Sentence completion (DOC) by VivekAgrawal2

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1. In some cultures the essence of magic is its traditional integrity: it
can be efficient only if it has been _______ without loss from primeval
times to the present practitioner.
(A) conventionalized
(B) realized
(C) transmitted
(D) manipulated
(E) aggrandized

2. Although skeptics say financial problems will probably _______ our
establishing a base on the Moon, supporters of the project remain
_______, saying that human curiosity should overcome such pragmatic
(A) beset, disillusioned
(B) hasten, hopeful
(C) postpone, pessimistic
(D) prevent, enthusiastic
(E) allow, unconvinced

3. Before the Second World War, academics still questioned whether the
body of literature produced in the United States truly _______ a _______
literature or whether such literature was only a provincial branch of
English literature.
(A) symbolized, local
(B) constituted, national
(C) defined, historical
(D) outlined, good
(E) captured, meaningful
4. Many more eighteenth-century novels were written by women than by men,
but this dominance has, until very recently, been regarded merely as
_______ fact, a bit of arcane knowledge noted only by bibliographers.
(A) a controversial
(B) a statistical
(C) an analytical
(D) an explicit
(E) an unimpeachable

5. All _______ biological traits fall into one of two categories: those
giving their possessors greater _______ the environment and those
rendering them more independent of it.
(A) widespread, detachment from
(B) beneficial, control over
(C) successful, freedom from
(D) neutral, compatibility with
(E) harmful, advantage in

6. One of archaeology’s central dilemmas is now to reconstruct the
_______ of complex ancient societies from meager and often _______
physical evidence.
(A) riddles, obsolete
(B) details, irrefutable
(C) intricacies, equivocal
(D) patterns, flawless
(E) configuration, explicit

7. Just as the authors’ book on eels is often a key text for curses in
marine vertebrate zoology, their ideas on animal development and
phylogeny _______ teaching in this area.
(A) prevent
(B) defy
(C) replicate
(D) inform
(E) use
8. During the opera’s most famous aria the tempo chosen by the
orchestra’s conductor seemed _______, without necessary relation to what
had gone before.
(A) capricious
(B) contrite
(C) demure
(D) definitive
(E) dauntless

9. The state of a nation’s science determines its prosperity and
political power, and scientists should not _______ this relationship even
if their own interest in science is of a less practical nature.
(A) overlook
(B) consider
(C) overestimate
(D) rely on
(E) notice

10. In scientific studies, supporting evidence is much more satisfying to
report than are discredited hypotheses, but, in fact, the _______ of
errors is more likely to be _______ than is the establishment of probable
(A) formulation, permitted
(B) correction, ignored
(C) detection, useful
(D) accumulation, cordial
(E) deference, credulous
11. Most histories of science are success stories that conclude on
_______ note with the fine _______ of a theory that is the basis of
subsequent inquiries by later researchers.
(A) a retrospective, extrapolation
(B) an analytic, rebuttal
(C) an objective, defection
(D) a positive, crescendo
(E) a triumphal, ascendancy
12. Whereas the Elizabethans struggled with the transition from medieval
_______ experience to modern individualism, we confront an electronic
technology that seems likely to reverse the trend, rendering
individualism obsolete and interdependence mandatory.
(A) literary
(B) intuitive
(C) corporate
(D) heroic
(E) spiritual

13. Supporters praised the mayor’ action as a speedy and judicious
solution, but critics condemned it as _______ and unfairly influenced by
recent events.
(A) innocuous
(B) deferential
(C) beguiling
(D) discreet
(E) premature

14. In an age without radio or recordings, and age _______ by print,
fiction gained its great ascendancy.
(A) decimated
(B) denigrated
(C) dominated
(D) emphasized
(E) resurrected

15. The idealized paintings of nature produced in the eighteenth century
are evidence that the medieval _______ natural settings had been _______
and that the outdoors now could be enjoyed without trepidation.
(A) fear of, exorcised
(B) concerns about, regained
(C) affection for, surmounted
(D) disinterest in, alleviated
(E) enthusiasm for, construed
16. Though science is often imagined as a _______ exploration of external
reality, scientists are no different from anyone else: they are _______
human beings enmeshed in a web of personal and social circumstances.
(A) dormant, decisive
(B) neutral, rational
(C) diligent, careless
(D) disinterested, passionate
(E) cautious, dynamic

17. While the delegate clearly sought to _______ the optimism that has
emerged recently, she stopped short of suggesting that the conference was
near collapse and might produce nothing of significance.
(A) convene
(B) confuse
(C) dampen
(D) elucidate
(E) depict
18. Their air of cheerful self-sacrifice and endless complaisance won
them undeserved praise, for their seeming gallantry was wholly motivated
by a _______ wish to avoid conflict of any sort.
(A) poignant
(B) conductive
(C) plaintive
(D) corporeal
(E) craven

19. Rumors, embroidered with detail, live on for years, neither denied
nor confirmed, until they become accepted as fact even among people not
known for their _______.
(A) insight
(B) obstinacy
(C) introspection
(D) contrition
(E) credulity

20. During the 1960’s assessments of the family shifted remarkably, from
general endorsement of it as a worthwhile, stable institution to wide-
spread _______ it as an oppressive and bankrupt one whose _______ was
both imminent and welcome.
(A) flight from, restitution
(B) contortion of, corruption
(C) rejection of, vogue
(D) censure of, dissolution
(E) corroboration, ascent
21. Furious at the harm being done to his good name, Donald sued to put
an end to this _______.
(A) contrition
(B) depravity
(C) defamation
(D) derivation
(E) decrepitude

22. Although scientists claim that the seemingly _______ language of
their reports is more precise than the figurative language of fiction,
the language of science, like all language, is inherently _______.
(A) mysterious, subtle
(B) morose, unintelligible
(C) symbolic, complex
(D) literal, allusive
(E) metaphorical, lucid

23. When the graduating seniors tied balloons to their tassels, some
faculty members were offended by such _______ at a supposedly serious
commencement ceremony.
(A) levity
(B) lethargy
(C) largesse
(D) misgivings
(E) loftiness

24. In most Native American culture, an article used in payer or ritual
is made with extraordinary attention to and richness of detail: it is
decorated more _______ than a similar article intended for _______ use.
(A) minutely, vocational
(B) colorfully, festive
(C) coherently, religious
(D) mordantly, commercial
(E) lavishly, everyday

25. Famous among job seekers for its _______, the company, quite apart
from generous salaries, bestowed on its executives annual bonuses and
such _______ as low-interest home mortgages and company cars.
(A) magnanimity, reparations
(B) inventiveness, benefits
(C) largesse, perquisites
(D) discernment, prerogatives
(E) malapropism, credits
26. The attempt to breed suitable varieties of jojoba by using
hybridization to _______ favorable traits was finally abandoned in favor
of a simple and much faster _______: the domestication of flourishing
wild strains.
(A) eliminate, alternative
(B) reinforce, method
(C) allow, creation
(D) reduce, idea
(E) concentrate, theory

27. Although frequent air travelers remain unconvinced, researchers have
found that paradoxically, the _______ disorientation inherent in jet lag
also may yield some mental health _______.
(A) temporal, benefits
(B) acquired, hazards
(C) somatic, disorders
(D) random, deficiencies
(E) meager, standards

28. Because the most recent research has _______ earlier criticism of her
work, one has to conclude that scientists who persist in dismissing her
contribution are either _______ the latest findings or simply obstinate.
(A) disparaged, satisfied with
(B) mired, preoccupied with
(C) marred, unmoved by
(D) lauded, opposed to
(E) invalidated, ignorant of

29. To list Reilly’s achievements in a fragmentary way is _______, for it
distracts our attention from the _______ themes of her work.
(A) unproductive, disparate
(B) misleading, integrating
(C) lachrymose, comprehensive
(D) logical, important
(E) moribund, unsettling

30. Until he learned to be more _______ about writing down his homework
assignments, James seldom knew when any assignment was due.
(A) morose
(B) latent
(C) listless
(D) meddlesome
(E) methodical
31. This final essay, its prevailing kindliness _______ by occasional
flashes of savage irony, bespeaks the _______ character of the author.
(A) illuminated, imperturbable
(B) marred, dichotomous
(C) mired, vindictive
(D) lauded, chivalrous
(E) diluted, ruthless

32. The tone of Jane Carlyle’s letter is guarded, and her feelings are
always _______ by the wit and pride that made _______ plea for sympathy
impossible for her.
(A) masked, a direct
(B) bolstered, a mawkish
(C) enhanced, an intentional
(D) controlled, a circumspect
(E) colored, a mercurial

