GUIDELINE 1. RECEIVING REPORTS by rsr13049

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									          MODULE 3
       Creating Context
Understanding Violence Against Women
         and Their Children


                                   1
Understanding Male Violence

         Jackson Katz




                              2
 Module 3 Learning Objectives
Participants will:

•Explore myths associated with violence against
women
•Learn how to reframe women‟s “deficits” to
impacts of abuse or safety strategies
•Understand the dynamics and impacts of violence
against women in relationships and apply to case
study

                                                   3
  Module 3 Learning Objectives
•Understand impact on children and youth who
witness or are exposed to abuse by fathers/partners
and apply these to a case study
•Increase knowledge of the link between
supporting the child and/or youth by supporting
the mother
•Identify compounding risks to women
•Explore women‟s obstacles to leaving an abusive
relationship
                                                      4
      Violence Against Women
          Myths and Stereotypes
Experience of abuse are complex and vary across
culture, class, ethnicity, age, ability and sexual
orientation, however:

 there are some common myths and social stereotypes
 about women and abuse in relationships
 there are also common myths and social stereotypes
 about men‟s abusive behaviours.

                                                       5
      Violence Against Women
           Myths and Stereotypes
             MYTH                           REALITY

                                  Abusive men are 100%
 Each partner is equally
                                   responsible for violence
  responsible for the abuse
                                   against woman
                                  An abusive man is in control
                                   and makes choices about who
 Men can‟t control the abuse
                                   he abuses and where he is
                                   abusive
 Women are attracted to          Abusive men initially conceal
  abusive men                      the abuse from a new partner
 Abusive incidents are random    Abuse is patterned and
  and isolated                     intentional                     6
       Violence Against Women
            Myths and Stereotypes
            MYTH                             REALITY
                              Distinguish between motives and
                               intentions – women act to protect
 Women can be as abusive as
                               themselves and abusive men act
  their partners
                               to dominate and control their
                               partners
 Women can provoke abuse        Women are not responsible for the
  or control abusive partners     abuse
 Women are viewed as            Women have developed safety
  having deficits                 and coping strategies
 Abuse is measured by           Abuse is measured by the impact
  severity and frequency or       – fear, health problems, mental
  acts of physical violence       health issues                       7
       Violence Against Women
            Myths and Stereotypes

            MYTH                             REALITY
                               Standards of parenting and
 Abusive men are behaving
                                relationship behaviour are lower
  in socially acceptable ways
                                for men than women
                               Women seek support and try to
 Abused women believe that
                                talk about the abuse and it is
  abusive behaviour is normal
                                minimized, dismissed and ignored.
 Abused women have low          Relationship expectations have
  expectations of relationships   been eroded by the abuse.


                                                                    8
    Violence Against Women
        Myths and Stereotypes
Powerful and harmful myths and stereotypes
contribute to the further social marginalization
of and increased violence towards:

  •women of colour
  •aboriginal women
  •low income women
  •immigrant and refugee women
  •young and older women
  •lesbians/bisexuals and transgendered women
  •sex trade workers
  •women with disabilities                         9
     Violence Against Women
        Myths and Stereotypes
These myths are based on:

•ideas of what a 'normal' family is - e.g. nuclear
family

•who can/should be a mother - e.g. heterosexual,
able-bodied, mature

•how to care for children and youth - e.g. woman is
the primary caregiver, not extended family
                                                      10
   Violence Against Women
       Myths and Stereotypes


Understanding our biases can help to alleviate
the additional burden that women sometimes
    feel when they have contact with child
         protection and other services.



                                                 11
  Violence Against Women
        About Abusive Men

Abusers come from
all socioeconomic,
  racial, ethnic,
  occupational,
 educational, and
 religious groups.


                            12
     Violence Against Women
           About Abusive Men
•Perpetrators do not share a set of personality
characteristics or a psychiatric diagnosis that
distinguishes them from people who are not abusive.

•Some perpetrators have psychiatric problems, such as
depression or psychopathology, but most do not have
psychiatric illness.

•Caution is advised in attributing mental illness and/or
addiction as a cause of violence against women.
                                                           13
   Violence Against Women
          About Abusive Men
•Abusing Power and Control: The perpetrator‟s
primary goal is to achieve power and control over their
intimate partner.

