded objects and uneven wear.
       Air Pressure – check cold, normal loss is a pound or two a week.
       Spokes – check for bent, broken or missing ones
       Rims – out of round and out of true.
       Wheel bearings – no free play and no growl when spinning.


C – Cables and controls
       Throttle, clutch and brake cables – correct free play, smooth operation, no fraying.
       Shifter – securely mounted, operates smoothly.
       Brakes – operate smoothly, don‘t drag excessively, pads greater than minimum thickness.
       Kill switch – shuts off engine when moved to the off position.


L – Lights and electronics
       Battery – terminals tight and clean, water level okay, secured, proper routing of breather tube
       Wiring – none frayed or pinched, especially important at steering head.
       Switches – make sure all operate correctly (kill switch, brake-lights, headlights, signals, horn).
       Lighting – check all light bulbs (headlights, tail/brake-lights, markers, turn signals and instruments).
       Horn – proper mounting and ensure it works.


O – Oil and fuel
       Leaks – visually check for leaks (coolant, hydraulic brakes/clutch, engine oil, forks, final drive).
       Levels – check oil level on center stand when cold.
       Air filter – no blockage, clean, not torn.
       Fuel lines – not bent, leaking/
        cracked, properly secured with clamps.
       Hydraulic – correct levels, no leakage, no hose deterioration.


C – Chain and chassis
       Chain/belt wear and tension – proper adjustment, lubrication, check master link clip.
       Sprockets – check for wear.
       Chain guard – securely mounted.
       Foot pegs – should fold up, securely mounted.
       Steering head bearings – no detent in middle, no binding, smooth operation.
       Swing arm bushings – check for movement at swing arm pivot.
       Accessory mounts – secure, no missing bolts, no interference with steering/suspension.
       Cotter pins and clips – no missing clips, check where mechanical cables attach.
       Frame – check for cracks, problems with accessory mounts, steering head, engine cradle.
       Shocks and forks – check for lists, smooth operation, air pressure, alignment.


K – Kickstand
       Side stand – not bent, retracts fully, spring has tension, proper ground clearance.
       Center stand – not bent, retracts fully, spring has tension, proper ground clearance.
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                                                                                                                   12
          Privately Owned Vehicle (POV) Safety
   Driving a POV is the most dangerous task we conduct on a daily basis. Since we drive so often, it
is extremely easy to become complacent and overlook the hazards involved in driving.


5 Leading Contributing Factors of POV fatalities and injuries

1. SPEED
     Speeding is a factor in 31% of all fatal crashes, killing an
average of 1,000 Americans every month, according to the
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
Speeding increases the likelihood and severity of a fatal crash in
different ways:

      It increases the amount of space your vehicle travels between
       the time you see an emergency and the time you react to
       that emergency by trying to stop. No matter how fast your
       reflexes are, it still takes a few seconds for the nerve
       signals to travel from your eyes to your brain to your foot.
       The faster you are going, the closer your car will be to the
       obstacle before you can even start slowing down.

      Once you've hit the brakes, the time it takes your car to stop also increases based on how fast
       you were going.

      If you do crash into something, the faster you are going, the more force the crash will
       generate. In fact, speeding increases the amount of force involved in a crash exponentially!


      Plan ahead and allow yourself enough travel time so you don‘t end up rushing to get to your
       destination.

      Check your local traffic report on the Web before you leave so you know where to expect
       congestion - then you know if you‘ll need more time to get to your destination.

      DON‘T EXCEED POSTED SPEED and reduce your speed for adverse road or driving
       conditions! If the road is wet, keep more distance between you and the vehicle ahead of you.
       Remember that roads are dangerous when it begins to rain, as the water mixes with oils on
       the road and creates a slick surface.

      Be prepared to adjust to sudden speed reduction, for example, when you‘re exiting from a
       highway, encountering sharp curves on a two-lane road or entering residential or high
       bicycle/pedestrian traffic areas.

      If you‘re late, you‘re late! Accept it! It‘s better to ARRIVE ALIVE!

Giving yourself plenty of time to get where you‟re going and use your common sense!



                                                                                                      13
2. LACK OF SEAT BELT USE
       Wear your seatbelt and shoulder harness. These safety devices have been proven to reduce
injuries and fatalities in a motor vehicle crash. It takes only about 3 seconds to fasten a seatbelt, and
that 3 seconds can add decades to your life span. In a vehicle accident, you are 30 times more likely
to be killed if you are not wearing a seat belt! 73% of passenger car occupants who are ejected from
the vehicle during a crash are killed. If you are wearing a seat belt, you will almost never be ejected.




                  There is no excuse for not wearing a seat belt.
                      It only takes 3 seconds to buckle up.



                                                                                                      14
3. IMPAIRED DRIVING

     In the United States, motor vehicle related injuries are the leading cause of death for people
ages 1–34. Every day, 36 people in the United States die, and approximately 700 more are injured, in
motor vehicle crashes that involve an alcohol-impaired driver. Drugs other than alcohol (e.g.,
marijuana and cocaine) are involved in about 18% of motor vehicle driver deaths. These other drugs
are generally used in combination with alcohol. Many prescription and over-the-counter medications
impair driving as well. A drugged driver may appear to be drunk. You could face impaired driving
charges if you‘re under the influence of a substance other than alcohol, even a legal substance.


Three of the most critical skills necessary for a good, safe driver are:

   •   Judgment

   •   Vision

   •   Reaction

   Even a small amount of alcohol depresses the Central Nervous System, impairing a driver's
judgment, vision and reaction time.



To prevent Impaired Driving:

   •   Designate a driver beforehand

   •   Plan to take a taxi TO and FROM any place where you will be consuming alcohol

   •   Serve soda and other alcohol free beverages to guests so they don‘t feel pressured to drink

   •   If you serve alcohol to guests, have a key basket and collect each guest's keys upon arrival. If
       everyone does it, there is less chance of argument.

   •   Know the condition of your guests before returning keys at the end of the gathering.

   •   Plan activities so the focus isn't just on drinking.

   •   Serve a variety of food, including healthy choices. Proteins and fats slow alcohol absorption.
       Salty snacks encourage more drinking.




                                                                                                     15
4. FATIGUED DRIVING
        When you are drowsy or fatigued, your brain starts to shut down. Driving while fatigued
reduces your ability to drive effectively and to think quickly. Your reaction time is slower, awareness is
decreased, and judgement is impaired. Driving while fatigued can be just as dangerous as driving
while impaired. The consequences can be just as fatal. You don‘t have to be on a long trip to become
drowsy while driving. Pull over and take a nap even if you don‘t have far to go. Many fatal accidents
occur within 5 miles of the home.

DID YOU KNOW?

     100,000 crashes each year are caused by fatigued drivers

     55% of drowsy driving crashes are caused by drivers less than 25 years old

     Being awake for 18 hours is equal to a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08%, which is
     legally drunk and leaves you at equal risk for a crash

Signs that you should stop and rest:

     * Difficulty focusing, frequent blinking, or heavy eyelids

     * Daydreaming; wandering/disconnected thoughts

     * Trouble keeping your head up

     * Yawning repeatedly or rubbing your eyes

     * Trouble remembering the last few miles driven; missing exits or traffic signs

     * Drifting from your lane, tailgating, or hitting a shoulder rumble strip

     * Feeling restless and irritable

To lessen the risk of driving while drowsy:

          - Only begin driving when you are well-rested and alert.

          - Avoid heavy foods before driving.

          - Keep the driver's compartment well ventilated with fresh air.

          - Take regular rest breaks and get out and stretch.

         - Avoid caffeine-type drinks like coffee or cola. They provide a short-term boost, however, if
       you are sleep deprived, no amount of caffeine will help. It's best to stay off the road.

          - Avoid traveling during the peak drowsy times: 2 p.m. to 5 p.m., and from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.

          - No matter how close you are to your destination, iff you become drowsy, stop for a nap or
       for the night, before you become so drowsy that you put yourself and others at risk.




                                                                                                       16
5. DISTRACTED DRIVING
      Watch the road and traffic in front, behind and on both sides of your vehicle! Be alert for
potential hazards such as car doors that could open, or children or pets that could run into the street.
Watch out for drivers who could fail to stop at stoplights or suddenly veer into your lane. If you are
doing all of these things you are absolutely unable to do ANYTHING ELSE! Do not let yourself be
distracted from your driving! It can take only a split second of distraction to result in a disaster.

         DRIVE AS IF YOUR FAMILY WERE IN THE OTHER CAR!

  Driver distractions or inattentive driving play a part in one out of every four
motor vehicle crashes each year. That's more than 1.5 million collisions a year -
more than 4,300 crashes each day!
  Of course, there are many things that can distract drivers besides cell phones.
Ensure you stay focused on driving and avoid ALL other distractions!
You, your family and the lives of others depend on it!

Below are results from numerous studies that indicate the effects of
cell phone use by drivers.

   A delay in brake activation three times longer than the reaction deterioration found in drivers under
    the influence of alcohol;
   A four-fold increase in risk associated with the use of a cell phone while driving as compared to
    not using a cell phone;
   The increase in the relative risk of vehicle collisions similar to the hazard associated with driving
    with a blood alcohol level at the legal limit;
   A diversion of the driver's attention and situational awareness from the driving environment and
    potential hazards that may unexpectedly impact safety;
   A compromise in the safe following distance that would be provided by a fully aware and
                    responsive driver. This compromise is caused by attention diverted to cell phone
                       conversation;
                         The reduction in the ability to maintain lane position while operating a heavy
                          vehicle and an increase in potential crash hazard exposures for experienced
                              drivers;

                                  The design of cell phones has undergone many changes since they
                                    came on the market - smaller sizes, voice activation, and text
                                     messaging, but the capability of humans to process information
                                       has remained limited and constant. Human limitations are a
                                       factor in safely performing multiple tasks, which includes talking
                                      on a cell phone while driving.


              Use of a cell phone without a hands free device while driving on
                            Fort Leonard Wood is against the law!



                                                                                                            17
        Drive Defensively - Expect the Unexpected
    o   Make sure other drivers see you. Lights, signals, horns and eye contact are all ways to
        communicate with other drivers so they know what you intend to do.
    o   Keep track of the vehicles in the blind spots near your rear wheels by monitoring your mirrors.
        If you know a vehicle has entered your blind spot, watch for the vehicle to move out into view
        again. Make sure your mirrors are properly adjusted to eliminate or reduce blind spots.
    o   Know the road. Arm yourself with all the information you can about your route and road
        conditions. This will alert you to hazards to watch out for, and will give you ideas about
        alternate routes to take if necessary. Some roads are poorly marked for night travel. Certain
        sections may be prone to developing black ice or fog.
    o   Know your own abilities. Your ability to react quickly to a situation can vary greatly. Lack of
        experience in driving a certain kind of vehicle or in certain kind of terrain can make you
        vulnerable to accidents. You may have vision problems which worsen at night – a problem
        that increases with age. Problems with depth perception, peripheral vision as well as
        difficulties distinguishing shapes and colors can make it hard to drive safely.
    o   Plan your route. This will avoid the temptation for last-minute exits from the freeway and U-
        turns in city traffic.
    o   Read all signs – Especially Road Work Ahead and other warnings.
    o   Watch for traffic in front of you, behind you and on both sides of your vehicle. Be alert for
        potential hazards such as car doors that could open, or children or pets that could run into the
        street. Watch out for drivers who could fail to stop at stoplights or suddenly veer into your
        lane.
    o   If in doubt, yield. Don’t gamble that other drivers will.
    o   Allow enough distance between cars for adequate time to act.
    o   Road rage is a serious problem. To help avoid it, be courteous.

If you answer YES to any of the following, you ARE NOT Driving defensively:

   Do you frequently have to slam on your brakes because a vehicle stopped in front of you?
   Do you get stuck in the wrong lane at intersections?
   Are you frequently surprised when children or pets dart out in front of your vehicle?
   Do you find yourself in the middle of an intersection on an amber light because a green light changed
    unexpectedly?
   Are you surprised by other drivers running red lights or making unsafe lane changes?
   Have you ever attempted a left turn in front of an oncoming vehicle because its signal indicated it was going to
    turn left also - but it did not?
   Have you ever nearly struck a bicycle or small vehicle hovering in the blind spot beside the rear of your vehicle?
   Have you ever gone into a skid on an unexpected slippery road surface?
   Do you ever express your temper or other bad mood in the way you drive?        RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS



                                                                                                                     18
          Privately Owned Vehicle (POV) INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Inspect your vehicles 2 weeks before travelling so you have time to make repairs if needed.
ITEM         WHAT TO CHECK        LOOK FOR KNOWN DEFICIENCIES                    CHECKOFF
TIRES
            Condition             Tread depth, wear, weathering, evenly          Front        Rear
                                  seated, bulges, imbedded objects, cuts,
                                  breaks. At least one mm of tread over
NOTE: No mixing of radial tires
                                  entire traction surface.
and bias tires.
                                  (Using a penny, place it in the tire tread
                                  with head facing downward. If the tread does
                                  not reach the top of Lincoln's head, there
                                  is insufficient tread depth)

                                  Spare tire (inflated), jack, lug wrench
            Spare tire                                                           Pass         Fail
LIGHTS
                                  Both high and low beams operational,           Left     Right
          Head lights             cracked, condensation, secured

                                  Lenses intact, tail light working when         Left     Right
          Tail Lights             turned on (red)

                                  Lenses intact, brake light working when        Left     Right
          Brake lights            brake is applied (red)

                                  Lenses intact, left and right turn signals     Front     Rear
          Turn Signals            blink (red lights in rear and yellow lights    Left     Right
                                  in front)

          Backup lights           Lenses intact, left and right backup lights    Left     Right
                                  work (White Light)

          Four-way Flashers       Lenses intact, left and right turn signals     Front     Rear
                                  flash/blink at the same time                   Left     Right

          License Plate Light     Lenses intact, does light stay on

                                                                                 Pass         Fail
WINDSHIELD & WINDOWS & WIPERS
       Windshield                 Not cracked, broken or scratched to the        Pass         Fail
                                  degree that impairs vision

          Rear Window             Not cracked, broken or scratched to the        Pass         Fail
                                  degree that impairs vision

          Windows                 Windows go up and down, scratched or tinted    Pass         Fail
                                  to the degree that impairs vision

          Window controls         Check handles, push electric buttons           Front        Rear

          Windshield wipers       Both wipers are installed on vehicle,          Pass         Fail
                                  windshield wipers work, blades show signs of
                                  wear
MIRROR
          Mirror Outside          Missing, cracked                               Left     Right

          Mirror Inside           Missing, cracked                               Pass         Fail
BUMPERS
          Bumper Front            Missing, loose, broken                         Pass         Fail

          Bumper Rear             Missing, loose, broken, bent in any way to     Pass         Fail
                                  cause a hazard

BRAKES
          Brakes                  Foot pedal cannot travel more than half way    Pass         Fail
                                  to floor, does brake light stay on




                                                                                                     19
           Emergency Brake         Properly adjusted, check emergency brake by:   Pass    Fail
                                   pull/push emergency brake, apply foot to
                                   brake, gently press gas pedal, ensure brake
                                   holds vehicle

Interior
           Horn                    Does it work                                   Pass    Fail

           Defroster Front         Ensure hot air blows out above the dash        Pass    Fail

           Defroster Rear          Check light on dash, if in the winter ensure   Pass    Fail
                                   it works by allowing the rear windshield to
                                   clear up

           Emergency equipment     (OPTIONAL) First aid kit, warning triangle,    Pass    Fail
                                   flashlight, fire extinguisher, blanket,
                                   flares, shovel, chains, tools, etc. (Check
                                   host nation laws for any additional
                                   equipment)

           Heater                  Ensure heater works                            Pass    Fail

SEATBELTS
       Seatbelt Front/Rear         Missing, frayed, does not snap                 Front   Rear
(Include shoulder harness during
inspection, may have a center
seat belt)

LICENSE/DECALS/INSURANCE
        State Drivers              Expired, missing                               Pass    Fail
License

           Installation decal      Missing, needs replacing                       Pass    Fail

        License Plate              Expired, check sticker/decal to ensure plate   Pass    Fail
(License plates match windshield   is current
decal (Europe Only)

        Insurance                  Does the operator have valid insurance         Pass    Fail
UNDER THE HOOD
FLUIDS
        Brake                      Filled to appropriate level                    Pass    Fail

           Windshield washer       Windshield washer fluid                        Pass    Fail


           Battery                 Check the color indicator on the battery       Pass    Fail

           Power Steering          Filled to appropriate level                    Pass    Fail

HOSES                              Cuts, cracks, leaks, bulges, chaffing,         Pass    Fail
                                   deterioration

BATTERY                            Terminals, clean and tight, held down          Pass    Fail
                                   securely



Vehicle Make_______________________ Model ______________________
License plate Number____________________________________________
Date Inspected_______________________
Repairs needed__________________________________________________

Have repairs been completed?

                                                                    RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                                                  20
                                        Winter Driving
   Did you know that 70% of deaths during snow or ice storms occur in vehicles?
It is essential that we take time to review inclement driving precautions, before the snow and
ice are actually on the road!

Snow and Ice - Drivers who aren‘t prepared for winter driving may forget to take it slow. Remember
to drive well below the posted speed limit and leave plenty of room between cars.

Prepare - Safe drivers know the weather, and their own driving limits. Before leaving home, find out
about the driving conditions by logging on to MoDot.gov, listening to local radio stations and news
casts. Personnel may also obtain current road conditions during severe weather by calling 563-4141.

Black ice - Roads that seem dry may actually be slippery and very dangerous. Use extra caution,
especially when approaching overpasses, off-ramps, bridges or shady areas. The surfaces of these
areas freeze more quickly than the remainder of the road surface, and they are likely spots for black
ice. You won‘t see it until you are on it. Slow down as you approach these areas and also as you
approach intersections, hills, and curves, especially when approaching an intersection adjacent to a
hill.

Limited visibility - In conditions of limited visibility, be aware of what‘s going on well ahead of you.
Actions by other vehicles will alert you to problems more quickly, and give you that split-second of
extra time to react safely. Use your headlights – on dim – so other drivers can more easily see you.

Speed and Distance - The faster you‘re going, the longer it will take to stop. When accelerating on
snow or ice, take it slow to avoid slipping and sliding.

Brake - Brake early, brake slowly, brake correctly, and never slam on the brakes. If you have anti-lock
brakes, press the pedal down firmly and hold it. If you don‘t have anti-lock brakes, gently pump the
pedal. Either way, give yourself plenty of room to stop.