33. Even though in today’s Soviet Union the _______ the Muslim clergy
have been accorded power and privileges, the Muslim laity and the rank-
and-file clergy still have little _______ to practice their religion.
(A) practitioners among, opportunity
(B) magnates within, obligation
(C) adversaries of, inclination
(D) leaders of, latitude
(E) mentors among, motive

34. He was regarded by his followers as something of _______, not only
because of his insistence on strict discipline, but also because of his
_______ adherence to formal details.
(A) a martinet, rigid
(B) a miser, sporadic
(C) a rebel, minute
(D) a malingerer, conscientious
(E) a magnate, maniacal

35. Though his contemporaries tended to fixate on the politician’s
supposed _______, his personal correspondence _______ a surprising
(A) charity, confirms
(B) parsimony, contradicts
(C) avarice, betrays
(D) integrity, reveals
(E) generosity, bespeaks

36. The children’s _______ natures were in sharp contrast to the even-
tempered dispositions of their parents.
(A) mercurial
(B) blithe
(C) phlegmatic
(D) loutish
(E) maladroit

37. The old man could not have been accused of _______ his affection; his
conduct toward the child betrayed his _______ her.
(A) lavishing, fondness for
(B) sparing, tolerance of
(C) slackening, antipathy for
(D) stinting, adoration of
(E) scrutinizing, dislike of

38. James boasted that only factual arguments could influence him; he had
no patience with mere _______ devices.
(A) scanty
(B) soporific
(C) rhetorical
(D) sacrilegious
(E) sardonic

39. The English novelist William Thackeray considered the cult of the
criminal so dangerous that he criticized Dickens’ Oliver Twist for making
the characters in the thieves’ kitchen so _______.
(A) sluggish
(B) sporadic
(C) scrupulous
(D) riveting
(E) repugnant

40. Jones was unable to recognize the contradictions in his attitudes
that were obvious to everyone else; even the hint of an untruth was
_______ to him, but he _______ serious trouble by always cheating on his
(A) acceptable, risked
(B) shrewd, averted
(C) repugnant, courted
(D) soporific, evaded
(E) ruthless, hazarded
41. Cezanne’s delicate watercolor sketches often served as _______ of a
subject, a way of gathering fuller knowledge before the artist’s final
engagement of the subject in an oil painting.
(A) a respite
(B) a synthesis
(C) a reconnaissance
(D) a satire
(E) a reflection

42. Prudery actually draws attention to the vice it is supposed to
_______; the very act that forbids speech or prohibits sight _______ what
is hidden.
(A) stigmatize, distorts
(B) saturate, signals
(C) repress, dramatizes
(D) sequester, fosters
(E) retaliate, conceals

43. In contrast to more _______ publications of ever narrower purview,
the journal Antiquity has remained as _______ as it was when it began,
continuing to serve the broader interests of the discipline of
(A) atypical, anomalous
(B) specialized, eclectic
(C) diverse, idiosyncratic
(D) irrelevant, superfluous
(E) authoritative, autocratic

44. In eighth-century Japan, people who _______ wasteland were rewarded
with official ranks as part of an effort to overcome the shortage of
_______ fields.
(A) squandered, forested
(B) reclaimed, arable
(C) solicited, domestic
(D) irrigated, accessible
(E) required, desirable

45. As painted by Constable, the scene is not one of bucolic _______;
rather it shows a striking emotional and intellectual _______.
(A) subtlety, boredom
(B) synthesis, detachment
(C) serenity, tension
(D) searing, excitement
(E) nostalgia, placidity
46. The fortress like façade of the Museum of Cartoon Art seems
calculated to remind visitors the comic strip is an art form that has
often been _______ by critics.
(A) charmed
(B) assailed
(C) revoked
(D) exhilarated
(E) overwhelmed
47. Rhetoric often seems to _______ over reason in a heated debate, with
both sides _______ in hyperbole.
(A) cloud, subsiding
(B) prevail, yielding
(C) triumph, engaging
(D) requite, clamoring
(E) tout, sneering

48. The meeting seemed _______, not just because decisions were made with
excessive deliberation, but also because the director was so _______ as
to provoke extremely lengthy debate.
(A) abbreviated, distracted
(B) interminable, tendentious
(C) sedentary, persuasive
(D) endless, amenable
(E) restive, withdrawn

49. The reception given to Kimura’s radical theory of molecular evolution
shows that when _______ fights orthodoxy to a draw, then novelty has
seized a good chunk of space from convention.
(A) imitation
(B) reaction
(C) dogmatism
(D) invention
(E) mediocrity

50. Some customs travel well; often, however, behavior that is considered
the epitome of _______ at home is perceived as impossibly rude or, at the
least, harmlessly bizarre abroad.
(A) sordidness
(B) servility
(C) urbanity
(D) coarseness
(E) satiricalness

51. Paradoxically, altruism may in fact be _______ if it aids only one’s
close relatives.
(A) stalwart
(B) beneficent
(C) rancorous
(D) selfish
(E) censorious

52. The pressure of population available resources is the key to
understanding history; consequently, any historical writing that takes no
cognizance of _______ facts is _______ flawed.
(A) demographic, intrinsically
(B) ecological, marginally
(C) cultural, substantively
(D) psychological, philosophically
(E) political, demonstratively

53. Fenster schemed and plotted for weeks and these _______ were rewarded
when Griswold was fired and Fenster was promoted.
(A) circumlocutions
(B) affiliations
(C) gibbering
(D) machinations
(E) renunciations

54. Thomas Jefferson’s decision not to _______ lotteries was sanctioned
by classical wisdom, which held that, far from being a _______ game, lots
were a way of divining the future and of involving the gods in everyday
(A) expand, sacred
(B) publicize, vile
(C) condemn, debased
(D) legalize, standardized
(E) restrict, useful

55. Although she was normally a _______ individual, she attacked the
heckler who had been interrupting her speech.
(A) perceptive
(B) pusillanimous
(C) peaceful
(D) choleric
(E) boastful

56. Although the feeding activities of whales and walruses give the
seafloor of the Bering Shelf a devastated appearance, these activities
seem to be actually _______ to the area, _______ its productivity.
(A) destructive, counterbalancing
(B) rehabilitative, diminishing
(C) beneficial, enhancing
(D) detrimental, redirecting
(E) superfluous, encumbering

57. The somber news from the flood-stricken area does not justify the
_______ attitude which you are displaying.
(A) lugubrious
(B) sanguinary
(C) belligerent
(D) optimistic
(E) gloomy

58. Noting that few employees showed any _______ for complying with the
corporation’s new safety regulations, Peterson was forced to conclude
that acceptance of the regulations would be _______, at best.
(A) aptitude, unavoidable
(B) regard, indeterminate
(C) respect, negotiable
(D) patience, imminent
(E) enthusiasm, grudging

59. The observation that nurses treating patients with pellagra did not
_______ the disease led epidemiologists to question the theory that
pellagra is _______.
(A) risk, deadly
(B) fear, curable
(C) acknowledge, common
(D) contract, contagious
(E) battle, preventable

60. Sometimes fiction is marred by departures from the main narrative,
but Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye is instead _______ by its _______,
which add levels of meaning of the principal story.
(A) enhanced, digressions
(B) harmed, excursions
(C) adorned, melodramas
(D) strengthened, criticisms
(E) unaffected, circumlocutions

61. Here in America, we have a _______ speech that is neither American,
Oxford English, nor English but a _______ of all three.
(A) motley, conflagration
(B) hybrid, combination
(C) nasal, mutilation
(D) mangled, conglomeration
(E) feigned, masquerade

62. We were annoyed by her _______ reply for we had been led to expect
definite assurances of her approval.
(A) acerbic
(B) noncommittal
(C) vehement
(D) caustic
(E) articulate

63. Linguists have now confirmed what experienced users of ASL-American
Sign Language- have always implicitly known: ASL is a grammatically
_______ language in that it is capable of expressing every possible
syntactic relation.
(A) limited
(B) economical
(C) complete
(D) shifting
(E) abstract

64. Aalto, like other modernists, believed that form follows functions;
consequently, his furniture designs asserted that _______ of human needs,
and the furniture’s form was _______ human use.
(A) universality, refined by
(B) importance, relegated to
(C) rationale, emphasized by
(D) primacy, determined by
(E) variability, reflected in

65. The action and characters in a melodrama can be so immediately
_______ that all observers can hiss the villain with an air of smug but
enjoyable _______.
(A) spurned, boredom
(B) forgotten, condescension
(C) classified, self-righteousness
(D) plausible, guilt
(E) gripping, skepticism
66. The wonder of De Quincey is that although opium dominated his life,
it never _______ him; indeed, he turned its use to _______ when he
published the story of its influence in the London Magazine.
(A) overcame, altruism
(B) intimidated, triumph
(C) distressed, pleasure
(D) conquered, gain
(E) released, necessity

