From ARPANET to LambdaGrid The 1980s Eruption by iyf57920

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									            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




                     Dennis Jennings

NSF Program Director for Networking (1985/86)
        ex University College Dublin



28 September, 2005                        Slide 1
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• Background / Context
     – The “Internet”
          • concept invented; research phase completed.
          • no large scale demonstration.
     – US (Academic) Research the driver




28 September, 2005                                        Slide 2
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




                     Start of the Decade




28 September, 2005                         Slide 3
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption

• 1980
     – Telecomms: Low Cost, Low regulation
     – Campus Networks: None
     – Networks: ARPANET, MFENET, Usenet
     – TCP/IP Implementations: BBN/ARPANET
     – Routers: BBN/ARPANET
     – Network Protocols: Proprietary - Decnet, SNA,
       VNET, Misc.
     – ARPANET success inspired – but access limited
     – PC / Workstations – yet to come
28 September, 2005                                Slide 4
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




                     1980 to 1984




28 September, 2005                        Slide 5
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• 1980 – 1984
     – Telecomms: ***
          • More competition / more deregulation
          • T1, T3 Circuits available and cost effective
          • Falling costs
     – Campus Networks:
          • Ad-hoc departmental
          • All standards – Ethernet (1980)
          • Few ubiquitous networks

28 September, 2005                                         Slide 6
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• 1980 – 1984
     – Agency Networks:
          • MFEnet – DECNET – 1976/1980 (ESNET 1985)
          • ARPANET – (TCP/IP 1983) ***
          • SPAN – DECNET – 1981
     – Community Networks:
          • Usenet
          • BITNET – VNET – 1981
          • CSnet – TCP/IP – 1981 (+ARPANET) ***

28 September, 2005                                     Slide 7
              From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                   The 1980s Eruption


• 1980 – 1984
     – TCP/IP (DARPA Protocol Suite) Implementations:
          •   BSD 4.2 Unix – 1983 (DARPA) ***
          •   ARPANET – TCP/IP (1983)
          •   VAX: Wollongong (1984?)
          •   IBM: Wisconsin (1984?)
          • Cray: None



28 September, 2005                                Slide 8
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• 1980 – 1984
     – Main Protocols:
          • DECNET – VAXen
          • SNA – Mainframe number crunchers
          • TCP/IP – Unix Workstations – Sun ***
     – Routers:
          • BBN
          • Cisco/ Proteon/ Ungermann Bass (1984)
          • Ad-hoc

28 September, 2005                                  Slide 9
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




                       1984




28 September, 2005                        Slide 10
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption

• 1984
     – Recognition:
          • Networking important.
          • CSnet success
          • NSF’s Advanced Scientific Computing Initiative (OASC)
            – network required
     – Budget:
          • Allocated for supercomputer network (NSF – ~10%)
     – Program Director
          • Appointment made – to start 1 January 1985

28 September, 2005                                           Slide 11
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




                       1985




28 September, 2005                        Slide 12
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption

• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
     – NTAG
          • To appoint a technical advisory group to advise (and,
            more generally, to build consensus among the US
            academic research community)
     – General Purpose Network:
          • to develop a general purpose national network for all
            (science and engineering) research, not just a
            specialised network for supercomputer users, in order to
            achieve the mission goals - i.e. to provide all of the
            science and engineering research community with
            access to supercomputing power (and by extension to all
            researchers/academics)
28 September, 2005                                             Slide 13
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption

• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
     – An Internet:
          • to develop a network of networks – an Internet – rather
            that a dedicated single supercomputer network.
     – TCP/IP:
          • to adopt the TCP/IP (DARPA) protocol suite – the
            Internet protocols.
          • to mandate that the TCP/IP protocol suite be adopted (in
            due course) by all existing supercomputer networks
            funded by the NSF’s Advanced Scientific Computing
            programme.

28 September, 2005                                             Slide 14
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
     – Architecture:
          • to build a three-tier network – based on:
              – campus LANs,
              – Regional, Supercomputer, and community networks
                (e.g. CSNET, BITNET), ARPANET, and
              – a national backbone network - linking the national
                supercomputer centres/networks (and through them
                the regional and campus networks).

28 September, 2005                                           Slide 15
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption



• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
      – To fund mid level networks
           • the supercomputer centre networks
             - the JvNC network, provided it was TCP/IP; *
             - the SDSC network, provided it migrated to TCP/IP in
             due course
           • the start-up of State and Regional networks (e.g.
             NYSERNET, SURANET, BARRNET, etc.) and to
             encourage local funding or these networks.

28 September, 2005                                             Slide 16
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
     – (To fund mid level networks)
          • the start-up of a number of “high speed” (T1 – 1.5 Mbit)
            networks.
          • the CSnet Cypress project
          • the BITNET TCP/IP project




28 September, 2005                                              Slide 17
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
     – Not to fund campus networks
          • not to fund the campus networks, but to leave to the
            campuses the responsibility for the delivery of networking
            to the end users (Campus “Gateways” were funded).


     – To fund the NSFNET backbone
          • 17 September 1985


28 September, 2005                                              Slide 18
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




28 September, 2005                        Slide 19
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
     – Routers
          • to use an interim router solution (Dave Mill’s Fuzzball) for
            the NSFNET backbone (to permit the industry time to
            develop routers that met the standard router
            specification).
          • to develop a specification for a standard router
            (RFC985).



28 September, 2005                                                Slide 20
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions - continued
        While all of these decisions may seem reasonably
        obvious with hindsight, none of these decisions was
        seen by everyone involved as obviously necessary or
        correct at the time, and all of the decisions were
        controversial, hotly debated, and contested.




28 September, 2005                                      Slide 21
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




                       1986




28 September, 2005                        Slide 22
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption


• 1986 – NSFNET Early Implementations
     –   Backbone (56Kb)
     –   Supercomputer Centre Networks (56/T1)
     –   Regionals (56Kb) (BARRNET at T1)
     –   ARPANET expansion (slow)
     –   Csnet Cypress Project
     –   BITNET – TCP/IP Project
     –   Campus Networks
28 September, 2005                               Slide 23
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




                     1987 to 1989




28 September, 2005                        Slide 24
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption

• 1987 – 1989: Rapid Growth
     – NSFNET T1 Backbone
     – Professional Management (Merit/ IBM/ MCI)
     – Regionals – growth and interconnection –
       professional management – privatisation –
       commercialisation ….
     – Campus networks
     – NSFNET T3 Backbone planned
     – Everyone wanted to be on the network / Internet
     – US FCCSET coordination and planning

28 September, 2005                                 Slide 25
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




• 1987 – 1989: The Engineering Phase
     –   TCP/IP implementations
     –   Routing development
     –   Performance enhancement
     –   Tools for information discovery …..



28 September, 2005                             Slide 26
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




• 1987 – 1989: The Commercial Phase
     – Commercial router development
     – Commercial Networks
          • UUNET (Commercial – 1989)
          • PSInet (1989)
     – Everyone wanted to be on the network / Internet


28 September, 2005                                 Slide 27
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




         … and By the End of the Decade




28 September, 2005                        Slide 28
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




• 1990
     –   The US National Research Network was in place
     –   The Internet was in place
     –   The Commercial Internet was beginning
     –   The stage was set - for the next Eruption……



28 September, 2005                                 Slide 29
            From ARPANET to LambdaGrid:
                 The 1980s Eruption




                     ……………………..




28 September, 2005                        Slide 30

								
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