•Different Public and Private Behaviors: Usually,
people outside of the immediate family are not aware
of and do not witness the perpetrator‟s abusive
behavior.

•Projecting Blame: Abusers often engage in insidious
types of manipulation that involves blaming the victim
for their violent behaviour.                              14
    Violence Against Women
          About Abusive Men
•Claiming Loss of Control or Anger Problems: There is a
common belief that domestic violence is a result of poor
impulse, control or anger management problems.

•Minimizing and Denying the Abuse: Perpetrators
rarely view themselves or their actions as violent or
abusive. As a result, they often deny, justify, and
minimize their behaviour.


                                                           15
    Violence Against Women
          About Abusive Men
Some key beliefs that abusive men hold that allows
them to be abusive:
•Men are entitled to power and privilege
•Men are central
•Men are superior
•Men are deserving
•Women are marginal
•Women are inferior
•Women are subservient
                                                    Russell, Frohberg (1995)
              Confronting Abusive Beliefs: Group treatment for abusive men
                                                                               16
      Violence Against Women
             About Abusive Men

Women in violent relationships are forced into the
marginal, inferior and subservient positions because
challenging an abuser‟s sense of centrality, superiority and
deservedness can increase the risks for women.


                                                Cory and McAndless-Davis 2008
       When Love Hurts. A Woman‟s Guide to Understanding Abuse in Relationships




                                                                                  17
      Violence Against Women
             Dynamics of Abuse

•Violence is used by abusers to
establish control over their
partners.

•They use abusive tactics such
as fear, intimidation,
manipulative kindness and
isolation to control partners‟
freedoms and reduce access to
basic human rights.
                                  18
    Violence Against Women
             Cycle of Abuse

•Many women, although not all women, can
describe a pattern of abuse.

•The Cycle of Abuse that was first introduced by
Lenore Walker in the 1970s has been discredited
because it painted a picture of women
experiencing abuse as helpless and powerless.

                                                   19
      Violence Against Women
                 Cycle of Abuse
•Even when women can describe a pattern, their
experiences are not as „tidy‟ or predictable as the diagram
suggests, but the Cycle of Abuse is a useful teaching tool.

•Here, the Cycle of Abuse is used to illustrate the pattern of
the abuse and dispel the myth that abuse only occurs
during the Explosion phase or as a single episode.

•All 3 phases of the cycle are abusive and men are in
control of and responsible for the cycle.
                                                                 20
Violence Against Women
     Cycle of Abuse




                         21
    Violence Against Women
               Cycle of Abuse
Honeymoon Phase
(Entrapment)
•Occurs at beginning of
relationship, then often
follows explosion phase
•Romance, gifts, flowers,
and attention to the        Abuse is rarely present
woman                         at the start of a
•Attracts a woman to her        relationship
partner
                                                      22
   Violence Against Women
                Cycle of Abuse
Honeymoon Phase (Entrapment)
•also known as manipulative kindness

•demonstrates
   •women not attracted to abusive men – women
   attracted to positive qualities he chooses to express
   •men have control over their abusive behaviour –
   this abuse is focused on creating a dependency on
   him, rather than fear of him
                                                           23
     Violence Against Women
                Cycle of Abuse
Tension Phase

•Generally follows the Honeymoon (entrapment) phase

•Quick mood changes, fault finding, much less attention
and no gifts, flowers or romance.
•Women describe themselves as walking on eggshells.
Feel that they can‟t „get the rules right‟.


                                                          24
   Violence Against Women
             Cycle of Abuse
Tension Phase
•keep children under control and often out of sight
•simply survive each step to avoid the “explosion”
•follow “the rules”:
    •unachievable
    •ever-changing
    •designed to keep her off balance
    •designed to keep her focused on his needs
Over time, women learn that they cannot succeed at
meeting his ever-changing rules and expectations.
                                                      25
    Violence Against Women
               Cycle of Abuse
Explosion Phase

•Follows the tension phase.
•Can take a variety of forms, from physical violence to
verbal threats and intimidation to the silent treatment.
•Women are a greater risk during this phase as he has
the most explicit control over her.