67. Scientists who are on the cutting edge of research must often violate
common sense and make seemingly _______ assumptions because existing
theories simply do not _______ newly observed phenomena.
(A) radical, confirm
(B) vague, incorporate
(C) absurd, explain
(D) mistaken, reveal
(E) inexact, corroborate

68. Today water is more _______ in landscape architecture than ever
before, because technological advances have made it easy, in some
instances even _______ to install water features in public places.
(A) conspicuous, prohibitive
(B) sporadic, effortless
(C) indispensible, intricate
(D) ubiquitous, obligatory
(E) controversial, unnecessary

69. The muses are _______ deities: they avenge themselves without mercy
on those who weary of their charms.
(A) rueful
(B) ingenuous
(C) solicitous
(D) vindictive
(E) dispassionate

70. A study of Berthe Morisot’s painting technique reveals that her
apparent _______ and _______ execution were never as casual as they
seemed but actually resulted from years of practice and concentration.
(A) craft, studied
(B) improvisation, diligent
(C) spontaneity, rapid
(D) deception, flawless
(E) accomplishment, laborious

71. A misconception frequently held by novice writers is that sentence
structure mirrors thought: the more convoluted the structure, the more
_______ the ideas.
(A) complicated
(B) inconsequential
(C) elementary
(D) fanciful
(E) blatant

72. Babcock’s criticism of the business practices of fellow merchants was
colored by _______; the more successful the other entrepreneurs, the more
bitterly they were _______.
(A) sensitivity, courted
(B) jealousy, castigated
(C) admiration, admonished
(D) ambivalence, dismissed
(E) blame, exonerated

73. Few of us take the pains to study our cherished convictions; indeed,
we almost have a natural _______ doing so.
(A) aptitude for
(B) repugnance to
(C) interest in
(D) ignorance of
(E) reaction after

74. Just as astrology was for centuries _______ faith, countering the
strength of established churches, so today believing in astrology is an
act of _______ the professional sciences.
(A) an individual, rebellion by
(B) an accepted, antagonism toward
(C) an underground, defiance against
(D) a heretical, support for
(E) an unknown, concern about

75. If you come to the conference with such _______ attitude, we cannot
expect to reach _______ agreement.
(A) a subservient, passive
(B) an indolent, satisfactory
(C) an unwonted, hypothetical
(D) an obdurate, harmonious
(E) a complicated, conclusive
76. The credibility of her _______ description of the conflicts
experienced by many contemporary women in their everyday lives was
undermined by her _______ conclusions.
(A)   even-handed, partisan
(B)   biased, lopsided
(C)   detailed, careful
(D)   general, far-reaching
(E)   realistic, valid

77. Although Johnson _______ great enthusiasm for his employees’ project,
in reality his interest in the project was so _______ as to be almost
(A) generated, redundant
(B) displayed, preemptive
(C) expected, indiscriminate
(D) feigned, perfunctory
(E) demanded, dispassionate

78. Dependence on foreign sources of heavy metals, though _______,
remains _______ for United States foreign policy.
(A) deepening, a challenge
(B) diminishing, a problem
(C) excessive, a dilemma
(D) debilitating, an embarrassment
(E) unavoidable, a precedent

79. In many science fiction films, the opposition of good and evil is
portrayed as a _______ between technology, which is _______, and the
errant will of a depraved intellectual.
(A) fusion, useful
(B) struggle, dehumanizing
(C) parallel, unfettered
(D) conflict, beneficent
(E) similarity, malevolent

80. Although some of her fellow scientists _______ the unorthodox
laboratory methodology than others found innovative, unanimous praise
greeted her experimental results: at once pioneering and _______.
(A) ignored, untrustworthy
(B) complimented, foreseeable
(C) welcomed, mundane
(D) decried, unexceptionable
(E) attacked, inconclusive
81. Business forecasts usually prove reasonably accurate when the
assumption that the future will be much like the past is _______; in
times of major _______ in the business environment, however, forecasts
can be dangerously wrong.
(A) specified, discontinuities
(B) questioned, surges
(C) renounced, improvements
(D) stipulated, risks
(E) satisfied, shifts
82. In their preface, the collection’s editors plead that certain of the
important articles they _______ were published too recently for
inclusion, but in the case of many such articles, this _______ is not
(A) discussed, replacement
(B) omitted, excuse
(C) revised, clarification
(D) disparaged, justification
(E) ignored, endorsement

83. The labor union and the company’s management despite their long
history of unfailingly acerbic disagreement on nearly every issue, have
nevertheless reached an unexpectedly _______, albeit still tentative,
agreement on next year’s contract.
(A) swift
(B) onerous
(C) hesitant
(D) reluctant
(E) conclusive

84. The _______ questions that consistently structure the study of
history must be distinguished from merely _______ questions, which have
their day and then pass into oblivion.
(A) recurrent, practical
(B) instinctive, factual
(C) ingrained, discriminating
(D) philosophical, random
(E) perennial, ephemeral

85. That she seemed to prefer _______ to concentrated effort is
undeniable; nevertheless, the impressive quality of her finished
paintings suggests that her actual relationship to her art was anything
but _______.
(A) preparation, passionate
(B) artfulness, disengaged
(C) dabbling, superficial
(D) caprice, considered
(E) indecision, lighthearted
86. Although they were not direct _______, the new arts of the Classical
period were clearly created in the spirit of older Roman models and thus
_______ many features of the older style.
(A) impressions, introduced
(B) translations, accentuated
(C) copies, maintained
(D) masterpieces, depicted
(E) borrowings, improvised

87. Marshal Philippe Petain, unlike any other French citizen of this
century, has been, paradoxically, the object of both great veneration and
great _______.
(A) reverence
(B) interest
(C) empathy
(D) contempt
(E) praise

88. Philosophical problems arise when people ask questions that, though
very _______, have certain characteristics in common.
(A) relevant
(B) elementary
(C) abstract
(D) diverse
(E) controversial

89. Early critics of Emily Dickinson’s poetry mistook for
simplemindedness the surface of artlessness that in fact she constructed
with such _______.
(A) astonishment
(B) vexation
(C) allusion
(D) innocence
(E) cunning

90. Her tone of voice _______ him: he could not tell whether she was
being _______ or whether he was to take her comment literally.
(A) offended, genuine
(B) puzzled, direct
(C) comforted, kind
(D) reassured, condescending
(E) perplexed, sarcastic
91. The self-important cant of musicologists on record jackets often
suggests that true appreciation of the music is an _______ process closed
to the uninitiated listener, however enthusiastic.
(A) unreliable
(B) variegated
(C) salubrious
(D) arcane
(E) balmy

92. By divesting himself of all regalities, the former king _______ the
consideration that customarily protects monarchs.
(A) merited
(B) forfeited
(C) debased
(D) concealed
(E) superannuated

93. I have no _______ in this matter: I am forced to follow the
guidelines set forth in this manual.
(A) grudge
(B) qualifications
(C) prudence
(D) wisdom
(E) latitude

94. The _______ qualities of this salve will provide you with temporary
relief from the pain which you now suffer.
(A) obscure
(B) analgesic
(C) soporific
(D) caustic
(E) esthetic

95. Just as midwifery was for hundreds of years _______ practice,
something that women retained control over for themselves, so too the
increasingly independent role of the midwife in the process of childbirth
is _______ domination by institutional medicine.
(A) a personal, reaction of
(B) a controversial, tolerance of
(C) an autonomous, liberation from
(D) a communal, celebration of
(E) a dangerous, protection from

96. Usually the first to spot data that were inconsistent with other
findings, in this particular experiment she let a number of _______
results slip by.
(A) inaccurate
(B) verifiable
(C) redundant
(D) salient
(E) anomalous

97. In a most impressive demonstration, Pavarotti sailed through Verdi’s
“Celeste Aida,” normally a tenor’s _______, with the casual enthusiasm of
a folk singer performing one of his favorite _______.
(A) pitfall, recitals
(B) glory, chorales
(C) nightmare, ballads
(D) delight, chanteys
(E) routine, composers

98. Unfortunately, his damaging attacks on the ramification of the
economic policy have been _______ by his wholehearted acceptance of that
policy’s underlying assumptions.
(A) supplemented
(B) undermined
(C) wasted
(D) diverted
(E) redeemed

99. In the seventeenth century, direct flouting of a generally accepted
system of values was regarded as _______, even as a sign of madness.
(A) adventurous
(B) frivolous
(C) willful
(D) impermissible
(E) irrational
100. In keeping with the well-established custom that even the most
favorable review should include some _______, the reviewer follows her
_______ the book’s prose with some objections to its implementations of
(A) equivocations, quibbles with
(B) accolades, attack on
(C) reservations, praise of
(D) disparagements, criticism of
(E) compliments, consideration of
101. Mary hoped to get the job not only because of the salary but also
because of the health plan and other _______ which went with it.
(A) perquisites
(B) inconveniences
(C) detractions
(D) details
(E) prerequisites

