VII GE HIGH SPEED CARD READER GENERAL DESCRIPTION computing operations and with other input-output of information into and out of the central processor. Cards a r e fed singly by a vacuum pick-off, and a r e moved by a moving belt past dual photoelectric read The GE high speed card reader (Figure VII-1) is a heads where they a r e read column by column (serially). free-standing unit which operates through a controller, The cards may be read in three modes: 12-row but not through the controller selector. It reads stan- binary, 10-row binary, and Hollerith (decimal). The dard 80-columnpunched cards in continuous-feedmode same instructions a r e used in programs for the 1000 a t a maximum speed of 1500 cards per minute. It reads card per minute reader a s a r e used for the 400 card in single-feed mode, with a Halt CardReader instruc- per minute reader and card data formats a r e the same tion after each card, at a speed of 850 cards p e r for both. (See Section VI of this manual for a descrip- minute. Card reading can proceed simultaneously with tion of the three modes.) Figure VII-1. GE High Speed Card Reader Card Reader Controller card moves with the belt, between plate guides, and between tension rollers and stub rollers. The card moves through the read station, around the turn-around The controller consists of two pluggable modules (D roller, and into the stacker, where riffle a i r a t the and E) which a r e housedinthe first rack of the central output gate again assists the card movement. processor. All communication between the central processor and the card reader is providedby the con- troller which is connected by cable to the central processor and to the card reader. Basic timing for the T H E SENTINEL W O R D controller is from the centralprocessor, but the speed a t which data is transmitted is dependent on the timing of the card reader. Card datais sent from the reader It is important that the operator understand the meaning to the controller, and the controller in turn sends the and effects of the reader's checking features. The data to the central processor. Data in 10-row and very last word formedin the reading of a card is called 12-row binary modes is transferredwithout modifica- a 'sentinel' word o r a 'synchronization' word. This tion, but data received in the decimal mode is converted word performs many useful functions. It can be inter- to BCD by a decoding matrix in the controller. rogated by the program and, if necessary, can be transferred to the A register where it can be read from the A register of the console. The sentinel words vary slightly in the three different modes, but the Card Reader Mechanism modes have the following in common: Bit Position Both the input hopper and the stacker have a 2000 card capacity. They can be easily loadedand unloaded 0 When set to 1 indicates the last word while the reader is in operation. The reader has its of card was read own power supply, a blower source, and a vacuum source. It has the necessary logic to provide the timing 1 When set to 1 indicates the last card to tie into the logic of the central processor and to in hopper has been read provide e r r o r checking within the reader. 16 When 0 indicates stacker full Card reading is initiated by a signal from the central processor. This signal causes a coil to pull back the 18 When 0 indicates a read (synchro- actuators in front of the moving belt in the feed gate at nization) e r r o r the end of the input hopper. A combination of a vacuum and riffle air a t the gate assures the fast movement of 19 When 0 indicates input hopper empty a single card. In the transport area, (Figure VII-2) the and EOF is set Figure VII-2. Card Transport Area The decimal mode has a checking feature which the (3) Last word of c a r d and stacker i s full binary modes do not have -- a check for an invalid character. Detection of an invalid character causes a 10 110 000110000110111 (octal2606067) Q to appear in the 17th bit position of the sentinel word. The sign position of the word containing one o r m o r e (4) Last word of card and an invalid character invalid c h a r a c t e r s i s also s e t to 1 s o the word can be identified. 10 110 000 110000 111011 (octal 2606073) Section VI describes the formation of memory words (5) Last word of c a r d and a read e r r o r from c a r d columns 1 through 80. Because 84 read pulses a r e generated f o r each card, words a r e formed 10 110 000 110 000 111 101 (octal 2606075) in memory from data produced by read pulses 81 through 84. Eighty three pulses occur before the end (6) Last word of card and the input hopper empty of c a r d i s reached. The 84th pulse occurs after the and EOF i s set. end of the card, causing the c a r d reader to send all ones. The following i s a summary of the memory words formed by the 84 read pulses for each mode of c a r d reading. 