Advanced Evaluation Techniques and Hardware-In- The-Loop Simulation Darcy Bullock, P.E. Professor Purdue University Requested Topics What is Hardware-in-the-Loop (HITL) Why would you use it Historical Perspective Future Challenges What is HITL Testing and Evaluation of control equipment/algorithms with a simulated plant What is HITL Control Real World Goal Equipment Traffic Typical Simulated Simulated Controller Plant Control Simulated HITL Equipment Plant Why would you want to use HITL So you can make mistakes (and learn from them) in the lab, not the field. Then when you deploy, there should be fewer surprises. So you have a controlled environment in which to experiment and quantify benefits. So you have a facility for students to try things and learn from their mistakes. Probe the “corners” of a control system without worrying about the consequences of failure Functional Evaluation Closed Loop Software to System Master RS-232 from Closed Loop Management Softw are Hmm. What if we could control a suitcase tester with a computer. Monitor 24 volt phase outputs Ground loop detector inputs as directed. RS-232 from Closed Loop Software to System Master Closed Loop Management Softw are RS-232 from CORSIM to Simulation Interface Network CORSIM Netw ork Simulation Performance Based Evaluation RS-232 from Closed Loop Software to System Master Closed Loop Management Softw are RS-232 from CORSIM to Simulation Interface Network CORSIM Netw ork Simulation Still Do Suite Case Testing w/ Setup Master System Closed Loop Communication Interconnect Cable RS-232 from Closed Loop Software to System Master Loop Closed Network Closed Loop Management Software RS-232 from CORSIM to Simulation Interface Network RS-422 CID Network Network Device (CID) Controller Interface CORSIM Network Simulation Real World Model Alternative to HITL Suitcase tester Ok feature individual tester Virtually impossible to evaluate interaction of various features on a single controller much less a “system” of controllers “Full Up Testing”…. Plug everything together and hope they work Historical Perspective HITL has been used extensively by other industries for several decades. 1985 at University of Vermont when Prof Bob Dawson explained his simulation system for testing/developing the control system on a PDP-11 controlling the gravel washing/production system. Gate Control Logic 1986 worked on a speed sieve design for gate control at the IBM Essex Junction Plant 1987 senior design project worked with EE student and.. he built the control hardware.. I built a simulator in Modula II. 1993 Moved to LSU in Baton Rouge, LA Tom Urbanik invites me to participate with his team on the IVHS Research Center Proposal Developed HITL concept for Smart Diamond Testing Dec 1993 Smart Diamond Testing Concept 1994 Smart Diamond Test Plan 1994 Smart Diamond Equipment Concept Further Developments TexSIM developed for Smart Diamond Monty willl discuss next CORSIM extended for hardware in the loop Controller Interface Device (CID) ~1997 1997-Present CID Uses Testing ACS Lite algorithms Algorithm development Controller feature testing Laboratory Based Instruction 1997 – Present Hardware TTI Platform Idaha Platform Univ. of Minnesota Platform Naztec/Eagle Platform Portland PLC Platform Emergence of a Software Platform (Univ of Arizona, Siemens, Univ of Utah) Purdue HITL Laboratory Project Setup Choose a real system to design and simulate Obtain plans, volumes, etc. from DOT Systems that are being constructed, need to be upgraded, or were recently upgraded are ideal Project Selections Project: Design Process Calculate timing parameters Node 16 SBLT NB WBLT EB NBLT SB EBLT WB Parameter Calculation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Main Street Through 10s Minimum Green Side Street Through 7s 5 10 5 7 5 10 5 7 All Left Turns 5s 1.47 * V v Yellow Tp Yellow Clearance 2a 3.0 4.0 3.0 3.5 3.0 4.0 3.0 3.5 W L Red Red Clearance 1.47 * V v 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 (# of Lanes * c) - .5c Ped Clr Pedestrian Clearance Vw 15 15 15 15 Pedestrian Walk 7 seconds 7 7 7 7 Max 1 Green Max1 = 1.3 * Synchro Split 20 50 20 40 20 50 20 40 For 3 second Veh Ext: Vehicle Extension Veh Ext = 3 sec - GapAllow 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.5 Tp = perception time (usually 1 sec.) Vv = average vehicle speed on approach (mph) a = deceleration rate (10 feet/s2) W = adjacent approach width (feet) L = average vehicle length (usually 20 feet) c = lane width (feet) 2 Vw = average walking speed (usually 4 feet/s ) L DetectorLength(feet) GapAllow 1.47* Vv Project: Design Process Obtain cycles, offsets, and splits from Synchro or Highway Capacity Software Project: Real-Time Simulation Controllers are configured with the calculated timings and coordination timings Project: Real-Time Simulation Simulation model is built using proposed geometries and vehicle volumes and imported into CORSIM CORSIM ITRAF I/O Mapping Vehicle sensors are mapped to the corresponding phases by the students Controller Controller Mapping Detector Cards “Final Lab Exam” 1 controller plugged into 1 CID for each intersection All CIDs plugged in to 1 PC running CORSIM All controllers plugged in to 1 PC running remote software Closed Loop Monitoring Screens PC set up to monitor the system remotely Change controller parameters View signal and detector status For future HITL Challenges Commercially viable CIDs that supports both TS2 Type 1 and Type 2 I/O AND a Well supported integration with an accepted simulation model (CORSIM) Blurring of software/hardware in the loop Formally addressing the timing latency issue between simulation clock and controller.
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