102. Propaganda may influence the sophisticated and urbane as well as the
more _______ members of the community.
(A) knowledgeable
(B) worldly
(C) gullible
(D) philanthropic
(E) blasé

103. Congress is having great difficulty developing a consensus on energy
policy, primarily because the policy objectives of various members of
Congress rest on such _______ assumptions.
(A) commonplace
(B) trivial
(C) explicit
(D) divergent
(E) fundamental

104. In the design of medical experiments, the need for _______
assignment of treatments to patients must be _______ the difficulty of
persuading patients to participate in an experiment in which their
treatment is decided by chance.
(A) independent, amended by
(B) competent, emphasized by
(C) mechanical, controlled by
(D) swift, associated with
(E) random, reconciled with

105. People should not be praised for their virtue if they lack the
energy to be _______; in such cases, goodness is merely the effect of
(A) depraved, hesitation
(B) cruel, effortlessness
(C) wicked, indolence
(D) unjust, boredom
(E) iniquitous, impiety
106. Despite vigorous protestations, the grin on the teenager’s face
_______ her denial that she had known about the practical joke before it
was played on her parents.
(A) belied
(B) illustrated
(C) reinforced
(D) exacerbated
(E) trivialized

107. Nature’s energy efficiency often _______ human technology: despite
the intensity of the light fireflies produce, the amount of heat is
negligible; only recently have humans developed chemical light-producing
systems whose efficiency _______ the firefly’s systems.
(A) engenders, manipulates
(B) reflects, simulates
(C) outstrips, rivals
(D) inhibits, matches
(E) determines, reproduces

108. While nurturing parents can compensate for adversity, cold or
inconsistent parents may _______ it.
(A) exacerbate
(B) neutralize
(C) eradicate
(D) ameliorate
(E) relieve

109. Dramatic literature often _______ the history of a culture in that
it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and
guided the culture.
(A) confounds
(B) repudiates
(C) recapitulates
(D) anticipates
(E) polarizes

110. Documenting science’s _______ philosophy would be _______, since it
is almost axiomatic that many philosophers use scientific concepts as the
foundations for their speculations.
(A) distrust of, elementary
(B) influence on, superfluous
(C) reliance on, inappropriate
(D) dependence on, difficult
(E) differences from, impossible
111. The results of the experiments performed by Elizabeth Hazed and
Rachel Brown were _______ not only because these results challenged old
assumptions but also because they called the _______ methodology into
(A) provocative, prevailing
(B) predictable, contemporary
(C) inconclusive, traditional
(D) intriguing, projected
(E) specious, original

112. Because they had expected the spacecraft Voyager 2 to be able to
gather data only about the planets Jupiter and Saturn, scientists were
_______ the wealth of information it sent back from Neptune twelve years
after leaving Earth.
(A) disappointed in
(B) concerned about
(C) confident in
(D) elated by
(E) anxious for

113. Scientists’ pristine reputation as devotees of the disinterested
pursuit of truth has been _______ by recent evidence that some scientists
have deliberately _______ experimental results to further their own
(A) reinforced, published
(B) validated, suppressed
(C) exterminated, replicated
(D) compromised, fabricated
(E) resuscitated, challenged

114. It is his dubious distinction to have proved what nobody would think
of denying, that Romero at the age of sixty-four writes with all the
characteristics of _______.
(A) maturity
(B) fiction
(C) inventiveness
(D) art
(E) brilliance

115. It is a great _______ to be able to transfer useful genes with as
little extra material as possible, because the donor’s genome may
contain, in addition to desirable genes, many genes with _______ effects.
(A) misfortune, unpredictable
(B) disappointment, superfluous
(C) convenience, exquisite
(D) accomplishment, profound
(E) advantage, deleterious
116. Scholars’ sense of the uniqueness of the central concept of “the
state” at the time when political science became an academic field quite
naturally led to striving for a correspondingly _______ mode of study.
(A) through
(B) distinctive
(C) dependable
(D) scientific
(E) dynamic

117. In certain forms of discourse such as the parable, the central point
of a message can be effectively communicated even though this point is
not _______.
(A) preferred
(B) explicit
(C) inferable
(D) discerned
(E) illustrated

118. Wearing the latest fashions was exclusively the _______ of the
wealthy until the 1850’s, when mass production, aggressive entrepreneurs,
and the availability of the sewing machine made them _______ the middle
(A) aspiration, disagreeable to
(B) vexation, superfluous for
(C) bane, profitable to
(D) prerogative, accessible to
(E) obligation, popular with

119. A number of writers who once greatly _______ the literary critic
have recently recanted, substituting _______ for their former criticism.
(A) lauded, censure
(B) influenced, analysis
(C) simulated, ambivalence
(D) disparaged, approbation
(E) honored, adulation

120. Broadway audiences have become inured to _______ and so _______ to
be pleased as to make their ready ovations meaningless as an indicator of
the quality of the production before them.
(A) sentimentality, reluctant
(B) condescension, disinclined
(C) histrionics, unlikely
(D) cleverness, eager
(E) mediocrity, desperate

121. Any population increase beyond a certain level necessitates greater
_______ vegetable foods; thus, the ability of a society to choose meat
over cereals always arises, in part, from _______ the number of people.
(A) reliance on, replenishing
(B) production of, estimating
(C) spending on, concealing
(D) recourse to, limiting
(E) attention to, varying

122. A recent survey shows that, while ninety-four percent of companies
conducting management-training programs open them to women, women are
_______ only seventy-four percent of those programs.
(A) protesting against
(B)   participating in
(C)   displeased by
(D)   allowed in
(E)   refused by

123. Thomas Paine, whose political writing was often flamboyant, was in
private life a surprisingly _______ man: he lived in rented rooms, ate
little, and wore drab clothes.
(A) simple
(B) controversial
(C) sordid
(D) comfortable
(E) discourteous

124. Because she had a reputation for _______, we were surprised and
pleased when she greeted us so _______.
(A) insolence, irately
(B) insouciance, cordially
(C) graciousness, amiably
(D) arrogance, disdainfully
(E) querulousness, affably

125. The struggle of the generations is one of the obvious constants of
human affairs; therefore, it may be presumptuous to suggest that the
rivalry between young and old in Western society during the current
decade is _______ critical.
(A) perennially
(B) disturbingly
(C) uniquely
(D) archetypally
(E) captiously
126. At first, I found her gravity rather intimidating; but, as I saw
more of her, I found that _______ was very near the surface.
(A) seriousness
(B) confidence
(C) laughter
(D) poise
(E) determination

127. Despite claims that his philosophy can be traced to _______ source,
the philosophy in fact draws liberally on several traditions and
methodologies and so could justifiably be termed _______.
(A) a particular, consistent
(B) a schematic, multifaceted
(C) a dominant, cogent
(D) an authoritative, derivative
(E) a single, eclectic

128. During a period of protracted illness, the sick can become infirm,
_______ both the strength to work and many of the specific skills they
once possessed.
(A) regaining
(B)   denying
(C)   pursuing
(D)   insuring
(E)   losing

129. Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and
criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely
because they offered the audience a world _______ of _______.
(A) bereft, theatricality
(B) composed, adversity
(C) full, circumstantiality
(D) deprived, polarity
(E) devoid, neutrality

130. Du Bois’s foreign trips were the highlight, not the _______, of his
travels; he was habitually on the go across and around the United States.
(A) idiosyncrasy
(B) result
(C) precursor
(D) culmination
(E) totality
131. In parts of the Arctic, the land grades into the landfast ice so
_______ that you can walk off the coast and not know you are over the
hidden sea.
(A) permanently
(B) imperceptibly
(C) irreqularly
(D) precariously
(E) slightly

132. Parts of seventeenth-century Chinese pleasure gardens were not
necessarily intended to look _______; they were designed expressly to
evoke the agreeable melancholy resulting from a sense of the _______ of
natural beauty and human glory.
(A) beautiful, immutability
(B) cheerful, transitoriness
(C) colorful, abstractness
(D) luxuriant, simplicity
(E) conventional, wildness

133. Despite many decades of research on the gasification of coal, the
data accumulated are not directly _______ to environmental questions;
thus a new program of research specifically addressing such question is
(A) analogous, promising
(B) transferable, contradictory
(C) antithetical, unremarkable
(D) applicable, warranted
(E) pertinent, unnecessary
134. Unlike other creatures, who are shaped largely by their _______
environment, human beings are products of a culture accumulated over
centuries, yet one that is constantly being _______ by massive infusions
of new information from everywhere.
(A) harsh, unconfirmed
(B) surrounding, upheld
(C) immediate, transformed
(D) natural, mechanized
(E) limited, superseded