                                                           26
  Violence Against Women
             Cycle of Abuse

When the “explosion” is finished, the “honeymoon”
may reappear:

   •apologies
   •promises of change
   •respite from most dangerous forms of abuse


     …and so the cycle continues

                                                    27
     Violence Against Women
                Cycle of Abuse
Throughout each phase a woman
   •adapts and negotiates her safety
   •develops and employs survival strategies:
      •stay in the relationship
      •use drugs or alcohol to appease partner
      •do not take care of own health needs

**from the outsider‟s perspective, these strategies may
not make sense and may seem detrimental

                                                          28
    Violence Against Women
               Cycle of Abuse
•The tactics of an abusive partner in the Cycle of Violence
are patterned and intentional :

   •maintain Power and Control in the relationship

   •keep his partner off balance and focusing on “getting
   it right”.

•He maintains HIS power through HER fear, while she is
attempting to change the pattern.
                                                              29
    Violence Against Women
               Power and Control
•Violence was narrowly defined in the Canadian Violence
Against Women Survey as “experiences of physical or
sexual assault that are consistent with the legal
definitions of these offences and could be acted upon by a
police officer”

•Society is increasingly recognizing that abusive
relationships are about one partner wielding power and
control over the other

                                                                    Cory and Dechief 2007
    SHE Framework: A Safety and Health Enhancement Framework for Women Experiencing Abuse
                                                                                            30
     Violence Against Women
            Power and Control
Parallels

   • individual relationships in which one partner exerts
   power and control over the other

   •relationships on the societal level, where one group
   exerts power and control over another

•Eg. An abusive man's domination over his female partner
is part of, and a way to maintain, men's domination over
women.
                                                            31
     Violence Against Women
              Power and Control
•Compounding factors also result in groups and individuals
having relatively less power in society and these may play
a role in a woman being controlled by her partner.
•For example, a woman who has recently immigrated to
Canada and is in the process of gaining her citizenship
may face barriers to escaping abuse which include:

   •a partner who threatens to withdraw sponsorship
   •language barriers in receiving outside help
   •difficulties supporting herself financially if training and/or
   experience from her home country is not recognized
                                                                     32
      Violence Against Women
             Power and Control
While physical violence may be one way that a woman is
controlled, women describe an entire pattern of abuse
which functions to:
•make them feel inferior

•have less decision-making power in the relationship

•take away basic freedoms and rights

•increasingly isolate her from friends, family, other
supports                                                 33
The Power and Control Wheel




                              34
      Violence Against Women
              Power and Control
Together with the Cycle of Violence, the Power and Control
Wheel helps us to make the distinction between “bad
behaviour” and behaviour that is abusive, patterned and
intentional, and used to maintain power and control
through fear.
   •Discredits the idea of “mutual battering” - power and
   control cannot be mutual
   •Describes the many types of abuse and some of the
   tactics employed in each type.
   •Reinforces the futility of women‟s resistance
                                                             35
     Violence Against Women
             Impacts of Abuse
  Understanding the          Understanding the
  impact of abuse on       important concept and
   women and their        application of impacts is
 children is central to          crucial to

 making the proper        conducting an effective
   assessment and           risk assessment with
providing appropriate      women, their children
     support and              and perpetrators.
    interventions.
                                                      36
    Violence Against Women
            Impacts of Abuse

•Men who are abusive often make claims of
mutual battering and cite examples of women
striking them, using physical force or verbal abuse.




                                                       37
     Violence Against Women
              Impacts of Abuse

•While this behaviour is not condoned, it is not likely
to meet the criteria of abuse:

an on-going pattern and use of a range of power and
control tactics for the purposes of controlling and
oppressing their partner.

•Women use physical strategies in self-defense or to
escape, different motives from their abuser.
                                                          38
     Violence Against Women
             Impacts of Abuse
•When women describe the impact of the
relationship, even if they don‟t define the
relationship as abusive, you will hear stories of
   •fear
   •oppression
   •loss of freedom and basic rights

•When men who use violence are asked about the
impact that their partner‟s abuse has had on their
safety and freedom, results from a men‟s treatment
program show no such impacts.
                                                     39
     Violence Against Women
             Impacts of Abuse

•Abuse is not limited to incidents involving physical
assaults.

•It is the other forms of abuse that have long-lasting
impacts on women‟s safety, freedom and health.

