National Aeronautics and
“This cause of exploration and discovery is not an
option we choose; it is a desire written in the human
President George W. Bush
February 4, 2003
“We leave as we came, and God willing as we shall
return, with peace and hope for all mankind.”
Eugene Cernan (Commander of last Apollo mission)
December 17, 1972
“. . . America will make those words
President George W. Bush
January 14, 2004
the NASA Administrator
With last year’s budget, NASA released a new Strategic Plan outlining a
new approach to space exploration using a “building block” strategy to
explore scientifically valuable destinations across our solar system. At
the same time that we released the Strategic Plan, our Nation and the
NASA family also suffered the loss of the seven brave astronauts aboard
the Space Shuttle Columbia. The report of the Columbia Accident
Investigation Board emphasized the need for a clearer direction from
which to drive NASA’s human exploration agenda. On January 14,
2004, the President articulated a new vision for space exploration.
You hold in your hands a new, bolder framework for exploring our solar system that builds upon the policy
that was announced by the President after months of careful deliberations within the Administration. This
plan does not undertake exploration merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that may be, but
seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophical questions, responds to recent discoveries, will put in
place revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, and will genuinely inspire our Nation, the
world, and the next generation.
Our aim is to explore in a sustainable, affordable, and flexible manner. We believe the principles and
roadmap set down in this document will stand the test of time. Its details will be subject to revision and
expansion as new discoveries are made, new technologies are applied, and new challenges are met and over-
come. This plan is guided by the Administration’s new space exploration policy, “A Renewed Spirit of
Discovery: The President’s Vision for U.S. Space Exploration,” a copy of which is provided on the follow-
ing pages. NASA is releasing this plan simultaneously with NASA’s FY 2005 Budget Justification. This
plan is fiscally responsible, consistent with the Administration’s goal of cutting the budget deficit in half
within the next five years.
I cannot overstate how much NASA will change in the coming years as this plan is implemented. I also can-
not overstate how profound the rewards will be on this new course. With the support of Congress, the sci-
ence community, the NASA civil and contractor workforce, and most importantly, the American public, we
will embark on this very exciting future.
When Christopher Columbus made his voyages across the Atlantic in the 15th and 16th centuries, his ships
carried the inscription “Following the light of the sun, we left the Old World.” I look forward to joining you
as we follow the light of the planets and the stars into the new worlds of the 21st century.
Top image: The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity’s view of Mars’
Meridiani Planum, taken with the panoramic camera. Lower image:
Opportunity looks back at its empty lander as it begins to explore
A Renewed Spirit of Discovery:
The President’s Vision
for U.S. Space Exploration
From the Apollo landings on the Moon, to robotic surveys of the Sun and the planets, to the compelling
images captured by advanced space telescopes, U.S. achievements in space have revolutionized humanity’s
view of the universe and have inspired Americans and people around the world. These achievements also
have led to the development of technologies that have widespread applications to address problems on Earth.
As the world enters the second century of powered flight, it is time to articulate a new vision that will define
and guide U.S. space exploration activities for the next several decades.
Today, humanity has the potential to seek answers to the most fundamental questions posed about the exis-
tence of life beyond Earth. Telescopes have found planets around other stars. Robotic probes have identified
potential resources on the Moon, and evidence of water -- a key ingredient for life -- has been found on Mars
and the moons of Jupiter.
Direct human experience in space has fundamentally altered our perspective of humanity and our place in
the universe. Humans have the ability to respond to the unexpected developments inherent in space travel
and possess unique skills that enhance discoveries. Just as Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo challenged a gen-
eration of Americans, a renewed U.S. space exploration program with a significant human component can
inspire us -- and our youth -- to greater achievements on Earth and in space.
The loss of Space Shuttles Challenger and Columbia and their crews are a stark reminder of the inherent
risks of space flight and the severity of the challenges posed by space exploration. In preparation for future
human exploration, we must advance our ability to live and work safely in space and, at the same time,
develop the technologies to extend humanity’s reach to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The new technologies
required for further space exploration also will improve the Nation’s other space activities and may provide
applications that could be used to address problems on Earth.
Like the explorers of the past and the pioneers of flight in the last century, we cannot today identify all that
we will gain from space exploration; we are confident, nonetheless, that the eventual return will be great.
Like their efforts, the success of future U.S. space exploration will unfold over generations.
Goal and Objectives
The fundamental goal of this vision is to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a
robust space exploration program. In support of this goal, the United States will:
• Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and
• Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year
2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations;
• Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support
decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and
• Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security,
and economic interests.