135. Vaillant, who has been particularly interested in the means by which
people attain mental health, seems to be looking for _______ answers: a
way to close the book on at least a few questions about human nature.
(A) definitive
(B) confused
(C) temporary
(D) personal
(E) derivative
136. Because many of the minerals found on the ocean floor are still
_______ on land, where mining the ocean floor has yet to become a _______
(A) scarce, marginal
(B) accessible, marginal
(C) unidentified, subsidized
(D) conserved, public
(E) plentiful, profitable

137. The disjunction between educational objectives that stress
independence and individuality and those that emphasize obedience to
rules and cooperation with others reflects a _______ that arises from the
values on which these objectives are based.
(A) conflict
(B) redundancy
(C) gain
(D) predictability
(E) wisdom

138. The Chinese, who began systematic astronomical and weather
observations shortly after the ancient Egyptians, were assiduous record-
keepers, and because of this, can claim humanity’s longest continuous
_______ of natural events.
(A) defiance
(B) documentation
(C) maintenance
(D) theory
(E) domination

139. The valedictory address, as it has developed in American colleges
and universities over the years, has become a very strict form, a
literary _______ that permits very little _______.
(A) text, clarity
(B) work, tradition
(C) genre, deviation
(D) oration, grandiloquence
(E) achievement, rigidity

140. It is _______ for a government to fail to do whatever it can to
eliminate a totally _______ disease.
(A) folly, innocuous
(B) irresponsible, preventable
(C) crucial, fatal
(D) instinctive, devastating
(E) detrimental, insignificant
141. Inspired interim responses to hitherto unknown problem, New Deal
economic stratagems became _______ as a result of bureaucratization,
their flexibility and adaptability destroyed by their transformation into
rigid policies.
(A) politicized
(B) consolidated
(C) ossified
(D) ungovernable
(E) streamlined

142. Natural selection tends to eliminate genes that cause inherited
diseases, acting most strongly against the most severe diseases;
consequently, hereditary disease that are _______ would be expected to be
very _______, but, surprisingly, they are not.
(A) lethal, rare
(B) untreated, dangerous
(C) unusual, refractory
(D) new, perplexing
(E) widespread, acute

143. That his intransigence in making decisions _______ no open
disagreement from any quarter was well known; thus, clever subordinates
learned the art of _______ their opinions in casual remarks.
(A) elicited, quashing
(B) engendered, recasting
(C) brooked, intimating
(D) embodied, instigating
(E) forbore, emending

144. Some paleontologists debate whether the diversity of species has
_______ since the Cambrian period or whether imperfections in the fossil
record only suggest greater diversity today, while in actuality there has
been either _______ or decreased diversity.
(A) changed, escalation
(B) increased, stasis
(C) expanded, discontinuity
(D) declined, reduction
(E) improved, deviation
145. It is strange how words shape out thoughts and trap us at the bottom
of deeply _______ canyons of thinking, their imprisoning sides carved out
by the _______ of past usage.
(A) cleaved, eruptions
(B) rooted, flood
(C) incised, river
(D) ridged, ocean
(E) notched, mountains
146. The sheer diversity of tropical plants represents a seemingly
_______ source of raw materials, of which only a few have been utilized.
(A) exploited
(B) quantifiable
(C) controversial
(D) inexhaustible
(E) remarkable

147. For centuries animals have been used as _______ for people in
experiments to assess the effects of therapeutic and other agents that
might later be used in humans.
(A) benefactors
(B) companions
(C) examples
(D) precedents
(E) surrogates

148. By idiosyncratically refusing to dismiss an insubordinate member of
his staff, the manager not only _______ established policy, but he also
_______ his heretofore good chances for promotion.
(A) instituted, bettered
(B) recognized, protected
(C) contravened, jeopardized
(D) reiterated, computed
(E) delimited, restricted

149. The widespread public shock at the news of the guilty verdict was
caused partly by _______ news stories that had _______ acquittal.
(A) sensational, condemned
(B) buried, urged
(C) impartial, mentioned
(D) biased, predicted
(E) local, denounced

150. Only by ignoring decades of mismanagement and inefficiency could
investors conclude that a fresh infusion of cash would provide anything
more than a _______ solution to the company’s financial woes.
(A) fair
(B) temporary
(C) genuine
(D) realistic
(E) complete

151. Although the discovery of antibiotics led to great advances in
clinical practice, it did not represent a _______ bacterial illness, for
there are some bacteria that cannot be _______ treated with antibiotics.
(A) breakthrough in, consistently
(B) panacea for, effectively
(C) neglect of, efficiently
(D) reexamination of, conventionally
(E) resurgence of, entirely

152. To compensate for the substantial decline in the availability of
fossil fuels in future years, we will have to provide at least _______
alternative energy source.
(A) an anticipated
(B) an official
(C) an equivalent
(D) a derivative
(E) a redundant

153. There is some _______ the fact that the author of a book as
sensitive and informed as Indian Artisans did not develop her interest in
Native American art until adulthood, for she grew up in a region rich in
American Indian culture.
(A) irony in
(B) satisfaction in
(C) doubt about
(D) concern about
(E) presumptuousness in

154. Ironically, the party leaders encountered no greater _______ their
efforts to build a progressive party than the _______ of the progressives
already elected to the legislature.
(A) support for, advocacy
(B) threat to, promise
(C) benefit from, success
(D) obstacle to, resistance
(E) praise for, reputation

155. Though many medieval women possessed devotional books that had
belonged to their mothers, formal written evidence of women bequeathing
books to their daughters is scarce, which suggests that such bequests
were _______and required no _______.
(A) unselfish, rationalization
(B) tangential, approval
(C) customary, documentation
(D) covert, discretion
(E) spurious, record
156. The challenge of interpreting fictional works written under
politically repressive regimes lies in distinguishing what is _______ to
an author’s beliefs, as opposed to what is _______ by political coercion.
(A)   innate, understood
(B)   organic, imposed
(C)   contradictory, conveyed
(D)   oblique, captured
(E)   peripheral, demanded

157. Observable as a tendency of our culture is a _______ of _______
psychoanalysis: we no longer feel that it can solve our emotional
(A) divergence, certainty about
(B) confrontation, enigmas in
(C) withdrawal, belief in
(D) defense, weaknesses in
(E) failure, rigor in

158. The astronomer and feminist Maria Mitchell’s own prodigious activity
and the vigor of the Association for the Advancement of Women during the
1870’s _______ any assertion that feminism was _______ in that period.
(A) exclude, thriving
(B) contradict, prospering
(C) pervade, remote
(D) buttress, dormant
(E) belie, quiescent

159. Nineteenth-century scholars, by examining earlier geometric Greek
art, found that classical Greek art was not a magical _______ or a
brilliant _______ blending Egyptian and Assyrian art, but was
independently evolved by Greeks in Greece.
(A) stratagem, appropriation
(B) exemplar, synthesis
(C) conversion, annexation
(D) paradigm, construct
(E) apparition, amalgam

160. The repudiation of Puritanism in seventeenth-century England
expressed itself not only in retaliatory laws to _______ Puritans, but
also in a general attitude of _______ for Puritans.
(A) restrict, contempt
(B) regulate, regard
(C) benefit, affection
(D) repress, respect
(E) evade, hatred

161. In the absence of any _______ caused by danger, hardship, or even
cultural difference, most utopian communities deteriorate into _______
but enervating backwaters.
(A) turmoil, frantic
(B) mistrust, naïve
(C) amelioration, ignorant
(D) decimation, intrusive
(E) stimulation, placid
162. Some artists immodestly idealize or exaggerate the significance of
their work; yet others _______ to exalt the role of the artist, reject a
transcendent view of art.
(A) appearing
(B) disdaining
(C) seeking
(D) failing
(E) tending

163. Calculus, though still indispensable to science and technology, is
no longer _______; it has an equal partner called discrete mathematics.
(A) preeminent
(B) pertinent
(C) beneficial
(D) essential
(E) pragmatic

164. Despite its _______, the book deals _______ with a number of crucial
(A) optimism, cursorily
(B) importance, needlessly
(C) virtues, inadequately
(D) novelty, strangely
(E) completeness, thoroughly

165. If the theory is self-evidently true, as its proponents assert, then
why does _______ it still exist among well-informed people?
(A) support for
(B) excitement about
(C) regret for
(D) resignation about
(E) opposition to
166. Religious philosopher that he was, Henry More derived his conception
of an infinite universe from the Infinite God in whom he believed, a
benevolent God of _______ whose nature was to create _______.
(A) plenitude, abundance
(B) vengeance, justice
(C) indifference, suffering
(D) indulgence, temperance
(E) rectitude, havoc