10-Row Binary Mode Decimal Mode C a r d s a r e repeatedly read into the s a m e 2-cardmem- o r y locations beginning a t location Y, a s follows: C a r d s a r e repeatedly read into the s a m e 4-cardmem- o r y locations, beginning a t location Y, a s follows: The following memory words a r e formedby the 84 read pulses: Card Columns Memory Words 1 - 80 40 words of 20 binary bits The following memory words a r e formed by the 84 read each pulses: 81 - 82 41st word of all z e r o s Card Columns Memory Words 83 - 84 42nd word, a sentinel word 1 - 78 26 words of 3 BCD charac- a s shown in the following t e r s each examples 79 - 81 27th word of 2 BCD charac- Examples of sentinel words for the 10-row binary mode t e r s and a space character are: (octal 60) (1) Last word of card, no e r r o r conditions 82 - 84 28th word, a sentinel word of 2 space characters and 6 check digits a s indicated in the following examples (2) Last word of l a s t c a r d in hopper has been read but EOF was not set, no e r r o r conditions Examples of sentinel words for the decimal mode a r e : 11 000 000 001 111 111 111 (octal 3001777) (1) Last word of a card, no e r r o r conditions (3) Last word of c a r d and stacker is full 10 110 000 110 000 111 111 (octal 2606077) (2) Last word of last c a r d in hopper has been read, but EOF was not set, no e r r o r col~ditions (4) Last word of c a r d and a read e r r o r 11 110 000 110 000 111 111 (octal 3606077) 10 000 000 001 111 111 101 (octal 2001775) (5) Last word of c a r d and input hopper empty and ERROR CONDITIONS EOF i s s e t 11 000 000 001 111 111 110(octal 3001776) The following e r r o r conditions a r e described s o that the operator can learn to identify the type of e r r o r when i t occurs. Remedial action by the operator i s explained wherever applicable. 12-Row Binary Mode C a r d s a r e read into 84 successive memory wordloca- Feed Error tions, using only bit positions 8 through 19 of each word. The following memory words a r e formed: A feed e r r o r occurs when the c a r d reader is operable, Card Columns Memory Words c a r d s a r e in the hopper, yet a c a r d fails to feed when i t is called for. At the time of such an e r r o r , the fol- 1 - 80 80 words of 12 binary bits lowing occurs: each 1. On the card reader, the FEED ERROR light 81 - 83 May be anything comes on. A sentinel word having check 2. On the control console, the CARD READER digits a s indicated in the READY light goes off. following examples 3. The program continues to call f o r a c a r d (program is most likely in a loop). Examples of sentinel words for the 12-row binary mode a r e : Operator action to correct the e r r o r and continue the program is a s follows: (1) L a s t word of card, no e r r o r conditions 1. C o r r e c t the feed by placing the c a r d t o b e fed a t the entrance of the feed gate, flushagainst the riffle a i r housing. ~ a k s i r e remaining e c a r d s a r e properly aligned. (2) L a s t word of last card in hopper has been 2. Unlatch the feed plate if i t had been latched. read, but EOF was not set, no e r r o r conditions 3. Depress the OPERATE switch on the c a r d 11 000 000111 111 111 111 (octa13007777) reader. This procedure may be repeated again if card feed (3) Last word of card, stacker full does not start. 10 000 000 111 111 110 111 (octal 2007767) Read Error (4) Last word of card and a read e r r o r 10 000 000 111 111 111 101 (octal 2007775) A read e r r o r occurs when there is a f a i l u r e of the light source, failure of the s o l a r cells o r amplifiers, o r an e r r o r in timing (synchronization). Phototransistors, (5) Last word of c a r d and input hopper empty and located along the moving belt in the transport a r e a , EOF s e t check the card's movement against the timing gear. Checks a r e made between the feed gate and the read 10 000 000 111 111 111 llO(octa1307776) station and the read station and the output gate. At the time of a read e r r o r , the following occurs: I t should be noted that the operator h a s direct control 1. The READ ERROR indicator on the reader i s over whether bit position 19 of the sentinel word illuminated. becomes a 0 o r a 1. He should make s u r e that the EOF indicator is on only when the programmer h a s asked 2. A Q is placed