Bringing the Vision to Reality
The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration will be responsible for the plans,
programs, and activities required to implement this vision, in coordination with other agencies, as deemed
appropriate. The Administrator will plan and implement an integrated, long-term robotic and human explo-
ration program structured with measurable milestones and executed on the basis of available resources, accu-
mulated experience, and technology readiness.
To implement this vision, the Administrator will conduct the following activities and take other actions as
A. Exploration Activities in Low Earth Orbit
• Return the Space Shuttle to flight as soon as practical, based on the recommendations of the Columbia
Accident Investigation Board;
• Focus use of the Space Shuttle to complete assembly of the International Space Station; and
• Retire the Space Shuttle as soon as assembly of the International Space Station is completed, planned
for the end of this decade;
International Space Station
• Complete assembly of the International Space Station, including the U.S. components that support
U.S. space exploration goals and those provided by foreign partners, planned for the end of this
• Focus U.S. research and use of the International Space Station on supporting space exploration goals,
with emphasis on understanding how the space environment affects astronaut health and capabilities
and developing countermeasures; and
• Conduct International Space Station activities in a manner consistent with U.S. obligations contained
in the agreements between the United States and other partners in the International Space Station.
B. Space Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit
• Undertake lunar exploration activities to enable sustained human and robotic exploration of Mars and
more distant destinations in the solar system;
• Starting no later than 2008, initiate a series of robotic missions to the Moon to prepare for and support
future human exploration activities;
• Conduct the first extended human expedition to the lunar surface as early as 2015, but no later than
the year 2020; and
• Use lunar exploration activities to further science, and to develop and test new approaches,
technologies, and systems, including use of lunar and other space resources, to support sustained
human space exploration to Mars and other destinations.
Mars and Other Destinations
• Conduct robotic exploration of Mars to search for evidence of life, to understand the history of the
solar system, and to prepare for future human exploration;
• Conduct robotic exploration across the solar system for scientific purposes and to support human
exploration. In particular, explore Jupiter’s moons, asteroids and other bodies to search for evidence
of life, to understand the history of the solar system, and to search for resources;
• Conduct advanced telescope searches for Earth-like planets and habitable environments around other
• Develop and demonstrate power generation, propulsion, life support, and other key capabilities
required to support more distant, more capable, and/or longer duration human and robotic exploration
of Mars and other destinations; and
• Conduct human expeditions to Mars after acquiring adequate knowledge about the planet using
robotic missions and after successfully demonstrating sustained human exploration missions to the
C. Space Transportation Capabilities Supporting Exploration
• Develop a new crew exploration vehicle to provide crew transportation for missions beyond low Earth
« Conduct the initial test flight before the end of this decade in order to provide an operational
capability to support human exploration missions no later than 2014;
• Separate to the maximum practical extent crew from cargo transportation to the International Space
Station and for launching exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit;
« Acquire cargo transportation as soon as practical and affordable to support missions to and from
the International Space Station; and
« Acquire crew transportation to and from the International Space Station, as required, after the
Space Shuttle is retired from service.
D. International and Commercial Participation
• Pursue opportunities for international participation to support U.S. space exploration goals; and
• Pursue commercial opportunities for providing transportation and other services supporting the
International Space Station and exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit.
PR E S I D E N T G E O R G E W. B U S H
JANUARY 14, 2004
Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
NASA Guiding Principles for Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Solar System and Beyond—Exploration Roadmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Lunar Testbeds and Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Mars Research, Testbeds, and Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Outer Moons Research and Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Extrasolar Planet Research and Observatories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Exploration Building Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
NASA Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
National Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Left: An artist’s concept of a spacecraft, equipped with a centrifuge
and nuclear–electric propulsion, traveling to Mars.
“The American experience stirred mankind from discovery to exploration. From the
cautious question of what they knew was out there . . . into an enthusiastic reaching
to the unknown.”
Daniel J. Boorstin (1914– )
“Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known.”
Carl Sagan (1934–1996)
Understanding from the unknown. Comprehension We also stand at a pivotal time in the history of
from the cosmos. Insight from the infinite. The rela- human space flight, when important choices about
tionship between discovery and exploration has driv- investments in the Space Shuttle, the International
en human curiosity for all of recorded history. Since Space Station, and follow-on programs are being
the time of the ancient philosophers, we have striven made in the wake of the Space Shuttle Columbia
to comprehend our place in the universe and have tragedy. Just as decisions to begin the Space Station
looked to the heavens for answers to the questions: and Space Shuttle programs were made 20 and 30
Where do we come from? Are we alone? Where are years ago, the direction we set for our human space
we going? flight programs today will define space exploration
for decades to come.
