FS-NYCETP by yyc62487

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									FS-NYCETP
        Follow-up Study of the
        New York Collaborative for
        Excellence in Teacher
        Preparation

 Dr. Bert Flugman, Principal Investigator
 Dr. Barbara Schroder, Project Director
 Center for Advanced Study in Education, CUNY Graduate Center

 Dr. Serigne Gningue, Lehman College Director
      Background
           The New York Collaborative for
            Excellence in Teacher Preparation (NY-
            CETP) took place at 6 New York City
            colleges between 1996 and 2000. Its
            major accomplishment was the re-design
            of 30 math and science courses for
            undergraduate      education      majors,
            following NSF principles of reform.



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       Goals
          FS-NYCETP was funded by NSF beginning in
           August, 2001, to examine the impact of NY-
           CETP at 3 of the 6 original colleges (Brooklyn
           College, Lehman College, and City College, all
           part of the City University of New York system).
          Its umbrella research question is:
                   How  are our undergraduate
                    elementary education graduates
                    doing teaching math and science?



Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   3
       Sub-questions are:

             How does participation in CETP courses affect
              attitudes, knowledge, and classroom
              performance of preservice teachers during
              college and first year of teaching?
             How can new modes of teacher training narrow
              the performance gap among students with
              different levels of prior academic achievement?
             How do new approaches to teacher training
              (CETP) hold up to the pressures of urban school
              environments?




Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   4
       The Colleges
           All are senior colleges of the City
            University of New York, and prepare
            teachers to teach in New York City public
            schools.
           Their undergraduate education students
            are predominantly urban, african-
            american, and latino. They are older
            (most between 26 – 40 years old), and
            40% are immigrants.


Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   5
 Study Cohorts
     College A:
              Undergraduate elementary education majors who
               were “rising student teachers” in AY 2001. All had
               taken between 2 and 9 CETP math, science and
               education classes.
              Teaching Fellows (comparison group); baccalaureate
               degree holders following an “alternate route” to
               certification -- have taken no CETP classes.
     College B:
              Undergraduate elementary education majors who
               were “rising student teachers.” Had taken between 1
               and 4 CETP classes in math and science.
     College C:
              Undergraduate elementary education minors who
               were “rising student teachers.” Had taken between 0
               and 2 CETP classes in science or science education.



Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   6
       Data Collection Activities,
       2002-2003
                 Core College Student Surveys (for 3rd
                  year), to approximately 550 students in
                  26 CETP’ed classes.
                 Core Faculty Surveys to apprx. 45
                  teachers and administrators involved
                  with CETP reform.
                 Projected Teaching Strategies Survey,
                  accompanying college student surveys,
                  to approximately 500 Education Majors.
                  (2nd year)


Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   7
      Data collection activities, 2002-
      2003, cont.
                Maintained CUNY student records
                 database on 298 student teachers and
                 97 teaching fellows. (“CETP study
                 cohort”).
                Observed 52 student teachers and 15
                 Teaching Fellows of above cohort using
                 CETP’s Classroom Observation Protocol.
                Observees and the principals of their
                 schools completed surveys.



Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   8
       Data collection activities,
       2003-2004
           Follow student teachers (and Teaching
            Fellows) into their first full year in the
            classroom, repeating observations and
            surveys, and collecting lesson plan and
            assessment samples.
           Student achievement data - math and
            science city and state test scores - will
            be collected for their classes.
           Survey principals of observees’ schools.

Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   9
 Study Population N’s
                                  College A College B College C Total
       CUNY student cohorts:
           for student       360             320         120           800
           surveys

             for student
             records analysis     84         90          103           277

             for classroom
             observations and
             teacher surveys
                    AY 2002-3     24         12          16            67
                    AY 2003-4     28         2           5             35
                    (projected)
       Principals surveyed:
                    AY 2002-3     12         8           5             31
                    AY 2003-4     18         2           5             25
                    (projected)


Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence         10
         Overall Findings to Date
         86% of education students intended to
          use reform strategies regularly, when
          asked before they began their own
          teaching. (Average score of 30 or above on
          “Reform strategy scale”)

         The most popular strategies were:
           “students have enough time to learn what is
              required”, “…work on problems related to
              the real world” and “…assessment results
              are used to modify instruction.”