Control - When driving on ice and snow, do not use cruise control, and
avoid abrupt steering maneuvers. When merging into traffic, take it
slow. Sudden movements can cause your vehicle to slide. Watch
out for other drivers, who may not be as careful as you are.

Clear - Remove any snow on your vehicle‘s windows, mirrors,
lights, brake lights and signals. Make sure you can see and be
seen.

Inspect - Check your vehicle‘s tires, wiper blades, fluids, lights,
belts, and hoses. A breakdown is bad on a good day and
dangerous on a bad-weather day.

Time - Leave plenty of time to reach your destination safely. It‘s
not worth putting yourself and others in a dangerous situation just to
be on time.



                                                                                                       21
 Winterize your Car. Make sure you do a maintenance check on your vehicle before it gets cold.
Check fluid levels, battery, belts, hoses, anti-freeze, oil, lights, brakes, heater and defroster and check
the exhaust system for leaks which may allow carbon monoxide to enter the vehicle.


 What to Do If You‟re Stuck. An equally common problem is getting stuck in the snow – your
wheels spin but your car won‘t move. This is when emergency equipment is most important. Don‘t
continue to spin your wheels; you‘ll only wind up in a deeper rut. Instead, pour sand, salt, or gravel
around the wheels to give them something to grab onto and improve traction. You can also shovel
snow away from the wheels and out from under the car to clear a pathway.


 Some General Guidelines. Whenever driving conditions are less than ideal, it pays to be
cautious. Drive slowly, test your brakes frequently and never tailgate. Make sure that windshields
(front and rear) are clear and that wipers and defrosters are in good working condition. Go slowly on
slick surfaces (especially hills). Four wheel drive doesn‘t help much on ice! Listen to weather
forecasts, and if weather and visibility are hazardous, stay home!



Items to carry each time you drive

     -   Cell phone
     -   Water (if kept in the car it may freeze and be useless if you become stranded)

Emergency Road Kit Contents

     -   Ice scraper
     -   Flash light and extra batteries
     -   Blanket / warm clothes
     -   Tool kit
     -   Jumper cables
     -   First aid kit
     -   Small shovel, kitty litter or sand
     -   Non-perishable food
     -   Any other item you may need if you become stranded (medications, diapers, etc)


SNAIR (snow and ice removal) information for Fort Leonard Wood can be found by calling (573) 563-
4141 or at http://www.wood.army.mil/wood_cms/




                                                                                                         22
                     Driving on Ice and Snow
                      3 key elements for driving safely in the snow:
                       Stay Alert - Slow Down - Stay in Control


Here are a few other tips for driving in the snow:

      Plan your route ahead of time and give yourself extra travel time. Make sure someone knows
       your travel plans.

      Always completely clear any snow and ice from all windows, lights, mirrors and the roof before
       driving. It is important to be able to see clearly and to be seen. After starting the vehicle, wait
       for fog to clear from the inside of all windows before driving, so you will have ample visibility.
       Never drive with windows that are not completely clear.

      Make sure there is sufficient windshield washer fluid in the vehicle reservoir and that it is rated
       for freezing temperatures.

      It takes longer to stop on slippery surfaces. You should be at least 3 seconds behind other
       vehicles when driving in normal weather conditions. When driving on ice or snow, add more
       distance between your vehicle and the one in front of you so you will have time to stop if you
       begin to slide.

      Slow down in snow and icy conditions, make turns slowly, and make all starts slowly and
       smooth.

      Remember that bridges and overpasses may freeze before the regular travel lanes of a
       roadway. Watch out for black ice, areas of the roadway that appear black and shiny and where
       your vehicle can suddenly lose traction. Slow down in these areas and keep your foot off the
       brakes.

      If you skid take your foot off the accelerator and turn your car in the direction that you want the
       front wheels to go. Use gentle, steady motions when turning the steering wheel. Turning too
       much or too fast may cause your vehicle to flip or spin out of control.

      If you get stuck or stranded, don‘t panic. Stay with your vehicle for safety and warmth. Wait for
       help to arrive. If you have a cell phone and are in an area with cell phone service, try calling for
       help. Try to always know your exact locations while driving.

      Keep your clothing dry. Wet clothing can lead to dangerous loss of body heat.


                                                                     RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS




                                                                                                        23
                            Child Car Safety Seats
      Car crashes remain the #1 killer of children ages 3-14 in the United States. Because children
are not small adults, they need special protection when traveling in motor vehicles. From 80% - 90%
of child safety seats are installed and/or used incorrectly. Children learn from adult role models, so
be the best parent you can be and show your children the right way to stay safe while riding in motor
vehicles. Call the Safety Office at (573) 596-0116 to schedule an appointment to have a certified child
safety seat specialist install your child‘s safety seat!


                                    Missouri Law (RSMo 307.182)

• Children less than 4 years old or less than 40 pounds must be in an appropriate child safety seat.

• Children ages 4 through 7 who weigh at least 40 pounds must be in an appropriate child safety seat
or booster seat unless they are 80 pounds or 4'9" tall.

• Children 8 and over or weighing at least 80 pounds or at least 4‘9‖ tall are required to be secured by
a safety belt or buckled into an appropriate booster seat.




                                   Types of Child Safety Restraints



Infant Seats - Infant seats are designed for babies from birth until at least 20 pounds and one year of
age. They must ride rear-facing in their safety seats until they are at the appropriate size/age to move
to Forward Facing Safety Seats.

Forward Facing Safety Seats - These forward-facing seats are children weighing at least 20 pounds.
Children should remain in a forward-facing seat until they reach approximately 40 pounds and four
years of age. Then they should graduate to Booster Seats.

Booster Seats - These seats are used as a transition to safety belts by older kids who have clearly
outgrown their convertible seat and are not quite ready for the vehicle safety belts.

Safety Belts - When a child is old enough and large enough to "fit" an adult safety belt, they can be
moved out of a booster seat. To "fit" a safety belt properly, the lap belt should fit snugly and properly
across the upper thighs and the shoulder strap should cross over the shoulder and across the chest.




                                                                                                        24
Infants – from birth to at least age 1 and 20 lbs.

       Use a rear-facing car seat correctly in a back seat every time your baby rides in a car.
       Use the right car seat for your baby‘s weight and height. Infants are weighed and measured at
        every doctor visit, so be sure to keep track.
       Use the car‘s safety belt or LATCH system to lock the car seat into the car. Your car seat
        should not move more than 1 inch side to side or front to back. Grand the car seat at the
        safety belt or LATCH path to test it.
       Put harnesses through the slots so they are even with or below the infant‘s shoulders. Be sure
        the harness is tight, so you can‘t pinch extra webbing at the shoulder.
       Adjust the chest clip to armpit level.
       Use your baby‘s car seat rear-facing and reclined no more than 45 degrees, so the baby‘s
        head stays in contact with the seat and the baby‘s airway stays open. Read the car seat
        instructions.
       Keep your baby rear-facing until at least age 1 and 20 pounds. You can use a rear-facing
        convertible seat longer if the seat has a higher weight and height limits.
       Find the front airbags in your vehicle by checking the owner‘s manual. Never put a rear-facing
        car seat in front of an active airbag.

You should also know:

Never place an infant in a rear-facing child safety seat in the front seat of a vehicle with a passenger-
side air bag. The force of the deploying air bag will hit the seat (because of its close proximity to the
dashboard) and can seriously injure or kill an infant. Remember: All infant seats must be rear-facing,
so the only safe place to install it is in the back seat.

Children should ride properly restrained in the back seat whenever possible. Children are much safer,
the farther they are from the point of impact, which is most commonly a frontal crash.

It is critical that both the shoulder and lap portion of the safety belt be used. However, if the best
system does not fit properly the child should be secured in a child restraint.

If a child must be seated in the front seat, always move the vehicle seat as far back as possible
(particularly with a passenger-side air bag).

Always read both the vehicle owner's manual and the car seat instructions carefully when deciding
which car seat to use and how to properly install it. Installation can be difficult due to the variety of
seat belt configurations, vehicle seat designs and child safety seat designs. Check your car manual to
find out if you need to use a locking clip or other equipment to properly secure the seat.

The best car seat is the one that fits the child, fits the vehicle and is one you will be able to install and
use correctly every time.

A correctly installed safety seat is one that is held firmly in place by the vehicle seat belt. It should not
be possible to move the safety seat around.

Remember: The harness holds the child in the car seat and the vehicle belt holds the car seat in the
car. Be certain both are secured properly.




                                                                                                           25
                          Child Passenger Safety Q & A
For an installation advice or an inspection by a certified Child Safety Seat Installer
contact the Fort Leonard Wood Safety Office at (573) 596-0116.


Question: I feel I should always keep an eye on my infant, and I keep hearing that the safest place to
put my infant is in the back seat. But if the seat has to be installed rear-facing, I can't see her! What
should I do?

Answer: This is a concern of many parents. However, the bottom line is that the back seat is the
safest place for a child of any age to ride. Drivers who travel alone should allow plenty of time to pull
off the road if they feel the need to periodically check on the baby. You may want to compare your
child traveling to your child sleeping. You probably don't watch your baby sleep all through the night. A
healthy baby properly secured in a safety seat should not need constant watching.


Question: My children are at ages where they get restless in their car seats and try to move around. I
find it very distracting. Plus they fight with each other. I think it's safer to put one of them up front
where I can keep an eye on him.

Answer: No. The safest place is in the rear seat properly buckled. It is critical not to give in to a child's
"growing pains" while traveling in a motor vehicle. Bring along some soft toys to keep them occupied
while properly buckled up and seated in the back seat. This may sound difficult, but never take short
cuts when it comes to children's safety.


Question: I have trouble securing my child safety seat in my car. It doesn't seem to work well with my
seat belt system. What am I doing wrong?

Answer: You may not be doing anything wrong. Some child safety seats and some vehicle belt
systems are not compatible. The most important thing to do is read the instructions that come with
the child seat (and keep them handy at all times) and all sections in the vehicle manual that discuss
safety seat installation. Never undertake "make shift" measures. Your child should fit securely in the
safety seat and the safety seat should fit securely in the vehicle seat. If it doesn't, contact the car seat
manufacturer.


Question: I have three children and my back seat only seats two. I transport all three kids to school
and other activities. I've heard that children belong in the rear seat. What can I do?

Answer: You're right. The safest place is the rear seat. However, there are times when placing all
children in the rear isn't possible (as in your case where there aren't enough belts for all three
children). If you must seat a child in the front seat, usually the oldest/largest child would be the most
appropriate. If your child is the proper size, make sure that the lap and shoulder belts are properly
fastened and move the vehicle seat back as far as possible away from the dashboard.

NOTE: If your vehicle has a passenger-side air bag, the only place for a rear-facing infant seat to be
installed is in the rear seat.
                                                                       RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS



                                                                                                          26
                                Home Fire Prevention
   A fire department in the United States responds to a fire every 16 seconds. There is a fire-related injury every
17 minutes and a death every 2 hours. 85% of fire deaths occur in the home. Winter is the most common time
of year for home fires. Ensure your family is protected and aware of fire prevention tips.

Common Causes of Home Fires:
   Unattended cooking.
   Unattended candles.
   Smoking in bed or smoking in any room when tired.
   Not properly extinguishing cigarettes and emptying ash trays in to trash when materials are not cold.
   Overloading electrical circuits with too many appliances.
   Not cleaning lint filter in dryer or dryer ventilation exhaust hose.
   Space heaters that are placed too close to items that can burn, such as paper, fabric or furniture. (Space
    heaters should only be used temporarily. Choose space heaters that are equipped with an auto shut off if
    tipped over and a timer so it will turn off automatically if left on by mistake.
   Children playing with matches or lighters, or children left unattended near fireplaces or other flames.
   Faulty electrical cords.


Prevention Measures:
   Turn appliances off if you must leave the cooking area.
   Extinguish candles before leaving them.
   Never smoke in bed or when tired and always properly extinguish and
    dispose of cigarettes.
   Do not overload circuits by adding too many appliances to an electrical outlet. Watch for signs of
    overloading such as lights which dim when appliances start running. Flickering lights and buzzing sounds in
    switch boxes are also signs of electrical problems. If not sure contact the Fort Leonard Wood Fire
    Department (573) 596-0886
   Clean dryer lint filters after each load and clean exhaust hose each month.
   Do not place space heaters near items that will burn. Research safe brands before purchasing a space
    heater and use it for short periods only.
   Supervise children and teach them the importance of not playing with any item that can cause a fire! Turn
    appliances off if you must leave cooking area.
   Watch for worn insulation, frayed cords, and other signs of damage on electrical items.

   Sleep with bedroom doors closed. Closed doors provide protection against heat and smoke and can delay a
    fire.

   Check all smoke detectors monthly and develop and practice a fire evacuation plan!

   Have a multi-purpose fire extinguisher handy. Department and Home Improvement stores carry basic A-B-
    C type extinguishers that are sold as a good model to keep in the kitchen. Never risk injury; only use a fire
    extinguisher if you feel you can put out a small fire safely.
                                                                           RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                                                                 27
                         Home Fire Evacuation Plans
   If a fire occurs you often have only about 2 minutes to get out of the home safely. A practiced fire
escape plane can help your family get out fast since there is no time to waste in the fear, darkness,
confusion, blinding smoke, and searing heat. Remember not to stop to take any possessions, just
leave! Ensure your family knows not to stop to do anything! Don‘t even stop to call the fire
department; do that from a neighbor‘s house.

   Stay low to the ground when exiting if smoke has begun to fill the house. It takes a very short time
for smoke to make it difficult to breath. Teach children and adults to crawl low, under the smoke
because it contains deadly gases, which rise and fill rooms from the top down.

                          The best air will be 12 to 24 inches off the floor.
   If you get trapped, close doors between you and the fire. Stuff the cracks around doors and cover
vents to keep the smoke out. Wait at a window and signal for help (if it‘s dark flip the light on and off or
use a flashlight if you have one). If there‘s a phone in the room where you are trapped, call 911 and
tell them exactly where you are. If you can safely get out of the window, do so!


    Test every door before opening it, to make sure there‘s no fire on the other side. Kneel or crouch at
the door, reach up high, and use the back of your hand to touch the door. Also touch the doorknob
and the space between the door and the frame. If any of these areas feel hot, use another way out. If
everything feels cool, brace your shoulder against the door and open it carefully, being ready to slam
it shut if heat or smoke rushes in. As you leave, close all doors behind you, which will slow down the
spread of fire and smoke.

            Once out of the house teach all Family Members never to go back inside!


               If your clothes catch on fire, STOP, DROP, and ROLL




                                                                                                         28
                     Evacuation Plan Steps
1. Draw a floor plan of your home.
     - Include all windows, doors, and possible obstacles.
     - Know at least two ways out of each room.
     Two story homes: You may want to purchase escape ladders and store near the window.


2. Learn your escape routes and keep them clear.
     - Asses each route realistically. Can children unlock doors and windows? Are stairs and
     hallways clear of clutter? Discuss the routes with each member of your household.
     – Do a ―walk through‖ to ensure that all routes
     are accessible to all members of your
     household.
     - Ensure that windows are not painted shut or
     blocked by furniture.


3. Decide on a meeting place outside.

     - Choose a spot away from the house where
     every one can get to.
     - Choose a meeting place in view of the front
     door; that‘s where the fire department will
     arrive.
     - GET OUT AND STAY OUT. Once you are
     out, do not go back in. Firefighters have
     equipment & training to go in burning houses.


4. Teach your children.
     - Children must be taught to escape and not to wait. Many parents assume that children
     should stay in their rooms until someone comes to help. Parents may be blocked from
     getting to children by smoke or flame.


5. Hold exit drills every six months.
     - Practice your escape plan. Try unannounced drills to make the experience realistic, but
     don‘t scare children-prepare them.
     - Don‘t let the drill become a race; make sure everyone know exactly what to do.
     - Practice primary and alternate routes
     - Practice some drills at night
     - Practice using escape devices such as window ladders.

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                                                                                                 29
                              Fire Extinguishers
  If you experience a fire in your home and it is still a very small fire that you believe you can
extinguish then follow the steps below. ENSURE you keep your back to a door that you
know you will be able to exit through, if the fire increases. Use a basic A-B-C type
extinguisher. Never throw water on an electrical or grease fire!


                     How to Use a Fire Extinguisher
    Even though extinguishers come in a number of shapes and sizes, they all operate in
    a similar manner. Here's an easy acronym for fire extinguisher use:


                    P A S S -- Pull, Aim, Squeeze, and Sweep




                                                 Pull the pin at the top of the extinguisher
                                                 that keeps the handle from being
                                                 accidentally pressed.




                                                 Aim the nozzle toward the base of the
                                                 fire.


                                                 Stand approximately 8 feet away from
                                                 the fire and squeeze the handle to
                                                 discharge the extinguisher. If you release
                                                 the handle, the discharge will stop.

                                                 Sweep the nozzle back and forth at the
                                                 base of the fire. After the fire appears to
                                                 be out, watch it carefully since it may re-
                                                 ignite!


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                                                                                                30
           Fireplaces, Space Heaters and Stoves
       According to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), home fires cause more than 4,000 deaths
and tens of thousands of injuries each year in the United States. Many of those incidents are caused from
fireplaces, space heaters, and stoves. Any fuel-burning system should be serviced by a professional at the
beginning of the heating season to make sure that all systems are operating properly. The damper, vents, and
chimney should be checked regularly to ensure proper operation. And always keep a fire extinguisher handy
wherever there is a risk of fire. Here are some other suggestions for keeping the home fire safe.

Fireplaces
     Don‘t use your fireplace to burn wrapping materials – this can create toxic fumes and flash
       fires.

      Follow the directions on the package if you use man-made logs. Never break a man-made log
       apart to quicken the fire.

      Never close the damper with hot ashes in the fireplace and be sure the fire is out before
       retiring for the evening.

      Always use a sturdy screen when fireplaces are in use.

      Burn only wood. Paper or pine boughs can float out the chimney and ignite your roof or
       neighboring homes. Also, plastic, charcoal or Styrofoam can produce toxic gases!

      Use kindling and wooden matches to light fires – not flammable
       liquids.

      Don‘t wear loose or flowing clothes when tending the fire.

      Keep flammable decorations (ensure Christmas stockings
       are not flammable) away from the fireplace.

      Don‘t close the chimney flue until you‘re sure the fire is completely out.

      Make sure the fire is out before leaving the house or going to bed.


