M270 Family of Munitions Modernization Plan 1993

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M270 Family of Munitions Modernization Plan 1993 Powered By Docstoc

        February 1993



  CHAPTER 1-                                                                                     1-1
                               EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •..........•..........••.•..•••••...•.••.......••..••
      1.1       IntrOOuction                                                                                                                   1-1
      1.2       Purpose and Scope                                                                                                              1-1
      1.3       M<X1ernization Drivers                                                                                                         1-2
      1.4       PEO Tactical Missile MFOMModernization                              Strategy                                                   1-3
      1.5       Interfaces                                                                                                                     1-4
      1.6       Fire Support System of Systems                                                                                                 1-4
      1.7       Organization                                                                                                                   1-5
      1.8        Assessment Summary          :                                                                                                 1-6
      1.9        Summary of Recommendations                                                                                                    1-9

   CHAPTER 2 - THREAT ••.....•....••.....•.•.•..••...........•..••...•....•..••...............•..•...•..
       2.1      IntrOOuction                                                                                                                       2-1
       2.2      Technology                                                                                                                         2-1
       2.3      AIinor                                                                                                                             2-1
       2.4      Air Defenses                                                                                                                       2-1 .
       2.5      Electronic Warfare                                                                     ~                                           2- 2
       2.6       Cannons                                                                                                       ~                   2- 2
       2.7       Multiple Launch Rocket Systems                                                                                                     2-2
       2.8       Tactical Ballistic Missiles (TBM)                                                                                                  2-3
        2.9      Weapons of Mass Destruction                                                                                                        2-3
        2. 10    Sum m ary ...........................................................................................•........ :.................• 2-4

   CHAPTER 3-                     FIRE SUPPORT WARFIGHTING CONCEPTS                                                                             3-1
        3.1  In troouction                                                                                                                       3-1
        3.2 General                                                                                           :                                  3-1
        3.3 F ut ure Warfi ghti n g                ~                                                                              ~              3-1
             3.3.1 World Situation             :.."- ~                                                                           :               3-1
             3.3.2 Political Constraints             ~                                                                                           3-1
              3.3.3 Contingency Based Force ~ :                                                                                                  3-1
              3.3 .4 Technology                                                                               :                                  3- 3
              3.3.5 Emphasis on Operational Maneuver                                                                                             3-3
        3.4 FS System Elements                                                              :                          ~                          3-4
              3.4.1 Coordination Element                                                           ~                                              3-4
              3.4.2 FS Attack Organi.zations                                                                                                      3-4
         3.5 FS Systems (Attack Organizations)                                                                                                    3-4
              3.5.1 Cannons                                                                                   ~                                   3-4
              3.5.2 Rocket and Missile Launchers                                                                                                  3-4
                                                                       J:orr1B swettTechni~~.l                    Library.       USAFAS'
                                                                       Property of U.S. Army

     PEO TlUtical Missiles Modernization             Plan
                      TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

             3.5.3   Mortar'S                                                                     3-4
             3.5.4   Naval GunfIre                                                                3-5
             3.5.5   Naval Cruise Missiles                                                        3-5
             3.5.6   Attack Helicopters                                                         ~ 3-5
             3.5.7   Attack Aircmft                                                               3-5
             3.5.8   Non Line-of-Sight (NLOS) Missile System                                      3-5
             3.5.9   Electronic Jammers                                                           3-5
     . 3.6   Fire Support Missions, Roles and Tasks                                               3-6
             3.6.1 Mission                                                                        3-6
             3.6.2 Roles                                                                          3-6
             3.6.3 Target Types                                                                   3-8
             3.6.4 Fire Support Tasks for Future Operations                                       3-9
      3.7    Future Requirements                                                                 3-11
             3.7.1 Land Based. Systems                                                           3-11
             3.7.2' Deployability                                                                3-11
             3.7.3 Mobility                         "                                            3-12
             3.7.4 Survivability                                                                 3-12
             3.7.5 Capability                                                                    3-12
             3.7.6 Responsiveness                                                                3-12
             3.7.7 Range                                                                         3-12
             3.7.8 Lethality                                                                     3-13
             3.7.9 Airspace Coordination Requirements                                            3-13
      3.8    Battlefield Deficiencies                                     ,                      3-14
      3.9    Summary                                                                             3-15

      4.1    IntrOOuction                                                                          4-1
             4.1.1 Anny Mooernization Vision                                                       4-1
             4. I .2 Purpose                                                                       4-1
      4.2    New Anny Initiatives Impacting Upon Modernization Strategy                            4-1
             4.2.1 Revision of FM 100-5                                                            4-1
             4.2.2 . Battle ubs Concept                                                            4-2
             4.2.3 wuisiana Maneuvers (LAM)                                                        4-2
             4.2.4 Joint Precision Strike Demonstration (JPSD)                                     4-2
      4.3    Mcxlerniza tion Strategy                                                              4-3
             4.3.1 Mooernization Drivers                                                           4- 3
             .4.3.2 Mooerniza rion Eleme nts                                                       4-4
      4.4    A Plan for the Future                                                ~                4-8

ii                                                             PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                              TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
t.                                                                                                                                        Page

I               4.4.1 Launchers
                4.4.2 CatTier Vehicles •...............................................................................................
                4.4.3 Warheads                                              ~                                                             4-10

I        4.5    FS System of Systems
                4.5.1 Weapons and Munitions
                4.5.2 Command, Control, Communications Computers and Intelligence (C4I)                                                   4-11
i               4.5.3 Target Acquisition (TA)
                4.5.4 Support and Sustainment (S/S)

I        4.6    Summary                ~                                                                                                  4-12

     CHAPTER 5 - ASSESSMENT OF THE MFOM •..•••..•••..••••............•....•••••••••
I        5.1
               MFOM - Description and Capabilities
               5.2.1 Launcher                                                                                                              5-1
               5.2.2 CatTiers                                                                                                              5-2
               5.2.3 Munitions                                                                                                             5-4
               5.2.4 Other                                                                                                                 5-5
         5.3   MFO M System Assessment                                                                                                     5-6
               5.3.1 Stationary Soft Targets                                                                                               5-8
               5.3.2 Moving Soft Targets                                                                                                   5-8
               5.3.3 Stationary Hard Targets                                                                                               5-9
               5.3.4 Moving Hard Targets                                                                             ~                     5-9
               5.3.5 Tac.tical Ballistic Missile (TBM) Systems                                                 ~                           5-9
               5.3.6 RF Em itters .......................•........................................................... :                    5-9
               5.3.7 Cou nterfire                                          ~                                                               5-9
               5.3.8 Enemy Air Defenses                                                                                                    5-9
               5.3.9 Deliver Long Range Fires: Throughout the Corps Area                                                                  5-10
               5.3.1 0 Improved Navigation and Determination of Position Location                                                         5-10
         5.4   Summary                                    ~                                                                               5-10

     MISS ILE SYSTEM S •..........................................•........•....••.•. ~                         6.1
         6.1   IntrOOuction                               :                                                   :':                          6-1
         6.2   System s/System Upgrades                                                                                                    6-1
               6.2.1 High Mobility ~nillery Rocket System (HlMARS)                                                                         6-1
               6.2.2 M270 ImprOVedLauncher Mechanical System (ILMS)                                                                        6-2
               6.2.3 Army Tactical Missile System Block II (ATACMS II)                                                                     6-2

     PEO TlUtical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                                               ill
                    TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

           6.2.4    Anny Tactical Missile System Block I Extended Range
                    (ATACMS P31 AP AM)                                                                     6-2
            6.2.5 ATACMS Enhanced (ATACMS EN)                                                              6-2
           6.2.6 Sense and Destroy Armor Pre-Planned Product Improvement
                    (SAD ARM P3I)                                                                          6-3
           6.2.7 BAT Pre-Planned Product Improvement (BAT P3I)                                             6-3
           6.2.8 Extended Range MLRS (ER MLRS) (Procurement)                                              6-3
     . 6.3 Advanced System Concepts                                                                       6-3
           6.3.1 Future Fire Support System (F2S2)                                                        6-3
           6.3.2 Mini-Cruise Concept                                                                      6- 3
           6.3.3 Long Range Artillery Missile (LONG ARM)                                                  6-4
           6.3.4 Long Range Fiber Optic Guided Missile (LONGFOG)                                          6-4
           6.3.5 Radio Frequency Attack Munition (RFAM)                                                   6-4
           6.3.6 Deep Attack Smart Munition (DASM)                                                        6-4 .
       6.4 Fu ture System Assessment                                                                      6-5
           6.4.1 Stationary Soft Targets                                                                  6-5
           6.4.2 Moving Soft. Targets                                                                     6-6
           6.4.3 Stationary Hard Targets                                                                  6-6
           6.4.4 Moving Hard Targets                                                                      6-7
           6.4.5 TBM Systems                                                                              6-7
           6.4.6 RF Emitters                                                                              6-7
           6.4.7 Coun tenIre                                                                              6-7
           6.4.8 Enem y Air Defenses                                                                      6-8
           6.4.9 Improved Navigation and Determination of Position Location                               6-8
      6.5 Sum m ary                                                                                       6-8

CHAPTER 7 -          RECOMMENDATIONS               ..........................•.........•...........•.•••••• 7-1
     7.1   IntrOOuction                                                                                  7-1
     7.2   Key MFOM System of Systems Requirements                                                       7-1
           7.2.1 Target Acquisition                                                                      7-1
           7.2.2 Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I)                                 7-3
           7.2.3 .Suppon and Sustainment                      :                                          7-4
     7.3   Battlefield Deficiencies                                                                      7-5
     7.4   Recommendations                                                                               7-7
           7.4.1 HIMARS                                                                                 7-1 0
           7.4.2 ILMS                                                                                   7-10
           7.4.3 AT ACMS P3I APAM                                                                       7-10

iv                                                            PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan

                      TABLE OF CONTENTS (Concluded)

           7.4.4 ER MLRS                                                                     7-10
           7.4.5 AT ACMS EN                                                                  7-10
           7.4.6 SADARM P3I                                                                  7-10
           7.4. 7 BAT P3I                                                                   7-10
           7.4.8 JPSD/W'ARBREAKER                                                           7-10
           7.4.9 Mini-Cruise     ~
           7.4.10 Low Cost Anti-Armor Submunition (LOCAAS)                                  7-10
           7.4.11 SADARM P3I Follow-on                                                      7-11
           7.3.12 Dual Mode Seeker                                                          7-11
           7.4.13 AIS                                                                       7-11
           7.4.14 RFAM                                                                      7-11
           7.4.15 DASM                                                                      7-11
     7.5   SUMMARY                                                                          7-11

.ANNEX A -              Abbreviations      and Acronyms                                     J\~1
 ANNEX B -                                                                                  B
                        The Science and Technology Program ••.......•.....••••..........•.•.• .l


PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                                       LIST OF FIGURES
     Figure                                                                                         Page

     1-1       Army Modernization Vision                                                               1-1
     1-2       M270 Family of Munitions                                                                1-2
     1-3       Modernization Plan Objectives                                                           1-2
     1-4       Trends                                                                                  1-3
     1-5       Elements of PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Strategy                                1-3
     1-6       Plan Interfaces                                                                         1-4
     1-7       Fire Support System of Systems                                                          1-5
     1-8       MFOM C4I Architecture                                                                  1-6
 1-9           Roadmap                                                                                1-6
 1-10          Assessment of Fielded Systems                                                          1-7
 1-11          Assessment of Fielded Plus 94 POM Supported Systems                                    1~8
 1-12          Future FS Systems Capabilities                                                         1-9
 1-13          Potential Technology Infusion Solutions                                              1-10
 2-1           Example 155mm Cannon Capabilities                                                      2-2
 2-2           Proliferation of Rocket and Missile Systems                                            2-3
 3-1 .         Field Artillery Mission                                                                3-6
 3-2           Field Artillery Roles                                                                  3-6
 3-3           BDP Priorities                                                                       3-15
 4-1           Anny Modernization Vision                                                             4-1
 4-2           Battle Lab Concept                                                                    4-2
4-3           Defense Dollars as Percent of GNP                                                      4-3
4-4           PEO Missile Modernization Strategy                                                     4-4
4-5           Technology Modernization Goals                                                         4- 5
4-6           Historical Timelines for Rocket and Missile Systems Development                        4-7
4-7           Launcher;                                                                              4- 8
4-8           Carri er Vehicles                                                                      4-9
4-9           Warheads                                                                             4-1 0
5-1           MFOM Systems and Components                                                            5-1
5-2           M270 Launcher Firing MLRS DPICM                                                        5-2
5-3           M270 Launcher Firing ATACMS BLOCK I                                                    5-3
5-4           Target Set Definitions                                                                 5-6
5-5           Assessment of Fielded Systems                                                          5-7
5-6           Assessment of Fielded Plus 94 POM Supported Systems                                   5-8
5-7           Summary                                                                              5-10
6-1           Future FS Rocket and Missile Systems and Advanced Concepts                            6-1
6-2           Assessment of Future Systems                                                          6-6
6-3           Summary                                                                               6-9

vi                                                              PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                        ..LIST OF FIGURES (Concluded)

7-1     Target Acquisition                                                7-6
7-2     Command, Control, Communications, Computers Intelligence          7-6
7-3     Support and Sustainment                                    ~
7-4     Potential Technology Infusion Solutions                           7-8
7-5     MFOM Present and Future Systems                                   7-8
7-6     Weapons and Munitions Development Schedules                      7-9
B-1     Science and Technology Execution                                 B-2
B-2     Army Budget Trends        :                                      B- 3
B-3     Army Science and Technology Funding                              B-3
B-4     Army Emerging Technologies/DoD Critical Technologies             B-4
B-5     Science and Technology Investment Strategy Principles            B-6
B-6     Science and Technology Objectives                                B-7
B-7     PEO Tactical Missiles Priorities                                B-I0
B-8     Key Technologies and Fire Support                               B~12
B-9     Technology Assessment Results                                   B-19

PEO Taclical Missiles Modernizalion Plan                                  vii
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viii                                PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 1.1 INTRODUCTION                                         changes in threat, declining resources and force
                                                           structure, a new strategic mission focus for the
  Field Artillery (FA) fires have dominated the           Army, cancellation of programs, revised program
  battlefields of all major conflicts of the twentieth    schedules, definitization of proposed pre-planned
  century. Studies have concluded that more than          product improvements (P3l), and in-process evo-
 50 percent of the casualties in the two World            lution of doctrinal concepts.
 Wars, Korea, the Arab-Israeli Wars, and Desert
 Storm were caused by artillery fIreS. In the late
 Twentieth Century, the dynamics of the battle-

                                                                    ARMY MODEaM.~          TION VISION
 field are undergoing an evolution of major pro-
 portions created by technological adv~ces in tar-
                                                                             "'k~\j",.; ./ '.'"
 get acquisition, information management and dis-
 tribution, sensors, seekers, munitions lethality,
guidance and control, propulsion, and precision

munitions. Modern technology is revolutionizing                         ~

warfighting doctrine and changing the balance
between firepower and maneu~er. The Army has                 -r.1
established a family of interrelated modernization
plans that will facilitate the disciplined, affordable
evolution of weapons systems and materiel to
                                                               Figure I-I. Army Modernization      Vision
meet future requirements. These modernization
plans formally state the Army's overall plan for         1.2 PURPOSE AND SCOPE
force development and modernization and clearly
articulate modernization goals.                           The purpose of the plan is to provide moderniza-
                                                          tion recommendations for the M270 Family of
This plan is the first revision of the Program            Munitions (MFOM) Rocket and Missile Systems
Executive Office (PEO) Fire Support (FS) Mod-            fired either from the Multiple Launch Rocket Sys-
ernization Plan published in December 1991. This         tem (MLRS), M270, or other future launchers
Modernization Plan is in consonance with the             such as the lightweight High Mobility Artillery
Anny Modernization Vision, Land Force Domi-              Rocket System (HIMARS).            Figure 1-2 is an
nance.    As shown in Figure 1- i, there are five        illustrative overview of the currently fielded
modernization objectives necessary to realize t)1e       MFOM. The FS systems addressed in this plan
vision:                                                  are limitt",dto those Tactical Missile (TM) systems
                                                         associated with the MFOM, and whose develop-
 •   Project and Sustain the Force                       ment is managed by the PEO Tactical Missiles
 •   Protect the Force                                   (PEO MSL) (fonne:ly PEG Fire Support).
 •   Win the Information War
 •   Conduct Precision Strikes                           This plan gives further emphasis to the required
 •   Dominate the Maneuver Battlefield                   "System of Systems" architecture in the areas of
                                                         Target Acquisition (T A), Command~ Control,
This Modernization Plan has been revised to sup-         Communications,     Computers and Intelligence
port three of these objectives: Protect the Force,       (C4I), and Support and Sustainment (S/S), which
Conduct Precision Strikes, and Dominate the Ma-          must progress in parallel with Rocket and Missile
neuver Battlefield, and to address significant           Systems modernization.     Additionally, the plan

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                    J-J
                                                                   M74 APAM                  PERSONNEL,
                 LAUNCHER,    ROCKET     ARMORED    VEHICLE         MOUNTED                                       M577       VEHICLE

                                     M-269     ~F
                                                        1:5J=dH                 LAUNCH
                                                                                          POD              ~-
                                                                                                           -eD              COMMON

                                       Figure 1-2. M270 Family of Munitions

places new emphasis on the transition of mature               •    ESTABLISH A ROCKET AND MISSILE MODERNIZATION                 PLAN THAT IS
technology     programs     into system specific                   SYNCHRONIZED  WITH OTHER ARMY MODERNIZATION                  PLANS

improvements.       With limited and decreasing               •    SUPPORT         CURRENT    AND FUTURE    EVOLVING    DOCTRINE

resources, our planning must steer the thrust of                   PROVIDE        STRATEGIC   VISION FOR LONG RANGE FS MODERNIZATION

our funded technology efforts into areas where                •    PROVIDE        PLANNING    INPUT FOR POM AND EPA

battlefield deficiencies exist, and into potential            •    PROVIDE        FOCUS FOR PROGRAM.        PROJECT    - PRODUCT    MANAGERS

system advances that specifically counter these               •    ESTABLISH        A "BUSINESS SENSE" CLIMATE FOR FS MODERNIZATION
                                                                   (REALISTIC,      AFFORDABLE,  COST.EFFECTIVE, OO-ABLE)
deficiencies. There is insufficient time and money
                                                              •    LEVERAGE MFOM FOR MAXIMUM               ADVANTAGE     IN CAPABILITY   AT LOWEST
to do it any other way.                                            AFFORDABLE COST

                                                          •        EXPLOIT FULL POTENTIAL OF P31, EVOLVE              NEW SYSTEMS    WHEN GROWTH
                                                                   POTENTIAL NO LONGER POSSIBLE
Unlike most combat systems, fire supPOrt is imique
                                                          •        IDENTIFY AND FOCUS HIGH LEVERAGE             EMERGING     TECHNOLOGY     TO
 because it is multipurpose and supports maneuver                  SUPPORT FS MODERNIZATION   NEEDS

forces at every level of conflict, anq. in all intensi-
ties of warfare. TM systems must be capable of                          Figure 1-3. Modernization Plan Objectives
deplOYment with any force mix to meet any con'"
tingency.     This plan assesses MFOM systems,                    1.3 MODERNIZATION DRIVERS
capabilities to meet these requirements. Summa-
ries of threat, doctrine, materiel developments,                  Global trends emanating from many sources, as
and technology base efforts are provided to make                  shown in Figure 1-4, weigh heavily on modern-
this plan a stand-alone document Currently fielded                ization. These trends shape the environment in
systems are assessed against future threats. Mate-                which modernization occurs, and place constraints
riel improvements or new systems are then planned                 on the approaches that can be taken. The threat,
to meet required capabilities. The plan's basic                   national military strategy, warfighting doctrine,
objectives are shown in Figure 1-3.                               and technology all drive modernization. Each of

1-2                                                                                   PEG Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan

                                                 FORWARD PRESENCE

                                                                                               .1.4 PEO TACTICAL MISSILE
                                                                                                    MFOM MODERNIZATION
 NUMSERS                                         AGING SYSTEMS
                                                 CAPABlUTY                         ...              STRATEGY

                                   •             CAPABIUTY
                                                                                   •           The PEO MSL Modernization strategy fonus
 PERSONNEL                                       DOCTRWAL.
                                                                                               the conceptual basis for the plan. The center-
                                   ...                                             •

                                    ...                                            •
 CONFUCT RISK                                    MOBILE
 NUClEAR STRAlEGiC                               LETHAL                                        piece of the strategy is to build upon the combat
 LOW INTENSITY                      ...
                                    •                                                          proven M270 Launcher, Command, Control and
                                                                                               Communications (C3) architecture, and effective
                                                                                               weapon delivery systems; MLRS Rocket and
                                                                                               Army Tactical Missile System (AT ACMS) which
                                                                                               f~     the basis      ?~
                                                                                                                  the MFOM. While fully recog-
                                                                                           I   mzmg the realines of a declining resource envi-
                            DRIVE IIOOERNIZA TAJON                 '
                                                                                           I   moment, the strategy meets the Chief of Staff's
  "-R-EG-'ONAl--CON-F-U-cr-MA-Y-'NC-LU-DE-WEA-PQN-S-OF-MASS--DE-S--mUC-TION--                  criteria for evolving multipurpose, high lever-
                                                                                               age, affordable systems having significant growth
                            Figure 1-4. Trends                                                 potential for technology insertion. The strategy
                                                                                               has four inherent thrusts:
these drivers provides distinct requirements that
cannot be addressed in isolation. The threat pro-
                                                                                                •    Flexible,
vides an indication of the type of force the Army
may have to fight. National military strategy
                                                                                                •    Develop and acquire world class systems,
defines the roles the Army must be prepared to
execute and by inference, requires a modernized,
                                                                                                •    Maintain technological superiority, and
capable, and ready force. The growing capability
of regional powers to develop and field weapons
                                                                                                •    Preserve future options.
of mass desouction is an area of increasing con-
cern to policy makers and warfighters.        The
                                                                                               The strategy is based upon a systems perspective
warfighting doctrine outlines how the Army ex-
                                                                                               and has the basic elements shown in Figure 1-5.
pects to fight given the types of weapons and
resources available. Warfighting doctrine requires
continuous force modernization and includes as-
sumptions about the rate of technology advance-
                                                                                                                          • LEVERAGE THE
                                                                                                                            M270 LAUNCHER
                                                                                                                            AND THE MFOM

                                                                                                                          • LEVERAGE

Technology serves as a modernization driver..
Operation Desert Stonn demonstrated the capa-                                                               I
                                                                                                                          • COMMON VISION
                                                                                                                            FOR NEEDED,
bilities of high teChnology warfare in applying
lethal combat power for the desouction of a well-                                                           I               PROGRAMS

equipped enemy. The low number of casualties
                                                                                                      .INSERTION          • TAKE A LONGER

sustained by United States and coalition forces                                                                               ODERNIZATION
compared with the casualties inflicted on the Iraqi                                                                         PERSPECTIVE

Army is testimony to the effectiveness of high
teChnology weapons in the hands of a highly                                                         Figure 1-5. Elements of PEO Tactical Missiles
motivated, well-trained and well-led Army.                                                                     Modernization Strategy

PEG Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                                                            1-3
 1.5 INTERFACES                                      MFOM MODERNIZATION

  The Department of Anny (DA)
  Modernization Plans translate
 long-range Anny goals into
 mid- and near-tenn objectives
 for doctrine, training, organi-
                                                                                                 FIRE SUPPORT
 zation, leader development, and    MATERIAL
                                                                                                   SYSTEM OF
 materiel development in each                                                                        SYSTEMS
                                   ARMAMENTS                       CLOSE COMBAT.               C41
 Battlefield Functional Mission    IEW                             HEAVY
 Area (BFMA). This plan sup-       ASM                             CLOSE COMBAT.
                                                                   lIGHT                       WEAPONSlMUNrrlC)N
 ports Annex G, the FS Annex,      COMMAND
                                   AHDCONTROL                      EN~INE       WARFARE        TARGET ACOUISITION

 to the DA Modernization Plan,     COMMUNICATIONS                  SOlDER
 but focuses more nanowly on       AIROEFENSE
                                                                   AIR DEFENSE
 Rocket and Missile System re-                                     THEATER     MISSLE
 quirements.     The plan also                                     CMD, CONTROl,        COMM
 identifies   modernization re-                                    INTEl£lEC    WARFARE

 quirements that must be ad-                                      lOOlSTICS
                                                                  TAC WHEEL VEHS
 dressed by other materiel de-                                    AVIATION
 velopers to ensure that a com-                                   NUC, BIO AND CHEM

 plete system of systems capa-                                    INFO MSN AREA

 bility evolves. Specific inter-
                                                     Figure 1-6. Plan Interfaces
 faces are shown in Figure 1-6.

BFMA are multibranch areas which are used to        technological advantage over the changing threat.
identify and prioritize modernization needs. The    Materiel developers must establish and maintain
BFMA are directly linked with the development       close coordination with the technology base to
of modernization plans by providing a focus for     leverage technology breakthroughs for leap ahead
modernization across multiple capability pack-      opportunities.
ages. The FS BFMA capability packages ad-
dressed in this modernization        plan include   1.6 FIRE SUPPORT SYSTEM OF
Counterfrre, Attack of Uncommitted Forces (em-          SYSTEMS
ploying both tactical and operational fires), De-
struction of Integrated Air Defense (DIAD), and     A system of systems materiel development and
Attack of Emitters, and that portion of Missile     acquisition philosophy has been emphasized Ba-
Defense involving attack of Tactical Ballistic      sically, this concept recognizes that the unilateral
Missile (TBM) Systems before launch.                development of a weapon system in isolation from
                                                    its supporting systems makes no sense. The com-
Technology base initiatives influencing FS are      plex and highly technical FS Mission Area pro-
outlined in the Science and Technology Master       vides one of the best applications of the System of
Plan (STMP) and in Annex B of this plan. Through    Systems philosophy (Figure 1-7).
the technology base, advanced technologies
transition through the Research and Development     A degradation or lack of capability in anyone
process to become candidates for application to     component of the system degrades the total sys-
Rocket and Missile Systems that support             tem capability. The combat power required in
modernization requirements. This process makes      executing the FS roles on the battlefield cannot be
available mature technologies for maintaining a     generated by weapons platfonns alone in isolation

1-4                                                            PED Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                                 Figure 1-7. Fire Support System of Systems

 from other capabilitie.    Thus TA, C4I, and S/S     1.7 ORGANIZATION
 systems must be integrated for total effectiveness.
The synergistic effect of complementary system        The structure of this modernization        plan is
elements provides a force multiplier that allows . shown in Figure 1-9. Chapter 2 highlights the
reduction of total force requirements,         a key threat and Chapter 3 the doctrine by which FS
consideration in a reduced force-structure Army.     systems will counter that threat.       Chapter 4
Although this plan primarily addresses Missiles      discusses the PEO MSL modernization            strat-
and Rocket Systems in the Weapons and Munitions      egy drat, if followed, will ultimately lead to
element of the System of Systems, the other          fielding of future systems theoretically capable
elements are briefly addressed.       A schematic    of meeting all battlefield requirements       at all
portrayal of the future System of Systems            ranges. Chapter 5 assesses the fielded force
architecture as it pertains to the MFOM is shown     and projects the improvements       possible with
in Figure 1-8.                                       inclusion of those Weapons and Munitions

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                              1-5
                                                          Figure 1-8. MFOM C4I Architecture

                                      CHAPTER       1                             planned system improvements and technology
                                      EXECUTIVE                                   programs must be supported today and included in
                                                                                  the 96 POM to make maximum use of limited
                 CHAPTER   2                                CHAPTER       3

                                                                                  Annex A contains a list of acronyms. Annex B
                                         ,                  REOUIRED
                                                                              I   provides a more detailed discussion of technology
                                                                                  base programs not described in the body of the
                    CHAPTER      4                      CHAPTER   5
                  UODERNIZATlON                CURRENT       SYSTEMS
                    STRATEGY                        ASSESSMENT

                        •                                                         1.8 ASSESSMENT SUMMARY
                                     CHAPTER    6

                                FUTURE SYSTEMS
                                                                                   Battlefield deficiencies were used as an initial step
                                                                                   in assessing     Rocket and Missile        Systems
                                                                                   modernization requirements. The plan details how
                                     CHAPTER    7
                                                                                   Rocket and Missile mcxlernization can resolve
                               RECOMMENDATIONS                                     tactical fire and operational fire deficiencies
                                                                                   identified in the Battlefield Development Plan
                Figure 1-9. Roadmap                                                (BDP), 994-2008. Additionally, a continuous
                                                                                  modernization strategy designed to extend 40 to
supported in the current (94) Program Objec-                                      50 years into the future is outlined. A projection of
tive Memorandum      (POM).       Chapter 6 as-                                   this magnitude is necessary because weapons
sesses the predicted effectiveness of that future                                 system~ in development and prcxluction today, as
force. Chapter 7 focuses the FS community on                                      well as those recently fielded, may have operational
today's most important issues: what systems,                                      life cycles approaching 50 years. Thus, materiel

1-6                                                                                           PEG Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
decisions today should be focused toward long-                         equally important is the concurrent modernization
term plans and objectives. This plan identifies                        of those other systems that act in synergism with
and places development emphasis upon those                            Weapons and Munitions to provide a total System
emerging technologies which most directly impact                      of Systems capability. This total capability will
future TM capabilities.                                               also provide significant leverage toward neutral-
                                                                      izing the growing threat of TBM systems. The
Future Rocket and Missile Systems can be devel-                       Army needs long range TA systems linked to
oped to resolve currently identified battlefield de-                  weapons firing platforms with reliable and effec-
ficiencies. Unfortunately, all these programs are                     tive C41 systems, which are sustained and sup-
not currently affordable. The assessment results                      ported by adequate logistics capabilities.
outline the significant improvements that can, and
should be accomplished, offer alternatives for fu-                    The M270 Launcher,          MLRS rockets, and
ture developments as funds are appropriated, and                      ATACMS Block I are the only weapon systems
identify remaining unresolved deficien,cies.                          currently in production or fielded. Figure 1-10
                                                                      provides an assessment of these currently fielded
Execution of this plan will provide the user with                     systems, and indicates that adequate range and the
the Rocket and Missile Systems necessary to ex-                       availability of precision munitions to attack high
ecute current and future doctrine.     However,                       value targets remain as unresolved deficiencies.

