ANew Satellite Image Map ofKing George Island by xje11366


									    Polarforschung 71 (1/2): 47 - 48, 2001 (erschienen 2002)

                          A New Satellite Image Map ofKing George Island
                                (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)
                                   by Matthias Braun':', Jefferson C. Simöes', Steffen Vogt', Ulisses F. Bremer],
                                                   Helmut Saurer' and Francisco Eo. Aquino'

    Summary: A new satellite image map in the scale of I: 100 000 of King          calling for efforts to integrate scientific objectives and for
    George Island (Antarctica) is prcsented. A multi-spectral SPOT satellite
    image mosaic from 1994/2000 forms the base of the map. Contour lines were
                                                                                   collaboration among the nations working on the island.
    derived from a digital elevation model, which was computed from various
    data sources. Comprehensive meta-information on map accuracy and               Frequently a major obstacle for the successful implementation
    compilation is included on the map.                                            of such agreements and measures, e.g. management plans or
    Zusammenfassung: Eine neue Satellitenbildkarte im Maßstab I: 100 000 für       joint research projects, in Antarctic regions is a lack of ad-
    King George Island (Antarktis) wird vorgestellt. Grundlage der Karte ist ein   equate topographie information. Although charting of King
    multispektrales SPOT Satellitenbildmosaik aus dem Jahre 1994/2000. Die         George Island started within the first years after its discovery,
    Hohenlinien wurden aus einem digitalen Geländemodell abgeleitet, welches
    aus verschiedenen Quellen generiert wurde. Umfangreiche Metainfor-
                                                                                   a reliable map for the entire island was lacking so far. The pre-
    mationen zur Kartenerstellung und Genauigkeit wurden in die Karte aufge-       sent satellite image map in ascale of I : 100 000 closes the
    nommen.                                                                        gap between severallarge-scale maps for isolated ice-free areas
                                                                                   and overview maps in the scale smaller than 1: 200 000. In ad-
                                                                                   dition, the digital basis of this map forms a comprehensive
                                                                                   platform for the King George Island GIS (KGIS) project by
    BACKGROUND                                                                     the SCAR Working Group on Geodesy and Geographie Infor-
                                                                                   mation (WGGGI) (CISAK 2001, SIMOES et al. 2001, VOGT
The South Shetland Islands, and in particular King George Is-                      200 I) and the global glacier inventory compiled by the
land, gained historie importance by the first landfall on the                      GLIMS initiative (BRAUN et al. 2001a).
Antarctic continent in 1819. Subsequently, sealing and whal-
ing ships frequently visited the region due to its rich fauna,
sheltered harbours and relatively easy access. Until today,                        THE KING GEORGE ISLAND SATELLITE IMAGE MAP
King George Island remains one of the most frequented sites
in Antarctica, now with 10 permanent research stations and                         To enable a wide-spread application of the map, emphasis was
several minor refuges located all around the island. The                           drawn to implement the recommendations of the SCAR
Chilean air strip on Fildes Peninsula forms a major turntable                      WGGGI (SIEVERS & BENNAT 1989) as weil as to include meta-
of logistic operations for the Antarctica Peninsula region down                    information about data sourees, data processing and accuracy.
to the Filchner Ronne area. Moreover, several thousand
tourists visit the island each year. At present, five sites of                     A satellite image mosaic based on a multi-spectral SPOT
special scientific interest (SSSI) and the first Antarctic                         scene from February 23"1, 2000 supplemented with scenes
Specially Managed Area (ASMA) are designated on King                               from November 26'h, 1994 and March 20''', 1995 forms the
George Island to protect ecologically sensible areas. Never-                       data base ofthe map. Hence the map shows the current state of
theless the human presence leads to a considerable impact on                       glacier front positions, which have considerably retreated in
the vulnerable ecosystems.                                                         the last decades (e.g. BRAUN 2001, SIMOES et al. 1999,
                                                                                   WUNDERLE 1996). The imagery was geo-rectified using 12
As a consequence, probably nowhere else in Antarctica the                          reference points and seven control points from maps and GPS
need for coordinated approaches in research activities and en-                     observations in Admiralty Bay, Fildes Peninsula and on
vironmental management is more evident than on King                                Stigant Point.
George Island. This is reflected by recommendation XXVI-6
by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR)                           Contour lines were derived from a digital elevation model
adopted at the XXVI'h Meeting of SCAR in Tokyo, July 2000,                         (DEM) computed for the entire island using data extracted
                                                                                   from various large-scale maps. Furthermore, highly accurate
                                                                                   topographie data from two mobile DGPS surveys in 1997/98
I Institut für Physische Geographie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg,          and 1999/2000 were included for the central ice cap of the is-
  Werderring 4, 79085 Freiburg, Germany;>,
  <>                                               land. A comprehensive description of the DEM compilation is
2 Zentrum für Fernerkundung der Landoberfläche (ZFL), Friedrich Wilhelms-          given in BRAUN et al.. (2001b). The annotations of the map
  Universität Bonn,      Walter-Flex-Str, 3, 53113        Bonn, Germany;           contain a figure where the different input data layers are
) Laboratorio de Pesquisas Antarticas e Glaciologicas, Departamento de Geo-        shown and a table with the respective accuracy is given, too.
  grafia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sui, Avo. Bento Goncalves          Thus an estimation of the elevation accuracy for different
  9500,91501-970 Porto Alegre, Brazil                                              areas of the map is facilitated. Deficiencies can be identified
Manuscript received 21 November 2001, accepted 14 January 2002
                                                                                   in the eastern part of the island where available accurate