167. A century ago the physician’s word was _______: to doubt it was
considered almost sacrilegious.
(A) inevitable
(B) intractable
(C) incontrovertible
(D) objective
(E) respectable
168. So much of modern fiction in the United States is autobiographical,
and so much of the autobiography fictionalized, that the _______
sometimes seem largely _______.
(A) authors, ignored
(B) needs, unrecognized
(C) genres, interchangeable
(D) intentions, misunderstood
(E) misapprehensions, uncorrected

169. Prior to the work of Heckel, illustrations of fish were often
beautiful but rarely _______; this fish, combined with the _______ nature
of most nineteenth-century taxonomic descriptions, often kept scientists
from recognizing differences between species.
(A) impressive, inaccurate
(B) realistic, detailed
(C) traditional, progressive
(D) precise, inexact
(E) distinctive, sophisticated

170. According to some experts, modern science as it emerged in the
seventeenth century was essentially a _______ calling: the culture of
science was more a _______ than a departure from ecclesiastical
(A) scholarly, recapitulation of
(B) skeptical, return to
(C) religious, continuation of
(D) solemn, recantation of
(E) technical, modification of

171. We first became aware that his support for the new program was less
than _______ when he declined to make a speech in its favor.
(A) qualified
(B) haphazard
(C) fleeting
(D) unwarranted
(E) wholehearted

172. Because of the excellent preservation of the fossil, anatomical
details of early horseshoe crabs were _______ for the first time,
enabling experts to _______ the evolution of the horseshoe crab.
(A) scrutinized, ensure
(B) verified, advance
(C) identified, dirt
(D) obscured, illustrate
(E) clarified, reassess

173. Nothing _______ his irresponsibility better than his _______ delay
in sending us the items he promised weeks ago.
(A) justifies, conspicuous
(B) characterizes, timely
(C) epitomizes, unnecessary
(D) reveals, conscientious
(E) conceals, inexplicable

174. The few dozen gray seals that have thus far died of canine distemper
can, at least for now, be considered _______, since most of the remaining
200,000 gray seals appear uninfected by the disease.
(A) unexceptional
(B) immune
(C) anomalous
(D) endangered
(E) contagious

175. Because modern scientists find the ancient Greek view of the cosmos
outdated and irrelevant, they now perceive it as only of _______
(A) historical
(B) intrinsic
(C) astronomical
(D) experimental
(E) superfluous
176. Although the intellectual and artistic achievements of this ancient
civilization were, even by modern standards, extraordinarily _______, its
level of technical and mechanical development was by no means _______to
that of modern technology.
(A) primitive, superior
(B) diverse, inimical
(C) sophisticated, comparable
(D) primeval, equivalent
(E) influential, subordinate

177. Although the genetic explanation of why some people are right-handed
whereas others are left-handed is plausible, it has been effectively
_______ by experiments in which genetically _______ mice showed different
paw preferences.
(A) verified, related
(B) challenged, indistinguishable
(C) tested, altered
(D) proven, identical
(E) destroyed, complex

178. While T.S. Eliot maintained that poets themselves were the best
_______ of _______, C.S. Lewis opposed this view, declaring that one did
not have to be a trained chef to be a discriminating gourmet.
(A) mimics, life
(B) constructors, rhyme
(C) critics, verse
(D) conservators, aesthetics
(E) interpreters, sensation

179. The discipline of sociology has finally achieved a degree of
consensus: however _______ their individual interpretations and emphases
might be, most sociologists now _______ a single broad conception of the
(A) different, share
(B) uncontroversial, champion
(C) limited, reject
(D) divergent, dispute
(E) concordant, acknowledge

180. By forcing our surrender to the authority of the clock, systematic
timekeeping has imposed a form of _______ on society.
(A) anarchy
(B) permanence
(C) provincialism
(D) tyranny
(E) autonomy
181. Overall, the evidence was inconclusive as to whether the adjustment
to the inflated estimates would _______ their accuracy or instead _______
the actual amount.
(A) compromise, magnify
(B) confirm, validate
(C) disprove, pinpoint
(D) verify, distort
(E) improve, understate

182. Perhaps there is a shortcoming in the script, but the film’s poor
reviews may also be a function of one or two _______ casting decisions in
an otherwise _______ production.
(A) fitting, magnificent
(B) faulty, solid
(C) deliberate, cautious
(D) hasty, mediocre
(E) confusing, perplexing

183. As a means of _______ a tempestuous confrontation, the labor
arbitrator advised the opposing parties to _______ their positions.
(A) promoting, qualify
(B) calming, reinforce
(C) neglecting, clarity
(D) appraising, soften
(E) defusing, moderate

184. Unenlightened authoritarian managers rarely recognize a crucial
reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of
democratically run work groups: a modicum of tolerance for dissent often
prevents _______.
(A) demur
(B) schism
(C) cooperation
(D) compliance
(E) shortsightedness
185. The natures of social history and lyric poetry are _______, social
history always recounting the _______ and lyric poetry speaking for
unchanging human nature, that timeless essence beyond fashion and
(A) predetermined, bygone
(B) antithetical, evanescent
(C) interdependent, unnoticed
(D) irreconcilable, unalterable
(E) indistinguishable, transitory
186. Despite the fact that it is almost universally _______, the practice
of indentured servitude still _______ in many parts of the world.
(A) condemned, abates
(B) tolerated, survives
(C) proscribed, persists
(D) mandated, lingers
(E) disdained, intervenes

187. Ironically, the proper use of figurative language must be based on
the denotative meaning of the words, because it is the failure to
recognize this _______ meaning that leads to mixed metaphors and their
attendant incongruity.
(A) esoteric
(B) literal
(C) latent
(D) allusive
(E) symbolic

188. Having sufficient income of her own constituted for Alice _______
independence that made possible a degree of _______ in her emotional life
as well.
(A) a material, security
(B) a profound, conformity
(C) a financial, economy
(D) a psychological, extravagance
(E) an unexpected, uncertainty

189. Mathematics consists of a group of languages that are more stable
than any _______ language; mathematical symbols do not _______ their
meanings as words do.
(A) developed, substitute
(B) written, translate
(C) traditional, require
(D) verbal, change
(E) explicit, conceal

190. While many people utilize homeopathic remedies to treat health
problems, other people do not _______ such alternative treatments,
_______ conventional medical treatments instead.
(A) distrust, employing
(B) embrace, eschewing
(C) reject, envisioning
(D) countenance, relying on
(E) recommend, turning from
191. Paleontologists’ assumptions about the equable nature of the climate
on the primeval island of Pangaea are _______ computer simulations
indicating that the island’s temperatures tended to _______ during the
course of a year.
(A) based on, cool
(B) confirmed by, vary
(C) challenged by, stabilize
(D) bolstered by, soar
(E) undermined by, fluctuate

192. Whereas historians once maintained that science is _______ other
enterprises, they have come to realize that science is actually _______
the values, social assumptions, and intellectual traditions of a
particular historical period.
(A) related to, informed by
(B) ancillary to, secondary to
(C) tantamount to, equivalent to
(D) distinct from, intertwined with
(E) dependent on, influenced by

193. Chinese art has no _______ the powerfully explicit antiwar paintings
of the West, but _______ subtlety and indirection to express political
(A) panacea for, passes by
(B) diversion from, defers to
(C) counterpart for, relies on
(D) intimation of, alludes to
(E) derivative of, refrains from

194. Breakdowns in communication between intimates may occur because the
_______ of the relationship, ironically, may _______ openness.
(A) depth, necessitate
(B) closeness, discourage
(C) reciprocity, foster
(D) juxtaposition, offset
(E) precariousness, facilitate

195. Often the argument against philanthropy has the effect of _______
the character of philanthropists but not necessarily _______ their work:
they may have done good in spite of themselves.
(A) describing, explaining
(B) aggrandizing, acknowledging
(C) emphasizing, citing
(D) impugning, discrediting
(E) obscuring, attacking
196. The novelist devotes so much time to avid descriptions of his
character’s clothes that the reader soon feels that such _______
concerns, although worthy of attention, have superseded any more directly
literary aims.
(A) didactic
(B) syntactical
(C) belletristic
(D) sartorial
(E) frivolous

197. Carruther’s latest literary criticism _______ her reputation for
trenchant commentary; despite its intriguing title and the fulsome praise
on its dust jacket, it is nothing more than a collection of _______.
(A) reinforces, pronouncements
(B) belies, platitudes
(C) prejudices, insights
(D) advances, aphorisms
(E) undermines, judgments