•The impact of abuse affects each woman differently;
the following are some general impacts:

                                                         40
          Violence Against Women
                 Impacts of Abuse
•living in constant fear
•forced to be economically and emotionally dependent
•continually assessing and responding to safety risks
•fear of losing ability to monitor him if she leaves
•socially isolated including family, friends and other supports
•paralysed with fear - action, decision could increase danger
•contemplating suicide - history of minor attempts
•threatened by her partner that he will kill her and others
                                                                  41
       Violence Against Women
                Impacts of Abuse
Health concerns, including:
•exhaustion
•migraines and severe headaches
•eating disorders
•cardiac-related symptoms
•dizziness
•lack of concentration
•numbness, tingling, loss of sensation
•twitching
•gastro-intestinal problems
•substance use
•mental health concerns (depression, anxiety)   42
    Violence Against Women
             Impacts of Abuse
•Women experiencing abuse often judged harshly
and characterized inaccurately when there is not
enough understanding of the impacts

   •Women may be viewed and labelled as
   personally deficient or challenging rather than
   surviving in dangerous and volatile contexts



                                                     43
  Violence Against Women
           Impacts of Abuse
Abused Women May Be Labelled:

 •Dysfunctional          •Selfish
 •Unstable               •Hostile
 •Weak                   •Aggressive
 •Passive                •Non-compliant
 •Indecisive             •Difficult
 •Uncooperative          •Irresponsible
 •Demanding              •Complicit
 •Service Resistant      •Co-dependent
 •Angry
                                          44
    Violence Against Women
             Impacts of Abuse

•Judged as bad mothers because they “allow” their
children to be exposed to violence
•Considered to be responsible for their partner‟s violent
behaviour

•Blamed for „choosing‟ an abusive partner or for
staying with an abusive partner

•Judged for using substances
                                                            45
      Violence Against Women
              Impacts of Abuse

Reframing these behaviours and characteristics:
• a normal response to experiencing violence
• a survivor within a dangerous and volatile context
Reframing can be a powerful process to:
• Increase understanding of women‟s circumstances
• Create a more realistic assessment of her needs
• Respond in a way that keeps her safety paramount
                                                       46
      Violence Against Women
               Impacts of Abuse

The following are examples of how to reframe impact on
women experiencing abuse (more in handout 3.6):
Negative Stereotypes of Woman
•Troublemaker, demanding, hypochondriac
Reframe – Impact, Safety Strategies and Strengths
•Encounter with worker - opportunity to be assertive,
aware
•Is the expert on her experience and health and safety
•Has skills and knowledge to contribute to the encounter
•Has a right to an opinion and a right to speak it         47
       Violence Against Women
               Impacts of Abuse
Negative Stereotypes of Woman
•She is poor, uneducated, a minority, user of drugs and
alcohol etc…

Reframe – Impact, Safety Strategies and Strengths
• Abuse impacts women from diverse social locations
including ethnicity, race, ability and socio-economic status.
However, intersecting inequalities/oppressions can
compound the impact of abuse
•There is a complex relationship between substance use and
woman abuse, with abuse/trauma often preceding
substance use                                                   48
       Violence Against Women
    Impact on Children and Youth
•Children and youth often witness to woman abuse

•“Witness” implies a passive experience of the violence, does
not adequately reflect:

   •real experiences
   •impact of the violence
   •range of ways children and youth exposed to violence
   against their mothers

                                                                49
    Violence Against Women
  Impact on Children and Youth
•Identify some of the ways children and youth are
impacted by violence against women to know how to
best address their needs.

•Children and youth need specialized interventions and
supports:

   •address their experiences of exposure
   •create networks of safety and support for them
   and their mothers.
                                                         50
       Violence Against Women
    Impact on Children and Youth
•Studies have documented multiple problems among
children and youth that are significantly associated with
exposure to abusive behaviour of one parent by another.

•Children and youth who witness woman abuse experience
a broad range of responses from “none to serious”.