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      Overall Findings to Date, cont.

         Only 46% of observed student
          teachers and teaching fellows
          reported using these reform
          strategies regularly. (Average score
          of 30 or above on “Reform strategy
          scale”)




Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   12
       Overall Findings to Date, cont.
                  COP Ratings, 2002-03
    Description                                                  Count     %
1   Passive “learning”                                               2     3
2   Activity for activity’s sake                                     3     4
3   Elements of effective instruction                               10     15
4   Beginning stages of effective instruction:                      20     30
    low
5   Beginning stages of effective instruction:                      10     15
    solid
6   Beginning stages of effective instruction:                       5     8
    high
7   Accomplished, effective instruction                             15     22

8   Exemplary instruction                                            2     3

    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence        13
       Findings to Date, cont.

           The average capsule rating on the
            COP was 4.8. (on a scale ranging from 1
            “ineffective instruction” to 8 “exemplary
            instruction”)


           52 observees, or 78%, scored at
            least at the “Beginning Stage of
            Effective Instruction.”


Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   14
              Towards analyzing results:
             Observees (67) by number of
                   CETP classes.
       # of               College           College            College
       CETP                 A                 B                  C
       classes
       TF (0)                   15                 0                   0

       Low (0-1)                 1                 3                   16

       Medium                    8                 9                   0
       (2-4)
       High                     21                 0                   0
       (5-9)

Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence        15
              2002-3 Observees: COP Capsule
                Ratings by number of CETP
                         classes
     Capsule TF                      Low           Medium High
     Rating  (0)                     (0,1)         (2-4)  (5–9)
                      5              4             3                   3
     1-2              33%            21%           25%                 14%
                      10             15            9                   18
     3-5              67%            79%           75%                 86%
     Total            15             19   12                           21
                      100%           100% 100%                         100%

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    Observing Lehman College’s Teacher
       Candidates: Common Trends


                     I. Context
        At Lehman College, a Teacher
         Candidate (TC) may obtain New
         York State Initial Certification in two
         ways:



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        The TC may be an undergraduate
         student. All undergraduate TCs at
         Lehman College have a liberal arts
         or sciences major. To be certified,
         they have to complete a 4course
         minor program followed by a
         Methods’ Course and Student
         Teaching for a total of 23-26
         credits.


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       Such program integrates
        practice with theory. All courses
        include as a central component,
        field-based experiences at
        schools and community
        agencies (100 hours must be
        completed before student teaching).
        CETP students fall under this
        category.

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   The TC may be a graduate student in
    education in Secondary Education
    (Math, Science, Social Studies, etc…), in
    Elementary Education, or in Special
    Education, who:
     May   be already holding a teaching certificate
       (Provisional or Initial) and is seeking a
       Master's degree which will lead him/her to
       Permanent or Professional certification.
       His/her program of studies is mostly content-
       based and does not require Student
       Teaching or Internship.

    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   20
   May be holding some type of temporary
    certificate, is teaching, and is seeking
    Initial certification. His/her program
    requires Internship.

    FELLOWS and TOPS, who hold a
    Transitional B certificate, fall under
    this category (They are mentored for 2-3
    years through monthly observations).


    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   21
           May not hold any type of
            certificate, is not teaching, and is
            seeking Initial certification. His/her
            program requires Student
            Teaching.




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   Student teachers and Interns are
    observed at least four times during the
    semester. They also attend bi-weekly
    seminars.

   I am involved in:
      the supervision of student teachers and
       interns in Secondary Education,
      the mentoring of TOPS/FELLOWS, and
      the observations of CETP students.




    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   23
   What follows represents a summary of
    what I have observed and tried to address
    after my first observation.

   TCs are evaluated in each of five
    competencies:
          Classroom   Management,
          Instruction Planning,
          Instruction Delivery,
          Assessment, and
          Human Relations/Communication Skills.

(The tool was adapted from assessment developed by Towson University
   and Baltimore County Schools)



      Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   24
          II. Observational Findings

    The COP measurement instrument
     focuses more on Instruction Planning
     and on Instruction Delivery than on the
     other competencies. Nevertheless, once
     in the classroom, one cannot ignore the
     other four competencies.




Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   25
          Management                        The TC is expected to:
   Display an understanding and implement
    components necessary of effective
    classroom management (high expectations for
    student success and consistency in dealing with
    students)
   Establish standards of conduct that are clear
    to all students.
   Respond to behavior in an appropriate and
    consistent manner
   Establish routines that are evident and
    maximize instructional time.
   Interact with students in a caring and
    respectful manner.


    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   26
      Management                         General Findings:
   CETP TCs seem to have less management
    problems. Is it because students are still young?

   In many CETP classes: students that cause
    problems are usually isolated in a corner and
    given a task so that they won't disturb.

   Most TCs ignore some students' misbehavior and
    work habits: some students do other things
    without the teacher’s awareness: reading a book,
    drawing, copying some other work, throwing
    papers, spit balls, etc…



     Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   27
         Management                    General Findings:
                                   cont’d.
   The rate of misbehavior seems to increase as the
    grade level increases, and attains its climax in
    middle school classes.
   HS students care more about grades being
    reduced because of conduct than MS students.
   MS students care more about some types of
    punishment: Lunch, Gym, or after-school
    Detention (if the school allows such policies) or
    not going on a trip.
   I often advise teachers to establish some type of
    mechanism to address students' inappropriate
    behavior, depending on the level.


      Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   28
Instruction Planning                       The TC is expected to:
   Select appropriate curricular standards and
    outcomes based on formal and informal
    student assessment
   Write an effective lesson plan
   Plan meaningful performance tasks
    appropriate to the linguistic, cultural, and
    developmental levels of the students.
   Plan collaboratively with the cooperating
    teacher and other classroom instructional
    support personnel.
   Develop a long-range unit plan.


     Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   29
    Instruction Planning                         General Findings
    The plans written usually look great on paper
     because most TCs:
             list all the required components
             spend a lot of times designing them.

    However, TCs tend to:
             link the lessons to too many standards
             list too many objectives, and consequently

             write lesson plans that are too long. How many
              Science or Mathematics ideas can one teach in
              one period?
    More cognitive tasks are seen in CETP
     classes than in MS or HS classes. However,
     students rarely reach Cognitive Level 3
     (Knowledge Representation).
    HS teachers, for the most part, still teach
     traditionally.
    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   30
    Instructional Delivery                   The TC is expected to:
   Effectively implement the lesson plan and
    demonstrate mastery of content
   Use a variety of instructional strategies and
    groupings appropriate to instructional goals
   Ask questions which require the use of
    higher level thinking skills and use sufficient
    wait time
   Provide all learners with opportunities to
    participate.




       Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   31
  Instructional Delivery                                  Findings


    Time management is usually a big issue.
     TCs are often easily distracted by
     students' behavior, and by some students’
     questions that deviate from the topic.

    Sometimes, the TC realizes that students
     do not have a prior knowledge on a
     concept and wants to review it right there
     before moving on. He/she consequently
     often runs out of time.



Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   32
     Instructional Delivery                                  Findings
    Even though students are put in groups, the
     TC ends up doing all the talking (This was
     noticed even in classes that use IMP).


    The TC does not really control what goes on
     in every group; disruptive behavior by one
     member leads to disruption in the group,
     which usually goes unnoticed. The TC is
     often near the blackboard and seldom
     moves around to see what students are
     doing.
*IMP is a standard-based program.



    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   33
    Instructional Delivery                                Findings
    TCs have the most urgent need in questioning
     techniques:
             How they question and the type of questions asked
              often confuse students even for the simplest ideas.
             One question can be repeated three to four times in
              a different way before they call on someone to
              respond.
    They rarely validate students’ responses properly
     (Always in a hurry to move to another question)
     Rarely ask students to make conjectures.



       Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   34
  Instructional Delivery                                  Findings

     Very often, TCs unconsciously turn to
      students who tend to raise their hands and
      already know the answers.

     Rarely do they call on someone who is just
      sitting and doing his/her work, or not
      participating.

     Rarely send students to the board.




Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   35
      Assessment                        The TC is expected to:

   Employ a variety of assessment approaches,
    which match instructional goals.

   Have established and clearly communicated
    assessment criteria to students.

   Provide assessment feedback to students
    that is accurate and relevant.
    Use self-assessment to evaluate and improve
    instruction




    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   36
        Assessment                                 Findings
   The following conversation usually goes on after
    the observation
       How do you think the lesson went?
              • TC: I think it went pretty well. They all understand
                what was taught.
       Did all students understand the concept?
              • TC: May be not all but most of them did.
       Can you list me a few students that you thought did
        well?
              • Well Eric and maybe Barbara...(The doubt starts to set
                in).
       Are you sure that most students who were
        engaged in their task understood it?


     Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   37
    Assessment                                 Findings


    That's usually how we start discussing
     different ways of assessing students in
     class during the lesson.

    For many TCs, it’s only through the tests
     given that they really assess students’
     learning and understanding of the
     concepts taught.


    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   38
           Assessment                                    Findings


    As a mean of self-assessment, TC has to also
     submit a self-evaluation using the Division-
     wide Internship/Student Teacher Assessment
     tool.

    Throughout the Internship/Student Teaching
     experience, TCs also keep a daily journal,
     emailed weekly to the supervisor, to reflect on
     their practices and on school issues.



    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   39
      Human Relations/Communications Skills
           The teacher is expected to:
   Practice effective human relations/communication
    skills with colleagues, parents, and children.
   Demonstrate exemplary professional behavior.
   Maintain a positive relationship with all students and
    show flexibility towards individual student’s needs.
   Speak and use a clear and accurate language.
   Practice effective human relations/communication
    skills through a supportive/cooperative relationship
    with colleagues.
   Demonstrate professional behavior.
   Model respect for diversity within the school
    community.



    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   40
         Human Relations/Communications Skills
                                    Findings

   We deal with a large number of
    teachers that speak a language
    other than English. However, lesson
    plans are well written and students
    usually have no problems
    understanding what they say.




Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   41
     Human Relations/Communications Skills
                                Findings
   Emphasis is on attendance, punctuality, school
    dress code, preparedness, awareness of
    school issues etc…
   Relationships with colleagues are usually
    cordial.
   Except for one CETP student who did not get
    along with her cooperating teacher because of
    the way the cooperating teacher handled
    students who were giving her a difficult time.
    We ended up changing the TC placement.
   Otherwise, CETPs are usually well liked by
    students.


    Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   42
                     III.        Conclusions
   CETPs,TOPS, and FELLOWS all agree that
    good classroom management is the key to
    teaching.

   For TCs, what they learn in classes and
    through fieldwork observations do not match
    what they learn when they start teaching.

   TCs are usually better during my second
    observation. I try to observe them teach the
    same class to see if the strategies we draw
    together work.

Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   43
      Conclusions                                          Cont’d
    Follow-up conferences and observations
     are essential to teacher training.

    Support mechanism has to be in place
     from the first month (if not the first week)
     of school to help new teachers.

    Assessing students in one observation
     alone (as done using the COP for CETP)
     is not sufficient.



Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   44
    What other data do we have?
           Undergrad background:
                College grades, courses, overall gpas,
                 math and science courses and cums, etc.
                New York State teaching license exam
                 results: LAST
           School context variables:
                Principal survey responses
                Teacher survey responses
                Observers comments
           COPs: activities, student engagement,
            cognitive levels, etc.
           Lesson plans and assessment plans

Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   45
          What should we focus
          on?
          Which of these variables
          are most interesting to
          you, and why?


Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   46
       What happened to last year’s
       observees? (n=67)
                                                               N       %
         Didn’t graduate yet                                      7    10
         Graduated, no response                                  10    15
          “ not teaching at all                                   9    13
           “     moved                                             1    1
           “     teaching, but not Gr.1-6,                         6    9
                  math or science
                   “, being observed                             30    45
                    “, declined (no reason)                        4    6

Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence        47
          How are other schools
          of education tracking
          and evaluating the
          performance of their
          graduates?


Follow-up Study of the New York Collaborative for Teacher Excellence   48

								
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