Exploration and discovery have been especially
important to the American experience. New World The President’s Vision for space exploration is bold
pioneers and American frontiersmen showed our and forward-thinking. It expands scientific discov-
Nation the importance of the knowledge, technolo- ery and the search for habitable environments and
gy, resources, and inspiration that flow from explo-
life by advancing human and robotic capabilities
ration. Like the ancients, America has also explored
across multiple worlds. This plan provides the
the heavens, and in the latter half of the 20th centu-
ry, the Apollo Moon landings became the most dis- framework for fulfilling the President’s direction,
tant milestone in the continuing American explorato- guided by the principles on the facing page. It is
ry tradition. responsive to recent science findings, the NASA
Strategic Plan, the report of the Columbia Accident
At the beginning of the 21st century, we stand at a Investigation Board, and the new space exploration
unique time in our exploration of the heavens. The policy. It seeks to establish a sustainable and flexi-
exploratory voyages of the next few decades have ble approach to exploration by pursuing compelling
the potential—within our lifetimes—to answer age- questions, developing breakthrough technologies,
old questions about how life begins, whether life leveraging space resources, and making smart deci-
exists elsewhere, and how we could live out there. sions about ongoing programs. It will help drive
critical national technologies in power, computing,
Our understanding of the universe and its habitabili- nanotechnology, biotechnology, communications,
ty is being revolutionized by new discoveries. networking, robotics, and materials. It will start
Scientists have found new forms of life in environ- exciting new programs now to inspire the next gen-
ments once thought inhospitable. Spacecraft have eration of explorers.
identified potential new resources on the Moon.
Robotic probes have found evidence of water, a key Our generation inherited great legacies from the
ingredient of life, on the planet Mars. A mission to exploratory voyages and discoveries of earlier cen-
Jupiter has revealed that oceans likely underlay the turies. Starting with an exploration roadmap (see
icy surfaces of that planet’s moons. Astronomers page 4), this document outlines a plan for achieving
have discovered over 100 planets, and counting, cir- great legacies that our century can leave to future
cling other stars. Together, these findings indicate generations.
that our universe may be more habitable than previ-
ously known. Instead of a dry, lifeless universe,
there may be many worlds that harbored life in the
past and can support life today.
2 National Aeronautics and
NASA Guiding Principles for Exploration
Pursue Compelling Questions
Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and socie-
tal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of
our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds.
Across Multiple Worlds
NASA will make progress across a broad front of destinations, starting with a return to the Moon to enable
future human exploration of Mars and other worlds. Consistent with recent discoveries, NASA will focus
on possible habitable environments on Mars, the moons of Jupiter, and in other solar systems. Where advan-
tageous, NASA will also make use of destinations like the Moon and near-Earth asteroids to test and demon-
strate new exploration capabilities.
Employ Human and Robotic Capabilities
NASA will send human and robotic explorers as partners, leveraging the capabilities of each where most use-
ful. Robotic explorers will visit new worlds first, to obtain scientific data, assess risks to our astronauts,
demonstrate breakthrough technologies, identify space resources, and send tantalizing imagery back to
Earth. Human explorers will follow to conduct in-depth research, direct and upgrade advanced robotic
explorers, prepare space resources, and demonstrate new exploration capabilities.
For Sustainable Exploration
NASA will pursue breakthrough technologies, investigate lunar and other space resources, and align ongo-
ing programs to develop sustainable, affordable, and flexible solar system exploration strategies.
Use the Moon as a Testing Ground For Mars and Beyond
Under this new Vision, the first robotic missions will be sent to the Moon as early as 2008 and the first
human missions as early as 2015 to test new approaches, systems and operations for sustainable human and
robotic missions to Mars and beyond.
NASA will pursue this Vision as our highest priority. Consistent with the FY 2005 Budget, NASA will
immediately begin to realign programs and organization, demonstrate new technical capabilities, and under-
take new robotic precursor missions to the Moon and Mars before the end of the decade.
The Vision for
Space Exploration 3
NOTE: All missions indicate launch dates.
4 National Aeronautics and
Solar System and Beyond—
Over the next three decades, NASA will send robotic probes to explore
our solar system, including our Earth’s Moon, the planet Mars, the
moons of Jupiter and other outer planets, and will launch new space tel-
escopes to search for planets beyond our solar system. These robotic
explorers will pursue compelling scientific questions, demonstrate
breakthrough technologies, identify space resources, and extend an
advanced telepresence that will send stunning imagery back to Earth.
