# limits

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```					               limits.

aaron gordon
When Does the
Limit Exist?
Here’s a nice supplemental video
to get you in the “limits mood”

The Diner Video
How Do You
Evaluate a Limit?
l’Hôpital’s Rule

If

then

Limit Video
Numerical Examples
EXAMPLE 1:
Let's look at the sequence whose “nth” term is given
by n/(n+1). Recall, that we let n=1 to get the first
term of the sequence, we let n=2 to get the second
term of the sequence and so on.
What will this sequence look like?
1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, 5/6,... 10/11,... 99/100,...
99999/100000,...
What's happening to the terms of this sequence? Can
you think of a number that these terms are getting
closer and closer to? Yep! The terms are getting
closer to 1! But, will they ever get to 1? Nope! So,
we can say that these terms are approaching 1.
Sounds like a limit! The limit is 1.
As n gets bigger and bigger, n/(n+1) gets closer and
closer to 1...
EXAMPLE 2:
Now, let's look at the sequence whose nth term is
given by 1/n. What will this sequence look like?
1/1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5,... 1/10,... 1/1000,... 1/1000000000,...
As n gets bigger, what are these terms approaching?
That's right! They are approaching 0. How can we write
this in Calculus language?
Factoring Limits
example:
Lim    2x-8       When we try to plug 4 in for x we
end up with 0/0. So factor them
x->4   x2-16              and plug in 4:

Lim    2(x-4)          Then we end up with
something a little nicer:
x->4 (x+4)(x-4)

Lim    2(4-4)                1
->
x->4 (4+4)(4-4)              4
SOME GRAPHICAL EXAMPLES:
On the previous page, we saw what happened to the
sequence whose nth term is given by 1/n as n
approaches infinity... The terms 1/n approached 0.
Now, let's look at the graph of f(x)=1/x and see what
happens!

The x-axis is a horizontal asymptote... Let's look at
the blue arrow first. As x gets really, really big, the
graph gets closer and closer to the x-axis which
has a height of 0. So, as x approaches infinity, f(x)
is approaching 0. This is called a limit at infinity.
Now let's look at the green arrow... What is happening to the graph as x
gets really, really small? Yep, the graph is again getting closer and
closer to the x-axis (which is 0.) It's just coming in from below this time.

But what happens as x approaches 0?

Since different things happen, we need to
look at two separate cases: what happens as
x approaches 0 from the left and at what
happens as x approaches 0 from the right:                 and

Since the limit from the left does not equal the limit from the right...
Citations
• http://www.calculus-
help.com/funstuff/tutorials/limits/limit02.html
• http://www.calculus-
help.com/funstuff/tutorials/limits/limit03.html
• http://cs3.covenantchristian.org/bird/Smart/Calc1
/StuffMUSTknowColdNew.htm
And especially:
http://www.coolmath.com/limit1.htm

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