 topographic data remain scarce. However, due to features            Mal' (SECIRM-Brasil), the Alfred-Wegener- Institute for Polar
 such as shading visible in the underlying satelIite image,          and Marine Research (AWI), the Instituto Antartico Chileno
 the topographic information is considerably improved in             (INACH) and the Instituto Antartico Argentino (IAA) for their
 comparison with the so far only available map in a similar          logistic support during several field campaigns on King Geor-
 scale (ANTARCTIC PLACE NAMES COMMITTEE OF FOREIGN AND               ge Island. Andres Zakrajsek (IAA/DNA, Buenos Aires) and
 COMMONWEALTH 1986).                                                 Marcelo Krings from the Club Alpino PauIista (Sao Paulo)
                                                                     kindly assisted with translations ofthe legend into Spanish.
Place names were extracted from the onIine Gazetteer Antarc-
tica compiled by the SCAR WGGGI (WORKING GROUP ON GE-
ODESY AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION 1999). However, multi-                                                References
naming and therefore naming ambiguities are common on                Antarctic Plaee Names Committee of Foreign and Commonwealth (1986):
King George Island due to the long-standing activities of a               APC Mise 64, South Shetland Island, Sheet I King George Island, I: 100
great variety of nations working on the island. In such cases,            000, 10th edition.
                                                                     Braun. M (2001): Ablation on the ice cap ofKing George Island (Antarctica).
the suggestions by SIEVERS & THOMSON (1998) were followed                 An approach from field measurements, modeling and remote sensing.-
granting priority to the first given name.                                Doetoral Dissertation Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, 165 pp.
                                                                     Braun, M, Rau, F & Simoes, JC (200Ia): A GIS-based glaeier inventory for
                                                                          the Antaretic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands. A first ease study
                                                                          on King George Island.- Proe. Internat. GIS Workshop Antaretie King
OUTLOOK                                                                   George Island. Geo-Spatiallnformation Seienee Quarterly 4 (2): 15-24.
                                                                     Braun, M, Simoes, JC, Vogt, S, Bremer; UF, Blindow, N., Pfender. M. SauCI;
Improvements of the topographic information for King                      H., Aquino, F & Ferron, FA. (200 Ib): An improved topographie database
                                                                          for King George Island: eompilation, applieation and outlook.- Antaretie
George Island still are a necessity for several areas of the              Seienee 13 (1): 41-52.
island, particularly for the eastern part. Radar interferometry is   Cisale J (2001): King George Island GIS (KGIS) Projeet ofWGGGI - Astate
expected to help overcome this deficiency in the near future.             of the art.- Proe. Internat. GIS Workshop Antaretie King George Island.
The database compiled will form a major contribution to the               Geo-Spatiallnformation Seienee Quarterly 4 (2): 70-74.
                                                                     Simoes, .J C, Ferron, FA., Braun, M, Ärigonyneto, .J & Aquino, FE. (200 I): A
SCAR KGIS project, which aims to establish a publicly acces-              GIS for the Antaretie Speeially Managed Area of Admiralty Bay, King
sible GIS far the entire island in various scales. As all data in-        Georgc Island, Antaretica.- Proe. Internat. GIS Workshop Antaretie King
tegration was performed in a GIS a fast and easy update ofthe             George Island. Geo-Spatial Information Seienee Quarterly 4 (2): 8-14.
                                                                     Simoes, J C, Bremer. UF, Aquino, FE. & Ferron, FA. (1999): Morphology
map as weIl as subset extraction for specific regions of interest         and variations of glaeial drainage basins in the King George Island iee
is guaranteed.                                                            field, Antaretiea.- Annals Glaeiology 29: 220-224.
                                                                     Sievers. J & Bennat, H. (1989): Referenee systems of maps and geographie
                                                                          information systems of Antarctiea.- Antaretie Seience 1 (4): 351-362.
                                                                     Sievers. .J & Thomson, .J W (1998): Adopting one name per feature on maps of
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                           Antaretiea: an experimental applieation - topographie map (Satellite Ima-
                                                                          ge Map) 1:250 000 Trinity Peninsula SP21-22/13.-Polarforsehung
This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemein-                 65:123-131.
                                                                     Vogt, S (2001): KGI-XGIS supporting deeision making with knowledge-ba-
schaft within the projects KIGEIS (contract # SA 694-1/1-2)               sed teehniques. - Proc. Internat. GIS Workshop Antaretic King George
and GLAS (contract # 694-2/1-2) as weIl as the Conselho Na-               Island. Geo-Spatial Information Seienee Quarterly 4 (2): 40-46.
tional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Technologico (CNPq)           Working Group on Geodesy and Geographie Information (1999): Composite
                                                                         Gazetteer of Antaretiea, Ver. 02/1999. http://www.pnra.itSCAR-GAZE.
through the Programa Antarctico Brasileiro (PROANTAR,                Wunderle, S (1996): Die Sehneedeekendynamik der Antarktisehen Halbinsel
project # 49.0047/99). The authors would Iike to thank the               und ihre Erfassung mit aktiven und passiven Fernerkundungsverfahren.-
Secretaria de Cornisäe Interministerial para os Recoursos do             Freiburger Geograph. Hefte 48: 1-172.


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