in the 18-bitpositionof the sen- f o r the EOF switch to be activated. tinel word. No operator corrective action i s required. Unless Stacker Full corrective action i s programmed, the leading edge of the next c a r d (after the one causing the read e r r o r ) will turn off the READ ERROR indicator. The read e r r o r Each time a c a r d i s read, a check i s made to determine may occur while only a portion of the c a r d i s being whether the stacker i s full. If it i s full, the following read. When this happens, only partof the data may be occurs: in e r r o r , and possibly none of i t i s in e r r o r . When the program causes reading to halt a t the time 1. If c a r d s a r e being read in the continuous mode, of a read e r r o r , the programmer will provide the c a r d s continue to be fed f o r about 50 c a r d s necessary instructions f o r the operator. In this case, beyond the stacker full signal, a t which time the READ ERROR indicator remains lit until the a safety inhibit-feed switch i s activated to stop OPERATE switch i s depressed. c a r d reading. 2. If c a r d s a r e being read in a noncontinuous Hopper Empty mode, a HCR command stops the c a r d feed and causes the controller to become 'ready.' Each time a c a r d i s read, a check i s made to determine whether the input hopper i s empty. If i t i s empty, 3. The stacker full switch sends a signal to the cards, of course, do not feed and the following occurs: controller which results in the placing of a 4 in the 16-bit position of the sentinel word. (In the continuous mode, this could occur to 1. The reader signals the controller, and the all 50 c a r d s fed beyond the stacker full sig- controller becomes 'not ready.' nal.) 2. On the control console, the CARD READER 4. On the c a r d reader, the BIN FULL light comes READY light goes out. on. 3. On the c a r d reader, the OPERATE switch 5. On the control console, the CARD READER turns red, indicating an inoperable condition. READY light goes out. 4. On the card reader, the BIN EMP light comes To continue operation, the operator must take the fol- on. lowing action: 1. Remove c a r d s down to the c a r d removal 5. A 1 is placed in the l-bit positionof the sen- m a r k on the side of the stacker. tinel word. If the EOF switch had been depressed by the operator, a 0 is alsoplaced in the sentinel word, in the 19-bit position. 2. Lower the stacker plate until i t r e s t s against remaining cards. If the program contains a test f o r reader ready, it remains in a loop until the operator takes the following 3. Depress the OPERATE switch on the c a r d corrective action. reader. 1. Loads c a r d s into the hopper. Cards will continue to feed. The sentinel word indi- 2. Unlatches the pusher plate and places i t in cates to the programmer that the stacker has been full. position against the cards. 3. Depresses the OPERATE switch on the card reader. Phantom Feed The controller will now become ready and c a r d s will A phantom feed is the occurence of a c a r d passing continue to feed. Only the sentinel word indicates to through the feed gate without being called f o r by the the p r o g r a m m e r that the bin has become empty. program. When this occurs, no information from the r CI a L a A n READ FEED BIN EMP END OFF ON OPERATE ERROR BIN FULL OF FILE d w Figure VII-3. Reader Control and Indicator Panel Holding a switch down could cause an error. See Table riffle a i r housing, thereby raising the V for a summary of the functions of controls and I bin-empty switch (Figure M-4). indicators. Figure VII-4 is a view of the top of the card reader. c. Joggle the edges of a handful of cards on the top surface of the card reader to align the cards. (Only a slight amount of jog- 1. Depress the card reader power ON switch, gling is necessary -- mainly to prevent and wait for the sound of the blowers (about cards from protruding above the entrance 6 seconds) before proceeding. The switch to the feed area. (Static electricity does glows amber when power is on.) not cause difficulty in using this card reader.) 