                                                                       BATTLEFIELD COVERAGE
                                                    TACTICAL FIRES                               OPERATIONAL     FIRES

               SOFT TARGETS

              SOFT TARGETS

              HARD TARGETS

             HARD TARGETS

               AREA TARGETS
              TBM SYSTEMS
              POINT TARGETS
              ----       -
               AREA TARGETS
               RF EMITTERS
              POINT TARGETS
               AREA TARGETS
               POINT TARGETS

              AREA TARGETS
              POINT TARGETS


               NOTE: Destruction of Integrated Air Defenses (DIAD), an emerging concept, compared to traditional
               Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) frees more air sorties for other missions and reduces the overall
               vulnerability of our aircraft. DIAD operations will normally include the full range of FS systems, but will rely
               heavily on ground based systems because of the VUlnerability of air platforms prior to achieving air superiority.

                                     Figure 1-10. Assessment of Fielded Systems

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization       Plan                                                                                     1-7
 Figure 1-11 expands the evaluation to a force                        implementing this modernization plan will result
 equipped with systems which will be fielded if                       in major improvement in the overall assessment,
 current 94 POM support continues and funding is                      specifically against hard targets in tactical fires
 provided as requested.        Clearly, improvements                  ranges, and against radio frequency (RF) emitters,
 will result but it is also clear that near or mid-term              deficiencies will remain. While there are currently
 solutions (2-10 years) are not sufficient to address                no programs specifically designed to resolve these
 even the capabilities required of todais Army.                      deficiencies, there are technology demonstrations
 The longer term (thru 2010) results from executing                  and technology base programs on-going that could
 the programs recommended             in this plan are               provide      solutions,   either  as a munition
 identified in Figure 1-12. This assessment                          improvement or as an improvement in other areas
 incorporates those capabilities to be provided by                   of the System of Systems. Material developers in
 systems now under serious Army consideration                        concert with combat developers must focus on
 (included in 94 POM, Extended Planning Annex                        this need today to solve it tomorrow. Systems
 (EPA) or Long Range Research, Development                           included in both current and future assessments
 and Acquisition Plan (LRRDAP).'              Although               are described in detail in Chapters 5 and 6.

           FACTORS                                                 BATTLEFIELD COVERAGE
                                                  TACTICAL FIRES                            OPERATIONAL FIRES

             SOFT TARGETS

            HARD TARGETS

           HARD TARGETS

             AREA TARGETS
             TBM SYSTEMS
            POINT TARGETS

             AREA TARGETS
             RF EMITTERS
            POINT TARGETS
             AREA TARGETS
             POINT TARGETS
             AREA TARGETS
             POINT TARGETS


      NOTE: Destruction of Integrated Air Defenses (DIAD), an emerging concept, compared to traditional
      Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) frees more air sorties for other missions and reduces the overall
      vulnerability of our aircraft. DIAD operations will normally include the full range of FS systems, but will rely
      heavily on ground based systems because of the vulne ability of air platforms prior to achieving air superiority.

                         Figure 1-11. Assessment of Fielded Plus 94 POM Supported Systems

                                                                                   PEG Tactical Missile~ Ma£ie ~fBr0.tY:1Q(1S.AFAS
                                                                             Morris Swett Technlca~-
                                                                             Property of U.S. Army
                                                                   BATTLEFIELD COVERAGE
                                                      TACTICAL   FIRES                     OPERATIONAL         FIRES

            SOFT TARGETS

            SOFT TARGETS

           HARD TARGETS

          HARD TARGETS

            AREA    TARGETS
           POINT TARGETS

            AREA    TARGETS
            RF EMITTERS
           POINT TARGETS
     -------                        -
             AREA   TARGETS
            POINT TARGETS

          AREA     TARGETS
      ENEMY AIR DEFENSES        -       -


     NOTE: Destruction of Integrated Air Defenses (DIAD), an emerging concept, compared to traditional
     Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) frees more air sorties for other missions and reduces the overall
     vulnerability of our aircraft. DIAD operations will normally include the full range of FS systems, but will rely
     heavily on ground based systems because of the vulnerability of air platforms prior to achieving air superiority.

                                            Figure 1-12. Future FS Systems Capabilities

    RECOMMENDATIONS                                                  shown in the 94 POM and the forward thinking
                                                                    reflected in current long-range plans (through
It is against the remai . g deficiencies discussed                  support of Extended Range (ER) MLRS and
above that we must apply current systems, system                    A TACMS        growth,   and Smart Munitions
upgrades and technology base solutions. Because                     improvements) must continue. Recommendations
system life cycles are approaching 40-50 years, it.                 in this plan, however, go a step beyond and reflect
is essential that fielded systems and system im-                    the need to plan funds for technology programs
provements currently supported in the 94 POM                        which specifically. address those battlefield
and EPA receive continued funding for both R&D                      deficiencies that cannot be resolved within near to
and production. Beyond sustainment of the force,                    mid-te I system fielding chedules.         The link
the recommendations of this plan are specifically                   between technology and battlefield deficiencies is
intended t.o be the primary basis for 96 POM                        critical. Each research effort the FS community
development.                                                        chooses to fund must be carefuIIy selected, weighed
                                                                    against the required capability it enhances, and
Figure 1-13 presents a summary of PEO MSL                           supported only when projected benefits appear
rnodernization recommendations. Clearly, support                    relevant, timely and cost-effective.

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization            Plan                                                                      1-9
                                                                                SA TTLEFIELD COVERAGE

                                                            TACTICAL FIRES

              SOFT    TARGETS

              SOFT    TARGETS

             HARD     TARGETS

            HARD     TARGETS

              AHEA TARGETS
             TBM     SYSTEMS
             POINT TARGETS

              AREA TARGETS
              RF EMITTERS
             POINT TARGETS
               AREA TARGETS
               POINT TARGETS


      NOTE: Destruction     of   Integrated Air Defenses (DIAD). an &merging concept, compared to trndrtional
      Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) frees more air sorties for other missions and reduces the overall
   vulnerability of our aircraft. DIAD operations will normally inclUde the full range 01 FS systems, but will rely
   heavily on ground based systems because of the VUlnerabIlity of air platforms prior to adlieving air superiority.

                                                         Figure 1-13. Potential Technology Infusion Solutions
 Systems recommended                                 for 96 POM support will                                    •     Improved decision making and examination
 provide:                                                                                                             of the entire sensor-to-shooter process
                                                                                                                      through the Deep and Simultaneous Attack
  •       Increased mobility, responsiveness and                                                                      Battle Lab and Joint Precision'Strike
          sustainability provided by HIMARS and                                                                       Demonstration (IPSD).
          Improved Launcher Mechanical System
          (ILMS) for the M2 70 launcher;                                                                    Advanced concepts recommended for 96 POM
  •       Enhanced ability to fire deep through                                                             support could provide long-term solutions to re-
          extended range provided by AT ACMS P3I .                                                          maining unresolved deficiencies, specifically:
          AP AM, AT ACMS Enhanced (EN) and ER
          MLRS;                                                                                                 •     Enhanced lethality of rocket delivered
  •       Increased accuracy for Dual Purpose                                                                         munitions;
          Improved Continuous Munitions (DPICM)                                                                 •     Smart munitions at tactical operational fires
          by adding a low level wind measuring                                                                        ranges;
          device to the M270 Launcher;                                                                          •     RF emitter neutralization.
  •       Expanded footprint, increased lethality and
          enhanced sensor perfonnance provided by
          product improvements to Brilliant Anti-
          Armor Submunition (BAT) and Sense and
          Destroy Armor (SAD~t\RM);

1-10                                                                                                                        PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                                    CHAPTER 2 - THREAT
 2.1      INTRODUCfION                                    future conflicts, as the Russians sell anns to bol-
                                                        '.ster their economy. Armored forces continue to
 This section addresses the capabilities of potential     pose a viable threat as we look to possible future
 threats, and in particular, those capabilities which     contingencies. We must be prepared to counter
 drive Fire Support system requirements. Into the         an annor threat - one which potentially enjoys the
 early 1990's, the Anny focused on the defense of         level of sophistication of our own force and one
 EuroPe against a Soviet threat While this threat         which may well oumumber us.
 was ominous, it was well defined in tenns of
 system capabilities and doctrine. In today's world,     2.4       AIR DEFENSES
 the fanner Soviets, the Commonwealth of Inde-
 Pendent States (CIS) are reducing their global            In past conflicts, the United States has generally
 military involvement The U.S. iS'now focusing             enjoyed a level of air SUPeriority. As we look to
 on regional contingency pUssions. Potential threats       future possible contingencies, we cannot count on
 are much less well defined, and because of this,          having this luxwy. A combination of the battlefield
present much greater complexities in designing            environment, the time available to execute opera-
and equipping the force, and in developing                 tions and the viability of the enemy's air defenses,
warfighting doctrine. Preparing to counter the            may preclude us from freely employing our air
wide variety of potential threats is further compli-      assets. A review of available air defense systems
cated by an overall smaller force, budget con-            on the world market indicates that such systems
straints, reductions in forward deployment, and           are readily available and are a threat which we
the requirement for force projection and early            must be prepared to face and counter. As we look
entry to meet contingencies.       This unclassified      to defeating the enemy's air defenses, we must
threat summary is intended to place the factors           consider three basic tyPes of systems - fixed in-
dictating continued modernization in their proper         stallations, mobile tactical systems and man por_
perspective.                                              table autonomous systems. Fixed air defenses
                                                          will generally have the greatest overall capability.
2.2      TECHNOLOGY                                      However, these systems are generally easy to
                                                         acquire and defeat. They are dePendent on net-
In the past, the United States has generally en-         worked acquisition, command and control (C2),
joyed a technological advantage in military sys-         and attack systems, and as such, are vulnerable to
tems. While we will continue to look to technol-         a wide range of ~feat mechanisms. Mobile tacti-
ogy to provide a decisive advantage, we cannot           cal air defense systems are those. which usually
count on always having the edge. Simply .stated, .       accompany enemy land combat forces. These
money buys technology, and there are numerous            systems range from anti-aircraft guns to surface-
potential adversaries with the resources to buy' it.     to-air missiles and pose a threat to our own aircraft
In developing our force, to include organizations,      employment, primarily because of their mobility
materiel and doctrine, we must seek to capitalize       which makes them more difficult to acquire and
on those technological areas where we can achieve       defeat. Although not possessing the range and
an advantage, and must remain prepared to fight a       defeat capabilities associated with fixed and mo-
force which is as advanced as our own.                  bile tactical systems, man portable air defense
                                                        systems pose a distinct threat to our freedom of
2.3     ARMOR                                           the sky. Because they are generally autonomous
                                                        systems and can. be proliferated throughout the

Soviet (Russian) made annament still poses the          battlefield, these systems are very difficult to ac-
principle threat our forces may encounter in many       quire and defeat. Man portable systems pose the

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
greatest threat to our employment of slower, lower              virtually any potential adversary encountered in
flying, rotary-wing aircraft; are readily available             any Major or Lesser Regional Conflict can be .
on the world market; and are a threat which must                expected to have cannons with range capability
be given serious consideration in any future con-               greater than our own. Our deficiency in range
flict                                                           when compared to other systems available on the
                                                                world market impacts our emplOYment techniques
.2.5    ELECTRONIC WARFARE                                      and is of great concern.

With ever increasing demands on         our own C3              2~      MULTWLELAUNCH
system, enemy electronic warfare         systems are                    ROCKET SYSTEMS
becoming a more ominous threat             Advanced
technologies and fast paced warfare     will demand             Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (MLRSs) are
that our C3 system be survivable in     an electronic           available from a variety of sources, and it can only
warfare environment                                             be assumed that any potential adversary would
                                                                possess such a capability. rvn..RSs present a sig-
2.6     CANNONS                                                 nificant threat because of their capability to deliver
                                                                large volumes of munitions in a very short Period
Many countries can out-range our U.S. cannon                    of time, to deliver those munitions to extended
fielded systems (Figure 2-1). As those who pro-                 ranges, and to quickly displace. Like our own
duce the howitzers sell them on the world market,               MLRS, they are difficult to acquire, and, therefore,

                                                                     CAUSER          RANGE (km)
                         SYSTEM            COUNTRY
                                                            I                      u,..../et.,uA ... tH

                       PALADIN           u.s.                        1SSmm                 22130

                       M109A213          u.s.                        1SSmm                 18123

                       .. 198            u.s.                        1SSmm                 18/30

                       2S19              RUSSIA                      152mm                 25/40

                       AS90              UNITED KINGDOtv1            155mm                24.7/32

                       G5GIH             SOUTH AFRICA                155mm                 31/39

                       SPH2000           GERMANY                     155mm                 30 140

                       WA021             CHINA                       155mm                 30 /39

                       AU-F1             FRANCE                      155mm                 23/29

                       MS4SP             ISRAEL                      155mm                 30 /39

                       GHN-45            AUSTRIA                     155mm                 30/40

                       ST012             SPAIN                       155mm                 30 /39

                       ~5                CHilE                       155mm                 30 /39

                                 Figure 2-1. Example lS5mm Cannon Capabilities

2-2                                                                           PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
     place significant demands on our acquisition and               a larger scale, TBMs can carry weapons of mass
     attack systems. The proliferation of rocket and                destruction and have the potential to hold our
     missile systems, including those of U.S. origin, is            operations at risk.
     reflected in Figure 2-2.
                                                                    2.9     WEAPONS OF MASS
     2.8          TACTICAL BALLISTIC                                        DESTRUCTION
                  MISSILES (TBM)
                                                                    As the Soviet Union has dissolved, the number of
     The proliferation of TBMs throughout numerous                  countries possessing' nuclear and/or chemical
     Third World countries is evidence of their general             weapons has increased, and we can only assume
     availability on the world market The launchers                 that there are potential adversaries who would
     are generally mobile, increasing the difficulty in             resort to their use against us. While the United
     acquiring these systems. This mobility, coupled                States possesses these capabilities, our national
     with extended ranges, gives these systems a capa-              policy does not look to their use except as a last
     bility of striking our force with little or no warn-           resort. Our forces must be prepared to counter an
     ing, and with results which can be devastating                 enemy's Nuclear, and Biological Chemical (NBC)
     from both a military and political standpoint On               delivery capability using precision conventional

       WEAPON                           ROCKETI         ROUNDS PER                                 POSSESSING
       SYSTEM          COUNTRY                                             RANGE
                                        MISSILE          LAUNCHER                                   COUNTRIES
       ASTROS II        BRAZIL        SS-3O (127mm)           .32          9-60km                       IRAQ
                                      SS-40 (l80mm)            16                                      LIBYA
                                      SS-60 (300mm)            4
           X20                           (18Omm)              3             35km
           X40                           (3OOmm)              3             68km                       LIBYA
         MB-150                                                             150km
      TYPE 83 MAS        CHINA      TYPE 83 (273mm)           4             40km
       SILKWORM                          CSS-N-2                           40190km               EGYPJ', IRAQ, IRAN
           M-ll                            M-ll                             150km                     SYRIA
        LAR 160         ISRAEL           (16Omm)        18 per 2 LPCs       30km
        MAR 290                          (29Omm)              4            >25km            -

         FIROS           ITALY           (122mm)              40            25km
                                        OTOMAT                             180km             EGYPT, IRAQ, LIBYA
        RAFALE          FRANCE           (147mm)              18            32km
        SCUD C       NORTH KOREA                              1           SOD-600km       SYRIA, IRAN, LIBYA, EGYPT
           M.9          SYRIA                            .                 600km                    IRAN, LIBYA
      CHING FENG        TAIWAN                                1            120km
        SCUD B         FORMER             SS-1C               1            280km      EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES,
                                                                                         EGYPT, IRAQ, LIBYA, SYRIA
                                                              16           40km
                                                                                             ..       SYRIA
                                                                                      EGYPT, IRAQ, LIBYA, SYRIA, YEMEN
         MLRS            USA             (227mm)              12           30km       FRANCE, ITALY. GERMANY, JAPAN
                                                                                         (CO-PRODUCTION), KUWAIT
                    EXTRACTED FROM UNCLASSIAED SOURCES                                (POTENTIAll Y), UNITED KINGDOM

                                 Figure 2-2. Proliferation   of Rocket and Missile Systems

    PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 systems whenever possible. Our forces must be           Such scenarios, in conjunction with the global
 able to function in the same NBC environment           proliferation of modem military technology and
 that we are required to neutralize!                    anns sales, suggest that U.S. forces couId face
                                                        threat forces equipped with a broader range of
 2.10    SUMMARY                                        equipment and tactics than previously assessed.
                                                        In many cases, such forces couId be equipped
 The reduction of CIS global military involve-          with state-of-the-art combat systems which may
 ment, along with refonnist policies and expressions    out perform similar U.S. systems. While current
 of benevolent intent, have resulted in the near        equipment holdings of many potential thrCatforces
 elimination of the old confrontational U.S. -
 So-     are predominantly of Soviet or East Block design
 viet relationship. The removal of this monolithic      and manufacture, recent events have shown that
 threat, however, has opened a virtual Pandora's        our forces may face modem free world weapon
 box of latent ethnic, cultural, economic, religious,   systems. This trend is expected to continue, such
 and national animosities which are no ionger sub-      that future conflicts may well see U.S. forces
 jugated to the bipolar sUPe1]>Ower   restraints. We    facing threat countries with the most modem
 have already witnessed the manifestation of such       weapon systems available on the world market
 violence in Yugoslovia, Azerbaijan, the Middle         One lesson the world learned from Desert Storm
 East, and Somalia While many such conflicts            is that the U.S. must not be given 6 months to
 will not necessarily be a threat to the national       build its strength. As a result, our initial deploy-
 security of the United States, U.S. forces will        ment forces may fmd themselves being attacked
 remain responsible for more diverse contingen-         by numerically superior enemy forces from the
 cies than ever before, as witnessed by the current'    time of their arrival.
 Somalia operation.
                                                        With U.S. weapons production curtailments and
  Potential contingency missions could involve the      few, if any, "new starts" it is likely that any near to
  full spectrum of the operational continuum, from      mid-tenn Major Regional Conflict (MRC) would
. peacetime competition through total war and from      be fought with today's weapons, and unless these
  low to high intensity conflict. The geographic        weapons are modernized to keep pace with the
  regions in which U.S. forces could be deployed        threat, it is also likely that such MRCs would be
  are as diverse as the underlYing political circum-    fought with today's weapons for the next 25 years.
  stances for their commitment.

2-4                                                                PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan

  3.1 INTRODUCTION                                        operations. A reduction in the Soviet threat has
                                                          not, however, reduced our vulnerabilities nor the
  This chapter presents an overview of the envisioned    demands on our armed forces. Many potential
  future FS warfighting. It also provides an appre-      adversaries have large standing armies with s0-
  ciation of the concept, and presents an overview       phisticated systems including weapons of mass
  of current and projected FS systems and organiza-      destruction.   The uncenainties associated with
  tions. It should be noted that future warfighting      these potential adversaries has, if anything, in-
  concepts and doctrine are still evolving as the        creased the overall demands on our armed forces.
  Anny assimilates the lessons of Desert Stonn and       The political and economic climate is driving the
  transitions to a smaller, contingency-based force,     Army to a doctrine which capitalizes on technol-
 with a world-wide strategic focus, Additionally,        ogy and maximizes the combat power of avail-
 the role of FS is being evaluated in Early Entry        able forces.
 and Deep and Simultaneous Attack Battle Labs as
 well as through LDuisiana Maneuvers (LAM).              3.3.2 Political Constraints
 Concepts, ideas, and material requirements will
 evolve from these efforts and will have a continu-      What can probably best be classified as political
 ing influence on future evolving warfighting con-       constraints are the requirements that any future
 cepts.                                                  conflict be terminated quickly and decisively ~th
                                                         minimal losses. While this has always been a
 3.2 GENERAL                                             primary objective, the information age has brought
                                                         it even more to the forefront As a general rule, it
 FS consists of land operations by armed aircraft,       can be said that any loss of U.S. forces is con sid-
 ground and sea-based indirect fIre systems, and        ered intolerable and that loss of U.S. materiel
 offensive Electronic Warfare (EW) Systems              must be kept to a minimum. However, there is
 against land targets. The fires provided by FS are     also increased emphasis on consideration for
 a key element of the combat power available to         preservation of the forces and. materiel of our
 the battlefield comm~der.                              potential adversaries. While some situations may

                                                        dictate total orpartial destruction of an adversary's
 33      FUTURE WARFIGHTING                             warfighting capability, destruction of a country's
                                                        infrastructure or infliction of excessive casualties
 Future warfighting concepts are being driven by a      is generally not acceptable. This places increased
 number of factors. These factors translate into        demands on our forces to achieve quick and deci-
 increased constraints and requirements, as well as     sive victories, and to limit collateral damage.
 increased capabilities.                          '
                                                        3.3.3 Contingency Based Force
 3.3.1   World Situation
                                                         As the world situation has changed, the focus of
The primary driver behind our changing                  our Army has shifted tc}a force oriented on con-
warfighting philosophy is the changing world            tingencies~ The change in focus is necessitated by
situation. With the demise of the Soviet Union          a smaller force being required to react to a greater
and a reduction in the potential threat to the free     range of geographic areas and by political con-
nations of the European continent, the focus of         straints associated with the forward deployment
our Army has shifted from that of a forward             of forces. Deployment of forces can be consid-
deployed force to one oriented on contingency           ered the nOIl? for reaction to future contingencies

PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan                                                                     3-1
and may not be limited to only those forces based Command and Control (C2)
in the continental United States. Even with re-
ductions and eliminations in forward deployments,        With the increased reliance on deployment of
forward deployed forces must still be prepared to        forces, there is an increased demand on the C2
meet requirements within their areas, as well as to      System. Forward deployed forces and forces de-
be prepared for deployment elsewhere to meet a          ployed in organizational configuration can main-
wide range of contingencies. The requirement to         tain their normal echelonment of C2. However,
rapidly deploy against a wide variety of threats is     with tailornble force packages, elements may fmd
probably the most demanding challenge facing            their C2 sttueture skipping one or more echelons.
our anned forces. The possible deployment situa-        This capability will be particularly important in
tions, like the threats against which we might          tailoring force packages for early enny missions.
deploy, are many and varied. They range from            For example, a brigade may find itself working
situations where we have a lengthy buildup time,        directly under the command of a corps headquar-
no resistance to enny, and a relatively weak oppo-      ters or a joint task force headquarters. Such tailor-
nent, to those situations where we must rapidly         ing of force packages will require that careful
respond via forced entry against a fonnidable foe.      attention      be given       to interoperability,
Time, weather, terrain, and world political envi-       interconnectivity and redundancy in evolvingC2
ronment are forces not totally under our control.       capabilities. To evolve the required capability for
                                                        modular force package, structuring will entail a Tailorable Forces                               twofold effort. First, in the doctrinal arena, ap-
                                                        proved concepts for decentralized operations to
A key to a viable contingency force is the capabil-     achieve quicker response times must be devel-
ity .to tailor deployment packages to meet the          oped. Second, in the hardware/software realm,
specific contingency. In the past, we looked at         communications packages must be developed to
deployment forces as essentially augmentations          allow plug-in and interconnectivity with existing
of forward deployed forces. This view generally         and planned National and joint C2 systems to
translated into the deployment of forces within         permit the rapid flow of information from sensor
their nonnal organizational configuration. Even         to shooter.
when forces were, deployed in a role other than as
augmentation of forward deployments, we gener- Joint and Coolition Warfare
ally looked at deployment in terms of standard
organizational structures. For example, brigades         Virtually all past conflicts in which the U.S. Army
followed by divisions, each with their nonnal            has been engaged have involved joint operations,
complement of support organizations.         As we       and most have involved coalition warfare with
look to greater uncertainties in our contingency         allied forces. However, there are a number of
missions, more consideration must be given to            factors which have increased the level to which
specifically tailoring deployment packages. For          ground, air, and naval forces must be integrated
example, instead of a maneuver brigade deploy-           and coordinated, and the level of interoperability
ing with its habitual supporting artillery battalion,   'required with allied forces. Deployment of Army
we might fmd a brigade minus being deployed              forces will almost surely involve the Air Force,
"fIreS heavy" with the augmenting support pack-          and most likely will include naval forces as well.
age firepower normally associated with a much            From the standpoint of a contingency force, this
higher echelon.                                          will place increasing demands on the C3 System,
                                                         to ensure interoperability with other services and
                                                         allies, and will require refmed tactics, techniques,
                                                         and procedures.

3-2                                                                    PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
 3.3.4   Technology                                       munitions will also provide the anti-armor punch
                                                         lacking in light forces, making them more viable
 Advancements in technology are driving, and in          against a heavier threat Brilliant munitions, per_
 turn being driven by, evolving future doctrine.       . haps using Global Positioning System (GPS), can
 Technology is reducing manpower requirements            significantly increase accuracy. Battle damage
 while increasing the lethality of forces. The fol-      assessment and positive combat identification are
 lowing are areas where technology is having the         capabilities that will be required of brilliant mu-
 greatest impact on future doctrine and force de-        nitions. These munitions, when coupled with
 sign.                                                   long-range FA systems, will reduce the demand
                                                         for manned aircraft in the corps area. Aircraft Target Acquisition                              systems can then be used to defeat critical targets
                                                        beyond the range of FA systems.
Advanced target acquisition technology will have
a significant impact on future warfighting concepts. Automation
The improved capability to predict enemy actions
will pennit smaller forces to react more quickly,      Advanced automated systems will make possible
defeating the enemy at more opportune places           the automation of assimilation, processing, and
and times. The capability to accurately acquire        dissemination of intelligence, provide the technical
the enemy at depth will have one of the most           fIre direction capability required for long-range
profound affects on future warfighting.        Deep    weapons and smart munitions, andprovide for the
acquisition, combined with long-range fIreS, will      most efficient and effective application cf all
pennit defeat of the enemy at greater range, either    combat systems. Advanced automated systems
laterally or in depth on a nonlinear battlefield, or   will provide the C41 required for implementation
pennit degradation of the enemy for decisive defeat    of the evolving doctrine of the next century.
by a smaller maneuver force.
                                                       3.3.5   Emphasis on Operational Maneuver
' Long-range Weapons
                                                        Commanders will employ operational maneuver
When coupled with the capability to acquire the         to set the terms of the future battle. Operational
enemy at depth, long-range, ground-based FS             maneuver provides eady opportunity to attack
systems will significantly enhance the capability       selected elements of the enemy force, thereby
to defeat the enemy, or reduce his combat capabil-      preventing the friendly attrition of mass-on-mass
ity prior to joining the close -battle. Long-range      warfare inheren~ in past linear operations. Opera-
anillery systems can achieve these results day or       tional maneuver requires superior intelligence, the
nigh4 under all weather conditions, at significant     capability to shape or condition the battlefield at
standoff ranges, and without jeopardizing a~t          depth with long-range fires, and the agility to
and pilots. As long-range capabilities increase,       exploit conditions quickly. Operational maneu-
the emphasis on their use will correspondingly         ver is best achieved by properly setting the condi-
increase as well.                                      tions for separating and attriting the enemy prior      r

                                                       to the maneuver phase. The operational comander's Smart and Brilliant Munitions                  ability to see the battl~field, understand the en-
                                                       emy, and. apply his capabilities to maximum ad-
Advances in technology will significantly enhance      vantage will ultimately shape the battlefield and
munitions usage and lethality. The capability to       create the conditions for favorable decisive com-
detect and kill armor targets at long-rmge will        bat. Such operations are preferable and favorable
significantly reduce logistics requirements. Sman      for a technologically superior force.

PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
  3.4 FS SYSTEM ELEMENTS                                 3.5.1   Cannons

  The FS system consists of two basic elements: the     The primary role of cannons is to provide direct
  FS coordination element and the attack system         support (OS) to committed maneuver forces and
  element                                               to provide immediately         responsive  reactive
                                                        counterfire. Cannons are well suited to the OS
,3.4.1    Coordination Element                          role because of their inherent accuracy, their wide
                                                        range of munitions, and their immediate respon-
 The responsibility for employing fires lies with       siveness. Cannons may be employed by division,
 commanders from battalion through echelons             corps, or even EAC, but are normally employed at
 above corps (EAC). To facilitate the coordination      the brigade level. The Anny's projected cannon
 and integration of fIreS with other elements of        fleet includes the self-propelled 155mm howitzer
 combat power, each command echelon establishes         for support of heavy forces, and a towed 155mm
 a FS Element (FSE). The FA branch of the Anny          howitzer for suppOrt of light forces. The towed
 is tasked with implementing this responsibility        cannon fleet currently consists of a 105mm how-
 and fulfills the requirement by providing each         itzer for DS of light forces and a towed 155mm
 echelon, from battalion through cmps, with an          howitzer for genernl support (OS).
 organizational base from which to establish the
 FSE. The FA resources also provide the com-            3.5.2    Rocket and Missile Launchers
 mander with a designated           FS Coordinator
 (FS COORD) , who serves ac; the commander's             The Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)
 primary representative for coordinating and inte-       provides fIreS in support of land operations at the
 grating all ftres. In addition to the base FA repre-    tactical and operational levels. The launchers are
 sentatives, FSEs at the various echelons are aug-       capable of providing support with unguided rock-
 mented with representatives from other FS sys-          ets at the intermediate ranges and with guided
 tems. While FA resources provide the base of the        missiles to extended ranges. MLRS is normally
 FSE, it is an integrated FS entity which works          employed at the corps and division level, but may
 directly for the commander.                             also be used to reinforce DS cannons of the ma-
                                                         neuver brigade. Employment of MLRS fires by
 3.4.2 FS Attack Organizations                           EAC will normally be accomplished by the EAC
                                                         tasking the corps to execute those fires with their
 Organizations which provide FS for land opera-          organic launchers.     While MLRS can be em-
 tions are located in multiple branches of the Anny,     ployed in virtually any FS role, the inaccuracy of
 and in the Air Force, Navy, and the Marine Corps.       the rocket as compared to cannon fire limits its
 Each of these organizations brings with it unique       suitability as a close support system. With the
 system capabilities, which will be integrated into      development and fielding of precision munitions
 a coordinatet:L joint overall FS effort.                and high precision carriers, the accuracy of rock-
                                                         ets and missiles will improve to the point where
 3.5     FS SYSTEMS (ATTACK                             .this distinction between rockets and cannons will
         ORGANIZATIONS)                                  blur, perhaps requiring doctrinal revision.

 Systems which provide FS include FA cannons            3.5.3    Mortars
 and FA rocket/missile launchers, mortars, naval
 ships with a sea-to-ground gunfire or missile ca-      Mortars are organic to the maneuver battalion in
 pability, armed rotary and fixed-wing aircraft, non-   both heavy and light forces. The primary role of
 line-of-sight (NLOS) missile systems, and ground       mortars is to provide immediately responsive sup-
 and air-borne jammers.                                 pressive fires in support of the close battle.Mor-

3-4                                                                   PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
 tars may also be employed in the CF role, espe-         generally integrated as FS. Attack helicopters are
 cially against the enemy's shorter range systems.      normally given mission type orders, which can
 Future mortar developments include extended            include attack of specific targets or responsibility
 range and the potential fielding of a smart anti-      for a specific piece of terrain. Their most com-
 tank round, a capability which already exists, de-     mon role will be in an anti-tank/combat vehicle
 veloped by Sweden, and possibly available on the       role in support of the brigade, division, or corps.
 world anns market.                                     Attack helicopter fires may also be integrated into
                                                        the EAC operational fires plan. In this employ-
 3.5.4     Naval Gunfire                                ment, they will normally remain with the corps,
                                                        with the EAC tasking the corps to execute the
Naval ships can provide FS in the fann of sea-to-       missions.
land gunfire and in the form of sea launched
cruise missiles as was vividly demonstrated in the      3.5.7   Attack Aircraft
January 1993 attack on an Iraqi nuclear facility.
Naval gunfire ships can perform basically the           Sea and land-based aircraft can provide FS in the
same role as FA cannon fire, but are limited in         form of bombs, rockets, missiles, and direct fIre
their capability to Provide very close supPort be-      guns. They can supPort the full spectrum, ranging
cause of their inherent range inaccuracy. Naval         from close support of close combat forces to op-
gunfrre ships are normally employed in support of       erational fires at corps and EAC. Their primary
a division, brigade, or battalion. Because of a         role will be to support the deep fight, with em-
limited number of naval gunfIre ships, and a lim-       ployment against those target sets beyond' the
ited number of areas in which they may be em-           range of organic ground-based systems,       or  for
ployecL naval gunfire is not relied on as a primary     which ground-based systems are inapproPriate.
means of supporting land operations, except dur-        The primary users of attack aircraft will be the
ing amphibious operations. However, when in             corps. and EAC; however, sorties may be allo..
range. naval gunfrre can provide a tremendous FS        cated down to division. brigade, or battalion as the
augmentation to a land force.                           situation dictates.

3.5.5      Naval Cruise Missiles                        3.5.8   Non Line-of-Sight (NLOS) Missile
Sea-ta-Iand cruise missiles can pro~de signifi-
cant flI'e suppon, especially at the operational        The NLOS System, currently under development
level. Because of the relatively long lead time         by the Army, employs a missile which uses a fiber
required for employment of sea launched cruise          optic cable to feed a picture. from an onboard
missiles. they are generally treated in the same.
                                               1        camera back to the operator. and to accept flight
manner as preplanned air strikes and are in'cluded      directions from the operator. The missile is ca-
in the joint air tasking order. Cruise missiles are     pable of ranges in excess of 10 lan, and has an
normally employed as an EAC system. but could           anti-tank warhead. Envisioned employment is as
be allocated to the corps under cenain circum-          a maneuver brig~de level system.
                                                        3.5.9   Electronic Jammers
3.5.6      Attack Helicopters
                                                        Electronic jammers are employed as non-lethal
Anny anack helicopter organizations are consid-         FS Systems to suppress enemy C41 and target
ered maneuver units. However. since their capa-         acquisition systems. Jamming capability can be
bilities overlap those of FS systems. their frres are   provided by land or airborne systems, or by artil-

PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
lery delivered expendable jammers. Jammers
can be used to support operations at any echelon,
but are normally employed at division and above
because of their integration and coonlination re-


3.6.1       Mission
                                                                           Figure 3.2. Field Artillery Roles
The mission of the FA (FM 100(5) is summarized          Close Support
in Figure 3-1. FA employed at division and
higher levels is controlled through assignment of                Close supPOn of committed maneuver forces will
standard tactical missions which are: OS;                        continue to be a primary role for FS. Close
reinforcing (R); general support reinforcing (GSR);              sUPPOttfires can be used to enhance the capabili-
and GS. Currently in process is the Field Artillery              ties of our own direct fire systems, to suppress the
Attack Operations         Requirements        Study              capabilities of enemy direct fire systems or to
(FAAOPS) to define and assess both near-term                     directly contribute to the destruction of enemy
and long-term capabilities and requirements for                  close combat forces. As we look to the future, we
long-range FA participation in Theater Missile                   see a greater emphasis on defeat of the enemy
Defense (TMD) attack operations.                    .            prior to his closing into the close battle. Ideally,
                                                                 our maneuver forces will be committed to close
                                                                 combat only when we posses oveIWhelming odds,
                                                                 thereby assuring a quick and decisive victory
                                                                 with minimal casualty losses. However, while the
        UNCOMMITTED FORCES                                       importance of using fires to establish the condi-
                                                                 tions for quick and decisive close combat cannot
                                                                 be underrated, the requirement for fues in suppon
                      • FIELD ARTILLERY   PROVIDES:

                       • PREPONDERANCE      OF FIRES
                                                                 of the close battle will not diminish. To the
                       • MANElNERA8lUTY    DIMENSION   TO MASS
                                                                 contrary, there will be an increased emphasis on
                         FIRES IN TIME AHO SPACE                 the use of frres to enhance our close combat capa-
                       .24 HOlJ't, AU WEATHER CAPABILITY         bility. While not generally considered a close
                          SOURCE: FIELD MANUAl         100-S
                                                                 combat system, the continued fielding of highly
                                                                 lethal systems such as the MLRS will have the
            Figure 3-1. Field Artillery Mission                  effect of freeing up DS cannons for emploYment
                                                                 almost exclusively in the close suppon role. Also,
3.6.2       Roles                                                with the evolution of precision munitions capa-
                                                                 bilities, the inherent inaccuracies of rockets and
There 'are three specific roles for the FA: close                missiles will decrease, allowing their use to a
support for maneuver forces; counterfire; and in-                greater extent in the close battle.
terdiction frres (Figure 3-2). These roles interre-
late and sometimes overlap. Anillery systems are        Counterfire
flexible ~d can perform multiple roles and mis-
sions.                                                           Counterfrre (CF) is more than an attack of weap-
                                                                 ons systems. CF is an active and comprehensive

3-6                                                                            PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
 effort to achieve total destruction of the enemy's        j>erative to overall success on the future battle-
 FS functional capability. Effective CF protects           field. Thus, programs to improve CF are crucial
 the maneuver force, reduces friendly casualties           to FS modernization.
 and provides the maneuver forces the essential
 freedom of action needed to win on a high tech- Deep Attack/Operational Fires/Joint
 nology battlefield.                                              Precision Interdiction Fires

  CF is the total effort to defeat the enemy's indirect   As doctrine evolves from AirLand Battle to future
 fire system. It includes the proactive and reactive      warfighting doctrine (AirLand OPerations or be-
 attaCk of enemy cannons, mortars, rocket launchers       yond) tenninology is changing. The concept of
 and missiles, and has been expanded to include           interdiction was broadened from a focus on at-
 attack of those elements which support indirect          tacking and interrupting the enemy's logistics and
 fue systems to include target acquisition, survey,       sustaining forces to attacking multi-echelon com-
 and meteorology along with FS C~ facilities and          bat forces before they could close upon the FOIWard
 observation posts. For the purposes of isolating         Line of Own Troops (FL01). In North Atlantic
 specific requirements, CF is addressed in tenns          Treaty Organization (NATO), the tenn ''Follow-
 of counterbattery fires - commonly considered            on Forces Attack" was employed to describe deep
 reactive CF. That is, those fires intended to silence    interdiction or deep attack.
 firing enemy cannons, mortars, and rocket
 launchers. These fires are an aspect of force            Deep Attack. Deep attack fIreS are employed to
 protection        which       demand      immediate      disrupt, delay, and destroy enemy forces prio/ to
responsiveness to negate or reduce friendly losses.       their engagement by our maneuver forces. As our
 In certain situations, counterbattery fues may be        long-range FS capabilities increase, Deep Attack
proactive - that is, where the enemy is enticed to        is evolving towards a capability to see and shape
fue in order to reveal the location of his weapons.       the battlefield, set and maintain the terms of battle,
Due to the requirement                for immediate       stay inside the enemy commander's decision loops
responsiveness, cannons and the multiple rocket           so they cannot counteract our initiatives, and gain
launcher will remain the primary weapon systems           and maintain the operational initiative according
for counterbattery         fire.   Future battlefield     to our tempo and campaign plans.
requirements may dictate a shift in counterbattery
responsibilities to lower echelons. Specifically,         Operatiolud Fires. Operational Fires are the ap-
counterbattery as a subset of the overall CF              plication of firepower to achieve a decisive im-
program is currently focused at the division level,       pact on the conduct of a major operation or cam-
with some level of responsibIlity retained at the         paign. Operational fires are by their nature joint!
corps. The battlefield of the future is envisjoned.       combined activities' or functions.     They are a
to include extended depths and widths, with:f9rces        separate component of the operational scheme
possibly fighting in a nonlinear fashion. Such            and the coequal of operational movement and
scenarios will dictate that the responsibility for        maneuver, but maneuver and fires must be inte-
counterbanery fires be delegated to the brigade           grated. Operatio.nal frres are not fire support, in
                                                          the traditional sense, and operational maneuver is
                                                          not necessarily depen~nt on such fIreS. How-
On the future battlefield, CF takes on an ever            ever, operational maneuver can be affected by
increasing role directly related to force generation      operational fires. Today, operational fIreS are
and survivability. Present threat.artillery systems
                                                          normally furnished by assets other than those re-
can ourrange comparable U.S. systems, placing
                                                          quired for the routine suppon of tactical maneu-
friendly forces at a disadvantage. The capability
                                                          ver; but as the range of those assets now used to
to engage and defeat enemy FS systems is im-
                                                          suppon tactical maneuver increase, those same

PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
assets (e.g., FA systems) will playa IOOresignifi-      real time capability at great depth, the Army can
cant role in the delivery of operational    fires.      now conduct precision strikes, employing extended
(Source: TRADOC Pam 11-9, Blueprint of the              range cannon artillery, attack helicopters, MLRS
Battlefield, 10 May 1991).                              and ATACMS. This capability means that the
                                                        Land Force Component Commander can simulta-
 Interdiction Fires. Of all the FS tasks, interdic-     neously dominate both close and deep battles us-
'tion is the area in which we will see the greatest     ing organic Army assets. Precision strike is closely
 change as we move to the future. Interdiction is       synchronized with other services, but. is also a
 the attack of the enemy to divert or delay his         capability the Army Commander can execute with
 bringing combat power to bear, or to degrade or        his own organic systems. Attack Operations isa
 defeat his capability to employ combat power.           subset of Joint Precision Interdiction oriented on
 Since interdiction impacts on the enemy before he      attacking threat ballistic missiles and support sys-
 can bring his combat power to bear, interdiction       tems before, during, and after launch, which is an
 is the most desirable use ofFS. With interdiction,     extremely demanding task. In total, the Anny
 we are not engaged in combat with the enemy, but       brings a combat proven system, which is respon-
 rather are applying our combat power in what is         sive, all weather, day/night, in place, and low risk,
 essentially a one-sided battle.                        in a casualty intolerant scenario, to the Joint Preci-
                                                        sion Strike requirement Precision Strike has be-
Evolution ofInterdktion. Interdiction has evolved       come one of the Army's five Modernization Ob-
from the mere attrition of the enemy, through the       jectives, providing a focus for the development
more deliberate slowing of second echelon forces,       and integration of weapons, sensors, and C2 sys-
to the point of more focused attacks designed to'       tems required for deep fires.
achieve specific operational and tactical objec-
tives. In the past, interdiction was seen essentially   3.6.3 Target Types
as an enhancer of our close combat capability.
With the increased ability to acquire and attack        Targets for FS systems can be classified by two
the enemy at depth, interdiction on the future          means. The frrst is derived from the Intelligence
battlefield will be not only a means of enhancing       Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) and the second
our close combat capability, but an entity which        from the physical characteristics or behavior of
may in itself defeat the enemy.                         the target types. The!PB process is a systematic
                                                        approach which analyzes the threat, weather, and
Joint Precision Strike/Joint Precision Interdic-        terrain in a specific area of operations. Supporting
tion. The Army will perform a key role in the           the IPB is a target value analysis (fV A) process
evolving Joint Precision Strike/lnterdiction capa-      which yields a list of high value targets (HVTs).
bility. The Army will locate, attack, and destroy,      These HVTs are evaluated against the current
well in advance of friendly lines, the threat's capa-   tactical situation, and placed on a high payoff
bility to wage war. This requires precision deep        target (HPT) list and ranked in order of priority.
attacks against threat maneuver. formations and         The second method of target classification is
his logistical and command lines of communica-          developed in a. matrix format which specifies
tion while simultaneously denying the enemy safe        targets as hard or soft and adds further clarification
sanctuary. Paramount to achieving these capa-           as to moving or stationary t emitting or non-
bilities are real time, near perfect intelligence,      emitting. Examples of hard targets are annored
coupled with concentrated, coordinated strikes by       maneuver battalions and self-propelled artillery
weapons systems using smart and brilliant muni-         systems. Examples of soft targets are command
tions. As Army fIre support wapons systems have         posts, Air Defense units, Forward Area Reanning
increased fu range and precision, and as acquisi-       Refuel Points (FARRP) and .communications
tion means have improved such that they provide         nodes.

3-8                                                                    PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
Both hard and soft targets can be neutralized by      task is the primary responsibility of cannon artil-
area or precision delivery systems. An area deliv-    lery with MLRS performing a supporting role in
ery system requires a target location, which is       the tactical deep area of the battlefield.
then saturated with munitions. Examples of area
delivery systems are the MLRS Rocket and the Air/Ground Attack of Uncommitted
AT ACMS Block I Missile. A precision delivery                 Forces
system homes on the target signature, whether
annor (Infrared (IR), acoustic, Millimeter Wave       This capability package is principally a FS Mis-
(MMW), or other wave lengths) or emitter RF.          sion Area, but manueuver forces do play an occa-
Use of precision munitions significantly reduces      sional role through deep strikes or raids with air
the quantity of munitions required to kill targets.   assault or cavalry forces. Genernlly speaking, this
The tenn "point target" applies to a smaller target   task equates to the deep attack and operational
area which could be neutralized by either area or     fires roles previously covered. Primary targets
precision systems. A point target could be a tank     may include, but are not limited to, uncommitted
or an observation post (See further discussion on     maneuver forces, C2 nodes and complexes, FS
target sets in paragraph 5.3 and Figure 5-4.)         assets including TBMs, Air Defense (AD) sys-
                                                      tems, and reconnaissance, surveillance and target
3.6.4   Fire Support Tasks for Future                 acquisition systems (RST A), as well as logistical,
        Operations                                    ammunition, and Pretroleum, Oil and Lubrication
                                                      (POL) storage sites.
As Anny warfighting doctrine evolves, the basic
tasks of FS systems will remain essentially un- Counterfire
changed. However, as we look to increased con-
straints and requirements, the execution of these     The tasks inherent in counterfrre were covered
tasks will be altered. FS will be called upon to      above in paragraph, under the discussion
provide both long-range fires to defeat or delay      ofmles.
enemy forces and close or tactical fues to assist
maneuver in the close battle. Fires will also be Suppression of Enemy Air Defense
used to counter enemy indirect fue systems and                (SEAD)
TBMs and to neutralize enemy air de(enses. Tech-
nology advances will increase FS capabilities and     Modem surface-to-air defenses have become so
subsequently increase the overall role ofFS. The      lethal that it takes the combined resources of all
principal FS tasks discussed in the following para-   services to defeat them. The Army has primary
graphs are derived from the Fire Support BFMA         responsibility for conductingSEAD          operations
and its related Capability Packages. In several       on the battlefield out to the limit of observed frres,
cases the capability packages closely align with      with the Air Force perfonning a secondary role in
the roles previously addressecL so are only briefly   this area. The Anny can best defeat the surface-
touched upon.                               .  .      to-air threat near the PLOT. Beyond the range of
                                                      observed fires, the Air Force has primary Air/Ground Engagement of Commit-              responsibility for performing SEAD operations,
        ted Forces                                    inclnding suppressio,! of enemy rotary-wing
                                                      aviation, while the Army fulfills a supporting role
This capability package is a manuever area of         to the limits of unobserved indirect fIreS. The
responsibility with FA pmvidi~g close and con-        corps has the responsibility for planning and
tinuous, responsive FSthrough DS, R, as and           conducting SEAD operations with its resources,
GSR fues in support of the close battle. This FS      and tasks subordinate units for additional support.

PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan                                                                     3-9
Likewise, the division has the responsibility for        conjunction with air strikes. The emphasis upon
conducting SEAD operations within its area and           SEAD was generally necessitated by our limited .
may request additional resources from corps.             capability to acquire enemy AD systems before
Multi-pmpose FS systems used for other tasks             emplOYment of our air assets, and by the limited
can be used to conduct SEAD missions.                    capability to engage enemy systems with other
                                                         than our own air. With   an increased capability to
, SEAD is focused on protection of friendly aircraft     acquire enemy AD systems and to strike deep, our
  in conjunction with a specific emploYment of           counter AD objectives on the future battlefield
  those aircraft It demands detailed integration and     will be more oriented on gaining and maintaining
  coordination with air strikes near the FLOT and        a permanent freedom of the air. DIAD operations
  with friendly aircraft crossing the FLOT, both         will normally be conducted very early in an
  outgoing and retmning from deeper missions.            operation, and may precede the emplOYment of
  SEAD can demand immediate responsiveness to            any air assets. The obvious advantages of DIAD
  counter unforeseen AD threats to friendly airpower.    over the traditional SEAD is that it makes more
  SEAD will generally involve the full range ofFS        air sorties available for other missions, reduces
  systems. As we look to the future, it is anticipated   the overall vulnerability of our aircraft, and frees
  that the requirements for SEAD may be reduced.         other FS systems to conduct other missions. DIAD
  The rationale for this view is that the increased      operations will normally include the full range of
  capability to acquire the enemy and to attack at       FS Systems, but will rely heavily on ground-
  depth will, in many situations, permit the totally     based systems because of the vulnerability of air
  proactive defeat of the enemy's AD capability.         platfonns prior to achieving freedom of the air.
  This proactive defeat is discussed in further detail
  under DIAD in paragraph              Attack Operations Attack of Emitters                              "Attack Operations" are the offensive FS tasks
                                                         perfonned under the "Missile Defense" BFMA
 Enemy electronic emissions from radars, radio           Capabilities Package. The imponance of this task
 transmissions, communications nodes, and C2             was brought into sharp focus by the Iraqi SCUD
 Centers are HJYfs. HJYfs include AD sites, heli-        Missile attacks against Israel and Saudi Arabia
 copter staging areas,. FARRP, EW installations,         during the Gulf War. Threat TBMs have brought
 command posts, communications              relay and    about a qualitative change to the conduct of con-
 switching nOOes, air traffic control centers, counter   ventional warfare. Attack Operations protect the
 mortar and counter batteI)' radars, and other RF        force by attacking enemy TBM launch platfonns
 emitters. Current FS capabilities are effective         prior to launch to reduce stress on both active and
 against the relatively soft targets that such centers   passive defensive/offensive systems. The payoff
 present if these targets can be acquired to suffi-      from identification, location and attack of missile
 cient degrees of accuracy. Systems must be de-          launch sites, C2 nodes, missile transfer points,
 veloped that autonomously acquire, home-on, and         and supporting bases prior to launch gives a de-
 destroy eminers. Attack of emitters capability          cided military aI)d psychological advantage to our
 will work in synergy to enhance counterfire, SEAD       maneuver commanders.         The enhanced morale
 DIAD, and BFMA capability packages.                     emanating from any civilian population centers
                                                         we are obligated to protect should yield support Destruction of Integrated Air Defenses          and good will towards our forces and their mission.
                                                         Attack operations is the aspect of interdiction ori-
 Our past. efforts to defeat the enemy's AD              ented on defense of the force against tactical mis-
 capability were generally focused on SEAn in            siles. Aside from the role of AD in defeating the

 3.]0                                                                  PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
missile in flight, attack operations can generally     our forces is emphasized. It is in the area beyond
be classified as proactive in nature. The time lines   the close fight where the biggest change in
associated with acquiring and defeating missiles       warfighting philosophy and our warfighting force
prior to launch, or of acquiring the system based      will occur. In the past, the deeper fight was left
on launch, makes attack operations extremely time      almost entirely to the Air Forces. Land-based
sensitive. Since enemy missiles will nonnally          systems did not generally have the range nor the
operate at the maximum possible standoff dis-          lethality to contribute heavily to the deeper fight
tances, the primary defeat systems will be aircraft    Additionally, the capability to provide th~ required
and long-range, ground-based missiles. Because         target acquisition to support the extensive use of
of the time sensitivity of most attack operations,     land-based systems in the deeper battle was lim-
heavy reliance will be placed on the use of ground-    ited. Today, these capabilities are available and
based attack systems, such as AT ACMS, directly        are ever increasing. The capability to acquire
linked with long-range sensors. The future will        targets, coupled with the increasing range and
see increased emphasis placed uP9n the FS "at-         lethality of land-based rocket and missile systems,
taCk operations" task.                                 now provides greater opportunities to use these
                                                       systems to engage the full spectrum of targets
3.7 FUTURE REQUIREMENTS                                throughout the depth and breadth of the battle-
                                                       field. While manned aircraft will continue to play
Fighting on the future battlefield will place in-      an important and viable role in future warlighting
creasing demands on FS Systems. The require-           philosophy, there will be increasing emphasis on
ment to achieve quick victories with minimal losses    the use of land-based FS systems to accomplish
will place an increasing emphasis on the use of'       more of the total FS requirements. Land-based
frres to defeat the enemy. In the past, the demand     systems offer a very cost-effective alternative to
forfrres has generally been accomplished through       manned aircraft       They- provide a 24-hour all
increases in the numbers of systems. However, as       weather capability which is responsive to the needs
we look to the future, greater emphasis will be        of the force, and also provide the capability of
placed on leveraging technology to provide the         holding the enemy's centers of gravity at risk.
necessary combat power. Advanced technologies
provide the opponunity for attaining com bat power     3.7.2   Deployability
at the least possible manpower cost, and at the
same time meeting the demands associated with          With a contingency-based         force, deployability
the requirement for deployment of forces and the       becomes a major consideration in the develop-
constraints which we will face in future conflicts.    ment of our force packages and our systems. The
                                                       reality of limited air and sea lift assets, and the
3.7.1   Land Based Systems                             requirement to put combat power in place rapidly,
                                                       will demand the maximum capability per lift unit
Future warfighting will place an increasing em-        Achieving deployability will result from a combi-
phasis on the employment of land-based FS S.ys-        nation of primary systems, which have size and
terns to Provide the necessary combat power to         weight characteristics allowing deployment in the
accomplish the Anny's strategic role in carrying       full range of avaIlable air lift vehicles, and muni-
out the National Military Strategy. The Army has       tions which provide the maximum lethality with
always relied heavily on its organic land-based        the minimum number afHft assets. Very specifi-
systems to provide support for committed maneu-        cally, what is required is a rocket and missile
ver forces and to protect those forces from enemy      launcher capable of being quickly lifted by.the
artillery. This requirement will continue as we        smaller lift aircraft, and munitions which provide
move to the future and will take on even greater       the maximum combat power through a combina-
imponance as the use of offensive fires to protect     tion of range, lethality, and accuracy improve-

PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan                                                                    3-]]
3.7.3 Mobility                                          systems to respond to requirements, and to range,
                                                        hit, and defeat targets is paramount       Strategic
  Our future battles will most likely be very fast      force projection and theater mobility requirements
 paced, with rapid extended moves being the nonn.       mandate that we develop both the lightweight air
  Our FS Systems must have the necessary mobility       transportable MFOM launcher (HIMARS) and
  to support the battle under these conditions.    FS   continue the evolution and modernization of the
, systems must have cross countIy mobility equiva-      tracked M270 launcher system to support armored
  lent to that of the supported force, and must have    or mechanized forces in a high armored threat
  the capability for tactical air movement within the   environment or in poor trafficability terr3in. The
  theater of operations. Future mobility require-       exact nature of future threats that the Army will
  ments will be met in a number of ways, not solely     confront 20 years from now is open to speculation.
  limited to the basic mobility of the chassis. While   A modernized Army cannot affort to put all of its
  actual ground movement capability is a factor,        FS development eggs into one basket A mix of
  mobility also demands systems which can rapidly       heavy and light MRJM launchers must continue
  emplace, fire, and displace. It also demands a        in development to meet the full spectrum of un-
  responsive, long-range C2 capability.        A final  foreseen threats of the future.
  factor which impacts on mobility is the range
  capability of the systems. The greater the range,     3.7.6 Responsiveness
  the less the actual cross country movement re-
  quirement will be on a system. Longer range           Responsiveness is a key element of our overall FS
  systems will permit more transfer and shifting of     combat power capability. Responsiveness pr0-
  fIreS without unit relocation across the length and . vides for protection of the force, allows us to
  breadth of the battle area                            control the tempo of the battle, and provides the
                                                        capability to hold the enemy's key elements at
  3.7.4 Survivability                                   risk. Responsiveness is achieved through a com-
                                                        bination of basic systems capability and C2 Sys-
.Our FS Systems must be survivable. Through a           tems. As we move to the future, we must leverage
  combination of not being acquired, not being hit,     technology to further enhance the responsiveness
  and surviving if hit, we Inust ensure the surviv-     of our land-based FS Systems.
  ability of our personnel and materiel systems which
  make up our forces. Survivability of FS Systems       3.7.7 Range
  goes well beyond the armoring of systems. Even
  more important are the capabilities to rapidly        Greater range complements and enhances virtu-
 emplace, fire, and move and the capabilities of        ally all aspects of an overall systems performance.
  increased range to stand off from potential attack-   From the standpoint of pure combat capability,
 ers. As we extend the ranges of our systems, we        range is Critical. As the ranges of our land-based
  not only increase the number of enemy targets         FS systems are increased, it exponentially increases
  which can be engaged, we also reduce the number       the numbers and types of enemy targets which
  of enemy systems which can eng'age us.                can be engaged. Increased ranges of our systems
                                                        will ever more complicate the plans and actions of
 3.7.5 Capability                                       our adversaries. The increasing range of land-
                                                        based systems is adding a new dimension to the
 The key requirement for future land-based FS           battle. Unhampered by weather or hostile air
  Systems is our capability to defeat the enemy.        defense environments, land-~ased, long-range at-
 While deployability, mobility, and survivability       tack systems can provide immediately responsive
  are all important factors, the capability of our      all weather fires. This allows us to essentially

3-12                                                                  PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
 hold the enemy at gunPOint throughout the battle-       target types. Through the use of precision muni-
 field While the ranges of our land-based systems        tioos, we must develop and field the capability to
 have been increased, particularly through intro-        defeat targets which range from soft to hard tar-
 duction of our rocket and missile systems, they         gets which are moving or stationary. We must
 are still currently inadequate to meet the demands      develop discriminatory munitions which not only
 of the future battlefield We must strive to de-         reduce collateral damage, but which also permit
 velop and field land-based systems with the range       the striking of the highest payoff targets at both
 necessary to simultaneously         attack targets      tactical and operational ranges.
 throughout the entire depth and breadth of the
 battlefield Simply s~         we must have a land-      3.7.9    Airspace Coordination Requirements
 based capability so that the question of whether to
 employ air or ground-based systems is not based         With the advent of longer range indirect fIre
 solely on the limits of range.                          weapons capabilities        such as MLRS and
                                                         ATACMS, the FIre Support community is facing
 3.7.8   Lethality                                       increasingly complex airspace coordination re-
                                                         quirements which have not been completely or
  Lethality is a product of a number of factors. It      satisfactorily resolved below division level nor in
  involves the capability to respond to the require-     the joint doctrine arena.
  ment and to range the target Most importantly, it
  involves the capability to hit the target and to     Coordination and control of the airspace above
. defeat it once it is hit Lethality is achieved       the battlefield has always been a complex ~d
  through the use of area rue/massive-saturation       difficult issue. The challenge is to allow maximum
  type attack or through the use of precision attack.  freedom of action for air force close air support
  Our ground-based FS systems have historically        and other high Performance aircraft, along with
  relied on the use of the massive-saturation type     army helicopters, FA cannons, rockets and mis-
  attack. However, while this capability will con-     siles, mortars, and Air Defense Artillery (ADA)
  tinue to be a requirement, the future battlefield    missiles. Each airspace user must retain enough
  will place a much greater emphasis on the uSe of     flexibility to employ his particular weapon or
  precision strike. Precision attack munitions         aircraft to its best capability and still not interfere
  complement all aspects of FS from geployment        excessively with other users ..The purpose of air-
  through survivability. They allow us'to put the      space management is to optimize the combat ef-
  maximum amount of combat power on the ground        fectiveness of the force so both ground-based and
  in the shonest possible time,. and to bring the     air weapons can be employed sYnergistically to
  maximum amount of combat power to bear on the       their fullest capacity. In theory this is easy to state
  enemy. Precision munitions can also enhance our . but in practice very difficult to enact
 ability to limit collateral damage, increasirlg the
 capability to use FS versus other forms of combat    At Division and Corps levels an Army Airspace
  power.     The primary advantage offered 'by the    Command and Control Element (A2C2) Performs
 precision munitions, however, is that they increase  the Airspace Con~l function. The A2C2 is es-
  the spccttum of targets which can be attacked by    tablished and collocated with the FSE and the Air
 ground-based systems. Our current capability         Force-Air Support Opetetions Center (ASOC) at
 is generally limited to the attack of soft or        Corps, and with the FSE and Tactical Air Control
 lightly armored stationary targets. The future       Pany (TACP) at Division. Below Division,. at
 battlefield, with its increased emphasis on the      Brigade, Battalion and Company level, the Anny
 use of fires, will demandground.based FS Sys-        has tasked the maneuver unit commander with the
 terns capable of defeating the full spectrum of      responsibility for coordinating airspace in his area

PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
 of operations. Since maneuver brigadelbattalion            doctrinally at EAC, although the need for such an
 does not have a dedicated staff element for the            element has been recognized for a number of
 airspace management function, the maneuver                 years. Sufficient detail on who makes what rec-
 commander habitually relies upon his FSE or Fire          ommendations to the joint force commander is
 Support Officer (FSO) to work out the details of           lacking. For example, who establishes priorities
 this complex function.                                    for ground and air fires? Who establishes the
                                                           relationship between air interdiction and ground
, LTO David E. On in his monograph history of               based deep fires? How do we integrate airspace
  American Artillery in Vietnam addressed the              coordination measures and fire support coordina-
  problem of airspace coordination below the divi-         tion measures at the joint level, and who does it?
   sion level. General On noted that the FA was            What are the doctrinal procedures for deconflicting
  given the mission of controlling airspace because        airspace for trajectories of AT ACMS missions?
  it seemed a logical extension of the duty of coor-       How do we plan to employ sensors such as Joint
  dinating fires. He reasoned, ''This responsibility       Surveillance Tracking and Acquisition Radar
  was valid so long as the airspace coordination           System (JSTARS), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
  responsibilities of the fire supPOrt officer were        (UA V's) and other technologies, and who coordi-
  limited to the target area. But this was not the case.   nates and deconflicts their airspace requirements?
  These responsibilities most often included a large       Should the Fire Support Coordination Line (FSCL)
  area of operations and even involved the issuance        delineate area responsibilities between air and
  of advisories to administrative air traffic traversing   ground forces? These and other issues need to be
  the area The artillery liaison sections, particularly    addressed and worked out in the joint doctrine
  at maneuver battalion and brigade levels, devoted        arena A Joint Air Land Sea Applications Work-
  a large portion of their efforts to controlling air      ing Group, is presently meeting at Langley AFB,
  traffic, sometimes to the detriment of the primary       Virginia, to find solutions to some of these issues.
 duty for which they were organized and equipped
 the coordination of fIreS."                           3.8 BATTLEFIELD DEFICIENCIES
The situation today, below division level, is not          The general requirements for FS systems as
much different from that described by General On           discussed in the preceding sections are directly
and needs the further attention of the doctrine            related to specific battlefield deficiencies identified
developers, because neither the maneuver com-              in the Battlefield Development Plan (BDP) 1994-
manders, nor the FA FSO' s, are proper! y resourced        2008. Some of the deficiencies apply to FS
to accomplish the function of airspace control             weapons and munitions capabilities while others
beyond the immediate target area. Tasking FSO's            address deficiencies in target acquisition, C2, and
for broader airspace control responsibility can in-        SIS capabilities. Complete resolution of all related
terfere with their primary functions of providing          deficiencies will depend upon improvements in
continuous and responsive fIre suppOrt to the ma-          all BFMAs for FS systems to fully execute AirLand
neuverunit                                                 Operations.

At EAC, the doctrinal responsibilities involving           Deficiencies which impact all elements of the FS
airspace control and coordination with the delivery        System of Systems are listed in Figure 3-3. While
of surface-tO-surface fIreS are not clearly defined.       the BD P is aging, it remains valid for this assess-
A recent uPdate in the Field Artillery Journal             ment. The Enhanced Concept Based Require-
underscores a number of doctrinal voids related to         ments System (ECBRS) will generate a new de-              .

these points. For example, a FSE does not exist            ficiency list in FY 1993.

3-14                                                                      PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan





















                                           Figure 3-3. BDPPriorities

 3.9 SUMMARY                                              throughout the depth and breadth of the battle-
The future battlefield will place an increasing
reliance on the use of fires to achieve quick and         The key concepts of future warfighting doctrine
decisive victories with minimum losses. Emerg-            have direct linkage to modernization requirements.
ing target acquisition and attack technologies of-        The anticipated nonlineaT nature of the battlefield
fer the opportunity for ground-based FS Systems           plus the extension of both close and deep opera-
to play a greater role in providing this suppon.          tions generates a corresponding need to see the
Through increased range, precision munitions, and         battlefield and attack with long-range fIreS over
increased lethality, land-based systems will have         greater distances than ever. before possible.
the capability to attack the full spectrum of targets     Emerging warfighting concepts, along with the

PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan
 need to synchronize all operations across the length    •   Destroy or neutralize these target sets:
 and breadth of the battlefield with simultaneous or
 near simultaneous attack of both committed and              -   Stationary soft targets.
 uncommitted forces, generate requirements for
 more rapid and accurate intelligence, improved                  Moving soft targets.
 target acquisition, target identification (to avoid
,fratricide), battle management, and C3. Weapons             -   Stationary hard targets.
 and munitions must achieve higher rates of kill
 against close and deep targets. Weapons with                - Moving hard targets.
 greater accuracy, range, and lethality must be
 fielded with the capability to kill deep targets,           - TBM systems.
 moving and stationary, hard and soft These sys-
 tems must be more survivable, sustainable, and              - RF emitters.
 capable of operation with reduced maintenance
 and reduced consumption of fuel and ammuni-                 -   CP.
 tion. Such generalized force modernization re-
 quirements translate into Rocket and Missile sys-           - Enemy     Air Defenses.
 tems required capabilities which can be satisfied
 by both system improvements and new system             The assessments in Chapters 5 and 6 address
 developments.       These required capabilities in-    those systems developed by the PEO MSL. An
 clude:                                                 imperative exists for the development community
                                                        to provide the required capabilities identified in
  •    Deliver long-range fires throughout the          the other FS System of Systems elements. With-
       corps area and across corps boundaries.          out these capabilities, FS weapons and munitions
                                                        will be unable to provide the long-range, preci-
  •    Improve navigation and determination of          sion fIreS required by future doctrine.
       position location.

3-16                                                                   PEO Fire Support Modernization Plan

  4.1 INTRODUCTION                                    cision Strikes, and Dominate the Maneuver Battle.
                                                      Modernization will be effected through P3I inser-
 This chapter presents the Program Executive Of-      tion of technologies developed through technol-
 fice, Tactical Missiles (FED MSL) developed          ogy demonstrations and advanced concepts, and
 strategy for the modernization of FS Rocket and      development of follow-on systems when current
 Missile Systems. The strategy applies to the long-   systems have exhausted their upgrade potential or
 tenn research, development, and acquisition of       become obsolete. This strategy will meet the
 delivery vehicles, launchers, warheads, smart mu-    Chief of Staffs guidance for maintaining mo-
 nitions, and associated C4I, and is in consonance    mentum while accommodating change to provide
 with the Anny Modernization Vision-Land Force        enhanced state-of-the-art combat effectiveness to
 Dominance.                                           meet tomorrow's challenges. A by-product of this
                                                      strategy will be to maintain a healthy, robust, FS
 4.1.1     Anny Modernization        Vision           industrial base which can meet mobilization surge
                                                      requirements for expansion during national emer-
  Land Force Dominance flows from the National        gency.
  Military Strategy. As shown in Figure 4-1, the
  Anny has established five modernization objec-      4.2 NEW ARMY INITIATIVES
. tives that are necess31)' to realize its vision:        IMPACTING UPON
                                                          MODERNIZATION STRATEGY
   •     Project and Sustain the Force
   •     Protect the Force                            The continuing evolution of doctrine in PM 100-
   •     Win the lnfonnation War                      S, the new Battle Labs, and the Chief of Staffs
   •     Conduct Precision Strikes                    Louisiana Manuevers (LAM) will have far reach-
   •     Dominate the Maneuver Battlefield            ing implications for the materiel developer. Mod-
                                                      ernization plans will require periodic updates and
                                                      revision to stay abreast of the evolving implica-
                                                      tions for weapons requirements, design, develop-
                                                      ment, and acquisition.

                                                      4.2.1   Revision ofFM 100-5

                                                      The revision ofFM l00-S is focusing the vision of
                                                      the Army's intellectual change frOm a cold war
                                                      threat scenario, with a Central Europe preoccupa-
                                                      tion, to a Continental United States (CONUS)-
                                                      based power projection strategy with an uncertain
                                                      regional focus. Smaller forces, and the need to
         Figure 4--1. Army I\foderni~tion   Vision    tailor joint and combined forces to different re-
                                                      gional scenarios, are changing the fundamental
 4.1.2     Purpose                                    ~sumptiOi1s .of risk provided the underpin-
                                                      mngs ofpreVlous doctrIne. A revisedFM 100-5 is
 The purpose of this chapter is' to present and       scheduled for publication in early 1993 with fur-
 discuss the PEO MSL strategy to support three of     ther changes anticipated from the ongoing lessons
 these objectives: Protect the Force, Conduct Pre-    evolving from Battle Labs and LAM over the next

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 5 years. These changes will be captured in the                                            It is not a Battle Labs mission to develop systems,
 next version of PM 100-5 expected to be pub-                                              but over the next several years, Battle Labs will
 lished around 1997.                                                                       continue to develop and evolve new ideas and
                                                                                         . concepts on doctrine and weapons development
 4.2.2 Battle Labs Concept                                                                 interface as we move to restructure the Anny of
                                                                                           the 21st Century. Modernization Plans such as
 ,Under the sponsorship ofTRADOC, the Anny is                                              this must be flexible enough to accommodate the
  fonnulating a new concept and technology devel-                                          changes as they evolve and stay in close and
  opment strategy that will seIVe as a bridge be-                                          continuous touch with the operational "needs of
  tween the forces in the field and weapons devel-                                         the warfighters.
  opment The new strategy is termed "Battle Labs"
  and is a broad-based concept for changing the                                           4.2.3 Louisiana Maneuvers (LAM)
  way the Anny establishes requirements in the
  post-Cold War era. The central focus is to link                                         LAM is an Anny Chief of Staff initiative to take a
  ideas about technology with warfighting to find                                         comprehensive, hard look at how the Anny will
  the best possible combinations for increasing                                           be organized, equipped and trained in the late
  battlefield effectiveness. Battle Labs will use ad-                                      1990's and into the 21st Century. The LAM will
  vanced simulation technology combined with                                              provide a context and focus for senior Army lead-
. analysis derived from live training exercises. The                                      ership to examine and test a full range of issues
  responsibilities for developing concepts in each                                        including mobilization capabilities, force genera-
  area have been tasked to "centers of expertise" at                                      tion and structure, training methods, doctrine, war
  the U.S. Anny Training and Doctrine Command'                                            termination, redeployment, and demobilization.
  (TRADOC) seIVice schools as shown in Figure 4-                                          The thrust will be to determine the insights needed
  2. Other research organizations and industry can                                        to reshape the Army in the post-Cold War era of a
  take new ideas or weapons systems concepts to                                           smaller Army, and a menacing world order that
  these centers for evaluation, test and studies. Once                                    requires power projection capabilities to meet un-
  demonstrated individually at a Battle Lab Center,                                       foreseen contingencies.
  a concept or technology will then undergo funher
  analysis through the expanded LAM Strategy de-                                          The LAM will encompass an extended opera-
  scribed below.                                                                          tional campaign which will link planned exer-
                                                                                          cises, computers simulations, systems analysis,
                                                                                          and intellectual exercises to evolve lessons learned
                                                                                          and insights. The program is expected to mature
                   HOllWXlC                                                               in FY93 with an assessment and validation of the
                                                                                          revised doctrine contained in the new FM 100-5,
           t.t<X.HTEO    BATlU      SPACE          •   ANAL YlE     •
                                                                        TRAINING ROUTS
                                                                                          with particular focus upon mobilization, deploy-
                        FT KNOX                    • SIMULATE

          DlSAotOtHTED BAnLE "'ACE
                                                   • EXPERIMENT
                                                   •   EV ALUA TE
                                                                        LOR DEV NEEDS
                                                                        ORG ROMTS
                                                                                          ment, logistics, and operations at the low end of
                                                                    •   MATROMTS
                                                                                          the conflict spectrum. In FY94 the program will
                   FT     NO
               cz ON THE WOV£
           LEAV9IWOATH         I   FT OOAOON
                                               I   •   INTEGRATE
                                                                    •   SOlDIER ROMTS

                                                                                          fully mature wit!I multiple analyses made of the
                        "CS~E                  I                                          force integration process, warfighting functions,
                                                                                          organizational design, active and reseIVe forces
                                                                                          roles and functions, and the requirements deter-
                                                                                          mination process.
                    F~gure 4-2. Battle Lab Concept

4-2                                                                                                   PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
4.2.4 .Joint Precision Strike Demonstration            modernization strategies. Inherent in the strategy
         (JPSD)                                        is the challenge to do more with less. President
                                                       Bush's 1993 Budget included a $50 Billion cut in
JPSD is a Department of Defense (DaD) spon-            Defense spending over the 5-year period between
sored joint technology demonstration which will         1993 and 1997, and reflects a projected reduction
be conducted in FY96 to link and integrate joint       in percent of Gross National Product (GNP) for
Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (lEW), sur-        Defense from 4.5% to 3.4%. President Clinton is
veillance, and target. acquisition assets, including   expected to enact even deeper cuts in the revised
JSTARS, with ATACMS, attack helicopters, and           defense budget for 1993-1997. The trend in
Navy and Air Force precision munitions. The            declining Defense dollars as a percentage of GNP
PurPOse is to achieve and demonstrate an all           is illustrated in Figure 4-3. Defense reductions
weather sensor to shooter precision strike execu-      are an accomplished fact which modernization
tion capability. The demonstration will integrate      planning must anticipate and accommodate.
surveillance, target acquisition processing and at-
tack, for rapid response execution at extended         4.3.1   Modernization Drivers
ranges against short dwell targets, such as TBMs.
The JPSD enjoys a high DoD funding priority. A         Modernization Drivers for Army Rocket and
successful demonstration will most likely provide      Missile systems include the implications arising
additional high priority resources to achieve the      from the new strategic role of the Anny with its
capability. Experiments such as JPSD will provide      emphasis on power projection and. enhanced re-
key data needed by the entire FS community for         quirements for lightweight, mobile, and deployable
smart, cost-effective decisions on future modern-      forces. Decisions are affected by our evolVing
ization solutions across the System of Systems.        doctrine with its increased emphasis on long-range
                                                       fIreS, increased lethality and precision munitions;
4.3 MODERNIZATION STRATEGY                             the proliferation of advanced technology and
                                                       weapons of mass destruction to Second andThird
The PEO MSL modernization strategy focuses on          World countries posing threats to regional stabil-
the future and compliments the DoD and Army            ity; and the less clear and more diffused nature of



         ~ 8

         ... 6
         ffi .-



                               Figure 4-3. Defense Dollars as Percent of GNP

PEO Taclical Missiles Modernization Plan
 the threat requiring flexibility and tailoring of        with the M77 DPICM and the AT ACMS Block I
 forces to react to a broad array of potential threats.   Missile with M74 Anti-personneVAnti-materiel
 All of these drivers require that we develop a           (AP AM) bomblets.
 prudent, balanced, effective, long-range program
 to assure that our future battlefield needs are met      The MLRS/MFOM are superb, battle proven and
                                                          reliable systems which form the building blocks
,4.3.2    Modernization Elements                          for Rocket and Missile Systems modernization.
                                                          Continuous improvement to the MLRS/MFOM
 The PEO MSL Strategy for modernizing FS                  will serve the Army's modernization needs well
 Rocket and Missile Systems has four basic ele-           into the next century and provide for Rocket and
 ments. These elements are identified in Figure 4-        Missile Systems with increased range, accuracy,
 4. The strategy is based on the System of Systems        and lethality. Technology upgrades to the M270
 concept which requires the parallel modernization        launcher can be achieved at lower cost and can be
 of FS Target Acquisition, C4I, and S/S systems           achieved sooner through P3I rather than by
 concurrent with FS Rocket and Missile System             evolving totally new systems.
 modernization.    It strongly emphasizes technol-
 ogy transfer and cooperation between services             New technologies, as they evolve, can be rapidly
 and DoD agencies, and intelligent insertion of            inserted. Application of new technologies in-
 viable technology programs into system en-                clude those associated with upgrading the launcher
 hancements. .                                             fire control, and mechanical systems, and those
                                                           associated with carrier vehicles and warheads such
                                                           as sensors, seekers, payloads and submunitions.

                          • LEVERAGE THE
                            M270 LAUNCHER
                            AND THE MFOM
                                                           Of primary importance in MFOM evolution must
                                                           be a lllMARS capable of firing M270 munitions
                                                           from a more deployable platform. New technol-
                          • LEVERAGE
                                                           ogy application will also offer capabilities for
                                                           improving the MFOM in areas such as anti-radia-
                                                           tion, anti-jam, battle damage assessment, passive
                          • COMMON VISION
                            FOR NEEDED.
                                                           target recognition, discrimination, and informa-
                                                           tion relay. MFOM modernization resulting from

                          • TAKE A LONGER
                                                           technology insertion can provide high payoffs in
                                                           cost, schedule, and performance while achieving
                            MODERNIZA TlON                 improved capabilities. As an example, improved

                            PERSPECTlVE                    survivability can be achieved with technology
                                                           applications enhancing the M270 reaction time to
   Figure 4-4. PEO Missile Modernization     Strategy      improve shoot and scoot capabilities. AT ACMS
                                                           Block I is another example of increased potential
                                                          .inherent in the MFOM. AT ACMS Block I pro- Leverage the M270 Launcher          and the
                                                           vides significanJ additional capabilities to MLRS
                                                           units without additional force structure.
 Leveraging the MFOM, the M270, and potential
 variants such as lllMARS, is the cornerstone of          The M270 has already achieved significant sav-
 the PEO MSL Modernization Strategy. The pri-             ings in manpower and will continue to provide
 mary components of the MLRS are the M270                 further savings over older corps systems such as
 launcher and the MFOM which includes the cur-            the Lance missile and the MIlO SP 8" Howitzer.
 rently fielded carrier vehicles, the M26 rocket          The MFOM is presently as deployable as the

4-4                                                                   PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 heavy force it suppons and can be airlifted, al-         Leverage Technology
 though at significant lift cost, to support a light
 contingency force.                                                         Leveraging technology requires a constant and
                                                                         . .consistent interface among FS Rocket and Missile
The PED MSL Modernization Strategy satisfies                                 System Project and Product Managers, the user
the Anny Chief of Staffs criteria for multi-pur-                            community, government laboratories, research,
pose, high leverage, affordable systems with a                              development and engineering centers, and Inde-
variety of P31 potential. Today's proven combat                             pendent Research and Development (IR&D) ac-
capabilities must remain fully operational and                              tivities. With superior technology as a key ele-
combat ready until replacement systems are                                  ment contributing to deterrence, it is essential that
fielded. Thus, the current MFOM systems, in-                                practical insertion of technology, in consideration
eluding planned upgrades, must remain fullyop-                              of user requirements, be a paramount focus of
erational into the 2020-2030 timeframe. An in-                              modernization. Concurrent with this focus is the
terim launcher platfonn is needeq in the 2000-                              requirement to protect the technology base so that
2010 time period to replace the aging Bradley                               FS systems remain on the leading edge of modem
type chassis. A new or improved chassis for the                             technology. The PEO MSL modernization goals
:MFOM will hinge upon an Army-wide decision                                 to improve current system capabilities and pr0-
to replace or improve the Bradley Fighting Ve-                              mote future systems enhancement are identified
hicle (BFV). New systems may ultimately re-                                 in Figure 4-5. Achieving these goals through the
place the MFOM in these later years, and plans                              application of proven technologies will contribute
for future systems are an essential part of the                             towards maintaining a technological advantage
modernization strategy element which emphasizes                             on tomorrow's battlefield
a longer term perspective on planning.
                                                                            Leveraging technology applies to both current
                                                                                           systems in the near-term and future
                                     NEXT GENERATION             OBJECnVE    (F2S2)        systems.     Near and mid-tenn im-
  LAUNCHER                                                                                 provements to FS Rocket and Missile
   WEIGHT                          .&.30%
    SPEED                          1'10%
                                                                                           Systems are possible through the in-
    RANGE                          l' 2O"Y.               1'~
    SIZE                                                  .&.15%
                                                                                           sertion of technology into fielded sys-
   NAVIGATION                          10M CEP REAl TIME      10M CEP REAL TIME
                                                                                           tems and current acquisitions. Appli-
  RESPONSE nME                     .&.50%                 .&.8O'Y.
   - C3                               NEAR REAL TIME          NEAR REAL TIME
                                                                                          cation of already m~ture technologies
   • MECH                          .&.50%
  SURVIVABILITY                       STOP AND SHOOT
                                                              SHOOT ON MOVE
                                                                                          to the M270 launcher and the MFOM
  RELIABLlTY                       l' 20%                1'50%
  MAINT AINABILITY                 1'20%                 1'50%
                                                                                          carrier vehicles and warheads leads to
  TRAINING                            50'% EMBEDDED           SlO% EMBEDDED               the most practical and achievable up-
  ROLES                               FA RKTSlMSLS            FA RKTS. MSLS. CANNONS
                                                                                          grades. The plant:ting and develop-
   SPEED                           1'10%                 1'-50%
                                                                                          ment of future FS Rocket and Missile
                                                         l' 50%"
                                                                      90%                 Systems will also leverage advanced
                                                                                          concepts and emerging technology. In
                                                                                         addition to improvements in system
   NO. TARGET ARRAYS                                         INFINITE                    lethality and perfonnance, future sys-
                                                                        .                tems development will consider a wider
                                                                                       . sc~~ of improvements in logistics,
   NO. TARGET ARRAYS                  2-3
                                      50% RELIABLE
                                                             INFINITE                    traImng, supportability, transportabil-
   DISCRIM INA TION                                          SlO% RELIABLE
   BOA                                UPDATE WARHEAD         UPDATE FCS                  ity, survivability, and manpower re-
                 Figure 4-5. Technology Modernization Goals