Starting at the Moon in 2008 and at Mars in 2011, NASA will launch
dedicated robotic missions that will demonstrate new technologies and
enhance our scientific knowledge of these destinations. These new
technologies and discoveries will pave the way for more capable robot-
ic missions and eventually human missions. The first human explorers
will be sent to the Moon as early as 2015, as a stepping stone to demon-
strate sustainable approaches to exploring Mars and other worlds.
To support these missions, a number of key building blocks are neces-
sary. These include new capabilities in propulsion, power, communica-
tions, crew transport, and launch, as well as the refocusing of ongoing
programs like Space Station research. Major achievements, including
the completion of Space Station assembly, test flights of new crew
transport capabilities, and space technology demonstrations, are expect-
ed before the end of this decade.
The activities in each of the sections in this roadmap, Moon, Mars,
Outer Moons, Extrasolar Planets, and Exploration Building Blocks, are
described in detail on the following pages. Sections describing changes
in the NASA organization and resources to implement this plan are also
Right: The International Space Station as seen
from the Shuttle Endeavour.
The Vision for
Space Exploration 5
Facing page, left: Astronaut Nancy Currie, wearing an advanced, lightweight
spacesuit, works with NASA’s Robonaut, a robotic assistant for space explo-
ration. Facing page, right: A false-color mosaic taken by Galileo. Researchers
use the different colors to determine the mineral composition of the lunar sur-
face. Above: An artist’s concept of lunar exploration.
6 National Aeronautics and
Lunar Testbeds and Missions
“The moon is a silver pin-head vast,
That holds the heaven’s tent-hangings fast.”
William R. Alger (1823–1905)
“The Use of the Moon,” Oriental Poetry
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Apollo robotic missions as early as 2015. The Moon will
program demonstrated American technical strength provide an operational environment where we can
in a race against the Soviet Union to land humans on demonstrate human exploration capabilities within
the Moon. Today, NASA’s plans for a return to the relatively safe reach of Earth. Human missions to
Moon are not driven by Cold War competition, but the Moon will serve as precursors for human mis-
by the need to test new exploration technologies and sions to Mars and other destinations, testing new
skills on the path to Mars and beyond. Additionally, sustainable exploration approaches, such as space
during the 1990s, robotic missions identified poten- resource utilization, and human-scale exploration
tial evidence of water ice at the Moon’s poles, a systems, such as surface power, habitation and life
resource that could make exploration further into the support, and planetary mobility. The scope and
solar system easier to conduct. types of human lunar missions and systems will be
determined by their support to furthering science,
NASA will begin its lunar testbed program with a developing and testing new approaches, and their
series of robotic missions. The first, an orbiter to applicability to supporting sustained human space
confirm and map lunar resources in detail, will exploration to Mars and other destinations.
launch in 2008. A robotic landing will follow
in 2009 to begin demonstrating capabilities for sus- The major focus of these lunar activities will be
tainable exploration of the solar system. Additional on demonstrating capabilities to conduct sustained
missions, potentially up to one a year, are planned to research on Mars and increasingly deep and more
demonstrate new capabilities such as robotic net- advanced exploration of our solar system.
works, reusable planetary landing and launch sys- Additionally, these robotic and human missions will
tems, pre-positioned propellants, and resource pursue scientific investigations on the Moon, such
extraction. as uncovering geological records of our early solar
A human mission to the Moon will follow these
The Vision for
Space Exploration 7
Facing page, left: Gullies on Mars, like this one in the Newton Basin, may have
been formed by groundwater in geologically recent times. Facing page, right:
The Mars Science Lander will land the roving Mars Science Laboratory on the
surface of Mars. Above: A drawing of astronauts and robots exploring Mars.
8 National Aeronautics and
Mars Research, Testbeds, and Missions
“We shall never cease from exploration
And the end of all our exploring
Will be to arrive where we started
And know the place for the first time.”
T.S. Eliot (1888–1965)
As early as the 19th century, telescope observations These robotic testbeds will demonstrate technolo-
led some astronomers to speculate that Mars might gies—such as improved aerodynamic entry, Mars
harbor life. Subsequent robotic missions to Mars orbital rendezvous and docking, precision landing,
during the 1960s and 1970s showed that the surface resource extraction and utilization, and optical com-
of Mars is currently inhospitable. However, more munications—that can greatly enhance future robot-
recent missions have transformed our understanding ic capabilities and are key to enabling future human
of Mars. New data indicates that liquid water likely Mars missions. These missions will also obtain crit-
flowed across the surface of Mars in the distant past ical data for future human missions on chemical haz-
and may still exist in large reservoirs deep under- ards, resource locations, and research sites. They
ground. This raises the prospect that simple forms of may prepare resources and sites in anticipation of
life may have developed early in Mars’ history and human landings.
may persist beneath the surface of Mars to this day.