2. Load cards into the input hopper a s follows: d. Place the cards in the hopper, face first a. Slide the hopper's pusher plate (feed and 9-edge down. plate) to the top of the hopper where it will remain held by a magnetic latch. e. Repeat steps c and d until all cards a r e (BIN FULL indicator will glow) loaded o r until the input hopper is full. b. Place the first cardof the deck, face first f. Slide the feed plate dourn against the card and 9-edge down, so that the leading edge deck. (BIN FULL indicator light will go is in the feed throat and flat against the off.) REMOVA. '1 LL SWITC Figure VII-4. Top View of the Card Reader @En225 VII- 7 3. Check to s e e that the stacker pusher plate i s b. Raise option switches (7 through 19) to a t the bottom of the stacker s o it r e s t s against s e t the operand portion of the instruction the output gate. to the octal representation of the memory location of the f i r s t instruction of the 4. If the READ ERROR switch i s illuminated, program. F o r example: If the f i r s t depress i t to turn out the light and clear the instruction of the program i s inmemory circuitry. location (2146, octal), the switches should be s e t a s illustrated: 5. Depress the OPERATE switch. The OPER- ATE indicator will glow green if the BIN EMP and BIN FULL indicators a r e not lit. This also c l e a r s the FEED ERROR indicator. 6. Check to make s u r e that the EOF switch i s s e t correctly. The EOF indicator light should be off unless the programmer has specified that the switch be on after loading cards. (The EOF pushbutton i s a 2-position switch and indicator which i s lit when i t is on.) 3. Depress the A to I switch to transfer the branch iilstruction to the1 register f o r execu- 7. Follow the applicable procedure a t the con- tion. sole of the central processor a s described below. 4. Return the AUTO/'MANUALswitch to AUTO. Procedures f o r loading c a r d s into memory depend 5. Depress tile START switch to transfer control upon whether the c a r d s contain a program o r merely to the program which automatically feeds the data for use after the program i s in memory. In the r e s t of the cards. following, i t i s assumed that power to the central pro- c e s s o r i s on, the INSTR/WORD switch i s s e t to INSTR and the AUTO/MANUAL switch i s s e t to MANUAL. Addina Cards. Although the input hopper holds 2000 cards, it i s sometimes necessary to add c a r d s while Loading a P r o g r a m Deck. The f i r s t c a r d must be a the reader i s in operation and the hopper i s partially loader c a r d punched in binary format. (All switches full. Cards should be added when the c a r d deck in the r e f e r r e d to a r e on the console of the central pro- hopper i s a t least 5 inches thick. If too few c a r d s cessor.) remain, they fall over a t the feed gate and cause a misfeed. The procedure for adding c a r d s i s a s follows: 1. Depress the RESET ALARM switch. 2. Depress the LOAD CARD switch. (This loads 1. Joggle a handful of c a r d s on the top of the the f i r s t c a r d image into memory beginning reader. with location 00000.) 3. Depress the RESET P switch. 2. Slide the feed plate back, but not a s f a r a s the latched position if card feed i s to continue 4. Return the AUTO/MANUAL switch to AUTO. without stopping. 5. Depress the START switch to begin automatic feed of the c a r d s under program control. 3. Add c a r d s to those in the bin with one hand while holding the feed plate with the other. Loading a Data Deck. It is assumed that there i s a program in memory and that i t will load the data c a r d s a s they a r e needed. 4. Slide the feed plate down against the c a r d deck. 1. Depress the RESET ALARM switch. 2. Manually introduce a branch instruction into 5. Repeat Uiz above foilr steps until all c a r d s the A register, using the console switchesas a r e added o r the hopper i s full. follows: a. Raise option switches 0, 2, arid 3 to s e t 6, After the last card of the program o r data has octal code 26 for t!e branch instruction bekn loaded, check to s e e whether the END O F BRU. FILE button must be on. Removing Cards. When the program and/or data c a r d s on the inside edge of the stacker (labeled the number more than 2000, i t i s necessary to remove 'card removal mark' in Figure VII-4). The c a r d s while the program i s running, a s follows: button indicates where c a r d s must be to acti- vate the stacker riffle a i r switch. The 1. Slide the stacker's pusher plate back, butnot increased riffle a i r turned on by the switch f a r enough to depress the stacker full switch is needed to prevent feed e r r o r s . if c a r d feeding i s to continue without stop- ping. * 3. Slide the pusher plate down until i t r e s t s 2. Remove c a r d s to but not beyond the red button against the card deck. If either the feedplate o r the stacker plate i s latched during reading operations, card feeding will stop and the READER READY indicator on the console will go off. To continue reading (after adding o r removing c a r d s and returning the feed o r