Portable Space Heaters
    Be sure your heater is in good working condition. All room heaters need frequent checkups
      and cleaning. A dirty or neglected heater is a critical fire hazard.

      Maintain adequate clearance (at least 3 feet) in all directions around space heaters.

      Never leave an operating heater unattended, near children and pets.

                                       Never dry clothes or other combustibles near heaters.

                                       Check electric heaters for frayed wires and evidence of
                                        overheating.


                                                                                                          31
Kerosene Heaters

      Use only water-clear 1-K grade kerosene. The wrong fuel could burn hotter than equipment‘s
       design limits.

      Never use gasoline. Even small amounts of gasoline or other volatile fuels or solvents mixed
       with kerosene can substantially increase the risk of a fire or an explosion.

      Never refuel the heater inside the home. Fill the tank outdoors, away from combustible
       materials, and only after the heater has been turned off and allowed to cool. Do not fill the tank
       above the FULL mark. The space above the FULL mark is to allow for expansion
       without causing leakage when the heater is operating. Wipe up fuel spills
       immediately.

      In case of a flare-up, activate the manual shut-off switch. If this does not
       extinguish the fire, leave the house immediately and call the fire department.
       Don‘t move the heater or use water or a blanket to stop the fire.

      Use only in well-vented rooms, and open an outside window approximately one inch to permit
       fresh air to effectively dilute the pollutants below a level of concern.

      Always keep the wick clean and properly adjusted according to the manufacturer‘s
       instructions.




Stoves (wood and gas)

      Be sure the stove bears the label of a recognized testing laboratory and meets local fire codes.

      Follow the manufacturer‘s recommendations for proper installation, use, and maintenance.

                     Periodically inspect and clean the chimney connections and flues.

                          Never use a gas range or an oven to heat your home. Any un-vented, fuel-
                                burning appliance is capable of producing high levels of carbon
                                      monoxide.

                                          Check with local fire department and code officials before
                                          installing a wood stove.



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                                                                                                        32
                    Kitchen Fire Prevention
    Cooking equipment is the leading cause of all home fires. Stove burners, ovens, and even
microwave ovens can cause severe burns and start fires. The same is true for counter top
appliances such as toasters, coffee makers, etc. Be sure that all kitchen appliances have the
label of an independent testing laboratory (such as UL-Underwriters Laboratory) and are in
good working order.

                More than 40% of fatal home cooking fires occur when the victims are asleep.

           Never cook when you are sleepy, impaired, or taking medication that makes you drowsy.




     o   Grease fires - If a small grease fire starts in a pan, and you feel safe to try to smoother
         the flames by covering the pan with a large lid or other pan and turning off the burner,
         do so. Ensure you and all family members know to NEVER pour water on a grease fire
         because it will cause an instant increase in flames. Also NEVER try to carry the pan
         outside or to the sink. You risk severe burns if the fire increases or the grease spills.


     o   Oven fires - If a fire starts in the oven. Close the door and turn off the burner.

     o   Microwave fires - Leave the door closed. Push the stop button and unplug the
         microwave.

     o   Never leave cooking unattended.

     o   Keep potholders and other combustibles away from burners.

     o   Keep the stove top and oven clean. Grease and food residue can catch fire.

     o   Wear short, close fitting sleeves when cooking so sleeves don‘t catch fire from burners.

     o   Turn pot handles inward, so pots can‘t be pulled off the stove.
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                                                                                                   33
                  Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
                       3 Steps to prevent fatal carbon monoxide poisoning:
                           Prevention; Detection; and Rapid Treatment

   Carbon monoxide gas is deadly, even though it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. It may kill quickly or
slowly, and there are no warning signs specific to carbon monoxide. Even when it is not fatal, carbon
monoxide can cause permanent damage to the brain and other parts of the nervous system. It affects
people of all ages, but Infants and children are even more susceptible than adults.

  At the onset of cold weather, we begin operating appliances and equipment that can generate carbon
monoxide gas. This includes ALL fuel-burning equipment and appliances – especially if
they malfunction or are improperly ventilated. Every year, this results in hundreds of deaths
and many thousands of illnesses, nationwide. Among the numerous potential sources of
carbon monoxide are furnaces, water heaters, stoves, ovens, kerosene space heaters,
wood and gas fireplaces, wood-burning stoves, portable generators, and automobile
engines.

To prevent carbon monoxide poisoning:

 Have your furnace inspected and adjusted before every heating season.

 Have your chimney, fireplace, and wood stoves, and flues inspected before every heating
   season.

 Have chimneys and flues repaired as needed.

 Ventilate the room every time you use a kerosene space heater.

 Do not use charcoal grills indoors for cooking or heating.

 Do not use your oven for heating your home.

 Do not leave your car‘s engine running in an enclosed or attached garage.

 Install a carbon monoxide alarm near items that produce carbon monoxide gas or even outside of every
                            sleeping area in your home. Carbon monoxide detectors can be purchased at
                            most home centers and hardware stores. Make sure the product is listed by
                            the Underwriters Laboratories standard. Get a detector that easily self-tests and
                            is easy to reset. Install it on a wall where it is easily accessible, not in the
                            ceiling. There are battery operated and hard-wired detectors. Test the detector
                            each month when you test your smoke alarms. If you have a detector and the
                            alarm sounds, pay attention to it and ventilate the house. Leaving the house is
                            better. Call your utility company and have them confirm the carbon monoxide
                            level and check your house for possible sources.

 Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include aches, dizziness, headache, confusion, and other
    symptoms also found with flu and typical cold-weather viruses. Carbon monoxide will cause you to fall
    into a deep sleep, if you inhale too much of it.

    To reach your local poison center, anywhere in the country, call                   .
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                                                                                                           34
                    Home Repairs & Power Tools
   This is the DIY (Do It Yourself) era. There are lots of television shows that make us feel we can
completely remodel our own homes on a weekend! But, let‘s look at the actual hazards associated
with seemingly simple home repairs:
      Actual Experience – Do you know the steps to perform this repair or are you guessing?
      Tools – is the proper tool being used?
      Electricity - There is more involved than knowing Red, Black and Ground wires!
      High-reach locations – Falling is the leading cause of injuries in the home! (See page 37-38)
   The first step to staying safe is to identify and assess hazards. Then put steps in place to keep
injuries from occurring. In many home improvements or repairs the best thing to do is realize you are
not the best person for the job and call a professional. Of course, if you decide to DIY (do it yourself)
it will save money. But is it worth the risk of injury or even fatality. If you are experienced enough to
perform the job, ensure you are not complacent or over confident.
                                       General Home Safety Tips
      Do not work alone, and make sure that there is a telephone in reach in case a 911 call has to be
       made.

      Keep a First Aid kit nearby. A kit with basic supplies can be purchased at most department and
       home improvement stores.

      Wear safety glasses or goggles and hearing protection when you are using power tools, chiseling,
       sanding, scraping or hammering overhead.

      Guard against injuries such as cuts, burns, punctures from flying particles
       and muscle strain.

      Wear a respirator or face mask when sanding, sawing or using
       substances with toxic fumes.

      Be aware of where your hands and feet are and nearby hazards.

      Sure footing while using tools is a must. Do not wear baggy or
       loose clothing as they may get caught in the tools. Roll up your
       sleeves; be careful of loose hair; take off all jewelry.

      Always use the right tool for the job. If you do not know exactly what
       the right tool is, you should hire an expert.

      Read the operation manual of each tool to use them properly.

      Do not work with tools when you are tired, stressed out, distracted, or emotionally unwell. That is
       when most accidents occur.

      Unplug all power tools when changing settings or parts or when you leave the area if children are
       nearby.

      Make sure that your shop or workplace is well lit, ventilated, free from tripping hazards and
       equipped with smoke/carbon monoxide detectors and a fire extinguisher.
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                                                                                                          35
                           Back Injury Prevention
       Back injuries often occur to those performing various home repairs. These can involve injuries
to the spinal column, and strains or sprains to the muscles, tendons and ligaments of the back.
Lifting injuries aren't usually caused by picking up vehicle transmissions or 45 gallon drums. Instead,
they frequently involve improper lifting of common smaller items.
Safe lifting procedures:
    Plan your route so you have a clear path to carry the item. Have a place to put the item down
        once you reach your destination.

      Check the weight of the item you will be lifting to see if you will need help. Do this by grasping
       the object firmly by an outside corner and tipping it towards you. You should be able to tell if it
       is too heavy.

      Use the proper devices for lifting and carrying. A dolly or hand cart may be better than lifting it
       yourself.

      Use teamwork. When you do a team lift, appoint one person as the leader who tells everyone
       else when to pick up the object and put it down.
      Bend your knees when you lift instead of stooping over. Hold your back straight
       and vertical to the ground. If you keep your head up, your eyes looking ahead
       and your stomach muscles tight, you will help
       yourself maintain this posture.

      Keep the item close to your body. Lifting or
       carrying an object at arm's length puts much more
       strain on your back.

Basic tips to avoid back injuries in general:
   Do warm-ups before any physical exertion.

      Avoid excessive bending, reaching or twisting
       motions.

      Stand up straight, but not rigid. Keep your knees flexed and maintain the natural curves in your
       back.

      When sitting, choose a comfortable, relaxed position in which your back is straight. Don't
       slouch.

      When lying down, keep your back curved naturally. Use a low pillow under your head and
       neck.

      Avoid sleeping on your stomach.

      Maintain physical fitness. Exercise to keep the muscles of your back and abdomen strong.

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                                                                                                        36
                Falls – A Leading Cause of Injury
       It's easy to take the subject of falls lightly - unless you or someone you know has had a serious
fall. Then you realize how deadly this commonplace accident can be. Millions of people are injured
or killed by falls every year. Most of these falls occur on the same level. That means they do not
involve a fall from a height above ground level. Instead, most falls occur from slipping on a slick
surface, or tripping over an object.

   Basic Fall Prevention:

      Keep clutter picked up. Common causes of falls are materials on the floor.

      Remove or cover cords and cables on walking routes.

      Close drawers and doors (including the dishwasher) as soon as you use them.

      Wipe up spills promptly. Wipe your feet when you come in from rain/snow. Keep surfaces
       free of water or anything slippery. Watch especially for slippery surfaces on sidewalks,
       stairways, in entryways, bathrooms and kitchens.

      Lighting during the day and night lights at night will help to keep your family members form
       tripping over objects they can‘t see. Replace burned out light fixtures.

      If you must walk on a low-friction, slippery surface, such as ice or snow, take small steps.

      Use the handrail on stairways. Never run up or down stairs. Do not store any objects on the
       stairs and keep toys such as balls off stairs as well.

      Fix loose carpet, tile or stair treads.

      Never use makeshift climbing devices. Get a step stool or ladder, and use it properly, if you
       must reach a higher surface. Don't stand on chairs!

      If you do start to fall, there are things you can do to lessen the impact and prevent injury. You
                                         should relax your muscles. Do what you can to protect your
                                          head and spine from injury. Try to land on a soft, fleshy part of
                                          your body.

                                      Roll in the direction of the fall so that you do not stop all at once.


                                Falls are a common occurrence.
                                They can cause serious injuries or death!
                                Take fall prevention seriously.
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                                                                                                          37
                                        Ladder Safety
       Many injuries are caused by accidents involving ladders that are not placed or used safely. With
the right ladder and proper use, working above ground level should be no problem. Make sure you
have an appropriate ladder and use correct technique for placement and climbing.

Common Causes of Ladder Accidents:
   Over-reaching from ladders, rather than moving them.
   Standing ladders on another item to gain additional height.
   Too much haste in climbing or descending.
   Climbing one-handed while carrying something in the other hand.
   Standing at the very top of a short ladder, rather than getting one long
    enough for the job.
   Hanging tools from ladder rungs, or leaving tools on the top of the
    stepladder.
   Placing the ladder at an improper angle.
   Using metal ladders in locations where contact with electric wires is
    possible.
   Using worn or damaged ladders.
   Failure to secure (tie) the ladder in place.
Ladder Safety Tips:

   The safest way to climb indoors and out is to use a safe and sturdy ladder. Before using any
ladder, check its condition. Make sure there are no broken, cracked, or missing rails and that rungs
are not slippery. If a ladder is in poor condition, don‘t use it. Whether you're using a ladder at work or
at home the same basic ladder safety rules apply:

   Always use a sturdy ladder when climbing; it's too risky to climb on a chair.
   Before using a ladder outdoors, choose a location that is well away from all power lines. Coming
    in contact with live wires can be fatal.
   Place the ladder on level ground and open it completely, making sure all locks are engaged.
   Always face the ladder when climbing and wear slip-resistant shoes, such as those with rubber
    soles.
   Keep your body centered on the ladder and gauge your safety by your belt buckle. If your buckle
    passes beyond the ladder rail, you are overreaching and at risk for falling.
   Make sure rungs are dry before using the ladder.
   Stand at or below the highest safe standing level on a ladder. For a stepladder, the safe standing
    level is the second rung from the top, and for an extension ladder, it's the fourth rung from the top.
   Use the 4-to-1 rule for extension ladders: for each 4 feet of distance between the ground and the
    upper point of contact (such as the wall or roof), move the base of the ladder out 1 foot. (see
    below)
4 to 1 Rule

For every 4 feet in height – move 1 foot from vertical support to create a 75 degree angle (20
feet high = move 5 feet from wall)

                    Remember to extend ladders an additional 3 feet
                         beyond the roof edge or support.

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                                                                                                       38
                            Electrical Safety
                                  We rely on electrical power to keep our workplaces and our homes
                            operating day and night. Electricity provides heat, light and energy to do
                            many kinds of work. As useful as electricity is, we must never forget it is
                            also dangerous. Electrical shock kills. Electricity can also cause fires and
                            explosions. With the holiday season upon us we must be even more
                            vigilant in ensuring that we keep our workplace and our homes electrically
                            safe.


Electrical Safety Tips:

   Keep electricity and moisture away from each other. Never touch electrical equipment with wet
    hands or when standing on a damp surface.
    Use a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) whenever you use electrical tools and appliances
    around moisture or outdoors.
   Report any indications of electrical malfunction. Watch for these signs: flickering lights, radio or
    television interference when another electrical device is in operation, and
    electrical equipment which works sometimes and doesn't work the next time.
   Never attempt electrical repairs unless you are qualified and authorized to
    do so. Do not use electrical equipment altered with makeshift repairs.
   Do not alter plugs by removing the third prong so it can fit into a two-
    prong outlet. This defeats the safety feature of a ground wire.
   Only use extension cords temporarily. Have wiring upgraded to
    accommodate new equipment.
   Heed all warning signs about electrical hazards. Stay away from high voltage installations and
    other posted areas.
   Beware of overhead electrical hazards. Watch for power lines and ceiling fixtures when moving
    items such as ladders or pipes, or operating equipment such as cranes or lifting devices.
   Inspect your home for possible electrical hazards, including overloaded circuits and defective
    electrical equipment. .
   Before you attempt to rescue a victim of electric shock, make sure you are not putting yourself in
    similar danger. Do not touch the person and do not use a tool to reach the person unless you are
    sure the power has been disconnected.
   If fire occurs in energized electrical equipment, use only a ―C‖ fire extinguisher, or a combination
    ―ABC‖ or ―BC‖ extinguisher. Never put water on an electrical fire; the result can be a deadly shock.


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                                                                                                           39
                                     Firearm Safety
           The safe use of firearms is everyone‘s concern. Each year, tragic – often lethal-accidents
       occur because of the unsafe use, handling, and storage of rifles, revolvers, and other firearms.
       If you own a firearm, learn how it works, read and follow the manufacturer‘s instructions, and
       follow these recommendations for firearm safety.

Ask yourself these firearm safety questions EVERY time you handle your firearms:

       Is the firearm loaded?

       Is the firearm locked or secured in a rack or gun safe?

       Is the locked rack or gun safe in an area away from children?

       Did you check the firearm before storing?

       When handling the firearm do you keep your finger off the trigger?

       When you handle a firearm is the action opened immediately to check for ammunition?

       Has the handler of the firearm completed a firearms safety course or its equivalent?

       Are all of your firearms in good working order?

       Do you always keep the muzzle pointed in a safe direction?

       Is the whole family familiar with the firearms in the home and with firearm safety?

       If the firearm has been regularly used, has it been inspected by a gunsmith in the last two
        years?

       Is the ammunition stored in a separate place than the firearm?

       Is the ammunition locked or secured?

       Do you treat every firearm as if it is loaded at all times?

       Do you handle firearms while impaired?

       If children use firearms to hunt, have they attended the hunter‘s safety course?

       Is the ammunition in a box which identifies it accurately?


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                                                                                                      40
                          Hunting Safety
   Hunting with any type of weapon requires great responsibility to
ensure you keep yourself and others safe. Please use the safety tips
below as a starting point for hunting safety. Before, during, and after
hunting, take time to think through all of your actions. Remember that
your life and the lives of those around you depend on the steps you take
to keep yourself and those around you safe!


   1. If you are not hunting, try to steer clear of areas where hunters may be.

   2. Attend a Hunter‘s Safety Course even if it is not required where you hunt.

   3. Hunt in pairs and have a 1st Aid kit available.
   4. Take a cell phone and let your location and estimated time of return be known.
   5. Know how to properly handle your weapon and follow all gun safety rules.

   6. Make sure all of your equipment is in good working condition.

   7. Ensure your firearm is properly sighted.

   8. If you hunt from a tree stand, always wear a safety harness and make sure the stand is in
      good condition and installed correctly.

   9. Know Missouri‘s Purple Paint Statute, to avoid hunting on private property.

   10. Scout the area you plan to hunt to ensure you are not endangering others.

   11. Wear Hunter Orange, dress in layers, and stay hydrated even if it is cool outside.

   12. Clean and prepare for your game properly.

   13. Report observed violations of the law to a conservation agent or local police.

   14. Never point your weapon at something you don‘t intend to shoot. Also, know what is behind
       the animal or target you plan to shoot in case you miss or the bullet goes through.

       Weapon firing may begin 30 minutes before sunrise until 30 minutes after sunset.



                                                 Hunters born after Jan. 1, 1967
                                    MUST complete an approved hunter education program.


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                                                                                                   41
                                     Tree Stand Safety
    The tree stand is one of the most popular pieces of deer hunting equipment. Tree stands can be dangerous
if they are used incorrectly or carelessly. Nationally, one in three hunting injuries involves a tree stand.
Accidental falls from tree stands can have a variety of causes including failure of the stand itself and incorrect
installation. Hunters may fall asleep while on their tree stands, or may be injured while handling a loaded
firearm during the process of climbing in and out of their stands.