The first human mission beyond the Moon will be
NASA is aggressively pursuing the search for water determined on the basis of available resources, accu-
and life on Mars using robotic explorers. The Spirit mulated experience, and technology readiness.
and Opportunity rovers that landed on Mars in Potential candidates that might be considered
January 2004 are the latest in a series of research include circumnavigating Mars, visiting a near-Earth
missions planned to explore Mars through 2010. By asteroid, or erecting or upgrading a deep space tele-
the end of this decade, three rovers, a lander, and two scope. Such missions could test the human-scale
orbiters will have visited the planet. NASA will aug- power, propulsion, and other transit systems neces-
ment this program and prepare for the next decade of sary to take trips to Mars before taking on the addi-
Mars research missions by investing in key capabil- tional risk of a landing on Mars.
ities to enable advanced robotic missions, such as
returning geological samples from Mars or drilling The timing of the first human research missions to
under the surface of Mars. This suite of technologies Mars will depend on discoveries from robotic
will enable NASA to rapidly respond to discoveries explorers, the development of techniques to mitigate
this decade and pursue the search for water and life Mars hazards, advances in capabilities for sustain-
at Mars wherever it may lead next decade. able exploration, and available resources.
Starting in 2011, NASA will also launch the first in
a new series of human precursor missions to Mars.
The Vision for
Space Exploration 9
Facing page, left: An artist’s rendering of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter. Facing
page, right: An artist’s drawing of icy bodies in the Kuiper Belt. Above: Jupiter
and its moons Europa (seen against Jupiter) and Callisto (lower left) as seen
by the Cassini spacecraft in 2000.
10 National Aeronautics and
Outer Moons Research and Missions
“Sometimes I think we're alone in the universe, and sometimes I think we're not.
In either case the idea is quite staggering.”
Arthur C. Clarke (1917– )
In 1610, the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei enabling other advanced robotic missions and
discovered that four large moons circle the planet human missions beyond Earth’s orbit. In addition to
Jupiter. In the 1970s, NASA’s twin Voyager mis- mapping new oceans, the systems on the Jupiter Icy
sions flew by Jupiter and confirmed that three of Moons Orbiter will be a forerunner of the systems
these moons—Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede— needed to send humans to other worlds, to supply
are covered in water ice. Twenty years later, anoth- power for human expeditions on these worlds, and to
er NASA mission to Jupiter named after Galileo pursue other challenging robotic science missions.
found evidence that enormous, planet-wide oceans
likely lay underneath the icy surfaces of these The moons of other planets in our outer solar system
moons. As on Mars, the presence of liquid water may also hold critical clues to the evolution of hab-
raises the prospect that life could have developed on itable environments and the development of life.
one or more of these moons and may still swim in NASA’s Cassini mission, currently on its way to
their oceans today. Saturn, will encounter Saturn’s largest moon, Titan,
next January. Titan is icy like Jupiter’s moons, but
NASA is in the early stages of planning a mission unlike Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede, Titan has an
that will visit Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede dur- atmosphere that is about as dense as Earth’s, is com-
ing the next decade. Unlike the Voyager and Galileo posed of many of the same chemicals as Earth’s
missions, which could only briefly fly by Jupiter’s early atmosphere, and is believed to contain com-
moons, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter will be plex, pre-biotic chemistry. Titan may turn out to be
designed to circle each moon for up to a year, carry- a key laboratory for understanding how biology aris-
ing revolutionary science instruments. This will es from chemistry.
allow the lengthy and detailed investigations neces-
sary to confirm and map the underground oceans of Depending on the results from Cassini and the
these worlds in detail. Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, NASA experts believe
that advanced robotic missions to study the habitable
The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter is enabled by Project environments of the outer moons in detail—such as
Prometheus, NASA’s program to develop space submarines on Europa or balloons on Titan—are
nuclear power and propulsion technology. The likely after 2020. Over the long term, a human
nuclear power and nuclear-electric propulsion tech- research presence at some of these worlds may also
nologies that support this mission are also key to become desirable.