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
  The inclusion of advaricements in robotics, artifi-    over extended ranges. A non-lethal munition con-
  cial intelligence (AI), composite materials, and       sidered as a possible candidate for the ATACMS .
  power train technologies are applicable to launcher    cargo carrying potential includes an anti-materiel
  systems. These technologies can reduce logistics       "mission kill" concept which dispenses a gas cloud
  support and improve man/machine inteIfaces as          to modify the combustion process in diesel or
  well as provide more smvivable, deployable, and        gasoline engines causing engine stall and damage.
, mobile launch platforms. Prudent applications of       Also, a radar and communications jamming con-
  stealth technology may further enhance sW'Viv-         cept similar to ADEXJAM could be adapted to the
  ability in multiple frequency spectrums. Weight        cmrent MFOM. The 1000 pound cargo carrying
  reduction to support strategic mobility is a poten-    capacity of ATACMS Block Ihas virtually unlim-
  tial consideration in all. improvement efforts. In-    ited potential for possible integration of special
  corporation of improved Propellants, new guid-         mission warheads.
  ance and connol technologies and signature re-
  duction are applicable to carrier vehicles. These      As FS oriented technologies mature, trade-off
  technologies offer improvements in range, accu-        analyses will be necessary to optimize technology
  racy, launch to target trajectories, and shelf life.   leveraging. These analyses can directly contribute
  Technology applications for improving warheads         to decisions such as when to phase out older systems
  will consider minimizing collateral damage and         in favor of fielding new systems incorporating
  maximizing effects on the enemy. High power            proven technology innovations.
  laser, kinetic and chemical energy ordnance,
  coupled with guidance integrated fuzing, AI, and Common Vision
  neural networks are possible technologies for ap-
  plication to warheads that can be tailored to al-      The third element of the PEO MSL Modernization
  most any target set Although R&D of advanced           Strategy is to assist in evolving coordinated user/
  technology systems will have high visibility and       material developer unified positions on the poten-
  interes4 it should be noted that lower cost blast      tial materiel solutions to FS Rocket and Missile
  and fragmentation "dumb munitions" are still           System battlefield deficiencies. These proposed
  more cost-effective for target attack in many situ-    solutions will combine user needs with the in-
  ations on the batt1~field Therefore, the continu-      creased capabilities possible through the infusion
  ing evolution of "dumb munitions" will be pan of       of. technology into currently fielded systems, or
  the total FS R&D package.                              will frame the requirements for new systems .. Ac-
                                                         tive involvement by the PEO and his staff will not
Artillery cannon munitions have historically been        only focus the timely identification of those mod-
employed to deliver a number of combat suppo~            ernization programs agreed to among the partici-
non.lethal payloads. These include non.lethal            pants, but also assure that each has contributed to
smoke and chemical gas projectiles, a leaflet dis-       the decision process in developing a unified posi-
persing propaganda shell, and illumination rounds.       tion. Improved coordination through proactive
Recent technology base initiatives have included         involvement by the PEO MSL will assure mutual
the development of the Anillery.Delivered Ex-            understanding of requirements, priorities, sched-
pendable Jammer (ADEXJAM), delivered by a                ules, risk, and cost. The warfighter and the mate-
155mm cargo.-carryingprojectile. MFOM Rock-              riel developer speaking with one strong and uni-
ets and Missiles have similar flexible capabilities      fied voice regarding FS Rocket and Missile Sys-
at even greater ranges. Some of these functions          tems requirements will increase the probability of
or others could be adapted to the MLRS rocket or         securing the necessary budgetary support to field
to AT ACMS as user requirements are identified.          needed future systems.
For example, the MFOM could deliver sensors

4-6                                                                  PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan Longer Tenn Modernization                                           obsolescence." An historical analysis of the de-
        Perspective                                                         velopment and operational life spans of U.S. Army
                                                                            Rocket and Missile systems tends to support the
The fourth element of the modernization strategy                            view that we are evolving towanis a 50 year cycle
considers currently fielded systems, the current                            for major systems (see Figure 4-6).
technology base, and current battlefield deficien-
cies, and projects future possibilities for Rocket                          The implications of a 50 year cycle are profound
and Missile Systems through the year 2050. The                              Weapons modernization decisions m~               today
baseline further represents a starting point for                            will have a direct impact on force structure and
implementing the total PEO MSL modernization                                warfighting capabilities well into the 21st Cen-
strategy.                                                                   tury. Evidence supPOrtS a 50 year systems' life
                                                                            projection for FA as well as other weapons sys-
The baseline was constructed in terms of a 50 year                          tems. The Hawk missile, flI"Stfielded in 1959, has
cycle. Brigadier Richard Simkin, a prominent                                been upgraded continually and will have an op-
British war historian, writing in Race to the Swift:                        erational service life which will extend beyond
ThoU2hts on Twenty-First Cennny Warfare, sug-                               the turn of the century. Similarly, the MI09
gests a "rule of thumb," 50 year cycle that seems                           l-lowitzer, fU'St fielded in 1962, is currently under-
to appear at various levels and dimensions in                               going a sixth upgrade made possible by technol-
warfare. With regard to developing major, mod-                              ogy insertion. This upgraded version is expected
em weapons systems, Simkin assens, only the                                 to remain in the Anny inventory until well into the
largest and healthiest economies can sustain the                            21st century. With prospects for vastly reduced
financial outlays required, and even these coun.'                           defense budgets a reality, the operational service
tries need to amonize their costs "over a period                            life of major weapon systems will be extended to
which overstretches the design's development                                their absolute limits.
potential and carries it well into technological

                              CORPORAL                                        o     CONCEPT EXPLORA nON AND DEF/NlnON,
                                                                              •     DEWNSTRAnONANDVALlDATION
                                                                              ~     ENGINEERING AND AAANUFACTUR/NGDEVELOPMENT
                                 REDSTONE                                     II PROOUCnON     AND DEPLOYMENT

                         ~y~S)                                                ..    OPERA nONS AND SUPPORT

                                 ___                                               YE~S)

                                            HONEST JOHN


                                                                      . PERSHING

                  SOVIETUS,      KOREA                      ISRAELI
                                                                                              IILRS (IIFOII)
                   WWlI MRLMRL                        WGER        MRL


                Figure 4-ti. Historical Timelines for Rocket and Missile Systems Development

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                                                 _.    __   ._.   ~
4.4 A PLAN FOR TIlE FUTURE                              Fire Control System (IFCS-l) upgrade by 1998.
                                                        The IFCS-l is needed to mitigate the obsoles-
Figures 4-7 through 4-9 depict the long-term evo-       cence of micro-electronics in the existing fIre con-
lution of cwrent, next generation, and future FS        trol system, to reduce weight through use of newer
Rocket and Missile Systems into the first half of       materials and smaller number of Line Replace-
the 21 st Century. The rationale for building the       able Units (LRUs), and to enhance survivability.
timelines is based on historical weapon system          A second upgrade (IFCS-2) will be required about
acquisition experiences, a projected assessment         2006. A POM wedge is needed in POM96 to
of the total time required for research, develop-       support IFCS-2.                            .
ment, and acquisition of both new and upgraded
systems under current defense acquisition guide-     An intermediate goal for on board fire control
lines and consideration of the wear out and obso-    should be to evolve a common, on board, FCS
lescence of current systems. Launch systems now      between cannons and MLRS. The IFCS-2 should
fielded and in development will have an expected     add a high speed data bus to handle expanded
service life of 35 to 45 years. The operational life computing requirements. All of these upgrades
for next generation launchers will approach or       will contribute to reduced operations and support
exceed 50 years. Current generation rockets and      costs and maintenance downtime.
missiles will require inventory replacement or
service life extension programs after 15 to 18       The ll..MS is needed to reduce total time on launch
years. Future. rocket, missile, and warhead sys-     point and launcher reaction and response time by
tems will incorporate improvements to increase       50-60 percent, by increasing the mechanical slew
range and improve the shelf life. Improvements .     rate. The ILMS will also increase survivability,
in' propellant technology and insensitive muni-      improve launcher hydraulics, and incorporate other
tions will extend the shelf life of next generation  mechanical improvements.       The ll..MS will en-
Rockets and Missiles to 25 or 30 years.              able the M270 launcher to be more effective in
                                                     countering TBM and in counterbattery fires by
Many of the programs and concepts outlined in        engaging a TBM launcher after launch, but before
this plan are viable programs or technologies cur-   it egresses the firing area The ILMS will increase
rently being developed. Brief descriptions are       total systems reliability and reduce operating and
included here, With more detailed systems de-        support costs" The ll..MS can be fielded around
scriptions provided in Chapter 6.                    2002, given POM supported RDT &E funding by
4.4.1       Launchers
                                                        By 2005, the early fielded models of the M993
The strategy for launcher modernization is shown        modified Bradley chassis, which is the tracked
in Figure 4-7.                                          vehicle chassis for the M270 launcher, will be
                                                        approaching a fielded life span of 25 years and
The M270 Launcher will require an Improved              costs of operations and support will most likely


                                  r=:=J      _
  LEGEND,    ~PT        D~AL      PROD    OPERATIONS

                                            Figure 4-7. Launchers

4-8                                                                 PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 begin to rise shmply.'As theMLRS andATACMS                                                         the 21 st Century. The F2S2 concept will be
 Rockets and Missiles with their enhancements                                                       further refined with a concept definition phase
 and new munitions are expected to remain opera-                                                    from 1994 through 1998. Concept definition
 tional until the 2030 to 2040 time period, either a                                                should explore a common Fire Control Station
 new ttaeked vehicle chassis or a service life exten-                                               (PCS) for all FA systems. F2S2 should be fielded
 sion program for the M270 chassis will be required                                                 during the 2020s. This development time schedule
 about 2000-2010.       The options available will                                                  allows needed technology          to mature and
 ~pend to a degree on the future of the Annored                                                     maximizes return on investment of the upgraded
 Systems Modernization (ASM) program and the                                                        M270 launcher and the MFOM until the end of
 Anny-wide decision on improving or replacing                                                       projected operational life. Concept development
 the BFV.                                                                                           for a replacement for the FlS2 should be projected
                                                                                                    to start in the 2030..2040 time period.
The lllMARS is being developed to provide
MFOM capability to light and rapidly deploying                                                  4.4.2 Carrier Vehicles
contingency forces. HIMARS will be a wheeled
vehicle configuration with a maximum crew of                                                    The strategy for MFOM Carrier Vehicle Modern-
three, capable of delivering the entire MFOM.                                                   ization is shown in Figure 4-8.
lllMARS might possibly evolve to become the
M270 replacement HlMARS could begin field-                                                      The MLRS rocket was first fielded in the early
ing as early as 1998; however, based on projected                                                1980' s. Based upon a projected propellant shelf
funding and development lead times, fielding                                                    life of 15 to 18 years, the MLRS rocket may
around 1999 is more probable. lllMARS will be                                                   require inventory phase-out from 1995 to 2010. A
produced to suppon the light and contingency                                                    setvice life extension program for current stocks
forces and Foreign Military Sales until replaced                                                might be an option, but with newer rocket motor
by the Future Fire Suppon System (F2S2) after                                                   technologies coming on line, a new rocket may be
2020.                                                                                           a more suitable option if service life extension is
                                                                                                cost prohibitive. IT the production line is shut
The F2S2 is the technology base, objective future                                               down, it could be re-tooled to handle the new
system for all indirect fIre Weapons and Munitions                                              motor propellant technology, and thus a new rocket
from the 105mm Howitzer through AT ACMS in                                                      motor could be phased into 'production between
                                                                                                2000 and 2010.
       7rJ         7S     MJ           '5             lKJ       g5      DO          OS         to       15    20    25   30    3S    40    4S    50
                                        I               I        I       I
        I    KRS
                                              ER .... RS
                                                        I        I       I
                                                   ER jRS   UPGRADE

     A1A(.MS   BlJ( I
                                                                        Fu:rURE ROCKET

                                       I       I                                .
                                   . ATACMS   BlJ(.

                                                       I        A1ACMS EN
                                                      lONGFOO                            '"/

                    UtSE TEOiNOLOGY
                                              ....... CRU\SE
                                                                                          FOllOW.ON PJI

                    I I I
                   7S     ."          15
                                                      lKJ       gS     DO       OS
                                                                                               I I
                                                                                               to       15    20   25

    LEGEM)         c=:J        -              ~.            t::=:J       _
                CONCEPT    DEM VAL            EMe           PROO      OPERA lIONS

                                                                     Figure 4-8. Carrier               Vehicles

PED Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
The ER MLRS will fIrSt augment the current                                     .loop, fiber optic guided missile system. It is
MLRS Rocket The ER MLRS will begin limited                                      anticipated that LONGFOG technologies will be
production in 1998 with fielding beginning in                                   incrnporated into the ATACMS EN effort.
                                                                                   The F2S2 deep attack missile is a technology
 The ATACMS Block I Missile is currently being                                     base, Long Range Artillery Missile (lDNGARM).
 fielded. The propellent shelf life problem dis-                                   Concept definition is expected in the 1997-1999
,cussed for MLRS rockets also applies to ATACMS                                    time frame. Based on the projected acquisition
 Block 1Early lots of ATACMS Block I Missiles                                      strategy, LONGARM fielding could start as early
 will begin reaching the end of expected propellant                                as 2014, but it is more realistic to field as the
 shelflife between 2005 and 2012 and may require                                   objective deep attack missile in conjunction with
 replacement or service life extension.                                            F2S2. The man-in-the-loop fiber optic technol-
                                                                                   ogy may be supplanted by the more advanced
ATACMS P31 is a modification to the current                                        technologies associated with smart and brilliant
Block I missile. The current program- does not                                     munitions.
address extending the propellant shelf life. ITpr0-
duction cut-in and fielding is accomplished by                                     Cruise Technology will be used in a program
1997, the ATACMS P31 will be in the inventory                                      which will incorporate anti-radiation homing, nOn-
and will supplement ATACMS Block I until                                           lethal warheads, and battle damage assessment
around 2018.                                                                       (BDA). The program is envisioned as a small
                                                                                   cruise technology missile incorporating loiter and
ATACMS EN continues the evolution of the                                           employment flexibility. It could be fielded around
ATACMS to meet the Army's future long-range                                        2000-2010, launched from the M270, and will be
frre needs. Development will focus on propel-                                      compatible with existing FCS. A follow-on could
lants, accuracy enhancement, various missile pay-                                  be developed to incorporate extended service life,
loads, targets, and range. The key to this program                                 extended range, and other technology improve-
is integration of a longer motor, which will enable                                ments. Fielding of this follow-on should occur in
the missile to carry payloads to ranges beyond the                                 the same time frame as F2S2. Both must include
capability of ATACMS P3I. R&D efforts for                                          the anti-radiation homing capability, and other
ATACMS EN will also address a longer propel-                                       lethal and non-lethal capabilities. An anti-radia-
lant shelf life and will be fielded between 2012                                   tion homing capability is not currently being
and 2018. ATACMS EN could remain opera-                                            resourced.
tional until replaC-edby F2S2 munitions, around
2040 to 2050.                                                                      4.4.3    Warheads

The Long Range Fiber Optic Guided Missile                                          Strategy for MFOM Warhead Modernization is
(WNGFOO) is a next generation, man-in-the-                                         shown in Figure 4-9. Detailed systems descrip-
       70                  eo        B5         10   15        DO             10       15    20   25    30     35    40     45    50

       70    75            110       15         10   15        00        D5
   LEGEND.        c::::J         -          ~        c:::=:J        .-
             CONCePT             OEM VAL.   EMO      PROD       OPERATIONS

                                                                    Figure 4-9. Warheads

4.]0                                                                                          PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 tions are contained in Chapters 5 and 6.               sections briefly describe the other elements and
                                                        their importance to the FS mission area. Key
 The SADARM program will develop two sepa-              systems of each System of Systems element whose
 ratesubmunitions; one for the MLRS and one for        ,successes are linked to the success of Weapons
 the 155mm cannon. SADARM will be integrated            and Munitions programs are highlighted in Chapter
 into the MLRS Rocket from 1994-1999.                  7, Recommendations. Mcxlemization schedules
 SADARM P3I could be integrated into the ER            for these key systems are also critical to decisions
 :MLRS.                                                made and are included as well in Chapter 7.

 The BAT is an autonomous, anti-armor                  4.5.1 Weapons and Munitions
 submunition designed for deep. attack. The
 submunition is capable of being delivered by a        The Weapons and Munitions element of the FS
 variety of delivery vehicles. BAT P3I could be        System of Systems encompasses missiles, rockets
 fielded by 2002.                                      and their associated munitions, as well as cannons
                                                       and howitzers. The PEO MSL has systems devel-
 The Radio Frequency Attack Munition (RFAM)            opment and acquisition oversight responsibility
 is a next generation, technology base system.         for FS missiles, rockets and their warheads, hence
 RFAM could become available in 2003. Deep             those systems and their required interfaces are
 Attack Smart Munition (DASM) is a technology          directly addressed throughout this plan. The PEO
 base, next generation system which will provide       Armaments has developed a separate plan cover-
 carrier systems the capability to engage High Value   ing cannons, howitzers and artillery projectiles
 Targets (HVfs) with large target location uncer-      which has been coordinated extensively with this
 tainty at long-range. DASM can be available as        plan. This modernization plan and the PEO
 early as 2C1J7.                                       Annament'splan both support the DA level FS
                                                       Annex G to the Anny Modernization Plan.
  RFAM and DASM should continue in develop-
. ment to address key battlefield deficiencies in      4.5.2 Command, Control, Communications
  current system capabilities. Both munitions pro-           Computers and Intelligence (C4n
  vide needed additional capabilities for the future
  battlefield                                          C4I, under the new battlefield dYnamics defini-
                                                       tion, is the art and science by which the com-
The cargo capacity of MLRS and ATACMS                  mander provides leadership which focuses and
should be exploited as potential carriers in the       regulates the functions of his assigned forces in
development of future non-Ie'thal warheads (See        the accomplishment of their mission. Effective
Paragraph                                     C41 allows the commander to' accurately assess
                                                       the situation and set the battle tempo. Battle
4.5 FS SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS                               tempo can be expressed in rates of movement,
                                                       number of missions conducted per day, engage-
As emphasized throughout this plan, FS Rocket                           or
                                                       ments per hOUT, number of decision cycles per
and Missile Systems are but one pan of the             operation. Field 'commanders at each level must
Weapons and Munitions element of an integrated         mak~ sound and timely decisions while directing
FS Systems of Systems. Without parallel                and inte~ting the fast-paced activities of assigned
modernization and development in related System        and supporting units. C41 requires collection,
of Systems elements, Rocket and Missile                fusion, assessment and dissemination of timely
modernization will not achieve' its full potential     information, determining correct courses of ac-
for delivering accurate, timely and devastating        tion,and determining changes or adjustments based
rues on the future battlefield The following           on rapidly evolving battlefield conditions. Com-

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
munications systems are the means to disseminate       complete determination of the firing solution. This
information throughout the battlefield Comput-         entails accurate weapons location, direction data
ers are now an integral part of the C4I equation,      for Rocket and Missile Systems, and wind veloc-
providing the automation and computational power       ity, air density, humidity, and temperature data.
necessary for near real-time assessments, analysis,
information processing and fire control. A reli-       4.6 SUMMARY
able C4I system is the primary link to establishing
the optimum battle tempo.                              The PED MSL Modernization Strategy responds
                                                       to the dynamic changes in the national security
4.5.3   Target Acquisition (TA)                        environment and provides a flexible method to
                                                       maintain technical superiority. The strategy in-
T A is an essential subelement of RST A and an         cludes development of world class FS Rocket and
important link in the FS System of Systems. RSTA       Missile Systems to resolve battlefield deficiencies
systems are the "eyes and ears" of the tactical        while concurrently maintaining options for the
commander. RST A systems provide the means to          future. The four elements of the strategy com-
detect, locate, classify, and identify high priority   prise the foundation, the approach, the methodol-
targets and to direct weapons platforms to attack      ogy, and the baseline for implementation. Tech-
these targets. RST A maximizes the potential of        nical superiority is predicated upon maintaining a
our FS systems to become the "greatest killer on       strong defense technology base which has its ba-
the battlefield" Without its "eyes and ears," the      sis in defense laboratories, federally funded R&D
FS system is seriously degraded and incapable of       centers, universities, and contractors. Development
fully. performing its intended role in combat. TA      will be accomplished by incorporating proven
is the sum of many subsystems, some of which           technology innovations into upgrades to fielded
are organic to the FA, while others are contributed    systems, in process developments, and new ac-
by outside sources. Improved target location,          quisition programs. This process requires im-
acquisition, and tracking is an imperative if we are   proved interface between the user and the devel-
to gain and maintain fire superiority over our         oper, validated operational needs, effective ac-
adversaries on future battlefields. The fielding of    quisition planning, and rigorous systems acquisi-
T A systems which are Inaneuverable and can            tion management oversight. Maintaining future
cover large search areas in a timely manner is very    options is accomplishe.d by providing a hedge
essential to solving the deep battle acquisition       against a broad range of ill defined threats by
problem.            '-                                 ensuring that force development planners are aware
                                                       of the technology options available to satisfy future
4.5.4   Support and Sustainment (S/S)                  warfighting requirements. This strategy is com-
                                                        bined with the commitment of the PEO MSL to
S/S issues are addressed in all PEO MSL develop-       respond to tomorrow's challenges today.
ment plans. Systemic suppon and sustainment
issues must also be addressed. Improvements            Fulfillment of the FS Modernization Strategy
must be made in logistics support systems, per-        presented in thi~ chapter is heavily dependent
sonnelselection and retention, institutional train-    upon a fully coordinated effon by users, develop-
ing, survivability of the individual soldier and his   ers, and staffers and the approval of a rational
equipmen4 and reducing the potential for fratricide.   series of programs at DA and DoD levels which
Combat suppon vehicles must have mobility equal        are supponed and funded by the President's bud-
to FS Rocket and Missile Systems. Additionally,        get and Congress. To this end, a unified Army
meteorological, position location and azimuth          position on the future vision, program objectives,
determining systems must be available that enable      milestones, and requirements is essential.

4-12                                                               PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                             CHAPTER 5 - ASSESSMENT OF THE MFOM

 5.1 INTRODUCTION                                                            5.2 MFOM. DESCRIPTION AND
This chapter provides an assessment of the M270
Family of Munitions (MFOM) that are currently                               5.2.1 Launcher
fielded and includes the MFOM planned RDT &E
and procurements supported by the FY94 POM                                  M270 - The M270 launcher (Figure 5-2) consists
The assessment focuses on the warfighting capa-                             of a self-propelled launcherlloader including a
bilities of the MFOM Systems and components                                 LauncherlLoader Module (LLM), the carrier ve-
of the MFOM are assessed in terms of their capa-                            hicle, the FCS, and auxiliary equipment        The
bilities to accomplish the mission of the FA and                            carrier, M993, is a derivative of the BFV and uses
the respective Fire Support roles of close support,                         many of the same mechanical systems. The body
counterfIre, and interdiction fIres. The assess-                            includes a cab from which the three man crew can
ment results are compared to the required capa-                             perform all firing operations. The system can be
bilities of future warfighting and future battlefield                       configured for air transport by C-141 aircraft on a
requirements determined from the BDP 1994-                                  limited basis.
2008 addressed in Chapter 3. Based upon the
assessments presented in this chapter, deficien-                                              The M270 is the launch platfonn for the MLRS
cies in required capabilities were detennined and                                             rocket and the ATACMS Block I missile. When
evaluated as modernization needs for future sys-                                              used with the MLRS rocket, the launcher is loaded
tems. The MFOM systems and components as-                                                     with two disposable M-26 Rocket Pods (RPs)
sessed in this chapter are identified in Figure 5-1.                                          containing six rockets each. Employment with
                                                                                                          ATACMS Block I uses two pods, visu-
                                                                                                          ally identical to the MLRS RP, with one
                         M270 FAMILY OF MUNmONS (MFOM)
                                                                 ADDITIONAL CAPABIUTY
                                                                                                          missile per pod. The FCS detennines
                                                                 SUPPORTED IN FY94 POM                    the fIring solution and accomplishes a
     LAUNCHER                                              LAUNCHER
          - M270
                                                                                                         number of key functions in fIring a rocket
                                                                                                         or missile. FCS perfonns initialization,
     CARRIERS                                              CARRIERS
                                                                                                         alignment transfer, elevation to desig-
          - ATACMS BLOCK I                                    - ER MLRS                                  nated aimpoint, position determination,
                                                              - MLRS RRPR
                                                                                                         attitude information from the stabiliza-
      MUNITIONS                                             MUNIT10NS                                    tion reference platfonn, applies power
          - OPICM                                             -SAOARM
          -APAM                                               -BAT
                                                                                                         to the missile, perfonns rocket sequenc-
                                                              - TGW.                                     ing, arms the missile, loads mission
                                                              - ER MLRS
      OTHER                                                 OTHER                                        critical data, interfaces with C3 and frres
         - FOOM
                                                                                     .                   the missile. The M270 launcher FCS

   • The u.s.
           h8a electec:llo   wihlr •• lrom"" n8londevelopment of .. T.",..       CUd.-.ce W~d    (TOW)
                                                                                                         has a limited capability to frre an entire
   Ior~. MLRS radl.t ....
                               ~         of .. aystem cs-topmenl ~.
              in the F~ POMor induded in h.
                                                                            (1~3). TOWis ___ lor. not
                                                                                                         suite of JI?unitions, including precision
                                                                                                         and smart munitions, to meet the re-
   NOTE: ~        •• Are &.qlort "*ahlystlf1\ hu been dMc*v ... d SInc::e ~      hu been _d     from
   ~        w-neory. the La"Ot mallie
                               I)'I*"   not    is    included in
                                                  lhI _rNnl                                            • quirements of fpture warfighting doc-
                                                                                                         trine. The fielded FCS and its imple-
               Figure 5-1. MF01\1 Systems and Components                                                 mentation has shortcomings          which
                                                                                                         weapons have worked around. These
                                                                                                         work -arounds have limited the weapons
                                                                                                         in their robustness.

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                                                       5-]
                           Figure 5-2. M270 Launcher    Firing MLRS DPICM

Improved Fire Control System (IFCS) - The IFCS         puter hardware and software will adversely affect
will incorporate improved state-of-the-art archi-      system reliability, availability, and maintainabil-
tecture to permit uploading of fIring information      ity (RAM).
into all current and planned MFOM rockets, mis-
siles, and smart munitions, without the need for       5.2.2 Carriers
separate software programs or configurations.
However, each weapon added to the IFCS will            MLRS Rocket - The MLRS rocket is designed to
require a software package called MissilelRocket       complement cannon weapons in the tactical fIreS
Manager (MRMAN). The system provides for               arena. It provides devastating effects in attacking
growth capability by incorporating a system ar-        critical, time sensitive targets with large volumes
chitecture which permits grow.thlLRU add-on            of fIrepower in a very short time. The MLRS
without system redesign.       The IFCS includes       rocket, employing -the DPICM M77 bomblet,
navigation and position determination systems,         provides an all weather, indirect fITecapability to
meterological sensor (MS) and improved inter-          attack artillery and AD systems, personnel, and
face with C2 systems, Fire Direction Data Man:".       light materiel. MLRS with DPICM provides the
ager (FDDM) or Advanced Field Artillery Tacti-         fIrepower superiority needed to silence enemy
cal Data System (AF AIDS). The IFCS has, as an         artillery and other critical targets. This awesome
integral part, a position navigation LRU require-      capability was termed "Steel Rain" by the Iraqi
ment which pushes technology in satisfying navi-       commanders during Deser! Storm.
gation goals shown in Figure 4-5. By 1998,
without the IFCS, about 90 to 95 percent of the        The MLRS rocket has a range of approximately
launcher computer hardware and software will be        30 km. The warhead has a remotely settable fuze
based on outdated technology.       Obsolete com-      and contains    644 M77 bomblets.          The

5-2                                                               PEG Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 submunitions can be deployed to cover a 0.23           area. ATACMS Block I is fired from an M270
 square km area Each bomblet is equivalent to the       launcher, upgraded to fIre either MLRS rockets or
 power of a hand grenade and contains a shaped          ATACMS Block I missiles. ATACMS Block I
 charge that will penetrate light armor. The rocket     was deployed to Saudi Arabia and made its com-
 is loaded in the launch pod (six rockets per pod) at   bat debut in Desert Storm providing a new deep
 the factory, shipped and stored in the pod, and        fues capability for Army Fire Support (Figure 5-
 fued from the pod. The rocket is a "wooden             3).
 round" with a shelf life of at least 15 years.
                                                        Tri-Service Stand Off A~k    Missile (TSSAM) _
 ATACMS Block I - The Initial Operational Ca-           The TSSAM is a low observable, subsonic, stand-
 pability (lOC) for AT ACMS Block I was achieved        off cruise missile capable of both air and ground
 in 1990. This medium range (although currently         launch employment. The ground launched ver-
 the Army's longest range) tactical missile is de-      sion, the MGM-137, will be launched from the
 signed to attack targets beyond the range of exist-    M270 launcher and is designed to strike groups of
 ing FS cannon and rocket systems and was de-           targets such as moving armored vehicles, tanks,
 signed to support Corps operations. AT ACMS            and personnel carriers. The range will be greater
 Block I has a range of over 100 kms. It is stored,     than 100 kms but will not exceed the Intermediate
 transported, and launched from a missilellaunch        Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty limit of 500
 pod assembly that is similar to the MLRS RP and        kms. TSSAM will be the primary delivery vehicle
 uses the FCS that already exists on the launcher.      for BAT.