Safety Precautions

       Never carry equipment with you while climbing. Use a haul line to raise or lower your gear. Make sure
        guns and crossbows are unloaded and broad-heads are covered prior to raising or lowering firearms,
        crossbows, or bows with a haul line.

                                       Always use a climbing belt when climbing up or down a tree. Use a safety
                                        harness when hunting from elevated tree stands. Study manufacturer‘s
                                        recommendations before using any equipment. Never use a rope to
                                        replace a safety harness.

                                       Check permanent tree stands every year before hunting from them.

                                       Replace any worn or weak lumber.

                                       Read, understand and follow the factory recommended practices and
                                        procedures when installing commercial stands. Inspect portable stands
                                        for loose nuts and bolts before each use.

       Choose only healthy, living trees when using climbing devices. Rough-barked trees such as oak are
        best. Do not use a tree that is rotten or has dead limbs.

       Never put all your weight on a single branch. Keep at least one hand and one foot on a secure place
        when reaching for the next hold.

       Climb higher than the stand and step down onto it. Climbing up onto it can dislodge it.

       Wear boots with non-skid soles, because steps or platforms can be slippery in rain, sleet or snow.

       Tell a dependable person where you‘re hunting and when you plan to return. Map your whereabouts
        and leave a note at camp, at home or in your vehicle so that you can be found. Carrying a cell phone is
        a good idea.

       If sleepy, move your arms rapidly until you feel alert.

       Never wear a ring while climbing. Rings can catch on tree limbs and equipment.

       As a precautionary measure, clear all debris from the ground below the tree stand.

       Use updated equipment. Newer tree stand equipment is solid, safe and secure. Updated safety
        harnesses offer more protection than older ones.

       Carry a whistle to call for help and carry a first aid kit, flashlight and cellular telephone in a fanny pack.

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                                                                                                                     42
                            Disaster Preparedness
      Disasters disrupt hundreds of thousands of lives every year. Each disaster has lasting effects,
both to people and property. Being prepared can reduce fear, anxiety, and losses that accompany
disasters. Communities, families, and individuals should know what to do in the event of a disaster,
including tornadoes, earthquakes and floods.



     Ft Leonard Wood Emergency Alert System
                     All of the following sequences will be repeated three times.


ACTUAL EMERGENCY: MALE VOICE

Severe weather:
60 sec steady tone followed by:
Male Voice “MAY I HAVE YOUR ATTENTION? THIS IS A SEVERE
WEATHER WARNING. TAKE REQUIRED ACTIONS AND TUNE INTO
LOCAL RADIO FOR THE LATEST UPDATE”.


All Clear:
7 cycles of Westminster Chime followed by:
Male Voice “MAY I HAVE YOUR ATTENTION PLEASE? ALL CLEAR, THE
EMERGENCY HAS ENDED”.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


TEST SIGNALS: FEMALE VOICE

Severe Weather Test
Female voice "THIS IS A TEST. IN EVENT OF A SERVE WEATHER YOU
WILL HEAR THIS SOUND” followed by 60 sec. of steady tone.


All Clear Test
Female voice "THIS IS A TEST. THE FOLLOWING SOUND IS FOR ALL
CLEAR" followed by seven (7) cycles of Westminster Chime tone.
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                                                                                                        43
             Before, During and After a Disaster

Before a disaster
      Know the risks, danger signs and the Emergency Alert System signals in your area..

      Purchase insurance, including flood insurance, which is not part of your homeowner‘s policy.

      Develop plans for what to do.

      Assemble a disaster supplies kit.

      Volunteer to help others.

During a disaster
      Put your plan into action.

      Help others.

      Follow the advice and guidance of officials in charge of the event.

After a disaster
      Repair damaged property.

      Take steps to prevent or reduce future loss.

____________________________________________________________________________

                                         Disaster Supplies Kit
The following items are recommended for a basic disaster supplies kit:

      Three-day supply of non-perishable food.

      Three-day supply of water - one gallon of water per person, per day.

      Portable, battery-powered radio or television and plenty of extra batteries.

      Flashlight and extra batteries.

      First aid kit and manual.

      Sanitation and hygiene items (hand sanitizer, moist towelettes, toilet paper, etc).

      Matches/lighter and waterproof container.

      Whistle.

      Extra clothing.

      Kitchen items and cooking utensils, including a can opener. (a camping set is handy)

                                                                                                  44
      Photocopies of credit and identification cards.

      Cash and coins.

      Special needs items, such as prescription medications, eye glasses, contact lens solutions,
       and hearing aid batteries.

      Items for infants, such as formula, diapers, bottles, and pacifiers.

      Other items to meet your unique family needs.



Cold weather additions to your Disaster Supplies Kit:
      Jacket or coat.

      Long pants.

      Long sleeve shirt.

      Sturdy shoes.

      Hat, mittens, and scarf.

      Sleeping bag or warm blanket (per person).


Maintaining Your Disaster Supplies Kit:
Just as important as putting your supplies together is maintaining them so they are safe to use when
needed. Here are some tips to keep your supplies ready and in good condition:

      Keep canned foods in a dry place where the temperature is cool.

      Store boxed food in tightly closed plastic or metal containers to protect from pests and to
       extend its shelf life.

      Use foods before they go bad, and replace them with fresh supplies.

      Place new items at the back of the storage area and older ones in the front.

      Change stored food and water supplies every six months. Be sure to write the date you store it
       on all containers.

      Re-think your needs every year and update your kit as your family needs change.




                                                                                                     45
                     3 Steps to Preparedness

1. Read the local hazards on pages 73-79

          - Learn your community's warning signals (Ft Leonard Wood‘s signal is located on
          page 40).



2. Create an Emergency Plan.

         - Discuss the information you have learned.

         - Pick places to meet: a spot outside your home, and a place away from your home or
         neighborhood in case you can't return home.

         - Choose an out-of-state friend as your "family check-in contact" for everyone to call if
         the family gets separated.

         - Discuss what you would do if advised to evacuate.



3. Implement your plan

         - Post emergency telephone numbers by phones

         - Install safety features in your house, such as smoke detectors and fire extinguishers

         - Inspect your home for potential hazards (such as items that can move, fall, break, or
         catch fire) and correct them

         - Have your family learn basic safety measures, such as CPR and first aid, fire
         extinguisher basics and how and when to turn off water, gas, and electricity in your
         home.

         - Teach children how and when to call 911 or your local Emergency Medical Services




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                                                                                                 46
                          Lightning Safety Practices
  A typical lightning bolt discharges roughly 10 to 30 million volts. A bolt of lightning reaches 60,000 degrees
Fahrenheit. Lightning kills around 100 persons per year in the United States and injures about 250. On
average, it kills more people every year than tornadoes and hurricanes combined!

Indoors:
       Avoid using the telephone (except for emergencies) or any electrical appliances.

       Stay away from windows and metal doors, and do not use sinks, showers, or bathtubs.

Outdoors:.
    When a thunderstorm threatens, don‘t wait until it arrives to take action. Seek shelter promptly.

       The best place to go is inside a home or large building. Once inside a building, do not use the phone.
        Structures like bus shelters, outhouses, lean-to shelters, gazebos, tents, or any small nonmetal
        structures do NOT give adequate lightning protection.

       If unable to get inside a building, the next best option is an all-metal vehicle, but NOT a convertible.
        Avoid contact with metal or other parts of the vehicle, including the radio, that may be conducting paths
        leading outside. Keep the windows up.

       If you are caught outside, dense woods are relatively safe, but do not stand close to any of the trees. If
        you are caught in a large open area, go to a ditch, ravine, or other low place, and crouch down. Do
        NOT lie flat on ground. Keep your hands off the ground. Keep in mind that you should not stay in a
        low-lying area, such as a ravine, gully, or ditch, if it begins to rain hard. Flash flooding kills more people
        than lightning.

       Avoid WATER, open fields, hilltops, isolated trees or the tallest tree in a grove. Also avoid outdoor
        sports. Especially avoid holding golf clubs, baseball bats, fishing rods, and other metal objects that may
        act as lightning rods. Stay away from all parking lots, flagpoles, posts, railroad tracks, and large metal
        objects – such as farm tractors, clotheslines, and metal fences. Avoid holding an umbrella, which may
        act as a lightning rod.

       If you are on bleachers, get off them quickly and groups of people should disperse quickly.

       If you are outside and you feel static electricity or your hair stands on end, indicating that lightning is
        about to strike, drop to your knees and bend forward, putting your hands on your knees. AVOID
        contacting the ground with your hands and don‘t lie flat.

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                                                                                                                      47
                               Flood Safety
   It is essential that we recognize the dangers that flood water causes and know what to do to protect
ourselves. Water can rise suddenly, with little or no warning, and can be disastrous. Areas such as
creek beds, ravines, gorges, and culverts can be safe one minute but, flooded with raging currents of
water the next minute. 80% of flood deaths occur in vehicles, and most happen when drivers make a
single, fatal mistake - trying to navigate through flood waters.

   Safety Precautions:

      DO NOT DRIVE THROUGH FLOODED AREAS! Even if it looks shallow enough to cross.
       The large majority of deaths due to flash flooding are due to people driving through flooded
       areas. Water only one foot deep can displace 1500 lbs! Two feet of water can EASILY carry
       most automobiles! Roadways concealed by floodwaters may not be intact, and hidden holes
       may cause you to get stuck on rising floodwaters!

Just a few hours before this photo was taken, this hole was covered by 6 inches of water!




Photo taken 15 Jun 09, at the intersection of Texas Rd. and Thunder Ln. in Saint Robert, Missouri!


      Do not try to walk through flowing water more than ankle deep. Check water depth with a stick.

      Do not allow children to play around streams, drainage ditches or viaducts, or storm drains.

      If ordered to evacuate or if rising water is threatening, move immediately to higher ground!
      Stay tuned to newscast for the latest watches and warnings.

       The National Weather Service will issue a Flash Flood Watch when heavy rains may result in
       flash flooding in a specific area. In this case you should be alert and prepare for the possibility
       of a flood emergency, which will require immediate action. A Flash Flood Warning will be
       issued when flash flooding is occurring or is imminent in a specified area. If your locale is
       placed under a warning, you should move to safe ground immediately.

       Don't try to outrace a flood on foot. Flash flood waters travel much too fast.

       If your vehicle stalls in rapidly rising water, abandon it immediately and move to higher
       ground. Rising flood water may engulf and sweep it away.


                                                                                                        48
   If you're along a creek, stream or river, watch for rapidly rising water from heavy rain in your
    area over days or hours. Be aware of severe weather upstream. It doesn't have to be raining
    where you are, for flooding to occur. The left side of this photo was a dry creek bed and the
    right side was a field. Both were covered with water in a few hours due to heavy rain on
    already saturated ground, from previous storm a few days prior.




   Know where high ground is and how to get there quickly.

    Once the initial threat of flash flooding is over, and the rain has stopped, do not let your guard
    down. Flash flooding can occur up to 12 hours after a heavy rain event.

    If you have advance warning of a possible storm that may produce flooding, move valuable
    possessions, important records and keepsakes to the upper floors.

   Fill the bathtubs and sinks with water and plug basement sewer drains with stoppers.

   Follow emergency broadcast instructions about protecting the house with sandbags.

   If you have to leave, turn off all electrical power at the main switch. Turn off the natural gas at
    the main shut-off valve. Also turn off the water at the main valve. Teach all family members
    how to turn off the utilities.

   Move pesticides and other toxic chemicals where they will not be touched by floodwaters.

   Make sure you know several different routes to escape from your home area. But take the
    route recommended by emergency authorities



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                                                                                                     49
                     Tornado Safety Precautions




    Tornadoes are the most violent atmospheric phenomenon on the planet. Winds of 200-300mph
can occur with the most violent tornadoes. Tornadoes form and move quickly, there may not be
much time for a warning. That is why it is important to stay alert to weather conditions during severe
storms. Listen to your local weather or TV station. Be aware of flying debris from tornados which
causes most death and injuries. Have an emergency plan of evacuation. The following are
information and instructions to better prepare you in the event that a tornado occurs in your area.


Tornado WATCH simply means the conditions are favorable for a tornado to develop.

Tornado WARNING is issued when a tornado funnel has been sighted or located by weather
radar.

 Fort Leonard Wood Tornado WARNING - the emergency operations center will activate
their Mass Notification System. Severe weather notifications consist of a steady tone for 60
seconds followed by a male voice stating: “May I have your attention.” This is a severe
Weather Warning. Take required actions and tune into local radio for the latest update. “This
sequence is repeated three (3) times.


                                                                                                     50
                                        Tornado Categories

    Category F0: Light Damage (<73 mph); Some damage to chimneys; branches broken off trees;
    shallow-rooted trees pushed over; sign boards damaged.

    Category F1: Moderate Damage (73-112 mph); Peels surface off roofs; mobile homes pushed off
    foundations or overturned; moving autos blown off road.

    Category F2: Considerable Damage (113-157 mph); Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile homes
    demolished; boxcars overturned; large trees snapped or uprooted; light-object missiles generated;
    cars lifted off ground.

    Category F3: Severe Damage (158- 206 mph); Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed
    houses, trains overturned; most trees in forest uprooted; heavy cars lifted off ground and thrown.

    Category F4: Devastating Damage (207- 260 mph); Well-constructed houses leveled; structure with
    weak foundations blown off some distance; cars thrown and large missiles generated.

    Category F5: Incredible Damage (261- 318 mph); Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and
    swept away; automobile sized missiles fly through the air in excess of 100 meters (109 yards); trees
    debarked; incredible phenomena will occur.




    If a Warning is issued or if threatening weather approaches here are a few tips:

     In a home or building, move to a pre-designated shelter, such as a basement.

     If an underground shelter is not available, move to an interior room or hallway on the lower level of your
      home.

     Stay away from windows. Draw blinds and shades closed it may prevent glass from shattering and
      falling inside your home.

     If you are outside DO NOT LIE FLAT ON THE GROUND your body acts as a conductor for electricity
      which attracts lightning, instead squat low to the ground.

     Be aware of flying debris from tornadoes which causes most deaths and injuries.

     Get out of automobiles. Do not try to outrun a tornado in your car; instead, leave it immediately.

     Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from tornadoes and should be abandoned.

     Keep and eye on the sky. Look for darkening skies, flashes of light or increasing winds.




                                                                                                             51
                            If a Tornado occurs while you are:


In a home or small building:

      Go to the basement (if available) or to an interior room on the lowest floor, such as a closet or
       bathroom. Wrap yourself in overcoats or blankets to protect yourself from flying debris.


In a large building such as a school, hospital, shopping mall or other public place:

      Go to interior rooms and halls on the lowest floor. Stay away from glass enclosed places or
       areas with wide-span roofs such as auditoriums and warehouses. Crouch down and cover
       your head as shown.




In a high rise building:

      Go to interior small rooms or halls. Stay away from exterior walls or glassy areas.


In a car or mobile home:

      ABANDON THEM IMMEDIATELY!! Most deaths occur in cars and mobile homes. If you are
       in either of those locations, leave them and go to a substantial structure or designated tornado
       shelter. .


Not near any of the above structures:

      Lie flat in the nearest ditch or depression and use your hands to cover your head.


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                                                                                                      52
                 Earthquake Safety Precautions
  The New Madrid Seismic Zone, also known as the New Madrid Fault Line, is a major seismic
zone in the Southern and Midwestern United States stretching to the southwest from New Madrid,
Missouri. The seismic zone covers parts of six U.S. states: Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky,
Tennessee, and Mississippi. This area seen some of the largest earthquakes in North America.
Since 1974, more than 4000 earthquakes have been located, most of which are too small to be felt.
On average one earthquake per year will be large enough to be felt in the area.

                                                           Although the likelihood of a serious
                                                           earthquake affecting the Fort Leonard
                                                           Wood area is small, it is important to be
                                                           ready, in case one does occur. Movement
                                                           of the ground seldom is the actual cause
                                                           of death or injury. Most casualties result
                                                           from partial building collapses, falling
                                                           objects and debris, like toppling chimneys,
                                                           falling bricks, ceiling plaster and light
                                                           fixtures. Many of these conditions can be
                                                           prevented by taking a few steps now to
                                                           prepare.




What to do before an earthquake

    Place heavier objects on lower shelves to prevent breakage and personal injury.
    Bolt to walls anything that might topple, like top-heavy shelves, appliances and furniture. Don‘t
     hang plants in heavy pots that could swing free of hooks. Fasten shelves, mirrors, and large
     picture frames to walls. Brace high and top-heavy objects.
    Strap your water heater to wall studs with metal plumbing tape to prevent broken pipes and
     fires.
    Be sure the residence is firmly anchored to its foundation.
    Install flexible pipe fittings to avoid gas or water leaks. Flexible fittings are more resistant to
     breakage.

                                                                                                       53
    Locate master switches and shutoff valves for all utilities and know how to turn them off. Your
     local utility company can show you.
    Keep on hand a flashlight, a portable radio with fresh batteries, a first aid-kit, a fire extinguisher
     (Class C is designed to use safely on any type of fire, including electrical, grease and gas), a
     three-day supply of fresh water, non-perishable, ready-to-eat foods and an adjustable wrench
     for turning off gas and water.
    Locate safe spots in each room under a sturdy table or against an inside wall. Reinforce this
     information by moving to these places during each drill.
    Hold earthquake drills with your family members: Drop, cover, and hold on!

What to do during an earthquake

    Stay calm and stay put. Minimize your movements during an earthquake to a few steps to a
     nearby safe place. Stay indoors until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe.
     Most injuries during earthquakes occur when people are hit by falling objects when entering into
     or exiting from buildings.
    If indoors, crouch under a desk or heavy table or brace yourself in a doorway. Stay away from
     windows or brick masonry (like fireplaces), bookcases, china cabinets and mirrors.
    Use a doorway for shelter only if it is in close proximity to you and if you know it is a strongly
     supported, load bearing doorway.
    If outdoors, stand away from buildings, trees and power lines.
    If driving, move away from overpasses, stop slowly in a safe place and stay in your vehicle. Stay
     off bridges. Listen to the radio.
    If in a high-rise building, stay in the building, on the same floor. Get under a desk and stay away
     from outside walls and windows. Do not use the elevator.