The Vision for
Space Exploration 11
Facing page, right: An artist’s drawing of the Terrestrial Planet
Finder. Above: A drawing of humans and advanced robotic assis-
tants building a space telescope. Left: An artist’s concept of the
Spitzer Space Telescope.
12 National Aeronautics and
Extrasolar Planet Research
“Do there exist many worlds, or is there but a single world? This is one of the most
noble and exalted questions in the study of Nature.”
Albertus Magnus (1193–1280)
“We may object that we have been thinking of the stars as mere bodies . . . but should
rather conceive them as enjoying life and action. On this view the facts cease to
Aristotle (384–322 BC)
On the Heavens, Book II, Part 12
Our solar system is composed of nine planets, The results from these telescopes will be used in
including Earth, that circle a central star, the Sun. the design of an advanced space telescope, the
Astronomers and philosophers have speculated for Terrestrial Planet Finder, to be launched during the
millennia about whether other stars harbor worlds next decade. The Terrestrial Planet Finder will be
like Earth and whether these worlds are inhabited. capable of finding Earth-like planets and detecting
However, it is only in the last decade that telescopes the chemicals in their atmospheres. Just as plants
have become powerful enough to detect whether and animals have changed Earth’s atmosphere over
planets of any type circle other stars. In 1995, time, the detection of specific chemicals on other
astronomers discovered the first solar system besides worlds would indicate that life has evolved on them,
our own. Since then, astronomers have found over as well.
100 planets orbiting other stars—and the number
continues to climb with new discoveries. If the Terrestrial Planet Finder discovers extrasolar
planets with evidence of life, NASA would pursue
All of the extrasolar planets discovered to date are additional space telescopes after 2020 that can con-
either very large planets or planets that circle very firm the existence of life on these worlds and image
close to their parent stars. Some extrasolar planets their features. Life Finder or Planet Imager tele-
are many times larger than the largest planet in our scopes would likely be very large and complex
solar system, Jupiter, and orbit even closer to their spacecraft located far from Earth. A human presence
parent star than the closest planet to our Sun, in deep space could be necessary to help erect and
Mercury. Because of the obscuring effects of the upgrade such future telescopes.
Earth’s atmosphere, the detection and characteriza-
tion of small planets with normal orbits like Earth is
extremely challenging using ground-based tele-
NASA’s Astronomical Search for Origins program
will use a variety of techniques this decade to great-
ly expand the number and variety of known extraso-
lar planets. New space telescopes like the Spitzer
and James Webb Space Telescopes, the Kepler mis-
sion, and the Space Interferometry mission, will
search newly formed planets circling young stars,
take planetary surveys of thousands of faraway stars,
and detect planets only a few times larger than Earth
around very nearby stars.
The Vision for
Space Exploration 13
Above: Exploration building blocks will provide the capabilities necessary for
exploration of the solar system and beyond.
14 National Aeronautics and
Exploration Building Blocks
“As for the future, your task is not to see it, but to enable it.”
Antoine de-Saint Exupery (1900–1944)
The Wisdom of the Sands
“Man hath weaved out a net, and this net throwne upon the Heavens, and now
they are his own.”
John Donne (1572–1631)
To conduct an effective and exciting program of missions described in this document. The Crew
exploration and discovery, we must overcome the Exploration Vehicle might also supplement interna-
limitations of space, time, and energy, as well as var- tional partner crew transport systems to the Space
ious space hazards. Over the next two decades, Station.
NASA plans to develop a number of new capabilities
that are critical to enabling the human and robotic For cargo transport to the Space Station after 2010,
missions described in this document. NASA will rely on existing or new commercial
cargo transport systems, as well as international part-
For human explorers to undertake lengthy research ner cargo transport systems. NASA does not plan to
trips on other worlds, they will have to maintain their develop new launch vehicle capabilities except
health in environments that possess higher radiation where critical NASA needs—such as heavy lift—are
and lower gravity than Earth and that are far from not met by commercial or military systems.
supplies and medical expertise. Research aboard the Depending on future human mission designs, NASA
International Space Station and at various laborato- could decide to develop or acquire a heavy lift vehi-
ries on Earth is critical to understanding the effects cle later this decade. Such a vehicle could be
of space environments on the human body, develop- derived from elements of the Space Shuttle, existing
ing techniques for mitigating these hazards, mini- commercial launch vehicles, or new designs.
