Mission Aircrew School Global Positioning System

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					 Mission Aircrew School
Global Positioning System
    APOLLO GX-55
Global Positioning System
Receiver with SAR Maps
Overview of this Presentation



 GPS Theory
 GPS Receivers
 GPS Receiver Features
 GPS Receiver Controls and Functions
 Summary
 GPS Resources on the Web
                Global Positioning System
                         Theory



   24 satellites in 6 orbital planes
     • First satellite launched in 1978
     • Full constellation achieved in 1994
   4 satellites in each plane
   20,200 km high orbits
   12 hours per orbit
           GPS Theory
           Continued



 DOD   system – initially for military use
 Civilian use permitted later
 Must see at least 3 satellites for 2D Nav
 Must see at least 4 satellites for 3D Nav
 Usually sees 5 to 8 satellites
              GPS Theory
              Continued

 Low  power—50 watts or less
 Civilian GPS uses frequency of 1575.42 MHz
 Three components comprise GPS system:
     • Satellites
     • Ground Control Stations
     • Receivers
   GPS signals are subject to the usual radio
    signal propagation errors and errors unique
    to the system (ie, satellite geometry, orbital
    errors, etc.)
          The GPS Receiver


 Processes signal information from satellites to
  calculate the exact location of the receiver,
  including altitude
 Re-computes position/altitude continuously
 Uses position information, and change-of-position
  information, for calculations of speed, bearing,
  track, distance, ETE, ETA, sunrise and sunset, etc.
        The GPS Receiver
           Continued

   Internal Databases:
     • Airports and Airport Information
     • Navaids (VOR and NDB)
     • Intersections
     • User-defined Waypoints
     • Terrain Clearance Features
     • Airspace and Special Use Airspace
     • SAR Maps and Grids
           The GPS Receiver
              Continued



   Built-in databases permit:
     • Easy entry and retrieval of waypoints and waypoint
       information
     • Automatic display of airspace warnings
     • Moving maps
          The GPS Receiver
             Continued


 GPS signals are radio signals, so they are subject
  to all the typical errors associated with radio
  signal propagation in addition to errors unique to
  the gps system.
 The receiver by itself has no direction or altitude
  sensing capabilities. In the absence of useable
  signals, the receiver will display erroneous
  information or will display only warning messages.
 Use of the receiver does not relieve the pilot of
  maintaining position awareness through other
  available methods (charts, VOR, etc.).
The Apollo GX55
          GX55 Features

   Internal Database:
     •   Airports and Airport Information
     •   Navaids (VOR and NDB)
     •   Intersections
     •   User-defined Waypoints (up to 500)
     •   Terrain Clearance Features
     •   Controlled and Special Use Airspace
   Search and Rescue capabilities:
     • SAR Grids (identical to gridded sectionals)
     • SAR Search Patterns:
         – Parallel Line
         – Creeping Line
         – Expanding Square
            GX55 Features
             Continued

 Flight   Plans:
   • Stores up to 30 reversible flight plans of up to 20
     legs each
   • Automatic sequencing of legs/waypoints
 Message      Function:
   • Flashing ―MSG‖ indicator
   • Continues until all messages are read
   • Requires immediate attention
   • Warnings
   • Important flight data/information
         GX55 Features
          Continued

 Direct-ToNavigation Function
 Nearest Waypoint Search
 Moving Map and Text Displays
 Message Function:
   • Flashing ―MSG‖ indicator
   • Continues until all messages are read
   • Requires immediate attention
   • Warnings
   • Important flight data/information
    Control Knobs and Keys

                                     Power




―Smart‖ Keys and                 ―Large‖ ―Small‖
                   ―Hard‖ Keys
 ―Annunciators‖                   Knob    Knob
       Controls and Functions

   Power Switch
   Buttons:
     • 7 large Buttons are called ―hard‖ keys
          – Right side of the display panel
          – Always perform the same function
     • 5 small buttons are called ―smart‖ keys
         – Located below the display panel
         – Function can change
         – The annunciator above each smart key labels the
           key’s purpose
   Large and Small Knobs:
     • Change the page of text or the map displayed
     • Select Data Fields
     • Change Data in Selected Fields
                   SUMMARY


 GPS - Very Accurate
 GPS Receivers (Becoming User Friendly)
    • Sophisticated displays
    • Large databases
    • Wealth of information and assistance
 Navigation made easy
 Position awareness is more critical than ever
    • GPS system is not fail proof or fool proof
    • GPS ease of use and accuracy can lead to over-
      confidence and over-reliance on the system
                   Web Resources


   www.trimble.com/gps
    • Excellent GPS system explanation by the Trimble Corp
   www.upsat.com/
    • UPS Aviation Technologies—manufacturer of the GX55
    • Downloads available
       – User manual
       – Installation manual
       – Quick reference guide
       – Simulator software (without SAR function; full version
         that includes SAR is for sale, or it can be obtained
         from Iowa CAP)