What to do after an earthquake

    Wear sturdy shoes to protect your feet from broken glass.
    Check for injuries and apply necessary first-aid.
    Check gas, water, electrical lines and appliances for damage. If you smell gas or see a broken
     line, shut off the main valve. Do not switch on the gas or electricity again until the power
     company checks your home. Do not light matches, use any open flame or turn on electrical
     switches or appliances until you are certain that there are no gas leaks.
    Check to see that sewage lines are intact before you use the toilet. Plug bathtub and sink drains
     to prevent sewage backup.
    Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline and other flammable liquids.
    Check for building damage and potential safety hazards – like cracks around chimneys or
     foundations.
    Be prepared for aftershocks, which can further damage weakened structures.
    Listen to the radio for public safety instructions.
    Do not use the telephone except in an emergency.


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                                                                                                         54
                        Childproofing Your Home
  Children need constant supervision and homes that have been assessed to improve their
chances of not being hurt due to avoidable accidents. In all rooms use outlet covers to
prevent children from sticking fingers or other objects in electrical outlets.


Kitchen and Dining Room:

    Cook using the back burners of your stove and turn pot handles toward the rear of the stove so
      your child can‘t pull hot food on them.

            Place the microwave oven out of the reach of your children so they can‘t place anything
                     in the oven or push any buttons.

                            Keep all sharp utensils in a childproofed drawer or cabinet.

                      Install childproof locks on drawers and cabinets that are within a child‘s reach.

                       Unplug appliances when not in use.

    Store poisons, cleaning products, and plastic bags in a locked childproof cabinet.

    If you have a garbage disposal, use a switch blocker to prevent children from turning it on.

    Install an oven latch and appliance latches.

    Keep wastebaskets covered or out of reach of children.

    Keep doors to your pantry, closet, or washroom locked.

    Secure booster chairs firmly to chairs to prevent children from slipping and sliding.


Family Room:

    Install window preventers and sliding glass locks. These items allow you to open windows and
       doors, but prevent children from opening them.

    Ensure all carpets are firmly tacked or taped in place.

    Install corner cushions on your tables to protect your children when they fall.

    Install a Fireplace Hearth protector, or block the fireplace off.

    Remove small objects from lower shelves. These may pose a choking hazard.

    Keep blind-cords out of the reach of children. Either wind up the cords or tie them near the top
      of the blind.

    Use a VCR lock to prevent children from placing unwanted items in the VCR.



                                                                                                      55
Stairways and Banisters:

    Keep stairways properly illuminated.

    Use gates to prevent children from playing on stairs.

    Use doorknob locks to prevent children from opening doors to the basement and other unsafe
      areas.

    Banister rails should be no more than four inches apart. Larger openings permit children to
      place their head between the rails and get injured.

    Make sure handrails and banisters are secure.


Bedrooms and Cribs:

    Don‘t buy an older, used crib. It could be missing parts.

    Corner posts should not extend more than 1/16th of an inch
      above the end panel.

    Posts should not be more than 2 3/8ths inches apart to
      prevent the child from getting stuck.

    All hardware should be tight fitting and secure.

    The mattress should fit snugly in the crib frame to prevent the
      child form getting stuck and suffocating.

    Always keep the side-rail up when the child is using the crib.

    Keep mobiles and toys out of the reach of infants.

    Use bed rails to prevent the child from falling out of the bed.

    Do not permit the baby to sleep on a waterbed. The baby can roll on its stomach and suffocate.

    Do not place furniture under windows.

    Install window locks. These allow you to open the window to a safe distance (4 inches), but
       prevent children from opening the windows any further. Screens will not prevent children from
       falling out of a window.

    Put all toys away at the end of the day, and use a night-light. Children can trip on toys while
      attempting to use the bathroom at night.




                                                                                                       56
Bathrooms:

    Never leave water in tub, sink, bucket or ANY container a child could drown.

    Use a non-slip mat or stickers in the tub to prevent falls.

    Remove items from around the tub ring (shampoo, conditioner, razors).

    Keep lid down and install toilet lock to prevent child from playing in toilet. Child could fall in and
      drown.

    Install cabinet locks to prevent children from getting into the medicine cabinet and sink cabinet.
       Ensure you purchase only child-resistant products.

    Ensure that the bathroom door doesn‘t lock. If privacy is required, install a latch at your eye
      level to prevent people from entering.

Playrooms:

    Check all toys for small parts and discard any items that may pose a choking hazard.

    Purchase toys recommended for the age of your child.

    Toy chests should have safety supports to prevent the lid from falling on a child‘s head.

    Never store toys on the top of furniture or on shelves in a closet.

    Children may fall while climbing to reach these toys.

    Use a room monitor for listening to children while playing.


Garage and Outdoor Safety:

    Use only garage door openers with automatic stopping devices.
   These doors will automatically reopen if they sense an obstruction.

    Remove the doors from an old refrigerator if using it for storage.

    Keep hazardous chemicals out of the reach of children.

    Store tools in their proper place after use.

    Keep swimming pool covered, ladder properly stowed, and gates to the pool locked to prevent
      children from entering the pool without supervision.

    Never leave water stand in Kiddie Pools. Always empty after use and turn upside down so
      rainwater won‘t fill the pool.

    Use rail netting or other protections to prevent children from squeezing through deck or porch
      railing.

    Use safety gates to protect children from stairs.
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                                                                                                         57
                            POISON CONTROL
                  More than one million of our nation‘s children under the age of five are exposed
                annually to potential poisons such as medicines and typical household chemicals.
                Simple steps such as using child-resistant packaging as instructed and locking up
                medicines and household chemicals in medicine cabinets, will safeguard our
                nation‘s future generations.

                                     (800) 222-1222

                               The free National Poison Hotline
                                        24 hours a day
                                         7 days a week
                                        365 days a year
                 Keep the number for the Poison Control Center by every phone

                 Never leave young children alone, not even for just a minute!

Poison Safety Tips:

    Keep medicine out of the reach of children.

    Always follow instructions on cleaners and other toxic materials.

    Never administer or take medicine in the dark.

    Keep hazardous products in their original containers.

    Never carry something that can be poisonous, such as a medicine, in a purse where
        children may find it.
    All medicines and household cleaning products should be stored in locked cabinets, out
        of the reach and sight of children. Do not leave poisons on a counter or in an unlocked
        cabinet.
    Safety latches on drawers or cabinets, and child resistant caps on bottles, are helpful in
        keeping poisons out of the hands of children. But remember, they are not ―child-proof‖
        and do not substitute for your careful and constant supervision.
    If you must change containers, label new ones with their content.

    When gardening in an area that‘s frequented by small children, avoid the use of
      herbicides for weed control.

    Ensure all combustion equipment is properly vented.

                                                                                                 58
      Remember the BEFORE, WHILE, and AFTER rule:
BEFORE using a cleaning product, read the instructions on the bottle.

WHILE using a cleaning product, never leave it alone. A child may find it.

AFTER using a product, put it back in a locked cabinet. Make sure the container is closed tightly.




Babysitters:
         What information about each child should you have?
Before you leave your child with a baby sitter write down each child‘s:


    age and weight
    any allergies or medical conditions
    their doctor‘s name and telephone number
    how the parents can be reached in an emergency


If you ask your baby sitter to give medicine to a child, ensure they know and can follow the
instructions on the bottle. Also make sure they know how important it is to return the bottle to a safe
storage place right away and never leave a child alone, especially if they are in the same room with
the medicine!




Possible Poisoning:


If you think someone has been poisoned call right away. Do not wait for the child to look or feel sick.
The Poison Center will tell you what to do to help the child. Make sure you know the Poison Center‘s
telephone number. Keep a card or sticker with the Poison Center‘s telephone number and carry it with
you on your babysitting jobs.


For more poison prevention and first aid information call                 .




                                                                                                      59
                         Poison Tips for Children
  What is a poison?
A poison is something that makes you sick or hurts you if you eat, drink, touch or smell it.

 Poisons can be SOLID. Solid poisons can be chunky or chewy like pills, batteries,
plants, and berries.

Poisons can be LIQUID. Liquid poisons can be creamy,
blobby, or like water. They can be any color. Some
liquid poisons are floor cleaners, antifreeze for the car,
cough syrup (if you take too much), and lamp oil.


 Poisons can be SPRAYS. They can be in a spray can or bottle. The spray can get in your
eyes or in your lungs if you breathe it. Some kinds of spray poisons are furniture polish and
bug spray.

                Poisons can be INVISIBLE. You can‘t see it, or smell it, or touch it. Invisible
               poison can be found almost anywhere that something is burning. It can be
               mixed in with smoke or can come out of the back of a car or bus when the
               engine is running.
               What does a poison look like?
                A poison can come in pretty colors. It can come in many shapes and sizes. It
can be invisible. A poison can smell good. It can also taste good. A poison can even look like
                something good to eat or drink. How can you get poisoned?
                You can get poisoned by eating, drinking, touching, or smelling
               something that can make you sick or hurt you. Some things, like
               medicine, can make you sick if you take the wrong kind, or if you
               take too much. Always ask a trusted grown-up before you take
               any medicine. Never put anything in your mouth if you are not
               sure if it is safe to eat. Ask a grown-up first! Where are poisons
               found?


                 Poisons are everywhere. They can be found in your garage, in your kitchen,
                in your bathroom, or in any room in your home. They can even be found in
Grandma‘s purse! Poisons can be found outside, like some plants, berries and mushrooms.
at can you do if someone gets
 If you think you got into a poison, tell a grown-up right away! They will call the Poison Center.
The Poison Center will tell them how to help you. If you think your Mom or Dad, or your
brother or sister, or even your friend got into a poison, you can call the Poison Center too.


                                                                                                  60
Learn the Poison Center's phone number: and make sure you have the number of the Poison
Center on or near the telephones in your house. fe from poison?
 If you don‘t know what something is, do not put it in your mouth. Always ask a trusted grown-
up first.
Never take medicine unless a grown-up gives it to you.
 Some plants and berries are poisonous. Always ask a grown-up before
you put them in your mouth.
 Always let grown-ups use spray cans and bottles. You should not touch
or play with them!
Stay away from things used to clean your house, clothes or car.

For more poison prevention and first aid information call              .




                 Poison Tips for Teen Babysitters
        Why do babysitters/teens need to know about
        poisoning?
       Caring for children is a great job, but keeping
       children safe is a serious and important part of
       babysitting. Poisoning is one of the most common
       childhood injuries. Most of the time poisoning
       happens right at home. Children who are between
       the ages of eight months and six years old are the
       most likely to be poisoned. Poisons can look like
       things that are good to eat and drink. They can
       come in many colors and forms including solids, liquids, sprays or gases.
       Young children are curious. They like to put things in their mouth, especially
       if they look colorful or smell nice. It's a good idea to have emergency
information handy when you're babysitting.




                                                                                           61
               Poison Prevention Tips - Adults

 Read and follow the directions and warnings on the label before taking any
medicine. If you have any questions about the intended use of your medicine,
contact your doctor.

                  Some medicines are dangerous
                 when mixed with alcohol.
                 Consult your doctor or
                 pharmacist.

                  Be aware of potential drug
                 interactions. Some medicines
                 interact dangerously with food or
                 with other medicines. Your
                 doctor should be made aware of
                 all medicines, prescription or
over-the-counter, you are currently taking.

Talk to your doctor before taking any natural or
herbal supplements.

Never take medicines in the dark.

Old and outdated medicines should be flushed down the toilet.

Some medications can become dangerous or ineffective over time.

Never share prescription medicines. Medicines should be taken by the person
prescribed and for the reason prescribed.

If you have a poisoning emergency call               .




                                                                               62
Household and Chemical Products

Keep potential poisons in their original containers.

 DO NOT use food containers such as cups or bottles to store household and
chemical products.

 Store food and household and chemical products in separate areas. Mistaken
identity could cause a serious poisoning.

Read and follow the directions and caution labels on household and chemical
products before using them.

 Never mix household and chemical products together. A poisonous gas may be
created when mixing chemicals.

Turn on fans and open windows when using household and chemical products.

When spraying household and chemical products, make sure the spray nozzle is
directed away from your face and other people.

 Wear protective clothing--long sleeve shirts, long pants, socks, shoes and
gloves--when spraying pesticides and other chemicals. Pesticides can be
absorbed through the skin and can be extremely poisonous.

Stay away from areas that have recently been sprayed.

Never sniff containers to discover what is inside.

 Discard old or outdated household and chemical products. First aid instructions
on product containers may be incorrect or outdated.

Call if an exposure occurs.

Keep the telephone number                 on or near your telephone.




                                                                                   63
 First Aid Tips for Poisoning
Has the person collapsed or stopped breathing?
Call 911 or your local emergency number right away.
Swallowed the wrong medicine or too much medicine?
Call              .


Inhaled poison?
Get to fresh air right away and call               .


Poison on the skin?
Take off any clothing that the poison touched.
Rinse skin with running water for 15 to 20 minutes.
Call              .


Poison in the eyes?
Rinse eyes with running water while calling                 .

 Frequently Asked Questions
What should I do if I think someone’s been poisoned?
Follow the first aid instructions if you can. Then call right away!
The poison center experts will tell you exactly what to do. Then they will follow-up
with you by phone to be sure that everything is all right.
 DO NOT wait to call! If you call right away, the problem can often be taken care of
over the phone. Don't wait for symptoms!
Why should I call the poison center?
 The poison experts are at the poison center, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. When
your health care provider has a question about poisons, he or she probably calls the
poison center too.

 When you call the poison center for a poison emergency, your problem can probably
be taken care of over the phone. This is much faster and cheaper than calling an
ambulance and going to the emergency room.

 If you do need hands-on care, the poison center will call an ambulance for you, give
treatment advice to the ambulance crew, then call the emergency department so
they’re ready for your arrival.
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                                                                                        64
                           Heat Injury Prevention
                     Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke




                                                                           Cover victim with
                                                                           towels that have
                                                                           been soaked in
                                                                           cold water.




       Exposure to extreme heat and Cumulative Heat Stress, which is exposure to mild heat for a few
days in a row, can make people seriously ill. Unchecked heat-related illnesses can turn serious in a
very short amount of time and can cause death. In recent years, several hundred persons have died
in cities across the U.S. as a result of excessive heat. Heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heatstroke
are conditions caused by overexposure to heat. Furthermore, during heavy exercise, a person‘s body
can generate 10 to 20 times the of amount heat it does at rest. REMEMBER: Current temperature is
not the only risk factor for heat injuries. The effects of heat are cumulative.


Heat Related Terms:

       Heat Index: A number in degrees Fahrenheit that tells how hot it really feels with the heat
        and humidity.

       Heat Cramps: Usually the first symptoms of overexposure. The symptoms are painful
        muscle spasms. Care for heat cramps with rest and fluid intake. Do not take salt tablets.
        Activity can resume when the cramps subside, but fluid intake should continue.

       Heat Exhaustion: Less dangerous than heat stroke, heat exhaustion typically occurs when
        people exercise or work in a warm, humid place where body fluids are lost through heavy
        perspiring. Fluid loss causes blood flow to decrease in the vital organs, resulting in a form of
        shock. With heat exhaustion, perspiration does not evaporate as it should because of high
        humidity or too many layers of clothing. As a result, the body is not cooled properly. Body
        temperature will be near normal.

       Heat Stroke: Also known as sunstroke, heat stroke is life threatening. The victim‘s
        temperature control system, which produces perspiration to cool the body, stops working.
        The body temperature can rise so high that damage and death may result if the body is not
        cooled quickly.


                                                                                                      65
Contributing Factors:
      Amount of time spent in the heat in the past 3 days
      Level of physical activity
      Current illness or medications being taken
      Alcohol consumption
      Smoking
      Drug use
      Dark or excessive clothing
      Lack of air conditioning or ventilation

Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion:
      Headache
      Nausea
      Fatigue
      Dizziness or lightheadedness (usually conscious but may faint)
      Actively sweating
      Skin cool and pale
      Core temperature over 102 degrees

Treatment for Heat Exhaustion:
      Transport to hospital immediately since you are not sure if this has progressed to Heat Stroke.
      Move to shady place or air conditioned room
      Apply cold, wet towels, especially in the neck, armpit, and groin regions
      Fan
      Increase airflow
      May require intravenous fluids
      Immediate action is necessary

Symptoms of Heat Stroke:
      Headache
      Flushed skin
      Dry skin
      Warm skin
      Rapid pulse
      Incoherent speech
      Disoriented and confused
      Aggressive
      Possibly unconscious
      Rectal temperature over 105 degrees

Treatment of Heat Stroke:
      Call 911 RIGHT AWAY!
      Move to shady place or air conditioned room
      Remove most of clothes
      Apply cool, wet towels especially in the neck, armpit, and groin region
      Fan to increase air flow


                                                                                                   66
General Heat Injury Prevention Tips:

      Dress for the heat: Wear lightweight, light-colored clothing. Light colors will reflect away some
       of the sun‘s energy. It is also a good idea to wear hats or use an umbrella. Also, it takes a
       few weeks to get acclimatized (used to hot weather). If you know you‘ll be exposed to hot
       temperatures, spend more time each day in the heat for about a week before beginning your
       task.

      Drink water frequently, at the rate of 1½ quarts per hour, not to exceed 12 quarts per day.

      Avoid alcohol and caffeine as they will only contribute to dehydration.

      Slow down: Avoid strenuous work or exercise. If you must do strenuous activity, do it during
       the coolest part of the day. Stay indoors when possible.

      It takes 1 to 2 weeks for an individual to become acclimated to the heat and humidity. The
       affects of heat on the human body accumulates, so even on a cool day, symptoms may still
       appear because of activities of previous days.

      Eat properly balanced meals; don‘t skip meals.

      Take cool showers throughout the day and sleep in a cool environment when possible.

      Be aware that dark colored urine is a sign of dehydration; increase water intake.

      Persons undergoing treatment for acute or chronic medical conditions, or who are taking
       medications, may be at greater risk for heat injury.

      Ensure all personnel are aware of how to recognize the symptoms.
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                                                                                                     67
                                     Water Safety
       Drowning is the 2nd leading cause of accidental deaths after vehicle crashes.

A drowning can occur in just a few inches of water. Children should be monitored at all times,
especially when they are near any type of water, even if it is a fish tank, a bucket that you may be
using to mop the floor, or an outdoor water feature or ornamental pond.

General water safety tips to be used with swimming or boating tips below:

       Try to stay calm even in an emergency situation. Staying calm will allow for logical thinking
        and quick responses. If you are in need of rescue, staying calm will make it easier for the
        lifeguard, or other rescuer, to assist you. Thrashing about can prevent your rescue, resulting
        in your drowning.