mizing the logistical burden of supporting humans
far from Earth, and addressing remote medical emer- In the days of the Apollo program, human explo-
gencies. NASA plans to complete assembly of the ration systems employed expendable, single-use
Space Station, including international partner ele- vehicles requiring large ground crews and careful
ments, by the end of the decade. NASA will also monitoring. For future, sustainable exploration pro-
augment its bioastronautics research program with grams, NASA requires cost-effective vehicles that
the goal that Space Station research necessary to may be reused, have systems that could be applied
support human explorers on other worlds will be to more than one destination, and are highly reliable
complete by 2016. and need only small ground crews. NASA plans
to invest in a number of new approaches to explo-
The Space Shuttle will be critical to completing ration, such as robotic networks, modular systems,
assembly of the Space Station. With Space Station pre-positioned propellants, advanced power and
assembly complete at the end of this decade, NASA propulsion, and in-space assembly, that could enable
will retire the Space Shuttle and put crew and these kinds of vehicles. These technologies will be
cargo on different launches, a safer approach to crew demonstrated on the ground, at the Space Station and
transport. other locations in Earth orbit, and on the Moon start-
ing this decade and into the next. Other break-
NASA will initiate Project Constellation to develop a through technologies, such as nuclear power and
new Crew Exploration Vehicle for future crew trans- propulsion, optical communications, and potential
port. This vehicle will be developed in stages, with use of space resources, will be demonstrated as part
the first automated test flight in 2008, more of robotic exploration missions. The challenges of
advanced test flights soon thereafter, and a fully designing these systems will accelerate the develop-
operational capability no later than 2014. The ment of fundamental technologies that are critical
design of the Crew Exploration Vehicle will be driv- not only to NASA, but also to the Nation’s econom-
en by the needs of the future human exploration ic and national security.
The Vision for
Space Exploration 15
Above: Mars as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope.
16 National Aeronautics and
“No one regards what is before his feet; we all gaze at the stars.”
Quintus Ennius (239–169 BC)
To successfully execute the President’s vision, Biological and Physical Research Enterprise will put
NASA will refocus its organization, create new much greater emphasis on bioastronautics research
offices where necessary, realign ongoing programs to enable human exploration of other worlds.
and personnel, experiment with new ways of doing Similarly, Space Station research will be prioritized
business, and tap the great innovative and creative to support human exploration.
talents of our Nation.
NASA’s Office of the Space Architect will be
Prior to this plan, six Enterprises comprised NASA’s responsible for coordinating and integrating the
organization—Space Science, Earth Science, exploration activities of NASA’s different
Biological and Physical Research, Aerospace Enterprises and for maintaining exploration
Technology, Education, and Space Flight. To devel- roadmaps and high-level requirements.
op the exploration building blocks described in this
document, NASA has created a new Exploration As we move outward into the solar system, NASA
Systems Enterprise. Exploration Systems will be will rely more heavily on private sector space capa-
initially responsible for developing the solar system bilities to support activities in Earth orbit and future
exploration vehicles and technologies described in exploration activities. In particular, NASA will seek
this plan, including the Crew Exploration Vehicle, to use existing or new commercial launch vehicles
nuclear power and propulsion systems, and neces- for cargo transport to the Space Station, and poten-
sary supporting technologies. Relevant elements of tially to the Moon and other destinations.
the Aerospace Technology, Space Science, and
Space Flight enterprises were transferred to the Building on its long history and extensive and close
Exploration Systems Enterprise. The Aerospace ties with the space and research agencies of other
Technology Enterprise was renamed the Aeronautics nations, NASA will also actively seek international
Enterprise. partners and work with the space agencies of these
partners in executing future exploration activities.
In the past, NASA’s human space flight programs
and robotic exploration programs have largely oper- Many of the technical challenges that NASA will
ated independently of each other. As human explor- face in the coming years will require innovative
ers prepare to join their robotic counterparts, closer solutions. In addition to tapping creative thinking
coordination and integration will be necessary. The within the NASA organization, NASA will need to
Exploration Systems Enterprise will work closely leverage the ideas and expertise resident in the
with the Space Science Enterprise to use the Moon Nation’s universities and industry. One way that
as a testing ground for solar system exploration vehi- NASA plans to do this is through a series of
cles and technologies. Centennial Challenges. As in the barnstorming days
of early aviation, NASA plans to establish prizes for
NASA’s Space Science Enterprise will have respon- specific accomplishments that advance solar system
sibility for carrying out robotic testbeds on the Moon exploration and other NASA goals.
and Mars and will also demonstrate other key tech-
nologies for human and robotic exploration in other NASA will also invigorate its workforce, focus its
missions to Mars and the outer moons. NASA’s facilities, and revitalize its field centers. Congress is
Space Science Enterprise will eventually need to reviewing human capital legislation that will provide
integrate human capabilities into Mars science plan- NASA with necessary workforce tools. NASA is
ning, and potentially deep space observatory or outer also planning to phase out older, underutilized build-
moon planning. ings and facilities. As exploration activities get
underway, NASA anticipates additional planning,
Many other elements of the NASA organization will reviews, and changes to align and improve its infra-
be focused to support this new direction. NASA’s structure.