 The AT ACMS Block I is a semi-ballistic missile        ER MLRS/Extended       Range MLRS - The ER.
 with inertial guidance provided by a ring laser        MLRS will augment the current MLRS tactical
 gyroscope system. The missile warhead dispenses        rocket to provide greater range, improved accu-
 about 950 M74 AP AM born blets over the target         racy, and minimized M77 grenade dud rate. Pro-

                          Figure 5-3. M270 Launcher Firing AT ACMS BLOCK I

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                             5-3
curement of the ER will preserve the production        targets. A ribbon stabilizes the grenade during
base. The design will build upon the MLRS              free fall and rotates a threaded arming device to
rocket motor's proven reliability. Range exten-        arm the fuze. The armed M77 munitions detonate
sion will be achieved by increasing the length of      upon impact with dual action effects against per-
the motor and shortening the warhead length to         sonnel and light armored materiel. The anti-
maintain the same overall rocket length. Modifi-       materiel lethal mechanism is a shaped charge as-
cations will include soft launch capability (zero      sisted by the built-in standoff construction. The
detent), and self-destruct fuze modifications to the   M77 munition can penetrate from 76 to 102 mm
M77 grenade. The ER MLRS will cany slightly            (3 to 4 inches) of armor plate steel. The fragmen-
fewer M77 DPICM              submunitions      (644    tation of the steel case is assisted by a prescored
submunitions for the basic MLRS rocket, 511 for        inner wall (approximately 200 fragments). The
the ER MLRS). The advantage gained by extend-          ER MLRS will dispense 511 submuntions, each
ing the MLRS range far outweighs the reduction         of which will be equipped with a self-destruct
in submunitions and approximately doubles the          fuze to reduce hazards for friendly maneuver
lethal area coverage of the battlefield, 'which is     forces.
significant for cross corps and deep battle opera-
tional capabilities.                                   Anti-PersonneIAnti-Materiel Munition (APAM)
                                                       - The M74 bomblet is the basic load for the
MLRS Reduced Range Practice Rocket (MLRS               AT ACMS Block I warhead which is designed to
RRPR) - An MLRS RRPR is needed to maxi-                dispense approximately.950 individually explod-
mize the number of firing ranges that will support     ing AP AM munitions over the targeted area. The
MLRS live fIre training. Only the warhead will         M74 grenade is a spin-armed, self-dispersing ..
require development since the same basic MLRS          fragmentation bomblet. After dispenser opening,
rocket motor will be used. The warhead will            asymmetrical flutes cause the bomblets to spin.
consist of a steel cylindrical case with a blunt       The M219AIE1/M219A2           fuze arms between
nose, a point detonating fuze, 42 gram mix of          2400-3200 rpm. Upon impact, the firing pin
aluminum and potassium perchlorate smoke               strikes the detonator which ignites a booster pel-
charge, and ballast to achieve the same weight         let, 0.28 pounds of composition B, and two pyro-
and center of gravity as the tactical warhead. A       phoric pellets. The fragmenting material used in
special application software module wiIl be re-        the bomblet is 90 percent tungsten alloyed with
quired for the launcher to recognize and -fIre the     nickel and iron and is designed to Yield a total of
RRPR. The RRPR will Yield a cost saving of'            approximately 1200 fragments averaging 4 grains
approximately. 15 percent over the current prac-       each. Each bomblet is approximately 2.32 inches
tice rocket The RRPR is not a tactical weapon,         in diameter and weights 1.3 pounds.
and is therefore, not assessed against battlefield
deficiencies.                                       A-ILRS Sense and Destroy Armor (SADARM)
                                                   .The SADARM submunition is designed for use
5.2.3 Munitions                                  . against enemy stationary, self-propelled howit-
                                                    zers, with a secondary role against stationary,
Dual Purpose Improved Conventional Munition         lightly armored vehicles. SADARM is a small
(DPICM) -The M77 grenade is the basic load for      footprint, autonomous submunition which uses
the MLRS rocket M77 direct dispersal warhead        MMW and IR sensors to J,9Cate targets and on
which is designed to dispense 644 individually      board algorithms to calculate lethal mechanism
exploding DPICM munitions over the targeted         aimpoints. Kill is accomplished with an explo..
area. The M77 grenade has a steel fragmentation     sively formed penetrator. The SADARM pro-
case for materiel and personnel targets, and a      gram is developing two sizes of submunitions;
shaped charge at the impact end to attack harder    one for employment with MLRS and one for the

5-4                                                                PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
155 nun cannon. The MLRS SADARM warhead                which has not previously existed. The tenninal
will be mated to an existing MLRS rocket motor         homing MMW seeker, guidance logic, and war-
and fired from the basic:MLRS rocket pod con-          head penetration capability make the munition
tainer. SADARM will provide an enhanced CF             especially effective in the close battle against a
capability for the close fires battle and will oPer-   wide spectrum of stationary or moving antlored
ate in all weather, degraded visibility, and NBC       targets. Despite U.S. withdrawal from the pr0-
environments.                                          gram, a valid requirement for this capability in the
                                                       tactical fire arena remains. Potential withdrawal
Each :MLRS warhead will contain six SADARM             of other nations within the consortium makes it
submunitions. The dispersal system, initiated by       unlikely thatrow      will be available near term. It
an .XM451 MLRS fuze, will deploy the                   is not, therefore, included in the systems assess-
submunitions over the target area. An orientation      ment
and stabilization device will deploy, initiate power
supply turn-on, and stabilize the submunition to a     5.2.4 Other
steady state drop velocity and rotation rate, in a
nearly vertical descent The spin and descent           FireDirectionDataManager(FDDM)           - FDDM
aerodynamic motion of the submunition provides         is a change to the FDS for MLRS necessary to
the required sensor scanning capability for proPer     perform current MFOM mission planning, .store
ground coverage - described as a decreasing spiral     target and signature data, and interface with deep
footprint.                                             attack sensors and communication          systems.
                                                       FDDM will additionally provide the automation
BrilliantAnti-ArmorSubmunition(BAT)-           BAT     for ATACMS Block IT, TSSAM, .and future
is the Anny's submunition of choice to engage          rviFOM Rocket and Missile systems. The FDDM
and destroy motorized rifle and armored forces         is an interim solution until its functionality is
moving in columns and dispersed fonnations. BAT        incorporated into AFATDS, Version 3. Thus,
is a top arrack submunition with acousticlIR seekers    work done today on FDDM will cost effectively
working in tandem, employing a dual shaped             contribute to the earliest possible fielding of
charge warhead designed to defeat all known             AFATDS.
annor. TSSAM is designated as the primary
carrier for the BAT submunition. The submunition       FDDM manages all fue direc~on data from ex-
has the future growth potential to be de!ivered by     ternal sources to the fIring unit. The FDDM
a variety of delivery systems. The BAT program         receives requests for frre; analy~s the target to
does not replace a current munition but provides.      select proper munitions, number of rounds, mul-
 ground forces with a new, urgently needed             tiple aimpoints, and number of launchers to fIre;
capability for precision attack of moving armored      and selects the frre unit. FDDM then transmits the
 targets.                                              frre order to the fIring unit, plans,the trajectory for
                                                       certain munitions, considers no-fIre areas and air
Tenninal Guidance Warhead (TGW) - The                  corridors, and controls the fire mission. FDDM
MLRS TGW program is a four nation (U .5., FR,          performs MFOM fue planning and can store data
GE. & UK), cooperative effort to develop an            on unit status, loca?on, survey control points, and
autonomous. MLRS munition to attack and de-            meteorological data. FDDM must communicate
stroy moving and stationary armor targets and          with mw assets and integrate IEW located targets
formations. The U.S. Government ceased panici-         into the M270 munitions .and target lists.
pation in the TGW progra.~ at the end of FY92.
MLRS TGW is designed to provide an indirect            MFOM Interoperability Facility (IOF) - The
frre, close support, precision armor kill capability   :MFOM IOF is a ~ee phase program to improve

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                   5-5
MFOM systems integration and testing prior to           the 94 POM This assessment, therefore, evalu-
fielding and to support and reduce the costs of         ates the force as it looks today, and expands that
post-deployment software sustainment The IOF            evaluation to a force equipped with systems which
will allow thorough testing of product improve-         will be fielded if94 POM support continues and
 ments prior to deployment       The IOF will better    funding is provided as requested. Chapter 6 will
 manage and integrate test assets, standardize and      continue the assessment to future systems that
,automate test procedures and equipment, and            have yet to receive POM support either due to
 provide test assets to support the investigation of    their technological immaturity or to the time frames
 problems which surface after fielding. The IOF is      dming which they are anticipated for develop-
 not assessed against battlefield deficiencies.         ment Chapter 6 will also address systems or
                                                        concepts currently included in the 94 POM EPA
Program Description - The IOF facility combines         and the Army LRRDAP.
MFOM, communications        and intelligence assets
for:                                                 Each MFOM system (launcher, carrier, and mu-
                                                     nition) was assessed in terms of its ability to
  • Sensor to Shooter Tests,                         provide a number of required capabilities across
  • System Tests, and                                the entire battlefield (tactical and operational fires).
  • Software Sustainment and Maintenance             These requirements were identified from an
      Activities.                                    analysis ofFS battlefield deficiencies discussed in
                                                      the BDP 1994-2008, coupled with a consideration
The facility consists of three distinct parts; the   of recent doctrinal developments in the FA com-
In~perability     Testbed, the System Testbed, and . munity. The capabilities are defmed in tenns of
the Post Deployment Software Support (PDSS)          target sets which must be destroyed and the char-
effort The Interoperability Testbed consists of      acteristics of each target that dictate the need for
tactical equipment;       an instrumented     M270   varying degrees of technological sophistication to
Launcher, two XMI068 Command Posts, and              defeat them. The target set definitions used in the
two FDDM.         The System Testbed is bench         assessment are summarized in Figure 5-4.
mounted and consists of M270 LRUs, Frre Con-                             HARD                   SOFT
trol Panel and Stabilization Reference Package      MOVING          TANKS               TROOPS ON FOOT
simulators, test table and/or ll..M, and the FDDM.                  HEAVY ARMOR         TOWED ARTlLLERY
The PDSS effort consists solely of support for                      LIGHT ARMOR         WHEELED VEHICLES
project offices in. terms of acquiring, operating,
                                                                    SP ARTlLLERY
and maintaining common equipment for the
                                                    STATIONARY      TANKS               COMMAND POSTS
                                                                        HEAVY ARMOR           TROOPS IN 1l1E OPEN

                                                                        BUNKERS               AIR DEFENSE ARTlLLERY
The primary objectives of the MFOM IOF are to
                                                                        FORTIFIED POSITIONS   TOWED ARTlLLERY
improve system interoperability, expedite fielding
                                                                                              HELICOPTER BASES
of product improved systems and components,
and reduce operations and maintenance costs.                                                  LOGISTICS NODES

5.3 MFOM SYSTEM ASSESSMENT                                                                    ~EDINSTALLAnoNS

                                                        HOT TARGET. A TARGET (MOVING OR STATIONARY) EMITTING AN IR
A current system assessment cannot be complete
unless a clear picture can be created that describes
                                                        SIGNATURE wmiiN 1l1E PRECISION SUBMUNmoN SENSOR DESIGNED
                                                        ENGAGEMENT 1l1RESHOLD.                                        I
                                                        COlD TARGET. A STATIONARY TARGET NOT EMITTING AN IR
not only fielded systems capabilities and deficien-     SIGNATURE WITl1IN THE PRECISION SUBMUNmoN SENSOR DESIGNED
                                                        ENGAGEMENT THRESHOlD
cies, but also the strengths and weaknesses of the                                                                    ~
force if provided with those systems supported in                Figure 5-4. Target Set Definitions

5-6                                                                   PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan        I
Additionally, the degree to which the MFOM                                 A battalion of enemy troops in the open would
systems provide certain of these required capa-                            represent an area target. The commander's light
bilities depends on whether only area target cov-                          armored vehicle could be a point target.
erage is possible, or if sufficient precision exists to
destroy point targets.                                                     The assessment of currently fielded MFOM sys-
                                                                           tems is graphically portrayed in Figure 5-5. Since
  •   Area Target - A target located within a                              there are only two carriers fielded today with their
      specific area of the battlefield. Area targets                       baseline munitions (MLRS/DPICM, ATACMS/
      are vulnerable to blast and fragmentation                            AP AM), it is clear that all required capabilities
      and are often classified as soft targets.                            cannot be effectively achieved across the future
                                                                           battlefield, consisting of substantially expanded
  •   Point Target - A target of such small                                depth and width. The assessment including those
      dimension that it would require the accurate                         systems currently supported in the 94 POM is
      placement of ammunition in order to                                  shown in Figure 5-6.
      neutralize or destroy it. Could also be a
      target that requires surgical strike to avoid                        Clearly, the addition of TSSAM as a long range
      unnecessary collateral damage for military                           carrier, an extended range rocket for MLRS, and
      or political reasons. These types of targets                         new precision munitions with enhanced sensor,
      must normally be attacked with precision                             range and lethality capabilities      (SAD ARM)
      munitions or submunitions (sensor fuzed or                           improves tlle assessment considerably. It is also
      terminally guided munitions).                                        clear that near and mid-term solutions (2-10 years)

                                                                           BATTLEFIELD COVERAGE
                                                        T AcnCAL   ARES                              OPERAnONAL      ARES

                  SOFT TARGETS

                       OVI G
                  SOFT TARGETS

                 HARD TARGETS

                 HARD TARGETS

                  AREA     TARGETS
                  POINT TARGETS
                  RF EMITTERS
                  POINT    TARGETS

                   AREA    TARGETS
                   POINT    TARGETS


                   NOTE: Destruction of Integrated Air Defenses (DIAD), an emerging concept, compared to traditional
                   Suppression 01 Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) frees more air sorties for other missions and reduces the overall
                   vulnerability 01our aircraft. DIAD operations will normally include the full range of FS systems, but will rely
                   heavily on ground based systems because of the vulnerability of air platforms prior to achieving air superiority.

                                              Figure 5-5. Assessment of Fielded Systems

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                                               5-7
               ASSESSMENT                                                 BATTLEFIELD COVERAGE
                                                        TACTICAL      FIRES                       OPERATIONAL         FIRES

                   SOFT TARGETS

                   SOFT TARGETS

                  HARD TARGETS

                  HARD TARGETS

                   AREA     TARGETS
                   TBM SYSTEMS
                   POINT    TARGETS

                    AREA    TARGETS
                    RF EMITTERS
                   POINT    TARGETS

                   AREA     TARGETS
                   POINT    TARGETS

                    AREA    TARGETS
               ENEMY AIR DEFENSES         -
                    POINT   TARGETS


             NOTE: Destruction of Integrated Air Defenses (DIAD), an emerging concept, compared to traditional
             Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) frees more air sorties for other missions and reduces the overall
             vulnerability of our aircraft. DIAD operations will normally include the lull range of FS systems, but will rely
             heaVily on ground based systems because 01 the vulnerability of air plal10rms prior to achieving air superiority.

                       Figure 5-6. Assessment of Fielded Plus 94 POM Supported Systems

are not sufficient to address even those required                          multiple targets with one rocket or missile attack.
capabilities identified in a BOP which is fast                             Currently, range is the only limit to killing station-
becoming outdated. A discussion of Figures 5-5                             ary soft targets throughout the corps area.
and 5-6 is provided in the following parag!aphs.
                                                                           5.3.2        Moving Soft Targets
5.3.1   Stationary Soft Targets
                                                       Killing moving soft targets is possible, but only
MFOM rocket and missiJt:~      systems'are capable of  by saturating a specific battlefield area within the
stationary soft target kill to the maximum range of    range capabilities of MLRS, ER,MLRS              and
the delivery vehicle. MLRS OPICM can kill,             ATACMS Block I. This capability is dependent
stationary soft targets to a range of approximately 'on very timely and accurate information regarding
30 lan. ER MLRS can kill stationary soft targets . the target location. movement direction and speed,
to a range of approximately 50 lan. ATACMS             and is coupled with the timely receipt of the fire
Block I APAM can kill stationary soft targets to a     command before the target location coordinates
range of over 100 lan. MLRS. ER MLRS and               become'     valid because of target movement.
ATACMS Block I deliver a large number of               Killing moving, soft point        "gets was not the
bomblet~ which are dispensed simultaneously.           primary development objective of either MLRS.
This provides area saturation of the: target and       ER MLRS or AT ACMS Block I. Resolution of
provides the capability of concun"ently killing        this required capability is, therefore, considered

5-8                                                                                          PED Tactical Missiles Moderniz.ation   Plan
inadequate without a precision kill munition. These    5.3.6 RF Emitters
limited moving target kill capabilities are very
expensive in temlS of ammunition expenditures          :MFOM rocket and missile systems can kill RF
per target kill (on the order of 300 DPICM rounds      emitters (whether they are radiating or not) using
to obtain a moving target kill). Therefore, this       DPICM or AP AM area saturation munitions. This
capability is shown as red in Figure 5-6 to empha-     kill capability is dependent upon the emitter being
size the need for precision munitions at tactical      within the range of MLRS, ER MLRS or
fIre ranges.                                           ATACMS Block I and the accuracy of the target
                                                       location information. No precision kill capability
5.3.3 Stationary Hard Targets                          of RF emitters using anti-radiation homing seeker
                                                       technology exists with current rocket and missile
No submunition fielded today or supported in the       systems. An RF kill capability is needed to locate
94 POM is capable of killing stationary hard tar-      ill-defined targets and to loiter and acquire the
gets. Modifications to existing submunitions for       emitter after launch (e.g., the emitter may not be
rocket delivery, or infusion of new technology is      emitting at time of launch and may be turning on
needed to accomplish this mission.'                    and off at random intervals).

5.3.4 Moving Hard Targets                              5.3.7 Counterfire

The Brilliant Anti-Armor Submunition (BA 1) is         MLRS SADARM improves the countetfrre capa-
designed to kill moving hard targets.         BAT      bilities of :MFOM rocket and missile systems and
submunitions will be dispensed by the TSSAM at         provides precision kill of stationary, self-propelled
ranges greater than ATACMS Block I in the op-          howitzers, and light annored vehicles. MLRS,
erational fires target area to kill tanks and other    ER MLRS, and ATACMS Block I can also be
annored vehicles.                                      used in a countetfrre role sat!Jrnting the target area
                                                       with DPICM and APAM munitions. SADARM
5.3.5   Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM)               fued from ER MLRS would extend precision
        Systems                                        counterfrre to 50km.

There are independent limiting factors which im-       5.3.8   Enemy Air Defenses (DIAD)
pact upon the capabilities of MFOM rocket and
missile systems to attack and kill TBM systems.        Destruction of Integrated Air Defenses (DIAD)
The primary factors are the acquisition of timely      capabilities of current systems are limited by the
and accurate target location infonnation from target   range ofMLRS, ER MLRS and ATACMS Block
acquisition sources and the range to the TBM           I and to target area saturation attacks by one or
target(s). MLRS, ER MLRS and ATACMS Block              more rockets or missiles. SADARM provides
I are capable of area saturation of the TBM target     precision attact to 30km. Again,   useof SADARM
area with DPICM and AP AM munitions if the .           on ER MLRS would extend this capability to
target area is within range limits. SADARM is          50lan. Precision attack at any range using anti-
curently the only submunition capable of preci-        radiation homing capabilities does not currently
sion kill of TBM targets. SADARM is effective          exist The adaptation of precision kill munitions
in the tactical frres area. Adaptation of SADARM       in com.bination with incieased carrier vehicle range
to ER MLRS would extend precision kill capabil-        and accuracy will greatly enhance future FS rocket
ity to 50km.                                           and missile systems DIAD capabilities.

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                  5-9
   5.3.9   Deliver Long Range Fires Throughout                         both of fielded systems and of systems soon to be
           the Corps Area                                              fielded.    However, there are still a number of
                                                                       significant areas where improvements in required
   Cmrent MFOM rocket and missile systems were                         capabilities are necessary to meet user determined
   not designed to have sufficient range to engage                     needs (Figure 5-7).
   targets to the depth and width of the envisioned
   future corps area. TSSAM BAT provides preci-                         Cmrently fielded :MFOM systems, MLRS with
   sion kill of moving hard targets at operational fire                DPICM and ATACMS Block I with APAM, pro-
  ranges. ATACMS Block I has a deep attack,                            vide an area saturation kill capability of soft fIXed
  operational fire capability against sof~ stationary                  and stationary targets to ranges exceeding l00lan.
  targets to a range exceeding 100 Ian. MLRS                           These currently fielded :MFOM systems can also
  DPICM and ER MLRS have no deep attack capa-                          provide limited DIAD within their respective
  bility but are extremely effective against soft tar-                 ranges. Currently fielded :MFOM systems were
  gets at tactical fires ranges. Significant increases                 not designed to have sufficient range to engage
  in range (with accompanying increases in accu-                       targets to the depth or width of the corps area,
  racy) will be required for future FS rocket and                      attack and kill targets with precision kill munitions,
  missile systems to deliver effective, multi-mis-                     and kill RF emitters using anti-radiation homing.
  sion, long-range fues throughout the coIps area.

  5.3.10 Improved Navigation
                                                                                               CURRENTLY FIELDED PLUS
                                                    CURRENTL        Y FIELDED
         and Determination of                                                                    FY94 POM SUPPORTED

         Position Location                                    CAN                                         CAN

                                        • KJU SOfT TARGETS THROUGH                     • KIU SOFT TARGETS THROUGH MASSED
                                          MASSED FIRES AT TACnCAl FIRE                   FIRES AT TACnCAl FIRE RANGES
   The' M270 launcher must have           RANGES
                                                                                       • Kill STA nONARY SOfT TARGETS
   external survey support to peri-     • Kill ST A nONARY SOFT TARGETS                  THROUGH AREA SA TURA nON INCLUDING
                                          THROUGH AREA SATURAnON                         TBM AND RF EMITTERS TO A RANGE> 100KM
  odically update its position loca-      INCLUDING TBM AND RF EMITTERS
                                          TO A RANGE> 100KM                            • PRECISION Kill STAnONARY  UGHT ARMOR
  tion, direction and elevation. On                                                      (SOFT) TARGETS TO A RANGE OF 30KM
  board, Improved Stabilization         • DESTROY AIR DEFENSE WITHIN MlRS
                                          ROCKET OR AT ACMS BLOCK I RANGES             • PRECISION Kill MOVING HARD TARGETS AT
  Reference Platform (lSRP) and                                                          OPERAnONAl    FIRE RANGES

  Positioning De~ation          Sys-                                                   • DESTROY AIR DEFENSE WITHIN MlRS
                                                                                         AND ER-MLRS OR ATACMS BLOCK I
  tem (PDS) can eliminate depen-                       CANNOT
                                                                                         MISSILE RANGES
 dence on frequent Stabilization        • ATIACK
                                                    BEYOND ATACMS BLOCK I
                                                    MAXIMUM RANGE                      • IMPROVE COUNTERFIRE CAPABllInES    OF
 Reference Point (SRP) and sur-                                                          CURRENTlY FIELDED MFOM SYSTEMS
                                        • PRECISION    Kill    SOFT TARGETS
 vey updates. There is an urgent                                                       , PRECISION KilL STAnONARY TBM
                                        • PRECISION KILL STATIONARY         OR           TARGETS TO A RANGE OF 30KM
 need to reduce the dependence            MOVING HARD TARGETS
 on periodic survey updates with        • PRECISION KilL RF EMITTERS WITH
 better on board navigation and           ANn-RADIA TION HOMING                                     CANNOT

 PDS systems to improve respon-         • ATIACK AND KILL TARGETS                        • A TI ACK AND KilL TARGETS
                                          THROUGH OUT THE CORPS AREA                       THROUGHOUT THE CORPS AREA
 siveness and effectiveness,
                                                                                         • PRECISION Kill HARD TARGETS AT
                                                                                           TACTICAl FIRE RANGES

 5.4 SUMMARY                                                                       "
                                                                                        • PRECISION Kill STAnONARY
                                                                                          HARD TARGETS AT ANY RANGE

This assessment highlights and                                                          • PRECISION KilL RF EMITTERS
                                                                                          WITH ANTI-RADIATION HOMING
recognizes significan~ demon-
                                                                                        • PRECISION Kill TBM TARGETS
strated warfighting capabilities,                                                         AT OPERATIONAl   RANGES

                                                                            Figure 5-7. Summary

                                                                                 PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
MFOM        launcher      procurements,        carrier  tional fire ranges; limited DIAD within respective
developments and procurements, and munitions            system range capabilities; and improved FS rocket
developments and procurements supported in the          and missile CF capabilities. This combination of
94 POM add significantly to the resolution of .. systems will not have capabilities to kill station-
required capabilities to satisfy identified battlefield ary or moving hard targets at tactical fues ranges,
deficiencies. These systems include additional          to kill moving soft targets or stationary hard targets
M270 launchers, additional AT ACMS Block I              at any range, to attack and kill targets throughout
missiles, MLRS SADARM, ER-MLRS, and                     the corps area nor will it provide precision kill of
TSSAM BAT. However, it must be recognized               RF emitters using anti-radiation homing. MFOM
that these MFOM supported efforts, although             future systems development and procurement is
considered high priority, are not yet available and     necessary to satisfy unresolved battlefield defi-
when added in total to currently fielded MFOM           ciencies. These future MFOM systems must at-
systems, still do not satisfy all currently identified  tack and kill hard targets within tactical fue ranges,
battlefield deficiencies.                               achieve greater ranges, have increased accuracy,
                                                        deliver more lethal munitions, and provide a pre-
When the systems supported in the 94 POM be-            cision RF emitter kill capability. Future improve-
come operational, their added capabilities will         ments which can increase FS rocket and missile
provide: precision kill of stationary light annor       system capabilities to accomplish the roles of
(soft) targets to ranges of 30lon; precision attack     close support, counterfrre and interdiction fues
and kill of TBM targets to a range of 30lon;            are discussed and assessed in Chapter 6.
precision kill of moving hard targets at opera-


PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                  5-11
       This Page Intentionally Left Blank

                                    PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                    MISSILE SYSTEMS

6.1. INTRODUCTION                                       goes beyond traditional modernization planning,
                                                        well into the next century, the role of technology
Modernized FS Rocket and Missile systems with           in the years beyond 2020 is critical, and its poten-
new and improved capabilities are needed to             tial impact must be evaluated      Figure 6-1 also
maintain our future warfighting technological edge      lists those system level advanced concepts which,
into the 21st Century. Continuous upgrade and           when more fully defined, will play major roles in
modernization will provide weapons systems of           enhancing future FS capability. Advanced con-
superior technology which will ovennateh any            cepts are not included in the system assessment,
threat on tomorrow's battlefield.                       but are considered with other technology programs
                                                        discussed in Annex B as possible technology s0-
As was shown in the assessment in Chapter 5,            lutions to remaining deficiencies. Recommenda-
existing systems, to include near tenn systems           tions for immediate emphasis are made in Chap-
supponed in the 94 POM, cannot counter all               ter?
battlefield deficiencies identified in the BDP 1994-
2008, even ~suming these required capabilities          6.2. SYSTEMS/SYSTEM UPGRADES
remain essentially the same in the future. Sys-
tems, system upgrades and advanced concepts             The 96 POM must continue to resource those Fire
mature enough to merit support in the 96 POM            Support prognims already identified (although not
will enhance considerably our capability to meet        all funded) in the 94 POM as described in Chapter
the requirements of the future battle.                  4. Additionally, system upgrades as discussed in
                                                        the ensuing sections must be supported vigorously
The assessment of the future force provided in          to achieve the required FS capabilities needed for
this chapter includes the systems/system upgrades       both tactical and operational fues.
listed in Figure 6-1. (illMARS and ll..MS do not
affect the assessment results, but do add signifi-      6.2.1   High Mobility Artillery Rocket
cantly to the overall effectiveness and deployabiliry           System (HIMARS)
of the future FS force). Since our vision for FS
                                                        HIMARS is a lightweight MRL system designed
            FUTURE FIRE SUPPORT ROCKET                  to provide a strategically deployable, MFOM
               AND MISSilE UPGRADES                     launch capability to rapidly deploYing light and
                                ADV ANCED SYSTEM
                                    CONCEPTS            contingency forces. HIMARS will be an indirect
  LAUNCHER                      LAUNCHER                frre, single, or multiple launch systenl capable of
     .HIUARS                      • F2S2                delivering the entire MFOM. mMARS is envi-
  CARRIERS                     CARRIERS
                                                        sioned to be a wheeled vehicle launcher employ-
     • AlA-CMS II                • UINI-CRUISE          ing a crew of no more than three. HIMARS will
     • AlACMS P31                .lONGARM
     • AlACMS EN                 • lONG FOG             be interoperable wjth MLRS and artillery systems,
     • ER-MLRS (PROCUREMENn                             to include common FCS, and will be airtranspon.
  MUNrTlONS                     UUNmONS                 able by C-130 or larger cYrcraft
     .SAOARM P31                  • RFAM
     • BAT P31                    .OASM
                                                        The HIMARS Operational and Organizational
                                                        (0&0) plan was approved in October 1990 with
  Figure 6-1. Future FS Rocket and Missile Systems
               and Advanced Concepts
                                                        an Operational Requirements Document (ORD)