       Anyone who is impaired, in any way (alcohol, drugs – including prescription or over the
        counter) has an increased chance of drowning. These items impair your judgment, balance
        and coordination, and affect your swimming skills. Alcohol also reduces the body‘s ability to
        stay warm.
       Learn to swim. Children and inexperienced swimmers of all ages should take precautions,
        such as wearing a U.S. Coast Guard-approved personal floatation device (PFD) when near
        water.
       Never perform any activities in or around water if you are alone. Who will call for help?

       Notify others of where you will be and how long you will be gone.

       Know CPR.

       Inadequate rest may not allow you to operate at your full potential.

       Read and obey all rules and posted signs.

       Be knowledgeable of the water environment you are in and its potential hazards, such as deep
        and shallow areas and depth charges, currents, obstructions and where the entry and exit
        points are located.

       Pay attention to local weather conditions and forecasts. Leave water areas at the first
        indication of a storm or lightning.

       Use a feet-first entry when entering the water. Enter headfirst only when the area is clearly
        marked for diving and has no obstructions.
                                                                    RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS




                                                                                                        68
Swimming Safety Tips:
      Swim in areas supervised by a lifeguard.

      Never swim under any item such as a raft or a dock.
      Do not overexert yourself when swimming. Know your limits and do not exceed them.

      Swim only where qualified lifeguards are on duty. For military personnel, this is mandated by
       regulation. For others, it is just common sense and good judgment.

      Never dive except in the diving end of a pool.

      Never swim immediately after eating. Wait at least 45 minutes.

      Do not swim after dark.

      Do not swim when tired, overheated, or chilled.

       Know who the weaker swimmers are in your group, monitor them and encourage them to
       follow the rules for safe swimming.

Boating Safety Tips
    Always wear a life jacket. They float. You don‘t.

      Shut your engines off when people are in the water near your boat.

      Observe the nautical ―rules-of-the-road‖.

      .Don‘t overload your boat. Keep a balanced load.

      Don‘t stand up in a small boat.

      Don‘t ride on the gunwale, bow, seat backs, or any place that is not designed for sitting.

      Develop a float plan. Anytime you go out in a boat, give a responsible person details about
       where you will be and how long you will be gone. This is important because if the boat is
       delayed because of an emergency, becomes lost, or encounters other problems, you want
       help to be able to reach you.

      Research conditions, study maps and details of the river/stream route you plan to take. Float
       conditions, maps and details of most of Missouri‘s rivers can be found on the Missouri Canoe
       & Floaters Association website

      Always wear a Coast Guard-approved life jacket.

      Drainage ditches and arroyos for water run-off are not good places for swimming or playing in
       the water. After heavy rains, they can quickly change into raging rivers that can easily take a
       human life. Even the strongest swimmers are no match for the power of the water. Fast water
       and debris in the current make ditches and arroyos dangerous.

        Missouri Online Boating Safety Course - http://www.boat-ed.com/mo/
PFD Requirements - http://www.uscgboating.org/safety/fedreqs/equ_pfd.htm
                                                                   RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                                                     69
                                 Lawn Care Safety
Filling Gasoline Containers:

    Use only an approved portable container (1 to 5 gallons,
      metal or UL approved plastic, colored red, with vapor-
      tight cap). The container must be in good condition with
      vapor-tight cap. Never store gasoline in glass or
      unapproved containers.

    When filling container, follow the same rules as when
      fueling a car: turn off engine; extinguish smoking
      materials, leave electronic devices in the vehicle.

    Place portable fuel container on the ground during filling, and keep the metal nozzle spout in
       contact with the container to prevent build up and discharge of static electricity. Never fill a
       container in the bed of a pickup, in the back of a station wagon, or in the trunk of a car.

    Keep container five feet away from cars to prevent ignition of fumes by hot engines or mufflers.
      Ask others, particularly children, to stand back during filling.

    Manually control the nozzle valve throughout the filling process. Fill a portable container slowly
      to decrease the chance of static electricity buildup and minimize spilling or splattering.

    Back off on the trigger to slow fuel flow as the container becomes full. Fill container no more
      than 95 percent full to allow for expansion. When filling is complete, tightly cap container. Wipe
      off any gasoline that spilled on the outside of the container.

Transportation and Storage:

    Make sure the cap is on tightly before you put the container in your vehicle. Spills pose a fire
      hazard and gasoline odors are hard to remove from carpeting.

    Put cans in trunk of car or in bed of pickup. Do not put container in the vehicle.
      Take cans out of trunk immediately after arriving at your destination.
      An explosion may occur if left in trunk! This has happened on Fort Leonard Wood.

    Restrain the container so it cannot tip over or slide around while you are driving.

    Never leave a vehicle with a portable gasoline container in direct sunlight.

    Store a gasoline container in a well-ventilated place out of reach of children and pets. Never
      store gasoline in the living area of a house. The vapors can travel to a flame or spark, causing
      a devastating fire.

    Store containers away from ignition sources (gas pilot lights or flames, electric motors, stoves
      and heaters, for example) and from combustibles (i.e., paper, rags and cardboard).

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                                                                                                          70
                                    Lawn Tool Safety
   Summer arrives and out come the lawn power tools. Before you start your yard chores, learn how
to play it safe. Mowers and power landscaping tools can cause injuries ranging from cuts to loss of
eyesight, amputations and death. Simple things like wet grass, debris in the yard, or shoes with
slippery soles become potential hazards when mowing the lawn. Put safety first by following these
precautions from the Consumer Product Safety Commission to help prevent injuries in your yard.
Hedge Trimmers:

- Keep both feet on the ground: firm footing is very important.
- Do not overreach while operating your hedge trimmers; you may lose your balance.

- Keep your fingers away from the trimmer blades. Resist the impulse to clear trimmings from the blade while
the trimmer is running.

- Before removing an obstruction in the trimmer blades, be sure to switch it to the "off" position and remove the
spark plug wire.

- Always hold the hedge trimmer with both hands while operating.
- Look for hedge trimmers with cutting teeth on both sides of the blade for added versatility. When trimming
your hedges, trim the top of the hedge so it is narrower than the bottom to allow sunlight to reach the lower
branches.



Weed Eaters or String Trimmers:
- Use your string trimmer only for weeds and grass; it‘s not designed to trim shrubbery, climbing ivy or other
greenery.

- Keep firm footing and balance; don‘t overreach; be sure lighting conditions are adequate; keep your body
away from the rotating string head and hot surfaces. Be sure to keep the string head below waist level.

- Before each use, inspect your string trimmer for loose fasteners, fuel leaks, or other problems. Replace
damaged parts.

- When using a string trimmer, position the cutting head at a 30- degree angle to the cutting area. Be sure to let
the tip of the cutting line do the work. Never force the line into the turf; this can scalp your lawn.


Pressure Washers:
- Be careful with the high-pressure water stream (it can be up to 2,220 pounds per square inch); keep your
hands, feet and body away from the stream to avoid injuries. Do not point the sprayer at anyone, whether or not
the pressure washer is on.

- Always hold a pressure washer spray wand with both hands. Do not overreach while spray cleaning.

- Do not spray a pressure washer toward electrical areas.




                                                                                                                 71
Lawn Edger‟s:
- Before using your edger, first carefully examine the area and remove any objects such as rocks, branches and
debris.

- Check to be sure your edger blade is firmly attached and not contacting anything before operating.

- Do not use a lawn edger on graveled surfaces.

- If your lawn edger strikes a foreign object, stop operation and disconnect the spark plug wire to inspect the
unit for damage.

- When using your edger, rest the edger guide against the edge of the paved surface before starting. To
prevent clogging, edge only when the grass and soil are dry. If clogging does occur, be sure to turn the unit off
and use a stick or tool to clear the clogged area.


Lawn Mowers:
- Don‘t allow a child to accompany you on a riding mower or play in the mowing area!

- Wear long pants and a long-sleeve shirt, and sturdy shoes with slip-resistant rubber soles. Wear eye
protection. Protect your ears from motor noise.

- Remove any objects that could cause injury if thrown from power equipment.

- Be sure equipment safety devices are in place and working properly.

- Turn off engine when adjusting wheel height.

- When using a walk-behind mower, mow across the faces of slopes instead of up and down. When using a
ride-on mower, mow up and down on gentle slopes. Avoid mowing on any excessively steep slopes.

- To lessen chances of injury to your feet, avoid situations that require you to pull the lawn mower backwards.

- Unplug electric tools and disconnect spark plug wires on gasoline- powered tools before making adjustments
or clearing jams.

- Never fill gas tanks while operating equipment or if the engine is still hot. Wipe up any spills. Store gasoline in
an approved container.

- Never work with electric power tools in wet or damp conditions.

- When necessary to unclog the discharge chute, stop the engine (disconnect the spark plug wire for added
safety) and use a stick to remove debris-don‘t use your hands.

- If using a grass catcher, stop the engine and wait until the cutting blade comes to a complete stop before
removing the bag
.
- If your mower is self-propelled, be sure the drive clutch is disengaged when starting. Never stand in front of a
self-propelled mower.

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                                                                                                                  72
                                       Barbecue Grill Safety
                 During warm weather, more of us cook on outdoor grills. It is important to always
              remember that a successful barbecue is a safe barbecue. Follow this list of safety tips to
              guide you through the grilling process safely.



General Safety Tips:

      Never leave any grill unattended while cooking or while it is hot.

      Always read the owner‘s manual before using your grill and follow specific usages, assembly, and
       safety procedures. Contact the grill manufacturer if you have specific questions about the
       operation of your grill.

      Barbecue grills are designed for outdoor use only. Never barbecue inside a closed area because
       carbon monoxide may accumulate and kill you.

      Set up grill in an open area away from buildings, overhead combustible surfaces, dry leaves or
       brush. Be sure to avoid high traffic areas and always barbecue in a well-ventilated area. Be aware
       of the windblown sparks.

      When using a barbecue grill be sure all parts of the unit are firmly in place and the grill is stable.

      Should electrically operated accessories (i.e., rotisseries, etc.) be used, be sure they are properly
       grounded in accordance with local codes. Electrical cords should be placed away from walkways.

      Use long-handled barbecue utensils to avoid burns and splatters.

      Wear clothing that does not have hanging shirt tails, frills or apron strings, and use flame retardant
       mitts when adjusting hot vents.

      To put out flare-ups, either raise the grid the food is on, or spread the coals out, or adjust the
       controls to lower the temperature. If you must douse the flames with a light spray of water, first
       remove the food from the grill.

      Use baking soda to control a grease fire and have a fire extinguisher handy. A bucket of sand or a
       garden hose should be near if you don't have a commercial extinguisher.

      Never leave a grill unattended once it is lit.

      Don't allow anyone to conduct any activities around the grill when the grill is in use, or following its
       use. The grill body is hot during the period of use and will remain hot for a period of time following
       its use. Always use your grill away from combustible surfaces.

      Never attempt to move a hot grill.




                                                                                                                73
Charcoal Grill Safety Tips

      When using charcoal briquettes or wood chunks, form a pyramid and douse the briquettes/chunks
       with lighter fluid. Wait until the fluid has soaked in before lighting.

      Lighter fluid should be capped immediately and placed a safe distance from the grill.

      Never add lighter fluid to existing hot or warm coals.

      Never use gasoline, or kerosene or other highly volatile fluids as a starter. They can explode.

      As an alternative to lighter fluid, use an electric, solid, metal chimney, or other starter specifically
       made for lighting charcoal briquettes or wood chunks.

      After unplugging, remove a hot electric starter cautiously and be careful where you put it. Always
       cool starter completely before storing.

      Never use an electric starter in the rain and/or when standing on wet ground.

      When using instant light briquettes, do not use lighter fluid, electric, solid, or metal chimney style
       starters. Do not add more instant light briquettes once the fire has been lit; add regular charcoal
       briquettes if more are needed.

      Once the barbecue grill has been lit, do not touch the charcoal briquettes/wood chunks to see if
       they are hot. Keep grill uncovered until ready to cook.

      Vents should be open while cooking. Charcoal briquettes/wood chunks require oxygen to burn.

      Allow coals to burn out completely and let the ashes cool for at least 48 hours before disposing of
       them.

      Dispose of cold ashes by wrapping them in heavy-duty aluminum foil and putting them in a non-
       combustible container. Be sure there are no other combustible materials in or near the container.

      If you must dispose of the ashes in less time than it takes for them to completely cool, remove the
       ashes from the grill keeping them in heavy duty foil and soak them completely with water before
       disposing of them in a non-combustible container.




                                                                                                                  74
Gas Grill Safety Tips
      There are limits on how much propane can be put into a LP cylinder. The typical cylinder holds
       approximately 20 pounds of propane. This leaves some room for the liquid to expand. DO NOT
       ask the propane supplier to overfill the cylinder.

      When the LP cylinder is connected, the grill must be kept outside in a well-ventilated space. When
       not in use, the LP cylinder valve must be turned to the OFF position.

      If storing the gas grill indoors, the LP cylinder must be disconnected, removed, and stored
       outdoors. Never store an LP cylinder indoors.

      The cylinder valve outlet must be plugged whenever the cylinder is not connected to the grill or is
       being transported, unless it is a quick close coupling or quick disconnect type of cylinder valve.
       Follow manufacturer‘s instructions for handling of cylinders.

      Always store LP cylinders upright and in areas where temperatures won't exceed 120 degrees
       Fahrenheit, and never store a spare LP cylinder on or near a grill or any other appliance.

      Always check for gas leaks every time you disconnect and reconnect the regulator to the LP
       cylinder.

      Never attach or disconnect a LP cylinder, or move or alter gas fittings when the grill is in operation
       or is hot.

      Never use an LP cylinder if it shows signs of: dents, gouges, bulges, fire damage, corrosion,
       leakage, excessive rust or other forms of visual external damage; it may be hazardous and should
       be checked by a liquid propane supplier.

      After a period of storage, and/or disuse (for example over winter), the gas barbecue should be
       checked for gas leaks, deterioration, proper assembly, and burner obstructions before using.

      Clean and perform general maintenance on the grill twice a year. Watch for rust, paint the LP
       cylinder to make it more rustproof, and check the regulator, hoses, burner parts, air shutter, and
       valve section carefully. Always turn off gas at the source (tank or supply line) prior to inspecting
       parts. Check the owner's manual for any additional maintenance requirements.
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                                                                                                              75
                       Ticks & Prevention Illnesses
  Missouri has several species of ticks, with the most common types being the American dog tick and the Lone
Star tick. Ticks can spread serious diseases that can be fatal, including Lyme Disease, Rocky Mountain
Spotted Tick Fever, and Human Ehrlichiosis.




American dog tick.                     Engorged American dog tick nymphs.




Deer tick.                                 Female Lone Star tick


   The best way to protect yourself against tick-borne illness is to avoid tick bites. This includes avoiding known
tick-infested areas. However, if you live in or visit wooded areas or areas with tall grass and weeds, follow these
precautions to help prevent tick bites and decrease the risk of disease:

     Treat your clothing with insect repellant containing permethrin (especially pants, and shoes).
    This chemical can irritate the skin and eyes, so do not use it on the skin. For the skin, use insect repellants
    containing DEET. DEET is the active chemical ingredient in most insect repellents available in the United
    States. Use this on exposed skin but not on the face. Apply a thin coat to all areas of exposed skin, except
    the face. Be sure to wash treated skin after coming indoors. Different insect repellants have different
    concentrations of DEET. There can be some health effects with use of higher concentrations. But the ones
    with about 33% DEET are adequate without being overly dangerous.




                                                                                                                76
Examples of insect repellant products containing Permethrin.
Use of these images does not constitute an endorsement of the products by the U.S Government.
____________________________________________________________________________




Examples of insect repellant products containing DEET.
Use of these images does not constitute an endorsement of the products by the U.S Government.

       Wear light colored, long-sleeved shirts, trousers, boots or sturdy shoes and a head covering.

       Tuck trousers tucked into socks.

     Walk in the center of trails so weeds do not brush against you. In camping areas, individuals who
     sit on the ground or disturb leaf litter on the forest floor may encounter ticks.

     Check yourself, children and other family members every two or three hours for ticks. Most ticks
     seldom attach quickly and rarely transmit disease until they have been attached for four or more hours. If
    your pets spend time outdoors, check them for ticks, too.

     Remove ticks promptly. (See photo on next page). The mouthparts of a tick are barbed and may
    remain embedded and lead to infection at the bite site if not removed promptly. Do not burn the tick with a
    match or cover it with petroleum jelly or nail polish. Do not use bare hands on the tick because tick
    secretions may carry disease. The best way to remove a tick is to grasp it firmly with tweezers as close to
    the skin as possible and gently, but firmly, pull it straight out. Do not twist or jerk the tick. If tweezers are not
    available, grasp the tick with a piece of tissue or cloth or whatever can be used as a barrier between your
    fingers and the tick. Ticks can be safely disposed of by placing them in a container of soapy water or
    alcohol, sticking them to tape or flushing them down the toilet. If you want to have the tick identified, put it in
    a small vial of alcohol.

                                                                                                                      77
                     Proper removal of tick imbedded in skin.

   Wash your hands and the bite area thoroughly with soap and water and apply an antiseptic.

 Make sure the property around your home is unattractive to ticks. Because ticks are sensitive to dry
conditions and do not thrive in short vegetation, they are seldom a problem in well-maintained lawns. Keep
your grass mowed and keep weeds cut.

 Free-roaming dogs and cats are much more likely to encounter ticks than those that are confined to
the home or yard. If ticks are found in pets, contact your veterinarian for information about an appropriate
tick treatment.

 If you have an unexplained illness with fever, contact a physician. Be sure to tell the physician if
you have been outdoors in areas where ticks were present or traveled to areas where tick-borne diseases
are common.

 If you experience a rash that looks like a bull‘s-eye, or a rash anywhere on the body or an
unexplained illness accompanied by fever following a tick bite, you should consult your physician and
explain that you were bitten by a tick. Disease carried by ticks can be treated with antibiotics. However, the
type of antibiotic can vary and individuals should be treated early in the infection.




     Lyme disease rash                       Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever


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                                                                                                            78
                                              Snakes
                                   Venomous Snakes of Missouri

   It is important for those who spend time in Missouri‘s outdoors to learn to identify venomous
snakes. Use these photos, descriptions and maps to familiarize yourself with the size, color and
distribution of these snakes. Several species of harmless snakes (hognose, garter and water snakes)
spread their head and neck when alarmed, which may cause the head to appear triangle-shaped.
Consequently, this characteristic is not reliable for distinguishing venomous snakes from harmless
ones.
All of Missouri‘s venomous snakes are pit vipers, which means they have an opening on each side of
the head, called a sensory pit. A pair of hollow fangs are located on the front of the upper jaw. In
daylight these snakes have eyes with vertical pupils—like a cat—while all harmless snakes have
round pupils. This characteristic is not reliable for identification at night. Even the underside of the tail
is helpful in distinguishing the two types of snakes: our venomous species have a single row of
scales, while harmless snakes have two rows of scales.