198. The _______ of gamblers’ unsuccessful decision strategies is one
_______ of the illusions built into games of chance in order to misguide
player and take their money.
(A) distortion, outcome
(B) restriction, result
(C) maintenance, function
(D) prediction, accomplishment
(E) demonstration, prerequisite

199. That the new group was unable to weather its first staff meeting
without evidence of the same _______ that its creation was intended to
abolish did not _______ future harmony among coworkers.
(A) cooperation, ensure
(B) façade, realize
(C) factions, augur
(D) diligence, subdue
(E) ventures, suggest

200. The prevailing union of passionate interest in detailed facts with
equal devotion to abstract _______ is a hallmark of our present society;
in the past this union appeared, at best, _______ and as if by chance.
(A) data, extensively
(B) philosophy, cyclically
(C) generalization, sporadically
(D) evaluation, opportunely
(E) intuition, selectively

201. The author did not see the _______ inherent in her scathing
criticism of writing style so similar to her own.
(A) disinterest
(B) incongruity
(C) pessimism
(D) compliment
(E) symbolism
202. The author is _______ to identify any particular principle as
fundamental, insisting instead that it is only when viewed within
specific contexts that principles can be _______.
(A) reluctant, modified
(B) unable, relinquished
(C) loath, assessed
(D) unlikely, violated
(E) wrong, justified

203. As _______ as she was to the widespread dissatisfaction with her
performance on the job, it is no wonder that she greeted the news of her
dismissal with _______.
(A) receptive, disdain
(B) acquiescent, temerity
(C) oblivious, astonishment
(D) vulnerable, uncertainty
(E) responsive, apathy

204. The scientist found it puzzling that his rival’s theory retained its
_______ despite widespread suggestions that it was now _______.
(A) perspective, dated
(B) currency, moribund
(C) appeal, accepted
(D) complexity, unfathomable
(E) credibility, recognized

205. Even among findings in the field of nuclear physics that have
_______, many have been subject to repeated challenges on the basis of
new evidence.
(A) arisen
(B) survived
(C) declined
(D) been proposed
(E) been questioned
206. The economists were _______ to find that the theory that they had
considered _______ crumbled when modern techniques for economic modeling
made it possible to make new kinds of observation that contradicted its
fundamental assumptions.
(A) surprised, problematic
(B) overjoyed, useful
(C) stunned, invulnerable
(D) disappointed, faulty
(E) astonished, suspect

207. One reason for the development of junior high schools in the United
States was _______: these schools provided an efficient and inexpensive
way to avoid overcrowding in the high schools.
(A) inequality
(B) parity
(C) expediency
(D) ineptitude
(E) instability

208. Even though some of the variables identified in Chang’s study of
personality types are inherently _______, the application of that study’s
results predicts human behavior with considerable _______.
(A) reliable, accuracy
(B) common, universality
(C) nebulous, specificity
(D) abstruse, error
(E) interesting, sophistication

209. Often the difficulties of growing up in the public eye cause child
prodigies to _______ the world of achievement before reaching adulthood;
happily, they sometimes later return to competition and succeed
(A) ridicule
(B) conquer
(C) retire from
(D) antagonize
(E) examine

210. That many lawyers have acquired a reputation for _______ even the
most solemn and binding undertakings does not _______ discovery of
attorneys devoted to both legal and ethical right.
(A) enforcing, promote
(B) articulating, ensure
(C) repudiating, permit
(D) disapproving, produce
(E) subverting, preclude
211. While some argue that imposing tolls on highway users circumvents
the need to raise public taxes for road maintenance, the phenomenal
expense of maintaining a vast network of roads _______ reliance on these
general taxes.
(A) avoids
(B) diminishes
(C) necessitates
(D) discourages
(E) ameliorates

212. The skeleton of _______ bird that was recently discovered indicated
that this ancient creature _______ today’s birds in that, unlike earlier
birds and unlike reptilian ancestors, it had not a tooth in its head.
(A) a primeval, obscured
(B) a unique, preempted
(C) a primitive, anticipated
(D) a contemporary, foreshadowed
(E) an advanced, differed from

213. According to one political theorist, a regime that has as its goal
absolute _______, without any _______ law or principle, has declared war
on justice.
(A)   respectability, codification of
(B)   supremacy, suppression of
(C)   autonomy, accountability to
(D)   fairness, deviation from
(E)   responsibility, prioritization of

214. The remark was only slightly _______, inviting a chuckle, perhaps,
but certainly not a _______.
(A) audible, reward
(B) hostile, shrug
(C) amusing, rebuke
(D) coherent, reaction
(E) humorous, guffaw

215. Estimating the risks of radiation escaping from a nuclear power
plant is _______ question, but one whose answer then becomes part of a
value-laden, emotionally charged policy, debate about whether to
construct such a plant.
(A) an incomprehensible
(B) an undefined
(C) an irresponsible
(D) a divisive
(E) a technical
216. Our highly _______ vocabulary for street crime contrasts sharply to
our _______ vocabulary for corporate crime, a fact that corresponds to
the general public’s unawareness of the extent of corporate crime.
(A) nuanced, subtle
(B) uninformative, misleading
(C) euphemistic, abstract
(D) differentiated, limited
(E) technical, jargon-laden

217. In modern English very few verb forms can be surely identified as
subjunctives, and the use of those few is so irregular that _______
criteria for appropriate usage are hard to infer.
(A) obscure
(B) irrelevant
(C) alternative
(D) definite
(E) independent

218. Professional photographers generally regard inadvertent surrealism
in a photograph as a curse rather than a blessing; magazine
photographers, in particular, consider themselves _______ to the extent
that they can _______ its presence in their photographs.
(A) skillful, enhance
(B) inadequate, eliminate
(C) original, demonstrate
(D) fortunate, minimize
(E) conventional, highlight
219. Doors were closing on our past, and soon the values we had lived by
would become so obsolete that we would seem to people of the new age as
_______ as travelers from an ancient land.
(A) elegant
(B) ambitious
(C) interesting
(D) comfortable
(E) quaint

220. Mechanisms develop whereby every successful species can _______ its
innate capacity for population growth with the constraints that arise
through its interactions with the natural environment.
(A) enhance
(B) replace
(C) produce
(D) surpass
(E) reconcile

221. It was not the _______ of great wealth – jewels, limousines,
palatial houses – that enticed him; rather, he was _______ by the
illusion of complete freedom that unlimited financial resources created.
(A) grandeur, unconvinced
(B) responsibilities, intimidated
(C) trappings, seduced
(D) pageant, appalled
(E) rewards, distressed

222. Ability to _______ is the test of the perceptive historian; a
history, after all, consists not only of what the historian has included,
but also, in some sense, of what has been left out.
(A) defer
(B) select
(C) confer
(D) devise
(E) reflect

223. Although the _______ of cases of measles has _______, researchers
fear that eradication of the disease, once believed to be imminent, may
not come soon.
(A) occurrence, continued
(B) incidence, declined
(C) prediction, resumed
(D) number, increased
(E) study, begun

224. Because art is a _______ form of human expression, the artist’s
approach to creation is _______ personal experience.
(A) dispassionate, influenced by
(B) typical, detached from
(C) unique, detrimental to
(D) subjective, colored by
(E) figurative, irrelevant to

225. When a person suddenly loses consciousness, a bystander is not
expected to _______ the problem but to attempt to _______ its effects by
starting vital functions if they are absent.
(A) cure, precipitate
(B) minimize, predict
(C) determine, detect
(D) diagnose, counter
(E) magnify, evaluate
226. To label the 1950’s in the United States a “golden age” is somewhat
_______; general prosperity increased but the gains made by women in the
workplace during the Second World War were _______.
(A) nostalgic, perpetuated
(B) facetious, substantiated
(C) disingenuous, modified
(D) misleading, eroded
(E) hyperbolic, distributed

227. Many of the towns that have voted to keep incinerators in the
country’s solid waste plan have done so not because they necessarily
_______ incinerators, but because they are _______ to narrow their waste-
disposal options.
(A) disdain, expecting
(B) favor, inclined
(C) dote on, eager
(D) approve of, loath
(E) deplore, unwilling

228. It was lack of ecological awareness that initially allowed
physicians to view the new “miracle-cure” antibiotics as a permanent
_______ to bacterial infections rather than _______ victory over such
(A) alternative, a major
(B) solution, an interim
(C) reaction, a strategic
(D) answer, a hard-won
(E) stimulus, an ephemeral

229. The senator’s attempt to convince the public that he is not
interested in running for a second term is _______ given the extremely
_______ fund-raising activities of his campaign committee.
(A) futile, clandestine
(B) sincere, visible
(C) specious, apathetic
(D) disingenuous, public
(E) straightforward, dubious