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                 6-]
    Jecently validated by Headquarters, Department        capability. An estimated 13 BAT submunitions
    of the Anny (HQDA). Demonstrations have suc-         will be carried in the modified Block I warltead
    cessfully shown the concept to be viable. Firing     and dispensed over the target area against annered
   the MFOM from a truck mounted prototype was           vehicle targets. The rocket motor and explicit
   successfully demonstrated in 1991, with a 6 rocket    guidance system are the same as ATACMS Block
   MLRS ripple fired in April '91, and ATACMS            I. Algorithms will be altered to support and dis-
   launched in September 1991. There is enthusias-       pense the BAT submunition. ATACMS Block n
   tic support from the field for the HIMARS capa-      will have a blunter nose than ATACMS Block I to
   bility, particularly in the aftermath of the Gulf    accommodate the BAT submunitions in .the war-
   War. Legal Mix   vn    has reaffirmed the require-   head, but the range will be essentially the same.
  ment for HIMARS based on simulations of a             The Block n effort was based upon ATACMS
  number of world-wide scenarios. The new strate-       mission as the alternate carrier for BAT
  gic focus of the Army which will rely on rapidly      submunitions, should it prove necessary. Prelimi-
  deployable, CONUS-based forces to meet world-         naIY development and demonstration test activities
  wide, short warning contingencies urgently man-       were concluded in FY92, with no further planned
  dates that this lightweight MFOM capability be        or funded program.                             .
  developed in the most exPeditious manner pos-
  sible. Indications are that once developmental        6.2.4   Army Tactical Missile System Block I
  approval is forthcoming, a HIMARS system could                Extended Range (AT ACMS PJI
  be fielded within 8 years.                                    APAM)

  6.2.2   M270 Improved Launcher Mechani-             . ATACMS P3I APAM is a modification of the
          cal System (lLMS)
                                                         current Block I missile. A warhead payload re-
                                                         duction to approximately      275 M74 APAM
   The ll...MS is required to increase survivability,    bomblets will roughly double the current range.
   provide a quicker launcher reaction and response      GPS will be added to improve accuracy at the
  time, improve reliability, and reduce operating        longer ranges. With funding, the Block I ER
  and support costs. The ll...MS will improve the        missile could be cut into production as early as
  capability of the M270 launcher to attack TBMs         1995. Production unit cost ofATACMS            P3I
  and deliver counterbattery fues. The ILMS Will        APAM will be virtually the same as the current
  reduce the time on launch point by 60 percent         AT ACMS Block I Missile because the off-setting
  This includes rocket launcher erection, traverse to   costs of reducing the number of bomblets and
 fuing azimuth and elevation, and return to stow-       integrating the GPS will balance out Current ef-
 age position. The improved slew rate will allow        forts are to demonstrate this capability as part of
 more timely counterfrre upon a TBM launcher            the JPSD in FY96.
 before it can egress its fuing area. Reduced
 timelines enhance survivability and provide a more     6.2.5 AT ACMS Enhanced (AT ACMS EN)
 effective counterbattery and counter TBM capa-
 bility. The program is currently unfunded

6.2.3 Army Tactical Missile System Block D
                                                       ATACMS EN requires funding support in the
                                                       Extended Planni~g Annex (EPA) during the out
                                                       years (FY 03 and beyond). ATACMS EN contin-
                                                       ues the evolution of the ATACMS missile system
                                                       to meet future long-range operational fues needs.
The AT ACMS Block ITprogram is the integration         The AT ACMS EN program is a proposed program
effort between the Block I missile and the BAT         which features a longer motor and other features
submunition, to evolve a deep attack anti-annor
                                                       not yet defined. Development options include

                                                                  PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
range/accuracy enhancements, multiple target sets      funds are needed in the 96 POM to begin replac-
which include annored vehicles in dug-in positions     ing the current inventory of MLRS rockets with
or assembly areas, MRLs and TBMs (launch sites,        ER MLRS. The procurement of the ER MLRS
hide areas, ttansload sites), and C2 centers. Vari-    will Preserve the industrial production base and is
ous missile and payload options and combina-           necessary as the MLRS rocket motor nears the
tions are being evaluated against future battlefield   end of expected propellant shelf life.
requirements. A key aspect of the enhancement
program is the integration of a longer motor with      6.3 ADVANCED SYSTEM
overall missile length remaining the same. The             CONCEPTS
longer motor provides a capability for delivery of
payloads to ranges greater than ATACMS P31             Of the many FS technology demonstrations dis-
APAM.                                                  cussed in Annex B, those that are envisioned as
                                                       future systems (rather than less focused technol-
6.2.6    Sense and Destroy Armor Pre-                  ogy efforts) are worthy of additional emphasis
         Planned Product Improvement                   here. These advanced system concepts when
         (SADARM P3I)'                                 defined will become either replacements for ex-
                                                       isting MFOM components, or new components
SADARM P31 will focus in three areas: greater          that will potentially add a new dimension to FS
lethality to keep pace with upgraded threat            capabilities.
protection levels, resistance to countermeasures,
and enlarging the submunitions footprint (The          6.3.1   Future Fire Support System (F2S2)
footprint is an area around a ballistic aimpoint
where a munition or submunition can detect and         F2S2 is the objective future system for all indirect
engage a target) Enlarging the SADARM footprint        frre Weapons and Munitions from the 105mm
will increase the sensor's field of view and the       Howitzer through ATACMS in both the heavy
submunitions'       scanning   area to enhance         and light forces in the 21 st Century. F2S2. is an
SADARM's capability to acquire and kill both           unconstrained, leap ahead, visionary, technology
moving and stationary targets. A possible follow-      based concept in the pre-concept definition stage.
on upgrade (P31 follow-on) could adapt SADARM          Optimum lethality employing lightweight war-
 for delivery by the AT ACMS family of missiles.       heads will be a driving factor. Increases in lethal-
                                                       ity, commonality, and technology will greatly re-
6.2.7    BAT Pre-Planned Product Improve-              duce manpower and operations ~d support costs.
         ment (BAT P3I)                                The F2S2 concept will be further refined with a
                                                       concept defmition phase from 1994 through 1998.
The BAT P3I is an autonomous. submunition, risk        F2S2 should field during the 2020s.
abatement program considering the applicatiqn. of
future technologies to attack a broader rang~ of       6.3.2   Mini-Cruise Concept
targets. Additional improvements such as Low'
Cost Anti-Armor Submunition (LOCAAS), may              The mini-cruise concept is not an active, currently
adapt the submunition to MLRS for close range          funded or planned future program. The concept is
delivery systems.                                      incl uded in this plan as a place holder to remind
                                                       FS rtlodernization      planners    that a valid,
 6.2.8   Extended Range MLRS (ER MLRS)                 unresourced requirement exists for a system ca-
         (Procurement)                                 pability to kill RF emitters. The requirement for
                                                       an anti-radiation homing capability is a battlefield
 The ER MLRS development program is addressed          deficiency not currently being resourced.
 in Chapter 5 (paragraph 5.2.2.). Procurement

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                6-3
    Mini-cruise technology would incorporate anti-        capitalize on hardware and technology developed
   radiation homing capability, non-lethal warheads       under the FOO-M/NlOS         effort. An Advanced
   and Battle Damage Assessment (BOA). TIle               Technology       Demonstration        (A TO) for
   system could be a small, cruise technology missile     LONGFOG is scheduled for the FY 94-98 time
   incorporating loiter and flexibility of employment     frame.
   in design, and could be fielded between 2CXX) -
   2010, launched from the M270, and would be             6.3.5    Radio Frequency Attack Munition
   compatible with existing FCS. A follow-on                       (RFAM)
  program with improved capabilities could be
  developed to incorporate extended service life,          RF AM is a technology base, future system that
  extended      range,    and other        technology      destroys or disrupts electronic components of
  improvements. Fielding should occur in the same         military equipment RF AM will incorporate ad-
  time frame as F2S2. The system must include             vances in RF energy detection and compact power
  anti-radiation homing, and other lethal and non-        sources to engage and destroy targets using their
  lethal capabilities.                                    electronic RF signatures. RF AM will be extremely
                                                          effective whenever large target location errors
  6.3.3    Long Range Artillery Missile                   preclude the use of conventional or autonomous
           (LONGARM)                                      smart munitions.     Potential targets include' C2
                                                          systems, computers, avionics, surveillance and
  LONGARM is a conceptual, .technology base,             tracking radars, guidance systems, vehicle igni-
  future system conceived to replace the current         tion, and fIre control systems. The RF AM will be
  generation ATACMS missiles. LONGARM will               employed with AT ACMS and other possible car-
  be a multi-mission reconnaissance/engagement           riers. The clUTentapproach is to evaluate competing
  missile system capable of attacking HVrs beyond        technologies. (narrow band/wide band), then re-
  the range of current ATACMS. Technology ad-           duce size, weight and power requirements, and
 vancements in propulsion, microcircuits, detectors,    finally, to conduct effects testing, mission analy-
 inertial navigation, and target recognition and        sis and a proof of principal demonstration. The
 identification will provide advanced technological     MICOM long-range weapons plan proposes a
 capabilities in several key areas. LONGARM will        technology demonstration for the 1995-1999 pe_
 be designed to fly to the target at high speed to      riod. POM 96 funding suppon is needed to con-
 enhance survivability and improve mission re-          duct the technology demonstration and further
 sponse time. A variable speed capability will be       evolve the concept.
 employed for LONGARM to maximize loiter time
 over the target Advanced technology payloads           6.3.6     Deep Attack Smart Munition       (DASM)
 will increase lethality against deep, high value,
 moving and stationary, hard targets.                    The DASM (formerly called Deep Fire Attack
                                                         Munition (DFAM» is a technology based, future
 6.3.4    Long Range Fiber Optic Guided                  system which will provide ATACMS and other
          Missile (LONG FOG)                             carriers the capability to engage long-range, high-
                                                         value targets with large target location enur (ILE).
 LONGFOO is a next generation, man-in-the-loop,          An autonomous submunition with an advanced
fiber optic guided missile system. The system will      autonomous        seeker or a man-in-the-Ioop
provide the battlefield commander with a 100 Ian        submunition such as the Precision Deep Attack
plus, precision guided stand-off weapon for sur-        Missile System (PDAMS) or a multiple Fiber
gical strikes against hardened or other high value      Optic Guided Missile (FOG-M) type system us-
targets. LONGFOO will also have a reconnais-            ing a RF data link are potential. applications. En-
sance capability. The LONGFOO program will              gagement of HVTs at long-range in various

                                                                    PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
weather ~d background conditions will be                   An assessment of the future force expected to be
achieved' by acquiring target signatures in                fielded within the next 20 years is presented in
multibands, enhanced techniques in microcircuits,          Figure 6-2. This assessment assumes adequate
target recognition and classification, fiber optics,      .funding to field the future force described At this
and Electronic      Counter-Counter       Measure          time, several remain unfunded. A realistic assess-
(ECCM). A technology demonstration to evalu-               ment beyond this time frame is valid only when
ate real time perfonnance of state-of-the-art seek-        the potential for technology base initiatives is
ers and sensor breadboard hardware is proposed             included. Addition of systems in development or
for the DASM in the FY 94 to FY 00 time period.            late concept formulation will still not resolve all
The proposed demonstration precedes DASM de-               Fire Support battlefield deficiencies. In Chapter
velopment in the FY 00 through FY 08 period. A             7, we will provide a conceptual assessment indi-
funding wedge is needed in the FY 96POM to                 cating that our long-range plan will solve all of
support this important FS technology effort.               our presently known deficiencies over the long
                                                           term through application of advanced concepts or
The LOCAAS technology demonstration has                    emerging future technologies. Many of the ad-
shown an early capability against Critical Mobile          vanced concepts are still very notional and may
Targets (CMI) (moving and stationaI)' annored              not mature for a number of years. In fact, to truly
vehicles). Equally successful competing designs,           satisfy all of today's battlefield deficiencies, even
utilizing MMW and laser radar (LADAR) seekers,             20 or 30 years from now, we must direct these
provide target classification capabilities and             technology programs toward solutions to the most
aimpoint selection which provides the potential            critical shortcomings. We cannot fund them all,
for very high kill probability against CMf. The            nor can. we allow their scope to expand beyond
algorithms used virtually eliminate the possibility        what is most needed. The Concept Based Re-
of false targets. LOCAAS will kill moving hard             quirements System, now undergoing evolution
and soft targets at operational ranges, thus               through Battle Labs and LAM, is a dynamic pro-
removing a current capability deficiency.                  cess. Technology, world conditions, and threats
                                                           are ever changing over time. A future BOP will
                                                           undoubtedly identify new deficiencies and new
                                                           requirements.     For now, recommendations of-
    ASSESSMENT                                             fered in Chapter 7 provide some focus of technol-
                                                           ogy efforts toward solving the remaining defi-
 This assessment incorporates those capabilities to        ciencies noted here.
  be provided by systems now under serious Army ,
  consideration which are discussed in Section 6.2           6.4.1 Stationary Soft Targets
  (Included in 94 POM EPA or LRRDAP). All                                           .
  assessments       compare      projected        system     The'capability of currently fielded FS Rocket and
  perfOIlTlance to the required capabili ties determuled   . Missile systems to kill stationary soft targets is
  from the BDP. The definitions applied and the              limited only by the maximum range capabilities
  assessment methodology are the same as used in             of the delivery vehicles. SADARM is designed
  Chapter 5.                                                 for soft target kill; the precision munitions, BAT
                                                             and DASM are primarily designed to kill hard
  Assessments regarding range, accuracy, and im-             targets, but can be used to kill soft targets. RF AM
  proved naviga~on and position location are not             is designed to attack the el~tronic circuitry of RF
  portrayed graphically in the figures but are in-           systems which are usually classified as soft tar-
  cluded as part of each assessment relating    to     ac-   gets. Extended range future delivery systems, ER
, complishment of a battlefield mission area such            MLRS, ATACMS P3I APAM, ATACMS EN,
  as CF or DIAD.                                             LONGARM, LONGFOO and F2S2 anned with

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                     6-5
                                                                         BATTLEFIELD COVERAGE
                                                       TACTICAL FIRES                             OPERATIONAL         FIRES

                   SOFT TARGETS

                  SOFT TARGETS

                  HARD TARGETS

                 HARD TARGETS

                   AREA       TARGETS
                  T8M SYSTEMS
                  POINT       TARGETS

                   AREA       TARGETS
                   RF EMITTERS
                  POINT       TARGETS

                      AREA    TARGETS
                      POINT    TARGETS


            NOTE: Destruction of Integrated Air Defenses (DIAD), an emerging concept, compared to traditional
            Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) frees more air sorties for other missions and reduces the overall
            vulnerability of our aircraft. DIAD operations will normally include the full range of FS systems, but will rely
            heavily on ground based systems because of the vulnerability of air platforms prior to achieving air superiority.

                                         Figure 6-2. Assessment of Future Systems

area saturation munitions, will increase station-                         moving soft target kill. AT ACMS P31 AP AM,
ary soft target kill capability throughout the depth                      and AT ACMS EN will provide the extended range
and width of the corps area, thus completely                              capabilities to attack stationary targets to opera-
fulfilling the user requirement.                                          tional depths of the battlefield and moving targets
                                                                          with massed fires, but current plans do not include
6.4.2   Moving Soft Targets                                               a submunition for these carriers. The current gen-
                                                                          eration of AP AM M74 bomblets used in the
Achieving a Moving Sof Target Kill capability                             AT ACMS Block I warhead can be adapted to
(e.g., lightly armored vehicles such as SP howit:-:                       future, longer range carrier systems ..
zers, Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs), .
Brunevaya Maschina Piekhotas (BMPs), armo~d           .                   6.4.3       Stationary Hard Targets
scout vehicles etc.) is dependent upon delivery
vehicles equipped with precision munition that                            Killing stationary hard targets throughout the corps
can acquire, discriminate and kill targets at tacti-                      area requires extended range systems armed with
cal and operational ranges. At the closer ranges,                         warheads ossessing precisio guidance and le-
SADARM P31 will expand the SADARM foot-                                   thal mechanisms capable of killing tanks in a top
print to provide greater battlefield target area cov-                     attack mode. Multiple sensor systems are also
erage. Additionally, ER MLRS with SADARM                                  required to acquire and discriminate cold sitting
P31 will further extend the range capability of                           and/or camouflaged targets. Range extension ca-

6-6                                                                                         PEG Tactical Missiles Modernization   Plan
 pabilitieswill be available through ATACMS P3I          systems for attack of TBMs. There are several
 APAM, ATACMS EN and follow onlDNGARM                    efforts planned above the Army level, such as the
 and F2S2. Brilliant munitions cmrently in the           Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
 technology demonstration and concept develop-          .(DARPA) Warbreaker project and the JPSD, to
 ment stages, such as BAT P3I and future TA and          better link joint sensors to shooters to solve the
 C31systems, are eXPeCtedto solve the acquisition,       TBM attack problem. After Desert Storm, this has
 discrimination, time to target, and target attack       become a high visibility area which should re-
 lethality problems. These capabilities are not au-      ceive adequate development funding for the fore-
 tomatically assured but depend upon a robust,           seeable future. The Army will participate and
 continued, R&D effort with adequate POM sup-            benefit from these joint programs.
 POrt and system development and procurement
 appropriations.                                        6.4.6 RF Emitters

 6.4.4 Moving Hard Targets                              ER MLRS, ATACMS P3I APAM, ATACMS
                                                        EN, and LONGARM will provide a limited ca-
  Precision guided munitions (PGMs), coupled with       pability to kill RF emitters using area saturation
  other advanced technologies, have been charac-        munitions. The increased ranges of ATACMS
  terized as the latest" revolution in warfare." 0p-    P31 APAM and ATACMS EN, combined with
  eration Desert Stonn and the Field .Artillery         accurate target location infonnation, will extend
  Center's Legal Mix study confmn the assessment        into the operational fIreS area the capability of
  ,that PGMs are critical to decisive victory as well   current FS missiles to kill RF targets (radiating or
  as minimizing friendly casualties. SADARM P31         not) using present DPICM munitions. RFAM isa
  (to a limited extent), BAT P31and the DASM and        technology base concept munition which will
  other future munitions are designed to identify,      identify and render ineffective RF emitters based
  engage, and kill moving or stationary hard targets.   on their electronic RF signature. RFAM is a far-
  LONG ARM will also incorporate a hard target          tenn technology initiative that will not be fielded
, kill capability. Evolving a full deep attack, hard    until after the turn of the century. The requirement
  target kill capability depends upon adequate R&D      for precision kill ofRF emitters remains unresolved
  and Procurement funding support in the 96 POM         at the present time. This unresolved capability
  and beyond                                            will remain until an anti-radiation homing capa-
                                           "            bility is achieved, either as a RF emitter killer
 6.4.5 TBM Systems                                      warhead, or through a TNC3I/munition joint s0-
 Threat TBM's are expected to be positioned in the
 deep operational fires area of the battlefield The     6.4.7 Counterfire
 current range limiting factor will be resolved
 through the increased range capabilitie.s' ,of.        Future FS Rocket and Missile Systems will re-
 ATACMSP3IAPAM,andATACMSEN~                     BAT     solve the limitations of current systems and pro-
 P31 will provide the precision needed to identify      vide for significant improvements in counterfrre
 and kill TBM systems, thus enhancing attack op-        capabilities. Increased counterfrre capabilities are
 erations.     Future Autonomous Intelligent            achieved through the planned upgrade of the M270
 Submunitions such as Damocles will enhance these       launcHer and improvem:nts in both rocket and
 capabilities while RFAM, when fie I   de<L will fur-   missile capabilities. These improvements are
 ther enhance the capability by providing the means     complemented. by improvements in timely and
 to attaCkTBM command centers. The conceptual           accurate TA and the linkage of TA systems with
 program LONGARM will also incorporate the              frring platforms. Improved CF capabilities will
 capability to interface with intelligence and C2       provide pro~ctive or reactive CF throughout the

PEO Tactical Missilts Modernization Plan                                                                6-7
   corps area employing both area saturation and         Presently there is no funded effort to develop a
  precision munitions to engage and kill statiOIlaty,    near or mid-term emitter kill capability. This.
  moving, hard, soft and TBM targets. The planned        shortfall results in a serious deficiency to our
  electronic and mechanical improvements to the          DIAD capability, leaving area saturation muni-
  M270 launcher, coupled with the inclusion of on        tions as the only method of destroying enemy AD
  board GPS, will significantly improve CF response      on the ground beyond tactical fires ranges. An
  time and accuracy. Future CF capable delivery
                                                         emitter killer solution is needed, and deserves
  vehicles include ER MLRS, AT ACMS P31                  R&D supPOrt in the 96 POM.
  APAM, TSSAM, and ATACMS EN. Future CF                                                                        J
  capable munitions include SADARM P3I, and              6.4.9   Improved Navigation and Detennina-
  Damocles.                                                      lion of Position Location

  In related System of Systems improvements, the          IFCS upgrades to the currently fielded M270
  fielding of the Advanced Firefinder. System            launcher will provide for improved, on-board
  (AFFS), along with improved Guardnril, JSTARS,         navigation and determination of position location
  UA V, advanced IEW sensors and C4I links,              in all weather and visibility conditions. These
  coupled with the ongoing R&D of a Future Target        improvements, employing GPS, could eventually
  Acquisition System (FfAS), will synergistically        make the requirement for external survey unnec-
  serve to continuously improve and enhance our          essary, thus potentially reducing FA personnel
 CF capabilities well into the next century.             requirements within the force structure. Future on
 Additionally, Joint technology develOPment efforts      board position/navigation (poS/NA V) capabilities
 such as DARPA's Warbreaker and DoD's JPSD,              will both satisfy the user requirement for better
 promote advance technologies which all connibute
 to the early detection, engagement, suppression
                                                         flJ'Stround accuracy of fires while increasing sur-
                                                         vivability by decreasing emplacement/displace-
 and attrition of enemy cannon, rocket and TBM           ment times.
 launch systems.
                                                         6.5 SUMMARY
 6.4.8   Enemy Air Defenses
                                                         This assessment of FS Rocket and Missile Sys-
 Improvements in DIAD result from increases in           tems of the future indicates that the planned force
 range and accuracy of missiles and rockets for          will have the capability to satisfy most presently
 delivery of DPIC~ in area fIreS engagements.            defined FS battlefield deficiencies. The assess-
 Concurrent improvements in target acquisition           ment indicates a general trend of improvement in
 capabilities further enhance DIAD. RFAM after           overall operational capabilities. The improvement
 the turn of the century will provide an RF emitter      potential is further enhanced when technology
 neutralization capability against AD Radars.           demonstration concepts are included and assumed
 FDDM, and later the AFAIDS architecture, will          to be available as fielded systems or components
 provide the tactical C2, information management,       of systems. These improvements will provide the
 and technical fIre direction computational power       future force commander with equipment that is
 needed to handle the immense volume of data on         lethal, versatile, deployable, affordable, SuMV-
a real time basis that DIAD targeting requires. FS      able, simple tooperate and maintain, and techno-
automated systems will be linked with IEW               logically superior.
through ASAS and the Forward Area Air Defense
C2 (FAADC2) system for a System of Systems              In making the above future capabilities
integrated battlefield information environment          assessments, a word of caution is in order for two
which will greatly enhance overnll DIAD capa-           principal reasons. First, as concepts mature over
bilities.      '                       .
                                                        long periods of time, they may change considerably

6-8                                                                PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 from their original intent, either due to technology    achieved in the near to mid-term. However, anti-
 breakthrough or because of changing threats,           radiation homing technology is sufficiently ma-
 politicalcircumstances or other conditions. Secon~     ture to adapt it to other carriers if resources were
 in the austere defense resource environment which      made available. Likewise, to achieve a kill of
 is projected for the next decade, technology           emitters capability with area munitions to the full
 capability improvements may take longer to bring       range of ATACMS EN would require the integra-
 on line than originally anticipated. Program           tion of an area saturation munition in the ATACMS
 decisions regarding current and future systems         EN program. ATACMS EN could also include a
 development should not be made based upon              radiation seeking warhead to enable precision kill
 expected potential capabilities or technology          of RF emitting targets. Figure 6-3 highlights
 demonstrations until the concepts are proven as        those areas where further improvement is needed
 doable.                                                through new programs and upgrades.

 With the U.S. withdrawal from the NATO co-             The assessment of future FS Rocket and Missile
 development row program, an unresolved re-             systems presented in this chapter, together with
 quirement remains for a hard target killer in the      the modernization strategy presented in Chapter 4
 tactical fues range. With Ground Launched Tacit        are the basis for developing the modernization
 Rainbow (GLTR) also terminated, no precision           recommendations which follow in Chapter 7.
 capability to home on and kill emitters can be

                                           FUTURE SYSTEMS



                                            Figure 6-3. Summary

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                               6-9
       This Page Intentionally Left Blank




6-10                                 PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                      CHAPTER 7 - RECOMMENDATIONS

7.1 INTRODUCTION                             Firefinder

This chapter correlates the assessments found in      The Firefinder family of Target Acquisition Ra-
Chapter 5 (Current Systems) and Chapter 6 (Fu-        dars provides the capability to locate fuing mor-
ture Systems) with the Modemization Strategy of       tars (AN/IPQ- 36) and longer range artillery and
Chapter 4. The deficiencies remaining in the          rocket weapons locations (AN{fPQ-37). The Q-
force fonn the basis for the 96 POM recommen-         37 can employ an ER capability to supPOn opera-
dations, and are the targets for technology infu-     tional ftres. Systems are currently fielded.
sion of emerging tech base solutions. In this time
of constrained resources, it is imperative that the Joint Surveillance Target Attack
technology efforts we choose to support are di-               Radar System (JSTARS) Ground
rected specifically towan! finding solutions to the           Station Module (GSM)
most critical deficiencies. Section 7.2 examines
key :MFOM System of Systems requirements              1STARS GSM is the Army component of a Joint
managed outside of the PEO MSL area of respon-        Army/Air Force program whose Air Force com-
sibility but key to MFOM success. A brief de-         ponent is the E-8 airborne platfonn. The GSM is
scriptive, programmatic, and finding summary on       a mobile multisensor imagery intelligence (IMIN1)
.each system supponed by PEO MSL is provided.         tactical data processing and evaluation center.
                                                      JSTARS is designed to detect, locate, and tra~k
7.2 KEY MFOM SYSTEM OF                                moving and stationary ground targets beyond the
    SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS                              FLOT. GSM disseminates intelligence and target
                                                      data to Army C41 nodes via wire or radio, en-
7.2.1 Target Acquisition                              abling integrated battle management, smveillance,
                                                      targeting, and interdiction plans to be developed
Target Acquisition (fA) systems must provide          and executed in near real time. GSM is also being
the capabilities to:                                  designed to process data from other collectors,
                                                      such as the commanders' tactical tenninal (CIT).
 • Acquire targets to the depth of the,               Basis of issue will be 15+ per corps with modules
   battlefield                                        slated for corps, division and brigade.
 • Identify targets day/night, all weather, and
   in a diny environment.                    Commander'S Tactical Terminal
 • Provide C2 systems, fused, all source data.                  (CTT) Systems
 • Provide accurate deep attack target data ~ .
   (near real-time).                        .         CIT is in production to assure rapid dissemination
 • Perform real-time battle damage                    of Guardrail Intelligence. The CIT is a joint
   assessment                                         Army-Air Force program with upgrades to the
 • Provide interoperable TA data to all forces.       basic err now ~nderway. CITs will begin
 • Evolve a target area meteorological                fielding to division, corps, and selected EAC nodes
   capability.                                        and brigades in 1993. Eventually the err will be
                                                      incorporated into the JstARS GSM or Common
The following paragraphs discuss key target ac-       Ground Station (CGS). The err will provide
quisition systems providing these capabilities and    high quality targeting data from multiple sources
supported by PEO MSL ..                               to multiple users th~t satisfies collateral and Signal

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                7-1
Intelligence (SIGINT) dissemination requirements.      Guardrail capability continues to evolve from the
It will provide downlink of Guardrail Common           older RU-21-H to the present RC-12K GRCS
Sensor     (GRCS),    TR-l    Communications           capability. Planned improvements to the GRCS          J
Intelligence     (COMINT)       and Electronic         will increase sensor capability, sensor efficiency,
Intelligence (ELINT) sensors, Tactical Intelligence
Broadcast System (TIBS) and other broadcasts.
                                                       deployment flexibility, and tactical mobility.