COPPERHEAD
This is our most common venomous snake. Color varies from grayish-brown to pinkish-tan, with
hourglass-shaped crossbands of dark gray, brown or reddish-brown. The head may have some pink
or orange color, hence the name ―copperhead.‖ The tail may be yellow or greenish-yellow, especially
in young specimens, and the belly usually is a dusky mixture of gray, tan and black. Length averages
from 24 to 36 inches (61-91 cm). Copperheads make their homes on rocky hillsides and along the
edges of forests. They also spend time among trees and in brush along prairie streams. Copperheads
are often found near abandoned farm buildings. Copperheads will vibrate their tail when alarmed.
There is no record of a human death caused by a copperhead bite in this state, but medical treatment
for such bites is necessary. Copperheads eat mice, lizards, frogs and sometimes small snakes.
Missouri Distribution: The Osage copperhead is found over the northern two-thirds of the state and is
replaced by the southern copperhead—a subspecies—in the southern third of the state




                                                                                                           79
COTTONMOUTH
The name ―cottonmouth‖ is derived from the white-colored lining of this snake‘s mouth. When
alarmed, it opens its mouth widely, showing the cotton-white lining. General body color is
black with little or no pattern or dark brown with darker cross-bands on the back. The belly is
dark brown or black. Length averages from 30 to 42 inches (76-107 cm). Young
cottonmouths are superficially patterned like a copperhead and usually have a yellowish-
green tail. This species lives in two distinctly different habitats; in south-eastern Missouri, they
live in swamps and oxbow lakes, and in the southern Ozarks, they live in rocky streams and
river sloughs. The cottonmouth is a dangerously venomous species that can deliver a fatal
bite. It is semi-aquatic, primarily a fish-eater but also eats frogs, other snakes, lizards and
rodents. Various harmless snakes often are misidentified as cottonmouths and needlessly
killed.
Missouri Distribution: Southeastern corner and a spotty distribution throughout the Ozark
Region.




TIMBER RATTLE SNAKE
This is Missouri‘s largest venomous snake. Generally tan or yellowish-tan, the timber
rattlesnake has markings along the back which are dark brown and change from blotches on
the neck to bands near the tail. Often, a dark line extends from the eye along the angle of the
jaw, and there is a rust-colored stripe down the back. It has a large rattle at the end of its tail.
Length averages 36 to 60 inches (91-152 cm). This rattlesnake lives on rocky, wooded
hillsides. In Missouri, it tends to congregate in selected south-facing rocky areas where it
overwinters. Timber rattlesnakes eat a variety of rodents and also small rabbits. It is
dangerously venomous, but there are few cases of rattlesnake bites in this state.
Missouri Distribution: Statewide.

                                                                                                  80
MASSASAUGA RATTLE SNAKE
This snake is gray to dark gray with numerous brown or gray-brown blotches. The belly is
dark gray or black, and there is usually a dark brown band extending backward from the eye
onto the side of the neck. The end of the tail has a small rattle. Length averages from 18 to
30 inches (46-76 cm). This snake lives in marshy areas or wet prairies and may take shelter
in burrows of crayfish or other animals. Massasaugas have become rare in Missouri because
of habitat destruction and are on the state‘s Rare and Endangered Species list. Human
deaths caused by its bite are rare, but tests show that the Massasuga‘s venom is highly toxic,
so it must be respected and classified as dangerous. Massasaugas eat mice, shrews, frogs
and lizards.
Missouri Distribution: This species is found in scattered populations in the northern half of
Missouri.
_________________________________________________________________________________________




WESTERN PYGMY
This is one of the smallest species of rattlesnakes in North America. General color is light
grayish-brown, with a row of small, dark brown spots on the back and similar spots on each
side. Most specimens also have a rust-colored stripe down the back. The belly is usually
gray. The pygmy rattlesnake has a thin tail and a tiny rattle. Length averages from 15 to 20
inches (38-51 cm). This species lives under rocks on cedar glades and is so secretive that
few people encounter it. The sound of the vibrating rattle is a faint buzz like the sound of a
grasshopper. Food includes small lizards, snakes, frogs and mice. Although the bite of this
species is not fatal, a bite victim should seek immediate medical attention. The pygmy
rattlesnake should be respected and left alone.
Missouri Distribution: Counties bordering Arkansas and the eastern Missouri Ozarks.
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                                                                                             81
       Brown Recluse and Black Widow Spiders
Brown Recluse:
      Adult Brown Recluse spiders and their small, irregular, untidy webs can be found under rocks and stones
in the southern Ozarks, but are more often encountered indoors in little-used drawers, closets, boxes, and other
small hiding places. They cannot negotiate smooth surfaces and are often found in bathtubs and sinks, unable
to escape. They may live for several years.

Brown Recluse spiders are yellowish-tan to dark brown. They have long, thin gray to dark brown legs covered
with very short, dark hairs. Both male and female spiders are similar in appearance and are equally venomous.
Young Brown Recluse spiders are smaller and somewhat lighter in color. The most distinguishing mark on a
brown recluse spider is the presence of a dark brown or black violin or fiddle on its back with the violin's "neck"
pointing toward the rear of its body. For this reason, they are sometimes called "violin spiders" or "fiddleback
spiders".




   When bitten by a brown recluse spider, most individuals take little, if any, notice. Swelling, redness and
tenderness at the bite area may occur after eight hours or less, followed later by chills, nausea or fever. Many
people do not even experience these symptoms or do so in highly variable manners. More commonly, after
several days the skin surrounding the bite may begin to ulcerate, eventually forming a deep, open wound that is
slow to heal and susceptible to infection. Should you experience a wound as described, see a doctor. Death
from a violin spider bite is extremely unlikely.

    The best way to avoid a Brown Recluse bite is to be proactive and eliminate them from your home. Pesticides
are not very effective on Brown Recluse spiders unless sprayed directly on the spider. Even using pesticides to
kill the food of brown recluse does not work because they prefer to eat insects that have been dead up to 2
months. Also, pesticides can actually kill spiders that prey on Brown Recluses. Therefore, it seems glue traps or
sticky traps are the best way to eliminate the Brown Recluse from your home. The best place to put glue traps is
under beds, dressers and appliances, in corners, flat on the floor, up against a wall near a window and behind or
underneath furniture. You may need to place over 20 glue traps in the average 3 bedroom home. If a Brown
Recluse is stuck to your trap be careful, it may not be dead. They can live over 6 months without food or water.
These spiders and their small, irregular, untidy webs can be found under rocks and stones in the southern
Ozarks but are more often encountered indoors in little-used drawers, closets and other small hiding places.
They cannot negotiate smooth surfaces and are often found in bathtubs and sinks, unable to escape. They may
live for several years. Diet preferences probably include small, crawling insects.


                                                                                                                 82
Additional tips for Brown Recluse and other insects:


     Routine, thorough house cleaning with a vacuum will help eliminate spider egg sacs, spiders and
      webs. Dispose of the bag outside. However, normal house spiders like the small cobweb weaving
      spiders you see in your house are the main predators of Brown Recluse spiders. For this reason, it
      may be best to leave them and their egg sacs alone.

     Caulk or seal any cracks and crevices in the structure where the spiders exist. Chimneys, window
      sills, pipes, utility access holes and door thresholds are potential openings. Sealing off these areas
      will not only help keep insects (food for Brown Recluse's) from entering, but also keep outside
      populations of Brown Recluse spiders from entering your home after your attempts to eliminate
      their indoor population.

     Install screens or replace damaged screens on doors and windows.

     Remove potential breeding places like woodpiles, leaf litter, debris and rocks around your home.

     Seal boxes and storage bags. Keep them away from a wall where possible.

     Inspect clothing that is infrequently worn. Store them in sealed plastic bags or boxes when not in
      use.

     Reducing clutter in your home will reduce the number of places they can hide. Undisturbed clutter
      in basements, attics, and closets are favorite Brown Recluse hiding spots.

     Because Brown Recluse spiders usually start to come out of their hiding places after dark, that is
      one of the best times to do a search for them. They will usually not be too far from where they
      chose to hide during the day. Use a flashlight to hunt for them in poorly lit areas. When you find
      one, kill it with a broom or shoe and see if you can discover its hiding place. If you find it, seal it up.

      Brown Recluse spiders are experts at hiding, thus the name "Recluse". They can be found in both
      new and old homes since they will often move with you. It is possible that in spite of all precautions,
      you will still have Brown Recluse spiders in your home. If you are bit, however, time is of the
      essence. Contact a medical professional promptly.

     When cleaning out garages, barns, sheds and other outbuildings look before you place your hand
      under an item, and wear gloves, if possible.

     Check your bed before getting into it, especially if the bed has been unused for a while. Keep beds
      and cribs away from the wall. Remove bed skirts to reduce the chances of Brown Recluse spiders
      crawling in or on your bed.

     Shake out your clothes and shoes before putting them on.

     Avoid putting clothing on the floor when you go to bed at night.




                                                                                                              83
BLACK WIDOW
   The Black W is common in Missouri. They tend to
place webs in crevices and other dark, protected spots.
They are jet black, with an hourglass-shaped red
mark on the underside of the abdomen. They are
smooth and shiny, unlike most ‗furry‘ spiders.
Males are rarely seen and are harmless.

   The female's bite, poisonous to humans, is followed
by local pain and swelling, nausea, and difficulty
in breathing and is sometimes fatal. The venom, a
neurotoxin, generally affects children more severely
than adults. Black Widow spiders are not usually
deadly, especially to adults, because they inject only
a small amount of venom. The spider is not
aggressive and bites humans only in defense.
Despite its reputation, this spider often attempts to
escape rather than bite, unless it is guarding an egg
mass or if it is cornered and pressed.

Preventive Measures:

. - Wear shoes when outside and wear gloves when
working outdoors near wood piles, flower beds, or
any area that has brush, dried leaves or mulch.
Also near trash, rubble piles, under or around houses
and outbuildings such as privies, sheds and garages.
They can be found under eaves, in storage bins,
underneath unused construction materials, inside
outdoor toilets, meter boxes, and other undisturbed places. Check the underside of ledges, rocks,
plants and debris, wherever a web can be strung. Cold weather and drought may drive these spiders
into buildings.

 - Trim weeds around the building foundation and remove debris to discourage all insects and spiders
from living next to a structure.

- Seal openings and install screens and door sweeps to prevent spiders (as well as other unwanted
pests) from moving indoors.

- Use a vacuum cleaner to remove webs, spiders and their egg sacs and place glue traps as you
would for the Brown Recluse, in case the Black Widow moves in doors.

Call the Poison Control Centers-USA for additional information. The American Association of Poison
Control Centers (AAPCC) has launched a nationwide number for access to the 62 US poison control
centers. The number, 1-800-222-1222, is routed to the local poison center serving the caller, based
on the area code and exchange of the caller. The number is functional 24-hours a day.
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                                                                                                  84
        COLD WEATHER INJURY PREVENTION
Hypothermia
This is lowering of the body‘s core temperature. It can happen in water or on land. Hypothermia does
not require extreme cold and accelerates with wind and wetness. Dressing warmly in water resistant
layers helps, but if immersed, quickly replace wet clothes, keep moving to generate body heat, and
find immediate shelter and warmth.



Snow Blindness
This occurs when directed and reflecting sun glare are too bright for the eyes.
Wear good quality, UV protected sunglasses, goggles or visor. Failure to wear
can cause permanent damage.



Frostbite
Frostbite results from freezing temperatures and poor circulation. Most common on extremities and
exposed skin, it can be identified by unnaturally white and numb skin surrounded by harsh red
coloring. Cover up and layer well, making sure that socks fit loosely within your boots. And
remember, mitts with liners are warmer than gloves.



Wind Chill
Wind chill is lower temperature caused by wind and/or the forward
momentum of a fast moving sled. Wind chill exposes you to severe cold
which in turn can cause hypothermia. Wind-proof outer garments, extra
layers and a balaclava will offer some protection, but keep your face
shield down to prevent wind burn and to protect your skin and eyes.


Dressing Properly
With proper layering, winter clothes can be comfortable. Start with
polypropylene and thermal under layers that release moisture while retaining
heat. Also consider the fact that your forward motion will add to the wind chill
factor. Avoid cottons and sweat shirts which retain moisture, making you cold
and clammy which may lead to hypothermia.


             If you are on ice and break through, don‟t panic!

   Kick vigorously into a horizontal position and swim to the nearest ice edge. Place
    hands/arms on unbroken ice while kicking to propel your body onto the ice, like a seal.
    Once clear, stay flat and roll away to stronger ice.

   Stand, keep moving and find shelter.
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                                                                                                   85
                            Back to School Safety
      When parents talk about school safety these days, they're usually referring to the surge in
violence at schools. But research shows that school-age children are actually nine times more likely
to sustain an unintentional injury – whether on the playground or in school – than to be the victim of
violence while at school. In fact, an estimated 2.2 million children ages 14 and under are injured in
school-related accidents each year, according to the National SAFE KIDS Campaign. Accidents can
be prevented if parents are on the lookout for potential hazards. Here a re some safety tips from
SAFE KIDS, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Traveling to and from School
 Plan a walking route to school or the bus stop. Choose the most direct way with the fewest street
   crossings and, if possible, with intersections that have crossing guards.
 Walk the route with your child beforehand. Tell him or her to stay away from parks, vacant lots,
   fields and other places where there aren't many people around.
 Before crossing the street, stop at the curb, edge of the road, or corner before proceeding. Look
   left-right-left and, if it's clear, begin crossing, looking over your shoulder for turning vehicles.
   Continue to check for traffic while crossing.
 Teach your child never to talk to strangers or accept rides or gifts from strangers. Remember, a
   stranger is anyone you or your children don't know well or don't trust.
 Be sure your child walks to and from school with a sibling, friend, or neighbor.
 Teach your kids – whether walking, biking, or riding the bus to school – to obey all traffic signals,
   signs and traffic officers. Remind them to be extra careful in bad weather.
 When driving kids, deliver and pick them up as close to the school as possible.
   Don't leave until they are in the schoolyard or building.
 If your child bikes to school, make sure he wears a helmet that meets
   the safety standards. Research indicates that a helmet can reduce the
   risk of head injury by up to 85 percent.
 If your child rides a scooter to school, make sure she wears sturdy
   shoes, a helmet, kneepads, and elbow pads. Children under
   age 12 should not ride motorized scooters, according to
   recent recommendations from the Consumer Product Safety
   Commission.
 Teach children to arrive at the bus stop early, stay out of
   the street, wait for the bus to come to a complete stop
   before approaching the street, watch for cars, and avoid the
   driver's blind spot.
 Remind your children to stay seated at all times and keep their heads and arms inside the bus
   while riding. When exiting the bus, children should wait until the bus comes to a complete stop,
   exit from the front using the handrail to avoid falls and cross the street at least 10 feet (or 10 giant
   steps) in front of the bus.
 Tell your child not to bend down in front of the bus to tie shoes or pick up objects, as the driver
   may not see him before starting to move.
 Be sure that your child knows his or her home phone number and address, your work number, the
   number of another trusted adult, and how to call 911 for emergencies.
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                                                                                                        86
                                               Independence Day
                                     Fireworks and celebrations go together, especially during
                                  the Fourth of July. But, fireworks can be dangerous,
                                  causing serious burn and eye injuries. Ensure the fireworks
                                  you are using are legal in the state where you are
                                  celebrating.


   Keep in mind that using fireworks is not permitted on Fort Leonard Wood.


Fireworks Safety Tips

      Always read and follow label directions.
      Children should not light, hold or be near fireworks that are being shot.
      Buy from reliable sellers.
      Use outdoors only.
      Always have water handy (a garden hose and a bucket).
      Never experiment or make your own fireworks.
      Light only one firework at a time.
      Never re-light a ―dud‖ firework (wait 15-20 minutes and then soak it in a bucket of water).
      Never give fireworks to small children.
      Always store fireworks in a cool, dry place.
      Dispose of fireworks properly by soaking them in water and then disposing of them in your
       trashcan.
      Never throw or point fireworks at anyone.
      Never shoot fireworks in metal or glass containers.
      The shooter should always wear eye protection and never have any part of the body over the
       firework.
      Stay away from illegal explosives.


Check out the National Council on Fireworks Safety at www.fireworksafety.com for more information
about fireworks and state laws.

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                                                                                                 87
                                    Halloween Safety
   Trick-or-treating on Halloween can be fun and safe if basic safety rules are followed.



Ensure costumes:

- Are not flammable (labeled ―flame-retardant‖)

- Do not impair their vision, restrict movement, cause tripping, have sharp areas or corners.

- Do not include accessories fastened with cloth ties instead of Velcro (capes around necks, etc)

- Are light colored-easily seen by motorists or place reflective tape on the front, back, and sides of the costume.

- It is recommended that nontoxic face paint be used, instead of masks that limit visibility.



Treats:

- Tell children not to eat treats until the parents have inspected them.

- Feed them prior to trick-or-treating, so they will be less tempted to eat the treats.

- Parents should carefully examine all treats, before allowing children to eat them.

- Look for anything unusual or suspicious.

- Look for loose wrappers, broken seals, pinholes, or packages that appear to have been glued back
together.

- Report any such suspicious situations to the police.

- Do not give homemade or unwrapped treats to children, unless they were made by someone you
know.

- Thoroughly wash fruit and then slice it into small pieces, to check for foreign objects, and chop fruit
before eating.




                                                                                                                 88
Tell trick-or-treaters to:

- Be home at a certain time.

- Follow a parent designated route.

- Not trick-or-treat alone.

- Carry a lit flashlight, so they can see hazards in the street and other persons and so drivers can see them.

- Cross only at street corners, never between parked cars.

- Look all directions before crossing, and walk, not run, across.

- Walk on sidewalks not in the street.

- Walk, don‘t run, from house to house.

- Avoid walking through yards, where ornaments, holes, clotheslines, etc. present dangers.

- Not accept rides from strangers.

- Not approach cars or accept treats from persons in a car.

- Not take shortcuts through alleys, parks, or backyards.

- Not go into a stranger‘s home.

- Avoid homes without porch lights on.