                    Jaffe, Wolfe, Wilson (1990).Children of Battered Women
     Suderman and Jaffe (1997). “Children and Youth Who Witness Violence.”
  McMahon and Peters (2007). National Coalition for Child Protection Reform,
                  When Children Witness Domestic Violence: Expert Opinion
                                                                               51
   Violence Against Women
 Impact on Children and Youth

Expert Testimony on the Impact of
Children Witnessing Domestic Violence
From Nicholson v. Williams, Case #00-CV2229,
U.S. District Court, Eastern District of New York




                                                    52
   Violence Against Women
 Impact on Children and Youth

•In general, the experts found that witnessing
domestic violence is sometimes, but not
always, harmful to children.

•And even when witnessing domestic violence
does harm, removing the child from the non-
offending parent is more harmful.

                                                 53
       Violence Against Women
    Impact on Children and Youth

  At least half of the child or
                                    Profound clinically
    youth participants who
                                   significant problems
witnessed abuse had „few or no
                                       abate after a
   problems evident‟ when
                                  relatively short time of
 compared with children and
                                         being safe
      youth who were not
experiencing domestic violence
                                     -Dr. Evan Stark
     - Dr. Jeffrey Edelson

                                                             54
 Violence Against Women
Impact on Children and Youth

  For those children who are in homes where
 there is domestic violence, disruption of the
  bond [between the child and non-abusing
  parent] can be even more traumatic than
situations where there is no domestic violence

               - Dr Evan Stark



                                                 55
      Violence Against Women
    Impact on Children and Youth
  “…taking a child whose      Another serious implication
                                  of removal is that it
greatest fear is separation
                                introduces children and
from his or her mother and
                                youth to the foster care
 in the name of protection
 that child is removed …is    system which can be much
                                  more dangerous and
  tantamount to pouring
                              debilitating than the home
  salt on an open wound”
                                        situation
   - Dr. David Pelcovitz
                                   - Dr. Evan Stark

                                                            56
  Violence Against Women
Impact on Children and Youth

•A careful assessment of each child or youth is
extremely important

•Not all children and youth who witness violence
against their mothers show immediate
consequences.


                                                   57
     Violence Against Women
  Impact on Children and Youth
•30 to 40 % of children and youth who witness woman
abuse experience direct physical abuse themselves.

   …the “man hits wife, wife hits child” scenario is rare;
   abuse tends to flow from a single source.
                                            – Dr. Stark
•Emotional and behavioural problems for children and
youth who witness abuse similar to physically abused
children and youth.
                                                             58
      Violence Against Women
   Impact on Children and Youth
•Depression
                                          10 to 17 times greater
•Worry                                    in children and youth
•Problems in school                        exposed to violence

•Withdrawal from social interactions
•Aggression against peers
•Aggression against teachers
•Aggression against mothers
                      National Clearing House on Family Violence (1996).
                                    Wife Abuse – The Impact on Children.   59
      Violence Against Women
    Impact on Children and Youth
Children and youth exposed to violence against women:

•Frequently experience PTSD - Post-Traumatic Stress
Disorder; show signs such as nightmares, flashbacks,
consistent fear for safety, etc.

•Are often misdiagnosed with ADD and ADHD - Attention
Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; behaviours often
misunderstood by schools, other systems and community
contacts
                   Family Services of Greater Vancouver pamphlet (2007)
                           Children Affected by Family Violence program   60
       Violence Against Women
     Impact on Children and Youth

Children and youth exposed to violence against women:

•At greater risk for depression

•At significantly high risk of physical, sexual abuse by abuser

•Can be inadvertently injured or killed during a violent
incident

                     Family Services of Greater Vancouver pamphlet (2007)
                             Children Affected by Family Violence program
                                                                            61
      Violence Against Women
   Different Developmental Responses
   2 to 8 years       8-12 years         Adolescents
  Change in sleep  Change in school       Depression,
   and/or eating    performance        withdrawal from
      patterns                        family and friends
  Uncontrollable     Nightmares       Blame mother for
sobbing/emotional                      the violence and
     outbursts                            not leaving
  Difficulty with     Bossy and        Substance misuse
   toilet training   demanding
                     behaviour

                                                           62
    Violence Against Women
 Children and Youth’s Ability to Cope



…children who are exposed to abuse are not
doomed to become batterers and victims.