230. The essays gathered in the volume are characterized by _______ that
_______ their disparate origins.
(A) a standard, undermines
(B) a permanence, distorts
(C) a similarity, reinforces
(D) a unity, belies
(E) an incompatibility, disguises

231. Though he refused any responsibility for the failure of the
negotiations, Stevenson had no right to _______ himself: it was his
_______ that had caused the debacle.
(A) blame, skill
(B) congratulate, modesty
(C) berate, largesse
(D) accuse, obstinacy
(E) absolve, acrimony

232. To this reviewer, Esterman’s play was a thoroughly _______ exercise:
both its laughter and its tears seemed equally _______.
(A) plausible, improbable
(B) trivial, solemn
(C) sentimental, understated
(D) artificial, specious
(E) creative, stilted

233. Although a change in management may appear to _______ a shift in a
company’s fortunes, more often than not its impact is _______.
(A) hinder, measurable
(B) promote, demonstrable
(C) accelerate, profound
(D) betray, fundamental
(E) augur, inconsiderable

234. Journalists often described the incumbent senator as politically
_______, despite the fact that his record had established him as a more
_______ assessor of political possibilities and personalities than either
of his opponents had shown themselves to be.
(A) pragmatic, efficient
(B) opportunistic, seasoned
(C) naïve, shrewd
(D) inept, inexperienced
(E) astute, reliable

235. Candidates who oppose the present state income tax must be able to
propose _______ way to _______ the financing of state operations.
(A) intelligent, initiate
(B) individual, diversify
(C) innovative, alleviate
(D) arbitrary, maintain
(E) alternate, continue
236. Social tensions among adult factions can be _______ by politics, but
adolescents and children have no such _______ for resolving their
conflict with the exclusive world of adults.
(A)   intensified, attitude
(B)   complicated, relief
(C)   frustrated, justification
(D)   adjusted, mechanism
(E)   revealed, opportunity

237. Exposure to low-intensity gamma radiation slows the rate of growth
of the spoilage microorganisms in food in much the same way that the low
heat used in pasteurization _______ the spoilage action of the
microorganisms in milk.
(A) precludes
(B) initiates
(C) inhibits
(D) isolates
(E) purifies

238. Kagan maintains that an infant’s reactions to its first stressful
experiences are part of a natural process of development, not harbingers
of childhood unhappiness or _______ signs of adolescent anxiety.
(A) prophetic
(B) normal
(C) monotonous
(D) virtual
(E) typical

239. Physicists rejected the innovative experimental technique because,
although it _______ some problems, it also produced new _______.
(A) clarified, data
(B) eased, interpretations
(C) resolved, complications
(D) caused, hypotheses
(E) revealed, inconsistencies

240. Marison was a scientist of unusual _______ and imagination who had
startling success in _______ new and fundamental principles well in
advance of their general recognition.
(A) restiveness, acknowledging
(B) precision, coordinating
(C) aggression, resisting
(D) candor, dispelling
(E) insight, discerning
241. Her _______ should not be confused with miserliness; as long as I
have known her, she has always been willing to assist those who are in
(A) intemperance
(B) intolerance
(C) apprehension
(D) diffidence
(E) frugality
242. Although ancient tools were _______ preserved, enough have survived
to allow us to demonstrate an occasionally interrupted but generally
(A) partially, noticeable
(B) superficially, necessary
(C) unwittingly, documented
(D) rarely, continual
(E) needlessly, incessant

243. It is puzzling to observe that Jones’s novel has recently been
criticized for its _______ structure, since commentators have
traditionally argued that its most obvious _______ is its relentlessly
rigid, indeed schematic, framework.
(A) attention to, preoccupation
(B) speculation about, characteristic
(C) parody of, disparity
(D) violation of, contradiction
(E) lack of, flaw

244. The spellings of many Old English words have been _______ in the
living language, although their pronunciations have changed.
(A) preserved
(B) shortened
(C) preempted
(D) revised
(E) improved

245. In the machinelike world of classical physics, the human intellect
appears _______, since the mechanical nature of classical physics does
not _______ creative reasoning, the very ability that had made the
formulation of classical principles possible.
(A) anomalous, allow for
(B) abstract, speak to
(C) anachronistic, deny
(D) enduring, value
(E) contradictory, exclude
246. For some time now, _______ has been presumed not to exist: the
cynical conviction that everybody has an angle is considered wisdom.
(A) rationality
(B) flexibility
(C) diffidence
(D) disinterestedness
(E) insincerity

247. The characterization of historical analysis as a form of fiction is
not likely to be received _______ by either historians or literary
critics, who agree that history and fiction deal with _______ orders of
(A) quietly, significant
(B) enthusiastically, sting
(C) passively, unusual
(D) sympathetically, distinct
(E) contentiously, realistic

248. The state is a network of exchanged benefits and beliefs, _______
between rulers and citizens based on those laws and procedures that are
_______ to the maintenance of community.
(A) compromise, inimical
(B) an interdependence, subsidiary
(C) a counterpoint, incidental
(D) an equivalence, prerequisite
(E) a reciprocity, conducive

249. It comes as no surprise that societies have codes of behavior; the
character of the codes, on the other hand, can often be _______.
(A) predictable
(B) unexpected
(C) admirable
(D) explicit
(E) confusing

250. In a _______ society that worships efficiency, it is difficult for a
sensitive and idealistic person to make the kinds of _______ decisions
that alone spell success as it is defined by such a society.
(A) bureaucratic, edifying
(B) pragmatic, hardheaded
(C) rational, well-intentioned
(D) competitive, evenhanded
(E) modern, dysfunctional

251. The _______ of mass literacy coincided with the first industrial
revolution; in turn, the new expansion in literacy, as well as cheaper
printing, helped to nurture the _______ of popular literature.
(A) building, mistrust
(B) reappearance, display
(C) receipt, source
(D) selection, influence
(E) emergence, rise

252. Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those
in power, Winckelmann neglected to neutralize, by some _______ gesture of
comradeship, the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his
_______ the high and mighty.
(A) quixotic, intrigue with
(B) enigmatic, familiarity with
(C) propitiatory, involvement with
(D) salutary, questioning of
(E) unfeigned, sympathy for

253. Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened
intellectual, historians of the 1960’s portrayed him as _______ thinker,
eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censuring
ideas he did not like.
(A)   an adventurous
(B)   a doctrinaire
(C)   an eclectic
(D)   a judicious
(E)   a cynical

254. To have true disciples, a thinker must not be too _______: any
effective intellectual leader depends on the ability of other people to
_______ thought processes that did not originate with them.
(A) popular, dismiss
(B) methodical, interpret
(C) idiosyncratic, reenact
(D) self-confident, revitalize
(E) pragmatic, discourage

255. In the midst of so many evasive comments, this forthright statement,
what ever its intrinsic merit, plainly stands out as _______.
(A) a paradigm
(B) a misnomer
(C) a profundity
(D) an inaccuracy
(E) an anomaly
256. Our biological uniqueness requires that the effects of a substance
must be verified by _______ experiments, even after thousands of tests of
the effects of that substance on animals.
(A) controlled
(B) random
(C) replicated
(D) human
(E) evolutionary

257. For years manufacturers have tried to make chocolate synthetically,
with _______ success, because chocolate contains hundreds of substances
and no one knows which are responsible for its _______ flavor.
(A) commercial, special
(B) average, true
(C) little, distinctive
(D) meager, artificial
(E) considerable, specific

258. From Neolithic pottery to twentieth-century posters, the extent and
variety of the arts in China _______ those who search for continuity;
nonetheless, certain _______ values are reflected in China’s artistic
(A) confound, enduring
(B) abet, pervasive
(C) inform, intangible
(D) entice, diverse
(E) alienate, distinctive

259. In today’s world, manufacturer’s innovations are easily copied and
thus differences between products are usually _______; advertisers,
therefore, are forced to _______ these differences in order to suggest
the uniqueness of their clients’ products.
(A) crucial, downplay
(B) minimal, reduce
(C) slight, exaggerate
(D) common, emphasize
(E) intrinsic, create

260. The critics’ evident _______ the new production was somewhat _______
by their high regard for the playwright’s previous work.
(A) admiration for, offset
(B) curiosity about, dampened
(C) hostility toward, tempered
(D) disappointment in, disguised
(E) awareness of, frustrated
261. There is hardly a generalization that can be made about people’s
social behavior and the values informing it that cannot be _______ from
one or another point of view, or even _______ as simplistic or vapid.
(A) accepted, praised
(B) intuited, exposed
(C) harangued, retracted
(D) defended, glorified
(E) challenged, dismissed

262. What these people were waiting for would not have been apparent to
others and was perhaps not very _______ their own minds.
(A) obscure to
(B) intimate to
(C) illusory to
(D) difficult to
(E) definite in

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