Hackman Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model

Document Sample
Hackman Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model Powered By Docstoc
					       Hackman & Oldham’s Job
         Characteristics Model
Core Dimensions   Psychological States   Outcomes

  Skill Variety
  Task Identity     Meaningfulness       High intrinsic
                     of Work             motivation
  Task Signif.
                                         High job per-
                                         ormance
                       Responsibility
   Autonomy            for outcomes
                                         High job satis-
                                         faction
                                         Low absentee
                                         ism & turnover
                      Knowledge of
   Feedback           Results
 Moderating Variables for the
  Job Characteristics Model
• Growth need strength
  – job is a vehicle for personal growth, sense of
    achievement, avenue for feeling success
• Knowledge and skills
• Satisfaction with extrinsic aspects of
  work
  Motivating Potential Score
          Skill Variety +Task Identity+Task Significance
                                 3

MPS   =                        X

                           Autonomy

                                X

                          Feedback
Implementing Concepts for the
  Job Characteristics Model
• Combine tasks: Effects skill variety, task
  identity, & task significance
• Group tasks into natural work units:
  Effects task significance and task identity
• Give workers contact with customers:
  Effects skill variety, autonomy, feedback
• Vertically load jobs: Effects autonomy
• Open feedback channels: Effects
  feedback
   Designing Jobs for Teams
• Team has to be an identifiable group,
  doing a specified piece of work, and be
  self-managing
• Key behaviors: Ask for ideas, give
  suggestions,. listen to others, share
  information, help others
• Manager’s role: Make alterations needed
  for effective group performance, consult
     Goals That Motivate
•   Specific Goals
•   Difficult Goals
•   Goal Acceptance
•   Goal Feedback
       Why Goals Motivate
• Mobilize energy in relation to goal
• Focus attention towards goals attainment
• Encourages setting of action plans or
  strategies for goal attainment
• Encourages persistence until goal is
  attained
Enhancing Goal Acceptance
• Participation
• Rewards
• Supportiveness
    Incentives for Individuals
• For Executives
  – Compensation tied to achieving strategic
    goals
• For Lower Level Employees
  – Tied to performance: bonuses, commissions,
    piecework
        Incentives for Groups
•   Team incentives
•   Profit sharing
•   Gain sharing
•   Stock options
  Where Pay Fails to Motivate
• Bonuses or merit pay is too small
• Non-existent link between pay and
  performance
• Performance appraisal is done poorly
• Effect of unions
• Adaptation problems
   Effective Reward Systems
• Set high goals for performance
• Develop accurate ways to measure
  performance
• Train supervisors in performance
  appraisal
• Link pay to performance
• Make increases noticeable and
  meaningful
     Backwards & Forwards
• Summing up: Examined how Hackman’s
  & Oldhams Job characteristics Model
  can be used to redesign jobs to engage
  motivation; studied how and why goals
  setting works & looked at ways to use pay
  as a motivator
• Next time we begin our study of groups in
  the organization looking at how they
  function and the role of cohesiveness

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:595
posted:9/4/2010
language:Finnish
pages:13