                Dr. Peter Jaffe, Seen But Not Heard” Video (1993)
                            BC/Yukon Society of Transition Houses



                                                                63
        Violence Against Women
  Children and Youth’s Ability to Cope
Evidence shows:

•substantial improvements in behaviour and emotional
states if the child or youth ceases to live with the abusive
parent

•therapy for the child or youth is often helpful

                                                         Bala et al, March 1998
  Spousal Violence in Custody and Access Disputes: Recommendations for Reform
               Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 1999
  A Handbook for Health and Social Service Providers and Educators on Children
                                    Exposed to Woman Abuse/Family Violence   64
       Violence Against Women
  Children and Youth’s Ability to Cope
Evidence shows:

•keeping children and youth with their non-abusing
mothers in a safe environment is desirable wherever possible

•supporting the mother, without victim blaming, is essential
for good outcomes
                                                        Bala et al, March 1998
                              Spousal Violence in Custody and Access Disputes
              Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 1999
 A Handbook for Health and Social Service Providers and Educators on Children
                                   Exposed to Woman Abuse/Family Violence
                                                                             65
        Violence Against Women
   Children and Youth’s Ability to Cope
Factors contributing to a child or   Factors contributing to the
youth’s ability to cope              severity of a child or youth’s
                                     responses
 The child or youth‟s own  The type of attachment
  ability to handle stressful developed with the child
  situations.                 or youth‟s caregiver(s)
 The availability of a      The type and severity of
  support system within the   the abuse they are
  family structure            exposed to
 The availability of a      How often the abuse
  support system outside      occurs and how long it has
  the family structure        gone on
                                                                      66
        Violence Against Women
   Children and Youth’s Ability to Cope
Factors contributing to a child or   Factors contributing to the
youth’s ability to cope              severity of a child or youth’s
                                     responses
 Strong relationships with  If the child is also being
  friends                     abused
 Involvement in             If the child or youth is also
  extracurricular school      exposed to more violence
  activities or cultural      in the community, on TV,
  activities                  and in video games
 The mother‟s responses to  If the child or youth has
  the violence and the        other stresses at home
  supports she receives       and at school
                                                                      67
     Violence Against Women
   Impact on Children and Youth
Among children exposed to the most severe forms of
woman abuse:
•Well over 80% tested psychologically normal, were
self-confident, had positive self image
•About 96% do not become delinquent
•About 96% do not develop alcohol or drug
problems
•About 90% do not become violent adults
                                  Dr. Stark, Expert Testimony   68
   Violence Against Women
 Understanding Risks and Barriers

Understanding the risks that women face is key
to providing appropriate support and services
for women and their children

•offender or perpetrator risks

•risk factors in the context of women’s lives


                                                 69
    Violence Against Women
  Understanding Risks and Barriers



  Worker sensitivity to the    Interventions
   risks that compound          that reduce
women‟s experiences of abuse     these risks




                                               70
         Violence Against Women
                  Why Women Stay
 Social expectations/norms        Hoping for change
 For the sake of the children     Shame
 Cultural and religious values    Feels Responsible
 Socio-economic conditions        Blamed for his violence
 Love                             Expected to stop violence
 Fear                             Denial of violence
 His threats of violence          Keep family together
 Embarassment                     Past experiences of blame
 Fear they are “crazy”            Obstacles to leaving
                                                                71
    Violence Against Women
              Why Women Stay

 Women face difficult, sometimes life-threatening
  decisions about staying in or leaving their
  relationships.

 The goal is to develop services that could be a
  support for women and their children and not add
  to the pressures and obstacles women face.



                                                     72
      Violence Against Women
             Obstacles to Leaving
 Pressure               Increased violence

 Stigma                 Threats from abuser

 Feeling embarrassed    Fear of children being
                          harmed or killed
 Feeling responsible
                         Fear of pets/livestock
 Finances                being harmed or killed
 Unable to take         Fear of harm or death
  property
                                                   73
   Violence Against Women
        Obstacles to Leaving

“I ended up going back [to him] after awhile…
mostly for financial reasons. I wasn‟t able to get
welfare. I wasn‟t able to sustain a living here in
the city even though I had been looking for work
and it was one of those practical decisions of
women going back into a situation they don‟t even
want to go into but there were no other choices"

                               - Woman Abuse Survivor
                                                        74
      Violence Against Women
        Obstacles and Inequality

 Other inequalities intersect with gender to shape
 the experiences of women in abusive relationships.