stacker plate to oper- ating position) the operator must depress the OPER- ATE switch on the c a r d reader. TABLE VI FUNCTIONS O F CONTROLS AND INDICATORS FOR T H E GE HIGH SPEED CARD READER J Control o r Location Indicator Function C a r d reader control O F F switch Turns power off to c a r d and indicator panel reader. ON switch and indicator Turns power on to card reader. Switch glows amber when power i s on. (Central processor power must be on before this switch i s operable.) OPE RATE Readies circuitry f o r on-line switch and indicator operation. Switch glows green when ready, red when not ready. READ ERROR indicator Indicates that there was a malfunctioning lamp o r photocell in the read a r e a o r a synchronization e r r o r . Glows red a t time of read error. FEED ERROR indicator Indicates that the program called f o r a c a r d but no c a r d was fed even though c a r d s a r e in the input hopper. Glows red a t time of feed error. BIN EMP indicator Indicates (by glowing red) when card input hopper i s empty. BIN FULL indicator Indicates (by glowing red) when stacker i s full. END OF FILE switch Sends end-of-file signal to the central processor when l a s t card h a s been read. Glows amber when on. I Protrudes from riffle Bin Empty switch Stops c a r d feed and activates a i r housing a t lower end the BIN EMP indicator of input hopper On bottom of stacker Stacker Riffle Air Increases considerably the switch amount riffle a i r a t the entrance to the stacker. Switch i s activated by the c a r d s which push over it. TABLE V'I (CONT.) Control o r Function Location Indicator On bottom of stacker Stacker Full switch Stops card feed. It i s acti- vated when the c a r d pusher plate moves over it. Control Console CARD READER READY Indicates when c a r d reader light i s ready for operation. Glows green when ready. LOAD CARD switch Starts c a r d s feeding through the c a r d reader. CARD READER a l a r m Indicates, when lit, that c a r d light (red) reading was attempted while the card reader was not ready (not s e t up, busy, mis- feed, o r c a r d jam). CARD READER READY Indicates, when lit, that the light (green) c a r d reader i s in a 'ready' status. RESET ALARM switch C l e a r s any alarm condition L ( A U T ~ / M A N U A switch must be in MANUAL position before this switch i s effective) LOAD CARD switch Causes feeding and reading of one c a r d (punched in binary format) into memory location 00000 (AUTO/MANUALswitch must be in MANUAL position before this switch i s effective) RESET P switch Resets the P register to z e r o AUTO/MANUAL switch Controls automatic o r manual mode of operation START switch Initiates c a r d reading @En22S VII- 11 SPECIAL PROCEDURES 2. Place the feed plate against the card. 3. With the computer in manual, place in the A register the instruction RCD (2550000)8 for a Clearing Card Jams decimal card o r RCB (2500001)8 f o r abinary card. Transfer the contents of theA register to the I register by depressing the A to I C a r d jams can result from either malfunctioning switch. equipment o r from c a r d s in poor condition. The oper- a t o r can usually c o r r e c t jams by simply removingthe 4. Depress the START buttonon the console. The jammed c a r d o r cards. No m o r e thanthree c a r d s a r e card reader will read that c a r d into memory e v e r in the transport a r e a a t one time. Procedures f o r starting a t location 0000. removing c a r d s a r e a s follows: 1. Remove the cover to the transport area. This 5. Place in the A register the instruction WCD i s easily done by the operator if he stands to (2500002)8 to punch a decimal c a r d o r the the r e a r of the reader and slides the upper instruction WCB (2500003)8 to punch a binary back panel toward him, pulling it by the handle card. Transfer the contents of theA register (see Figure VII-2). to the I register and depress START. The c a r d punch will punch a c a r d from memory 2. Locate the a r e a of the jam. Itwill most likely starting with location 0000. be a t the feed gate, the read station, o r the output gate. 6. Remove the reproduced c a r d from the c a r d 3. Remove the tension on the jammed card and punch and visually compare i t to the original the transport belt by pulling the hooks attached c a r d by placing the two c a r d s together and to the tension roller o r rollers closest to the looking through the punched holes. If the new card. (By pulling on the metal hook-like c a r d is not correct, repeat the reproduction handle on the side of the tension roller, the procedure. If a c o r r e c t c a r d i s notproduced r o l l e r can be moved about a quarter of an after the third try, the original c a r d proba- inch away from the belt, freeing the card.) bly cannot be read and must be reproduced by other means. 