The Vision for
Space Exploration 17
Above: The Moon as seen by the Galileo spacecraft.
18 National Aeronautics and
To confine our attention to terrestrial matters would be to limit the human spirit.
Stephen Hawking (1942– )
Exploration Strategy Based on Long-Term Affordability
The President’s Vision for solar system exploration three ways: holding down growth in existing pro-
is affordable in both the short-term and the long- grams that do not support the vision; retiring the
term. NASA’s budget will increase by five percent Space Shuttle to free up billions of dollars in the next
per year over the next three years and at about one decade; and focusing on innovations that reduce the
percent for the following two years. cost of sustained space operations. The chart above
reflects the shift in funding that will occur over time
Although the budget increases are modest, NASA as the new vision for human and robotic exploration
will be able to carry out a robust exploration pro- of the solar system and beyond is implemented.
gram. NASA will free up resources in its budget in
The Vision for
Space Exploration 19
20 National Aeronautics and
“Mankind is drawn to the heavens for the same reason we were once drawn into
unknown lands and across the open sea. We choose to explore space because doing
so improves our lives, and lifts our national spirit.”
President George W. Bush
January 14, 2004
Just as Meriwether Lewis and William Clark could that are critical to our future national economic com-
not have predicted the settlement of the American petitiveness.
West within a hundred years of the start of their
famous 19th century expedition, the total benefits of The accomplishments of U.S. space explorers are
a single exploratory undertaking or discovery cannot also a particularly potent symbol of American
be predicted in advance. Because the very purpose democracy, a reminder of what the human spirit can
of exploratory voyages and research is to understand achieve in a free society. However, space explo-
the unknown, exact benefits defy calculation. ration also encourages international cooperation,
Nonetheless, we can define important categories of where spacecraft and explorers come to represent
benefits to the Nation and society. our world as well as our Nation.
Preparing for exploration and research accelerates When the unknown becomes known, it catalyzes
the development of technologies that are important change, stimulating human thought, creativity and
to the economy and national security. The space imagination. The scientific questions that this plan
missions in this plan require advanced systems and pursues have the potential to revolutionize whole
capabilities that will accelerate the development of fields of research. For example, scientists are still
many critical technologies, including power, com- working to understand how similarly sized planets,
puting, nanotechnology, biotechnology, communica- such as Mars and Earth, could have developed so
tions, networking, robotics, and materials. These differently and what that could mean for our planet.
technologies underpin and advance the U.S. econo- If life is found beyond Earth, biological processes on
my and help ensure national security. NASA plans other worlds may be very different from those
to work with other government agencies and the pri- evolved on our world. Outside the sciences, the very
vate sector to develop space systems that can address knowledge that life exists elsewhere in the universe
national and commercial needs. may hold revelations for fields in the humanities.
Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth
Space exploration holds a special place in the human
in society—technologically, economically, socially,
imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars internationally, and intellectually. This plan sets
rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If engaged effec- in motion activities that will contribute to change
tively and creatively, space inspires children to seek and growth in the U.S. and the world over the next
careers in math, science, and engineering, careers century.
NASA research stimulates and inspires young minds and
provides critical technologies for the Nation.
The Vision for
Space Exploration 21
Page vi An artist’s concept of a spacecraft, equipped with a centrifuge and nuclear–electric propulsion, traveling to
Mars, John Frassanito and Associates.
Page 6 An artist’s concept of lunar exploration, John Frassanito and Associates.
Page 8 A drawing of astronauts and robots exploring Mars, John Frassanito and Associates.
Page 12 A drawing of astronauts and advanced robotic assistants building a space telescope, Pat Rawlings, SAIC.
Below Analytical Mechanics Associates.
Editing, layout, and design by The Tauri Group, LLC, and Eileen Schramm visual communication.
Above: An artist’s drawing of a human exploration base on Callisto, Jupiter’s
second largest moon.
22 National Aeronautics and
Above: Spiral galaxy M81, located
approximately 12 million light-years from
Earth, as seen by the Spitzer Space
National Aeronautics and
Washington, DC 20546