- Call home or the police, if they encounter anything threatening.

Adults should:

- Allow their children to trick-or-treat only in familiar places.

- Accompany younger children when trick-or-treating.

- Leave porch lights on, to welcome trick-or-treaters.

- Keep dogs and other pets away from doors, so children will not be frightened.

- Use flashlights, not candles, to light jack-o-lanterns.

- Remove anything from your yard that may present a hazard, such as lawn decorations.

- Drive very carefully during trick-or-treating hours. Watch for children darting into roadway.

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                                                                                                                 89
                            Thanksgiving Safety
  Thanksgiving is also the time of year where kitchen and food safety need emphasis. Home fires
and other tragedies occur every year during the holidays. See Kitchen safety on page 33 for basic
cooking safety.

For those who cook deep-fried turkey, here are some important safety tips:
      Many units easily tip over.

      If the cooking pot is overfilled with oil, the oil may overflow when the
       turkey is placed into pot. Oil may hit burner and cause a fire.

      Partially frozen turkeys placed into the fryer can cause a spillover
       effect. This too, may result in an extensive fire.

      With no thermostat controls, the units also have the potential to
       overheat the oil to the point of combustion.

      The sides of the cooking pot, lid and pot handles get dangerously
       hot, posing severe burn hazards.

      Turkey fryers should always be used outdoors a safe distance from
       buildings and any other material that can burn.

      Never use turkey fryers on wooden decks or in garages.

      Make sure the fryers are used on a flat surface to reduce accidental tipping.

      Never leave the fryer unattended. Most units do not have thermostat controls. If you don't
       watch the fryer carefully, the oil will continue to heat until it catches fire.

      Never let children or pets near the fryer when in use. Even after use, never allow children or
       pets near the turkey fryer. The oil inside the cooking pot can remain dangerously hot, even
       hours after use.

      Use well-insulated potholders or oven mitts when touching pot or lid handles. .

      Make sure the turkey is completely thawed and be careful with marinades. Oil and water don't
       mix, and water causes oil to spill over, causing a fire or even an explosion hazard.

      The National Turkey Federation recommends refrigerator thawing and to allow approximately
                              24 hours for every five pounds of bird thawed in the refrigerator.

                                Keep an all-purpose fire extinguisher nearby. Never use water to
                                 extinguish a grease fire. Remember to use your best judgment when
                                 attempting to fight a fire. If the fire is manageable, use an all-
                                 purpose fire extinguisher. If the fire increases, immediately call 9-1-
                                 1 for help.

                                Never allow children or pets near the turkey fryer. Oil remains hot,
                                 even hours after use.
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                                                                                                     90
                                            Christmas Tree
                                                  and
                                          Holiday Decoration Safety
                                  As the holidays draw near, decorative lighting and special effects
                                     become important components of the season. Christmas trees, in
                                       particular, are a traditional part of the season. And although
                                        they are special, trees pose a definite safety risk. If you're
                                    using a natural tree this year reduce the risk of a tree fire by taking
                                    the following precautions.

                 Safety Tips for a happy Holiday Season:

   If you choose a fresh tree ensure it actually is fresh and not one that has dried out through weeks
    of storage. If you are buying one from a tree lot, tap the trunk on the ground; if several needles fall
    off, it's too dry. Needles that bend and are not easily pulled off indicate a fresh tree. Consider a
    potted Christmas tree so you can plant it in your yard once the holidays are over. Realize that a 6'
    tree needs about 1 gallon of water every two days. Check the water level every day.

   Before setting it up, cut two inches diagonally off the butt. The tree will draw water more easily
    from a fresh cut.

   Select a safe location for the tree, away from drapes and curtains and from drying and heating
    sources such as registers, radiators, and television sets. Don't block doors or windows which
    might be used to escape in an emergency and never put a tree near a fireplace!

   Use a tree-stand with widespread legs for better balance and a large water reserve in which to
    immerse the tree butt. Check the water level every day and add more as required.

   Keep tree away from floor heaters, fire places, or other heat sources.

   Check your lights for defects. Spread them out on a non- flammable surface before installing
    them. Make sure there are no broken bulbs, all electrical cords are free of cuts or frays and the
    plugs are in good condition. Use only UL-listed lights, and no more than 3
    strands linked together.

   Extension cords should never be placed where they could be a tripping
    hazard.

   Don't leave the Christmas tree lights on if there is no one in the room.

   If the tree begins to lose an excessive amount of needles, remove it
    immediately.




                                                                                                         91
Holiday lights and decorations:


   Inspect your home after decorating to locate any hazards of fire, electric shock or falls.

   When visiting relatives or attending community events, check the surroundings for
    hazards and help correct them to protect your children and others.

   Never leave candles unattended.

   Keep extension cords from becoming a tripping hazard.

   Place breakable decorations and ornaments out of reach for children.

   Instruct children that lights and decorations are for viewing, not touching.

   Install a smoke detector or new batteries in the one(s) you have and TEST it.

   Use only outdoor lights outside your home.

   Examine light strings each year,
    discard worn ones.

   Fasten the bulbs securely and
    point the sockets down to avoid
    moisture build up.

   Connect no more than three
    strands together.

   Never use indoor extension cords
    outside.

   Avoid overloading wall outlets and
    extension cords.

   Keep outdoor electrical connectors
    above ground and out of puddles
    and snow.

   Remember to supervise children
    closely. Don't let the distractions of
    guests keep you from watching them.

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                                                                                                 92
                 Housekeeping and Safety

                                          An unclean or cluttered home can easily result in a slip, trip,
                                   fall or other type of accidental injuries. Good house-keeping is an
                                   important part of an accident-free home. Rooms, halls and
                                   stairways must be kept clear of clutter, so people won't stumble and
                                   fall. Take inventory of the items in your home and decide if they
                                   may contribute to an unsafe
                                   environment and ultimately an accident.




                                   Here are some other things to keep in mind:



   Promptly wipe up spills.
   Pick up items that pose a tripping hazard.
   Clear away unwanted items before your home becomes cluttered.
   Never leave drawers or cabinet doors open. A family member‘s head or leg might discover them
    before his eyes do. Also, are power cords and cables strewn across the floor, over which an
    unsuspecting person might trip?
   Is there enough light? Light bulbs that get dirty or burn out and aren't replaced can pose a serious
    hazard.
   If a floor is wet, let Family Members know before a slip and fall and an injury
    occurs.
   If you have a garage, don't leave oily or greasy rags lying around. They pose a real
    fire hazard.
   Empty trash cans regularly.




Have a place for everything, and return it to that place as soon as you are finished with it. But have
no more items than actually need. Surroundings free of clutter help you think more clearly and enjoy
your home more. You can focus on your family and fun events and outings without having to be
bothered by a mess or worse, an accident waiting to happen!

Spiff up your home to give yourself a lift. When you keep your home clean,
tidy, and well-organized, you help your family by living in a much safer
environment!

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                                                                                                      93
                 Hand Sanitizers (alcohol based)
      Hand sanitizers are an excellent way to prevent the spread of colds, flu, and other
illnesses. Due to the increased use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, the following guidelines
are provided for safe use and handling:


Safe Use (Hazards):

    Eye Contact: May cause mild eye irritation.
    Skin Contact: No irritation or reaction expected. May cause irritation to broken skin.
    Inhalation: May produce anesthetic effects and feeling of euphoria. Prolonged
       overexposure can cause rapid breathing, headache, dizziness, narcosis,
       unconsciousness, and death from asphyxiation, depending on concentration and time
       of exposure.
    Ingestion: May cause nausea and vomiting.


First Aid:

    Eye Contact: Do not rub eyes. Flush eyes thoroughly with water for at least 15 minutes.
       If condition worsens or irritation persists, contact a physician.
    Skin Contact: If irritation develops wash with soap and water.
    Inhalation: Remove to fresh air.
    Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting, transport to a medical treatment facility.
    Spills:
           o Flush surfaces with water.
           o Pick up excess with absorbent cloth.
           o CAUTION – In case of a spill, sanitizer WILL cause slippery surfaces.


Storage and Handling:

      Keep containers sealed and out of the reach of small children.
      Use older containers first.
      Avoid freezing conditions.
      Avoid temperatures above 120°F.
      Product is flammable, avoid contact with ignition sources.



For further info or questions please contact the Safety Office at 596-0116.

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        Less Stress May Equal Fewer Accidents
                            We can't prevent all stress. What we can change is how you respond to
                              the challenges that we face every day. When we suffer from stress
                                    overload it can affect our health, and even our ability to act in a
                                    safe manner. We can cringe at stressful situations or we can take
                                   command of ourselves and our reaction to stress. Stress is a way
                                 our bodies and minds rev us up so we can do what you have to do.
                                If you remained in a completely relaxed state of mind and body, how
                                   could you stay alert in busy traffic or have the drive to get things
                                    done. Without feeling some kind of pressure, how would we
                                          continue to take care of our Families many, ever changing
                                            needs, or excel at a sport?


Since stress and life go together, how can we cope with the inevitable pressures?


Here are some suggestions:

   Get plenty of exercise and fresh air, eat healthy foods, and get a sufficient amount of sleep each
    night. .
   Maintain a solid social network. Include people of all ages. The happy innocence of the young
    and the calm wisdom of the old can help you keep your perspective.
   If you have a faith or belief system that gives you courage and comfort, nurture it.
   Avoid alcohol and/or caffeine if you are feeling stressed.
   Find someone to talk to. Problems become more manageable when you discuss them with a
    friend, a member of your family, a clergy person, or a counselor.
   Think of your priorities. You can't do everything and you can't be responsible for everything.
    Decide what is really important in your life and focus on that.
   Learn to relax on your time off from work and other responsibilities, even if it is very short. Every
    day, do something you enjoy.
   Learn to set realistic goals. If you are working toward specific goals, day-to-day difficulties are
    easier to handle.
   Learn to manage yourself to make the most of the time which you have each day. You might find it
    useful to get up a little earlier each day or leave for work a little earlier so that you don't feel
    rushed.
   Realize that you can‘t control everything in your life. Change what you can. Accept what you
    can‘t change. And recognize the difference between the two.


Stress is a common problem in today's hectic world. Learn to manage stress to
                  maintain your health – and your safety.

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                                                                                                      95
                               Suicide Prevention
   Military life can be stressful for Family Members. Being away from loved ones and remaining
behind when spouses or parents deploy or work extended hours can be a lonely time for many. To
reduce stress, keep your life simple and take time to enjoy yourself. Avoid depressants such as
alcohol. Stay within your budget; overspending may seem like a quick fix for boredom but may not be
in the best interest of your budget. Set realistic expectations for your day and you won‘t be let down if
events turn out differently than you may have imagined. Always remember that trying to harm
yourself will not lessen personal or family issues.

  Many times, helping others can bring the greatest personal satisfaction. Reach out to those who
may be new to the community or to those Families of deployed personnel, and if someone invites you
over for some conversation or a home cooked meal, take them up on it! Get out and experience Fort
Leonard Wood and the surrounding community. Also, remember that Chaplains, the Army
Community Service office, and General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital all provide
counseling services. You are not alone.

 Suicides among service members take a statistical leap each year, usually right after the holidays.
Watch for any signs that warn of possible suicidal tendencies.


                                    Preventive Measure ABCs:

AWARENESS
      Suicide prevention begins with family and friends knowing what‘s happening in each other‘s
lives. In most cases, suicides are triggered by the loss of an intimate relationship such as a divorce,
separation, break-up of a romantic relationship, the death of a loved one, or a child custody battle. In
addition, financial difficulties, facing charges under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, or a pending
separation from the service can trigger a suicide.

BECOMING INVOLVED
      If you know someone is facing a particular crisis, you need to act before the problem becomes
so bad the person considers suicide. It‘s important for you to recognize the danger signs and reach
out to that person, because they might be close to acting.

COMPASSION
      It only takes one person to save a life. Caring and understanding are essential to helping a
person at risk for suicide. Don‘t be afraid to get involved. Sometimes people are afraid to reach out
because of differences in rank, age, and gender. In the Army, compassion transcends differences in
rank, age, and gender. We are all responsible to watch out for each other.

Contact General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital (GLWACH) for more information
(573) 596-0522 or 911 in emergency situations.




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SUICIDE RISK FACTORS

   A risk factor is anything that increases the likelihood that persons will harm themselves. The
following are some key risk factors identified by research:

    Previous suicide attempt(s)
    Family history of suicide
    History of mental disorders, particularly depression
    History of alcohol and substance abuse
    Easy access to lethal methods
    Family history of child maltreatment
    Feelings of hopelessness
    Impulsive or aggressive tendencies
    Barriers to accessing mental health treatment
    Loss (relational, social, work, or financial)
    Physical illness
    Isolation, a feeling of being cut off from other people
    Unwillingness to seek help because of the stigma attached to mental health and substance
       abuse disorders or suicidal thoughts
    Cultural and religious beliefs—for instance, the belief that suicide is a noble resolution of a
       personal dilemma


SUICIDE WARNING SIGNS

  The following are some signs that MAY indicate that a person is a high risk for suicide. These are
not definite indicators that a person is suicidal. But these signs should be taken seriously, especially if
several signs are present.

      Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness
      Talking or hints about suicide or "ending it all"
      Extreme withdrawal from friends, family, and usual activities
      Self-destructive or risk-taking behavior
      Giving away favorite possessions
      Sudden changes in mood or behavior
      Increased use of alcohol or drugs
      Identification with someone who has committed suicide
      Previous suicide attempt(s)
      Preoccupation with thoughts of death
      Obsession with sad music, poetry or art
       An obvious drop in duty performance
      Reckless behavior, including self-mutilation
      Showing sudden interest in insurance, wills, burial plots, etc.

  Be aware of these risk factors and warning signs and know what to do if you recognize that a
person is a potential risk for suicide. Take immediate action when you suspect someone is suicidal or
when a person admits they are contemplating suicide! Know how to intervene, how to get help, and
who to inform. Your concern and quick actions could save a life!
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                                                                                                        97
                              Keep Your Pet Safe

Household Hazards for Pets:

    Read product labels to ensure it is safe for pets. Heed the warning.
    Automotive products such as gasoline, oil and antifreeze should be stored in areas that are
      inaccessible to your pets. As little as one teaspoon of antifreeze can be deadly to a cat
      weighing seven pounds; less than one tablespoon can be lethal to a dog weighing 20 pounds.
    Make sure your pets do not go on lawns or in gardens treated with fertilizers, herbicides or
      insecticides until they have dried completely. Always store such products in areas that are
      inaccessible to pets.
    Be aware of the plants you have in your home and yard. The ingestion of azalea, oleander,
      mistletoe, sago palm, Easter lily or yew plant material by an animal can be fatal.
    Many common household items can be lethal. Mothballs, potpourri oils, coffee grounds,
      batteries, etc. Keep away from animals.
    Cover up cords. Young pets, especially, will chew on just about anything, including electrical
      cords.
    Have animal emergency number posted near telephone.




Safe Pets in Summer Heat:
Playing safe in summer heat ensures that you and your best friend will fully enjoy the season.

      Dogs and cats do not sweat through their skin. They cool themselves by rapid breathing, and
       when the temperature outside is hot and close to their internal body temperature, it means
       animals must work hard to stay cool. So when it‘s hot for you, it‘s even hotter for them.

      Too much heat can be extremely dangerous and sometimes fatal. If your buddy has a shorter
       nose, like Persian cats and bulldogs, he is more susceptible to heatstroke than breeds with
       longer noses.

      If your dog or cat begins very rapid, noisy breathing, has trouble swallowing and looks very
       distressed, she could be having a heatstroke. Other symptoms include the tongue and gums
       turning bright red, saliva being thicker than usual, and the animal

      may vomit. As the situation worsens, the animal may become unsteady on her feet, the lips
       and gums become pale blue or gray, and the dog or cat loses consciousness.

      Heatstroke is an emergency. Get the animal out of the heat. Apply cold, wet towels to the
       back of the head. Place cold packs wrapped in towels or plain wet towels between the back
       legs and on the belly. Cool off your furry friend and then take her to the vet immediately.

      The best plan is to keep your dog and cat protected from the summer heat.


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   Make sure that your dog or cat always has plenty of fresh water to drink. A bucket that holds a
    gallon or more of water will stay cool longer and is less likely to evaporate in the heat than
    water in a shallow pan. Some dogs love ice cubes, and you can add a few to the water bowl.
    Another good idea is to place your pets drinking dish in a shallow pit that has been dug in the
    ground. This will keep the water cool for a longer period of time longer.

   Dogs and cats do sweat a little through the pads of their feet. Cats don‘t volunteer to have
    water added to any part of their body, but dogs often enjoy having cool water on their feet to
    help them cool down, or you can apply rubbing alcohol to their pads. Some dogs enjoy
    walking through or even lying in a child‘s wading pool.

   Car interiors heat very quickly in the summer, even with the windows open. If it‘s 85 degrees
    outside, it will climb to 102 degrees within 10 minutes inside your car. In half an hour, it will
    reach 120 degrees or more! If it‘s 90 degrees out, temperatures can top 160 degrees faster
    than you can walk around the block. Therefore, it is dangerous to leave your dog or cat in a
    car for 5 minutes. If he can‘t go inside at every stop with you, he‘s safer at home on hot days!

   Animals that go outside need access to shade. Dark coats absorb heat. Lighter coated
    animals, especially white ones, are at higher risk for skin cancer from exposure to the sun and
    are more susceptible to sunburn.

   If longer-coated dogs and cats are brushed regularly, and their coats are in good shape, the
    coat will serve as insulation from the heat. If the coat has gotten matted, then a summer clip
    will make your buddy much more comfortable and allow you a new start at keeping him
    brushed. Newly clipped animals are more likely to get sunburned where the hair has been cut.

   If your dog spends time in the yard, make sure she has access to shade. Shade trees, a
    covered patio, or a cool spot under the porch can help keep her comfortable. Tethered dogs
    must have access to water if they are to survive in the heat.
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                                                                                                     99
                         Safety on the Internet
The following sites offer a variety of information concerning home and general safety topics.




www.safewithin.com Safe Within.

www.cpsc.gov Consumer Protection and Safety Commission.

www.nsc.org National Safety Council.

www.nhtsa.dot.gov National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

www.ncpc.org National Crime Prevention Council.

www.safeboatingcouncil.org National Safety Boating Council.

www.fireworksafety.com/safety National Council on Fireworks Safety.

http://www.wood.army.mil/wood_cms/ MANSCEN & Ft Leonard Wood
                                   Public Web Site



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