4. Remove the card, cards, o r any pieces of c a r d s if one became torn. Do this only by pulling the c a r d with one's fingers; never use any tools on the equipment. Reconditioning Cards and Caring for Cards 5. If a c a r d was torn and there is any possibility that pieces of c a r d remain in the transport a r e a , move two o r three c a r d s by hand from These subjects a r e covered in Section VI and, with one the feed gate to the output gate. To do this, exception, apply equally well to c a r d s used with the place a c a r d in the mouth of the feed gate high speed c a r d reader. The exception i s that (from the input hopper) and move the trans- thorough joggling of the c a r d s i s not a s necessary f o r port belt by hand by turning the turn-around the high speed c a r d r e a d e r a s i t is f o r the 400 c a r d roller clockwise until the c a r d has passed p e r minute reader. into the stacker. 6. If the c a r d s in step 5 did not p a s s the length of the transport a r e a f r e e l y , i t means tornbits E R R O R S A N D OPERATOR of a c a r d remain, and a service engineer must be called to remove the card fragments. CORRECTIVE ACTION Reproducing Cards Operator Checklist C a r d s may be reproduced by the c a r d reader a s fol- If the operator neglects to do any of the following, the lows: c a r d reader will fail to operate correctly and may cause halts during runs. 1. Place the c a r d to be reproduced in the input hopper, a t the feed throat, in position for 1. Turn on c a r d reader power and depress the reading. OPERATE switch. 2. Set up the deck correctly: remove superfluous 5. Clear the CARD READER alarm on the con- remarks cards, use correct loader card, and sole (depress RESET ALARM). the correct transfer card. 6. Unload the output hopper. 3. Square up the deck before loading. Table VII summarizes some of the e r r o r conditions the operator may encounter in card reader operation. As in all peripheral operations, half of the battle i s 4. Release the feed plate in the input hopper. won when the difficulty has been identified. TABLE VII GE HIGH SPEED CARD READER CONDI-TIONS m E r r o r Condition Possible Cause Corrective Action Reader feeds one Necessary loader card Add loader card o r put deck in card and halts not in deck o r cards order. Reload cards and restart out of order read operations. CARD READER alarm There was a phantom Remove cards from stacker and light comes on, CARD feed return to nearest restart point READER READY light is o r to beginning of program. off, computer halts FEED ERROR light i s There was a feed Check and reposition card at on, CARD READER error feed gate. Depress the OPERATE alarm i s off, cards switch to continue reading cards. a r e not feeding Card will not load Smooth edge of card. If it does because its leading not feed on next attempt,' replace edge i s wrinkled card with newly reproduced one, depress OPERATE and continue reading cards. READ ERROR indicator Program called for Follow directions given by pro- comes on, cards a r e a stop on a read e r r o r grammer for read e r r o r s . (There not feeding may be a typeout of directions.) CARD READER alarm Program tried to Stop the run and return the light and ECHO execute a read program to the programmer. ALARM Lights come command while the on, CARD READER reader was not ready READY light i s off TABLE VII (CONT.) Add c a r d s to hopper, unlatch feed on, CARD READER plate, and d e p r e s s the OPERATE READY light i s off, switch to continue reading cards. c a r d s a r e not feeding (END O F FILE light may also be on) FEED ERROR light i s h e r e i s a c a r d jam If possible, remove c a r d causing on, CARD READER jam, return p r o g r a m to n e a r e s t a l a r m i s off, c a r d s r e s t a r t point o r to the beginning. a r e not feeding, (See paragraphs on Clearing t r a n s p o r t mechanism i s shut down from the s t a c k e r , CARD READER READY h e r plate, d e p r e s s light i s off, c a r d s a r e switch to continue The feed plate was Unlatch the feed plate and left in the latched d e p r e s s the OPERATE switch to position continue reading c a r d s . The s t a c k e r pusher Unlatch the pusher plate and plate was left in the d e p r e s s the OPERATE switch latched position to continue reading cards.
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