 Different inequalities intersect in women's lives to
 compound their experiences of violence.




                                                         75
     Violence Against Women
      Obstacles - Aboriginal women
 Racism and                 Fear of isolation and
 discrimination              judgment

 Insufficient response      Position of partner in
                             community
 Multiple forms of abuse
                             Fear of removal of
                             children

                                                       76
     Violence Against Women
Obstacles - Immigrant and Refugee women

 Language barriers        Unfamiliar Canadian
                           system
 Racism
                           Fear of reporting to
                           authorities
 Distance from friends
 and family
                           Vulnerability
                           regarding citizenship

                                                   77
     Violence Against Women
    Obstacles - women with disabilities

 Dependency on abuser


 Consent


 Fear of consequences


 Concerns about being an “adequate mother”
                                              78
     Violence Against Women
Obstacles - women in same sex relationships

 Being “outed”

 Abuse minimized

 Assumptions about violence in same-sex
 relationships

 Fear of judgment from support systems

 Homophobia/ transphobia
                                              79
      Violence Against Women
     Obstacles - women using substances

 Substance use as weapon of coercion

 Risk of increased violence eg. if she abstains

 Transition houses no-use policies

 Fear of child removal

 Compromised cognitive and motor coordination

            **May be particularly vulnerable to sexual
                                         exploitation
                                                         80
     Violence Against Women
            Obstacles – older women
 neglect                  threats that
                           disclosures will be
 over/under               attributed to
 medicating                confusion or onset of
 censoring mail           dementia

 invasion or denial of
                           services perceived as
 privacy                   focused on younger
 denial of access to      women
 visitors and services                              81
     Violence Against Women
         Obstacles – younger women

 Younger women at a higher risk of violence and of
 being killed by a partner

 May be due to downplaying of the seriousness of
 abuse in relationships between younger women
 and their partners

 Research reports that abuse can begin as early as
 in elementary school.

                                                      82
      Violence Against Women
   Obstacles – women working in sex trade

 Has likely experienced abuse or violence in her life
   Most experience past and present abuse
   Most have been victimized more than once.


 Marginalization, stigma associated with survival
 sex trade

 Normalizing of violence
                                                         83
Violence Against Women
   Obstacles – other inequalities

 Poverty

 Mental health

 Low literacy skills

 Living in a rural community

 Living in an isolated community

                                    84
    Violence Against Women
Assisting Immigrant and Refugee Women

 Barriers:

 Fears/Realities of Deportation
 Language Barriers
 Knowledge of Canadian Laws and Services
 Fears of authority due to past persecution
 Betrayal of family, community
 Loss of family, community

                                               85
   Violence Against Women
Assisting Immigrant and Refugee Women

               Sponsored to come to Canada by a
women               partner/ fiancé/ spouse
without
                 family class sponsorship
landed           refugee status as a dependent
 status          entrepreneur program dependent




                                               86
      Violence Against Women
 Assisting Immigrant and Refugee Women
If she leaves the relationship she may be in breach:

 landing condition to marry within 90 days
 inland sponsorship application in progress dependent
  upon establishing that marriage is genuine
 claim for refugee status based on partner‟s fear of
  persecution
 conditions as accompanying dependent under the
  entrepreneur program

                                                         87
   Violence Against Women
Assisting Immigrant and Refugee Women


        In order to leave an
        abusive relationship,
         women may need to
        apply to change their
         immigration status.


                                        88
   Violence Against Women
Assisting Immigrant and Refugee Women

 Immigration Information
 Citizenship and Immigration Canada

  Call Centre 1 888 242-2100
    automated service
    agent

  Website: www.cic.gc.ca

                                        89
     Violence Against Women
Assisting Immigrant and Refugee Women
May Require Legal Advice To:
 apply to change her
                                 Information on
  immigration status                Eligibility:
 resolve family law matters
  such as custody and access     • Legal Services
                                   Society of BC
Legal Aid:
                                  www.lss.bc.ca
 must be financially eligible
 problem must be covered        •Nearest Legal
  under the legal aid rules        Aid office
 family violence priority
                                                    90
   Violence Against Women
Assisting Immigrant and Refugee Women


   Employment Authorization


   Education


   Financial Assistance


                                        91

								
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