                                                Advanced Fire Finder System
                                                                                                             I All Source Analysis System (ASAS)                        (AFFS)

ASAS is the key to timely integration, correlation,    AFFS, formerly Advanced Target Acquisition
fusion and analysis of vast amounts of infonna-        Counterfue System (ATACS), will modernize and
tion from diverse sources. ASAS will be the            extend the range of the ANmQ-37        Fire Finder
central nervous system which will ~de field            radar. AFFS will be a strategically deployable,
commanders in successfully planning and imple-         tactically mobile, long-range, target acquisition
menting future operations. ASAS will provide           system, which can operate in a low to high inten-
accurate battlefield assessments in support of de-     sity environment. AFFS will have enhanced sur-
cision making and then relay the infonnation           vivability, improved ECCM, passive and active
quickly and securely to corps and division com-        cueing, on board POS/NA V system, increased
manders. Direct connectivity with the Army Tac-        range, capability to identify target type, with re-
tical Command and Control System (ATCCS)               duced crew size, while retaining and improving
will enable near real time battlefield coordination    upon many of the present Fire Finder system
from- EAC to division and will provide field com':     capabilities. AFFS will support the corps area of
manders with a common view of the battlefield          influence. A draft 0&0 plan was prepared in
                                                       1991 and an ORO is planned for development and
ASAS will support the deep attaCk targeting pro-       staffing during FY93. The program is currently
cess by early identification and location ofHVTs.      unfunded. Action to restore funding in the 96
Current capability to process and respond to tar-      POM is needed.
geting information provided by sensor systems is
constrained by manual and partially automated          7:l.1.7   Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
methods. ASAS will resolve this bottleneck by
using state-of-the-~ computers to speed and im-        VA V-SR (Short Range) and UAV-CR (aose
prove the accuracy- of target information based on     Range) are part of a family ofUA Vs managed by        t
commanders' priorities. AS AS began Operational        the V AV Project Office under the direction of the
Test and Evaluation at Ft. Hood in September 92.       VA V Joint Project Office, with the Navy as the
An Army Systems Acquisition Review Council             executive service. The UAV-SR will support            I

(ASARC) material fielding decision is scheduled        targeting and battle management decision making
for FY93. While ASAS will enhance target pro-          by EAC and division commanders. The UA V-
cessing capabilities, Fire Support units have the      cR will support targeting and battle management

capability to operate and perform missions inde-       decision making- by division, regiment, brigade,
pendent of ASAS.                                       and battalion commanders conducting close com-
                                                       bat operations. These U AV s can provide day and
                                                                                                             I Guardrail                                      night imagery, SIGINT, communications relay,
                                                       electronic countermeasures (ECM), chemical and
Guardrail is a signal intercept and emitter location   nuclear reconnaissance using a variety of mission
system designed to provide tactical commanders         payloads.
with critical infonnation via a CIT. The Army's

7-2                                                               PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan Future Target Acquisition System            Division as a prototype Light T ACFIRE System
            (FTAS)                                   and began operational         field tests in 1986.
                                                     LTACFIRE is functionally similar to T ACFIRE
 FfAS is a technology base conceptual system to . .with smaller, lighter hardware but lacks the ca-
 address a futuristic follow on, completely passive  pacity to manage complex software tasks such as
 and autonomous counterftre/target       acquisition target value analysis, target prioritization, deep
 system. Early technology discussions are centering  battle operations, employment of tenninal hom-
 on optical, IR, acoustic, and RF sensing technolo-  ing munitions, and integration of all FS systems.
 gies. The system has not been dermed and            LTACFIRE interoperates with TACFIRE, Bat-
 milestones are not developed.                       tery Computer System (BCS), FS Team Digital
                                                     Message Device (DMD), and the Digital Com-
 7.2.2 Command, Control, Communications              munications Tenninal and Firefinder Radars.
         and Intelligence (On                        LTACFIRE began fielding in early 1990 to infan-
                                                     try, airborne, air assault, and marine divisions. It
 C3I systems must provide the capabilities to:       was successfully employed during Desert Storm.

   •   Perform target value analysis.         Fire Direction Data Manager
   •   Interoperate with all MFOM systems.                     (FDDM)
   •   Support all FS echelons.
   •   Prioritize targets based on commanders'         The MLRS Fire Direction System (FDS) per-
       guidance.                                       fonns fire direction in MLRS units. FDS is built
   •   Provide mission critical data for smart!        around the same basic components as the cannon
       brilliant munitions.                            battery BCS. The FOS digitally links the battery
   •   Allocate target engagement requirements to      and battalion FOCs to TACFIRE,:MLRS M270
       systems capable of engaging and defeating       Launcher FCS, MLRS platoon leaders, and target
       the target(s).                                  acquisition assets.
  •    Interlace with AD C2.
  •    Communicate frre missions to designated         The FDDM is a software and hardware system
       FS unit                                         that improves the FDS for the !v1270 launcher by
    •  Integrate battle damage assessmeqt infor-       increasing processing, storage, and communica-
       mation from all sources.            -
          tions capability. The FODM PIVvides essential
                                                       tactical fire direction and communication capabil-
  Key C3I systems providing thes~ capabilities and     ity for thervtFOM which is not possible with
  supponed by PEO MSL are discussed in the fol-        T ACFIRE. The FDDM hardware fits into the
  lowing paragraphs.                                 . M557 command post (CP) vehicle and performs
                                                       rvtFOM mission planning, stores target parameter Light Tactical Fire Direction System . and signature data, and interfaces with deep attack
             (LTACFffiE)                               sensors and communication systems. FDOM also
                                                       provides the automation for futme precision guided
  In 1983, the Army development community was          munitions fired from the M270 launcher. FDOM
  directed to develop a shon-term, interim solution    will interface with IEW assets and integrate IEW
  to provide some degree of automation for the light   located targets into the M270 target lists. The
  forces until AFA IDS could be fielded. The Army      FDDM is an interim solution until its functional-
. turned to an experimental, scaled down version of    ity is incorporated into the objective AFATDS
  T ACFIRE being developed for the 9th Infantry        (Version 3) about 1997.

 PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                             7-3   Interim Fire Support Automation              To accomplish these requirements AF AIDS is
           System (lFSAS)                               being developed in a modular fashion to supPOrt,
                                                        current, near-term, and long-term FS C2 capabili-
IFSAS is an effon to replace aging TACFIRE              ties. The system is being designed to accommodate
hardware and software with new common hard-             evolving technology, doctrine, tactics, weapons
ware from the Anny Common Hardware and                  capabilities, organizational structures and proce-
Software system and new software to be provided         dures. For example, current organizational struc-
by a competitive contract - This effon is being         tures have evolved from batteIy fire units to platoon
managed by the PED C2 Systems. Two software             fire units and, by the mid 1990's, will eventually
contractors are providing software for systems          become single weapon fire units with integrated
comparisons with a winner to be announced in            position navigation, communications, and technical
early Calendar Year (CY) 93. The chosen system          fire control capabilities. Moreover, AF AIDS will
will be tested as pan of the AF AIDS Package 10         support the evolving shift in functionality from
IOTE. IFSAS provides several advantages to the          FA CPs and Fire Direction Centers (FDCs) to the
FS community. It allows the replacing of aging          FSEs located with the Maneuver CPs.                .
T ACFIRE devices with lighter, less expensive
equipment, while permitting the fielding of auto-       7.2.3     Support and Sustainment
mated equipment to the National Guard, which
currently possesses little or no automation. A          The following support and sustainment systems
further advantage of IFSAS will be early posi-          are required to maximize effectiveness of current
tioning of common hardware equipment to the             and future Rocket and Missile Systems.
field; facilitating a quicker fielding and transition
to the objective AFA IDS. IFSAS will be located
at FSE's and MLRS Battalion Operations and
                                                  Navigational System Tracking and
                                                                   Range (NAVST AR)                             I
Intelligence Centers.
                                                        NAVSTAR is a space based radio POS/NAV                  i'   Advanced Field Artillery Tactical
           Data System (AFATDS)

AFAIDS is the future FS C3 System for the
                                                        system composed of three major elements: (1)
                                                        Space Segment - 24 satellites, (2) Control Seg-
                                                        ment - 5 ground stations, and (3) User Segment
                                                        FA will use the system to initialize and update
Army and Marine ,Corps. AF AIDS is one of the           PADS and MAPS and for positioning and naviga-
five component systems which comprise the               tion for combat and support elements. The System        t
ATCCS and will network with other nodes of              provides real time three dimensional position and
A Tees through common hardware and software             navigation data 24 hours per day worldwide re-
to exchange critical time sensitive infonnation.        gardless of weather. The first buy of 2000 Preci-       I
                                                                                                                t ..

AF AIDS will function at all force levels from          sion Lightweight GPS Receivers (PLGRs) will
forward observer through corps. AFA IDS will            occur in FY93-94. Follow-on procurement will
integrate all FS assets including mortars, close air    occur from FY94 through 97.
suppo~ naval gunfIre, attack helicopters, offen-
sive eleCtronic warfare, and FA cannons, rockets    Meteorological Measuring Set
and missiles to execute the roles of close support,                (MMS)
CF, interdiction fIreS, and DIAD. Supporting
both the light and heavy forces, AFA IDS will
handle the increased number of fIre missions and
                                                        The MMS measures or computes atmospheric
                                                        parameters which effect weapons system ballistic
munitions on tomorrow's battlefield and will            trajectories. A section will be comprised of six
anal yze and attack targets in order of the force       soldiers. Telemetry receiving and data processing
commander's target value and priority.                  equipment will be transported in a Lightweight

7-4                                                                 PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 Multipurpose Shelter (LMS) carried by one of the    headquarters in the light divisions. FUFJIOC is
 Meteorology section's three High Mobility Multi-   planned for FY93 with fielding scheduled through
purpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs).             This FY95. The program is only partially funded with
 system will have multi-radiosonde capability.       125 of a required 196 systems currently funded.
Power source will be a trailer-mounted 5KW gen-     The SNSG system is being purchased as a joint
erator. This procurement is a follow-on buy of the  program with the Air Force.
AN/fMQ-38 MMS which was deployed to Light
Infantry Division (LID), Airborne (ABN), and Target Area Meteorology Se~sor
Air Assault (AASLT)           Division  Artillery              System
(DIVARTY) units Aug-Dec 92. The second pro-
curement of the MMS will be deployed to active      Target Area Meteorology is a Science and Tech-
Army heavy artillery units equipped with the ANI    nology Objective (STO) included under Space
TMQ-31 Meteorological Data System (MDS).            Technology in the Anny Technology Base Mas-
MDS's will be refurbished and deployed to re-       ter Plan (ATBMP). The Target Area Met STO is
place the 1947 vintage ANIGMD-l Rawinsonde          to develop and demonstrate by FY95 an automated
system in the reserves. The ANffMQ-38 MMS           6-hour forecasting capability to observe and fore-
does not have the multi-radiosondes capability,     cast target area meteorology at ranges to 200 Ian.
and is transported in seven cases by one of the     The demonstration will cover a suite of sensors
meteorology section's three HMMWV s. .Power         and software to include computer assisted artillery
source for the. AN/ThtQ-38 is a MlQ-33 diesel       meteorology (CAAM), mobile profl1ers, and other
generator. First Unit Equipped (FUE) is tenta-      atmospheric sensors. The STO will exploit im- '
tively scheduled for 1QFY96, with fielding . agery and soundings from meteorological satellites'
scheduled through 1QFY97.                           and fuse meteorological data with digital terrain
                                                    data and mesoscale models to produce gridded Survey North Seeking Gyroscope              four dimensional weather forecast information that
           (SNSG)                                   drives target area decision aids.

The SNSG is a Non-Development Item (NDI)           Key T A, C4I and S/S development schedules are
program. SNSG is a rebuy of the Improved Sur-      reflected in Figures 7-1, 7-2 and 7-3. While PEO
vey Instrument Azimuth GYro (SlAG). The sys-       MSL has no authority over these planned sched-
tem will be used in conjunction with GPS by FA     ules, they must be closely monitored to provide
Surveyors. SNSG is a tripod mounted survey         early identification of any deviations or delays
instrument weighing approximately 161bs. It will   impacting on' the capabilities expected of rocket
provide grid azimuth to an accuiacy of 0.2 mil     and missile systems as they are fielded.
within 3 minutes after power is applied and C~'
operate in a temperature range of minus 40 to plu~ 7.3 BATTLEFIELD DEFICIENCIES
140 degrees Fahrenheit The system is powered'
by either a vehicular 24 volt battery or a' re- . As discussed in both Chapters 5 and 6, several
chargeable battery capable of 30 to 40 azimuth     unresolved battlefiel~ deficiencies remain, even
readings per charge. The SNSG complements          assuming all 94 POM supported systems continue
Inertial Navigation Systems such as Position       to full production and fielding. Near-tenn solutions
Azimuth Determining        System (PADS) and       cannot even ,provide area coverage at most
Modular Azimuth Positioning System (MAPS).         operational' frres ranges. Inclusion of currently
The system can be air dropped an,d is rapidly      planned product improvements to SADARM ,
deployable world-wide. Basis of issue will be one  BAT, and the ATJ\CMS add greatly to the
per survey ,team/Party an~ one per survey platoon  capability to provide area frres across the entire

PED Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                           7-5
                              93 94 95       96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06                         07 08 09       10

  TARG         A aUISfTlON





      ADV. FF




                              R&D             PRODUCTION              FUNDED           UNFUNDED/FUNDING

                                        Figure 7-1. Target Acquisition

                                        94    95   96   97 98   99   00   01   02 03   04   05   06   0,7 08   09    10




                             R&D             PRODUCTION          FUNDED            UNFUNDED/FUNDING

                  Figure 7-2. Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence

7-6                                                                       PEG Tactical Missiles Modernization       Plan
    SY~                                           93 94            95 96 97 98 99 00 ..Q1_ 02                              ~        04 05 06 07 08 09 10
    SUPPORT AND          U TAIN    ENT

                                                                        po-   "T    ~.             !"'Y -~                                         i.""j
                                                    ~                                                           ~'!"'          If      ";'

          NAVSTAR GPS

          MMS                                r          .'~~


                t Area Mot
          Tar                                                                       .... ,.   ~"    -:.~.....                  ."      ,

    ----             -       -               I      I                                                  1
    LEGEND                   r           I                                                                                             WMWWfM{hj
                                  R&D             PRODUCTION                  FIELDING                          FUNDED                       UNFUNDED/FUNDING

                                                  Figure 7-3. Support and Sustainment
battlefield. Several significant deficiencies remain,                              incorporate Horizontal Technology Insertion (HTI)
specifically against hard targets in the tactical                                  into the assessment of each technology program
fires ranges, and against RF emitters.            U. S.                            to ensure those programs which may benefit the
withdrawal from the TOW program has left no                                        entire System of Systems are emphasized
munition currently planned that can kill hard targets                              appropriately.
in the close support role, although product
improvement programs for existing munitions may                                    7.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
result in limited additional capabilities in this area.
Additionally, while saturation fires will provide     Continued support for currently fielded systems,
some capability to destroy RF emitters, to include    as well as those systems that are supported in the
enemy AD systems, there is no weapon or munition      94 paM is critical, if only to maintain current and
currently planned for eventual production th~t can    near-term capabilities. To address the battlefield
locate and precision kill RF emitters.            -   deficiencies discussed above, the 96 paM must
                                                      support weapons and munitions development and
Figure 7-4 ummarizes deficienci~s reqUlnng            technical demonstrations. Figure 7-5 summarizes
Technology Base solution.~. It is against these       systems now supported and those system upgrades
remaining     battlefield    deficiencies   that the  or programs recommended for inclus~on into the
technology base must be leveraged to find and . _ 96 paM, and EPA. Shown from right to left are
implement cost-effective solutions. The right side   .key technologies which feed key technology
of Figure 7-4 identifies those Key Technology         aemonstrations or concepts recommended for
Demonstrations or Advanced Concepts that hold         support, either fiscal or ~olitical.
the greatest potential for correcting each remaining
deficiency. The recommendations that follow are       Timelines t I' all proposed Weapons and Muni-
based, not only on the obvious need to fIeld more     tions key technology efforts are provided in Fig-
capable systems, but also the need to consider        ure 7-6. While much of the schedule information
today the potential of each technology. program       is conceptual only, the figure clearly shows that
and to attempt to tie each tech base effort to the    the 96 paM must include funding wedges for
battlefield deficiency it can best resolve. Inherent  these programs if these plans are to remain viable.
in tl)is methodology, as well, i the intent to

PEG TacticaL MissiLes Modemiz.ation Plan                                                                                                                        7-7
                                                                                     BATILEFIELD COVERAGE

               SOFT TARGETS

               HARD TARGETS

             HARD TARGE"TS

                AREA TARGETS
               POINT TARGETS

                AREA TARGETS
                RF EMllIERS
               POINT TARGETS
                AREA TARGETS
                POINT TARGETS

                AREA TARGETS
             POINT TARGETS

      LEGENO:           _          FUlL CAPABILITY

      NOTE. De5l'udion           ol Inlegated   Air Delenses (DIAD), an emerll'"g   concept, compared to tradrtional
      Suppte     ,on ol Enemy Air DeleMe (SEAD) Irees """e                          Olh... rrissIons and re<1Jces Ihe ov ... aJ1
                                                                      air sonoes 1<:<'
      vuln",abi1rtyol       our aircraft   DIAD operal.oos wit normaay include the lull range ol FS "Y5lems, bu1 win rely
      heavily on g("oJnd based systems beeau"" ol1he vulnerabilrty ol air platforms prior 10 ach,eving aw superiorily.

                                                     Figure 7-4. Potential Technology Infusion Solutions

           MFOM                                                                        WEAPONS & MUNITIONS

                                      SYST    S
       LAUNCHER                       M270

       CARRIER                        MLRS
                                      ATACMS I

       MUNITIONS                      DPICM

       OTHER                          IOF

                                             MFOM SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS
                ELEMENTS                            SUPPORT            FOR FIELDED                SYSTEM                     FY96 PQMlEP A SUPPORT      FUTURE

       TARGET                                         FF                                                               JSTARS (GSM, CGS~CTT)  AFFS     FtAS
       ACQL'ISITION (TA'                              GUARDRAIL                                                        ASAS       GRCS        UAV
       COMMAND.                                       LTACFIRE                                                         AFATDS     NCTRICOMBA T 10      FUTURE C41
       CONTROL,                                       FDDM                                                             ACCS                            SYSTEMS
       COMMUNICA TION,                                ACCS                                                             IFSAS
       SUPPORT AND                                     GPS                                                              SNSG                           FUTURE SS
       SUSTAINMENT (SS)                                MMS                                                              TARGET AREA MET                SYSTEMS

                                                         Figure 7-5. MFOM Present and Future Systems

7-8                                                                                                                                   PEG Tactical Missiles Modernization   Plan
   WEAPON                                     FY    93               94             95 96             97   98   99    00   01   02    03   04   05   06    07    08    09      10


  - M270 launcher
  • ATACMS Block I

  SVSTE          PROV~r'll:N'~

  - FDDM
    MlAS Improved FCS

    M270 Imp. launcher Mach

    MFOM Interoperability Fa            ity
                                                   Ii                     ',;'.;:---"-
    EA MlAS
                                                   I              I             I                 I

                                                                                      ..    -

  IFUTU          Y

    MlAS       ADARM

    ATAC         P31

    BAT P31


    MlAS SADA M P31

    TS     M


   TfCHNnlOC;'Y                DE

     Dual Mod         Seeker


     Advanced Warhead

   • DASM
   - Energetic       MaterialslWarheads

                                                                                                  I                             I
   - RF- Emitter Killer                            .~:;::;~:;,;;,:::;:;~;,;:;;;;;:::~~:;::;;~;~;~~;r;,;;t;:;:;:;:;;;;:~~::~~::;;;~:;::;~;:;;;;::;~:;;;~;;~;;~~;~~;:\);;:~;,~~.:;,~;;;;T~;~::;;;;~~~;~;::~;,~~~~~~;~~;,
   • Rockets and Missiles

   LEGEND        I         ]        I
                                                                                                                                                               AS OF      4 JAN 93
                  TECH BASE             OEM VAL                       EMD                       PRODL~TION           FIELDING        FUNDED     UNFUNDEDIFUNDING

                                 Figure 7-6. Weapons and Munitions Development Schedules

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                                                                                             7-9
7.4.1 HIMARS                                           7.4.6 SADARM P3I

lllMARS will provide a quick reaction MLRS             SADARM P3I will provide MLRS the greater
launcher for the light forces, which is required for   lethality, resistance to countermeasures, and larger
CONUS-based contingency operations. As rapid           footprint necessary to attack soft CF and moving
response becomes the watchword for employ-             targets at tactical fIre ranges.
ment of Army assets, lllMARS is fully supported
by the FA community and is gaining support at          7.4.7 BAT P3I
DA and Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD).
                                                       BAT P31 will attack a broad range of targets, and
7.4.2 ILMS                                             will provide a hani target kill capability at varying
                                                       ranges depending upon the carrier vehicles. In-
ll.MS will improve MLRS launcher ~tion        and      clusion of BAT P4I on MLRS and ER MLRS will
response time OaYing, erection}, reliability, and      provide a tactical fIreS range hani target kill capa-
will reduce operating and support costs.               bility.

7.4.3 ATACMS P3I APAM                                  7.4.8 JPSDIWARBREAKER

ATACMS P3I APAM is required to provide the             JPSD, Warbreaker, and similar demonstrations
increased ranges and accuracy necessary to deliver     examine the entire sensor to shooter process to
area saturation munitions at operational fIre ranges   make informed system assessments. Funding for'
against soft stationary targets, TBM sites, CF tar-    JPSD/W arbreaker provides a systemic approach
gets, enemy AD targets and other RF emitters.          to C41, T A, and S/S evaluation, and has a high
                                                       potential for return on investment.
7.4.4 ER MLRS
                                                       7.4.9 MINI-CRUISE
ER. MLRS will extend the range of the basic
MLRS rocket and extend soft target kill capabili-   Mini-cruise will be a small, cruise-technology
ties to maximum tactical fIreS ranges. The 94       missile incorporating loiter and flexibility of em-
POM identifies RDT&E funds for this" effort .. plOYment in its design. It will be ~veloped to
Procurement support is required to ensure that the .incorporate extended shelf life, ER, and other
current inventory of MLRS rockets can be re-        technology improvements. The system must in-
placed with ER Rockets at the end of their ex-      clude the anti-radiation homing capability planned
pected shelf life, and to preserve the industri~ . for the previously canceled GLTR,program, and
production base.                                 .  will satisfy current capability deficiencies in at-
                                                   'tacking RF emitters and in improving DIAD.
                                                       7.4.10 Low Cost Anti-Armor SUbmunition
AT ACMS EN will have significant range en-                    (LOCAAS) .
hancements that will allow delivery of MFOM
munitions out to. maximum ranges allowed by
                                                       LOCAAS has successfully completed captive
treaty. The current propellant shelf life will be      flight demonstrations and data analyses of low
lengthened to give more cost-effec~ve service          cost advanced submunition concepts. The target
life.                                                  set is composed of moving and stationary annored

7-10                                                                PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
vehicle fonnations and other HVfs, such as pre-        ter and AD systems. Funding is necessary to
launch surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and TBM          further evolve the concept and to conduct a tech-
sites. Further development will address                nology demonstration. RFAM, as a MFOM mu-
submunition      fabrication    and drop test          nition, is a lower cost alternative to resolving this
demonstrations. Transition and integration to          battlefield deficiency than previous total system
provide a smart submunition for MLRS, ERMLRS           solutions since canceled. Early funding and care-
and ATACMS could occur as early as FY94.               ful management of this technology base effort
LOCAAS appears to be a good technology                 should be provided now.
candidate for lITI.
                                                       7.4.15 DASM
7.4.11 SADARM PJI Follow-on
                                                       DASM is a technology base future system which
SADARM P31requires a follow-on with improved           will provide the capability to engage long-range,
range, lethality and effectiveness against hard tar-   HVfs with large target location error. A technol-
gets at operational fires ranges. Delivered by         ogy demonstration in the FY94-00 time frame is
ATACMS and coupled with the P3I expanded               planned to evaluate real-time performance. Early
footprint, this action will remove two major defi-     planning in the concept phase of DASM will
ciencies; the capability to kill moving targets and    simplify its design and provide for adaptation to
improve CF.                                            multiple carriers, making this technology leap
                                                       applicable to all FS missions at all ranges.
7.4.12 Dual Mode Seeker
                                                       7.5 SUMMARY
The Dual Mode Seeker program will demonstrate
autonomous acquisition and guidance of a com-          Materiel developers must speak with one voice.
mon apemrre dual mode (MMW /IR) seeker against         Resources must be pooled to field the best system
missile sites and annored targets. If successfully     possible, which means the best combination of
integrate<Lthe resultant munition will have IR and     target acquisition, C4I, lethal and non-lethal
MMW sensor capability against current deficien-        weapons, and logistic support. The plentiful bud-
cies: moving and stationary hard targe~, and an        gets of the eighties are history~ Every appropri-
improved capability against TBM.                       ated dollar must do more. As we jointly build the
                                                       96 POM, we must focus on modernization of fIre
  7.4.13 AIS                                           support as a System of Systems. While we fight
                                                       for funding of our own programs, it is critical that
 This m will develop and demonstrate a w:ide , we closely monitor the priorities, and requests of
  area search. sensor-fused munition delivered by      other FS System of Systems developers, provid-
  tactical surface-to-surface        missiles (e.g'.,  ing active support when needed, when it promises
  ATACMS). It will meet the required capability of     the best chance for success. We have one common
  precision and area attack of TBM.                    mission: Use what. we have to give our soldiers
                                                       the best equipment possible, and plan well enough
  7.4.14 RF A~1                                        to give- it to him when lle needs it This plan
                                                       describes one way to do it. It was prepared with
  RFAM is a teChnology base future munition de-        others in mind, and hopefully addresses the con-
. signed for lethal attack against RF emitters, C2     cerns of all materiel developers in the fue suppon
  systems, computeT'S, avionics, and surveillance      community. Comments on the plan are not only
  and tracking radars. Since RFAM reacts toRF          welcome, they are essential if we are to stand up
  signals, passive or active, it will provide an areal and make the tough decisions facing us as we
  precision capability to neutralize enemy RF emit-    enter a new century.

 PEO Tactical Missiles Irfodernization Plan                                                            7-11
       This page intentionally left blank

7-12                                  PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
              ANNEX A -             ABBREVIATIONS           AND ACRONYMS

AAA                      Anti-Aircraft ArtilleIy
AASLT                    Air Assault
A2Cl                     Army Airspace Command and Control Element
ABN                     'Airborne
ACAP                     Advanced Concepts and Plans Directorate
ADS                      Automated Control of Industrial Systems
ADSO                     Advanced Computational and Infonnation Sciences Directorate
ACf                      Advanced Concepts and Technology
AD                       Air Defense
ADA                      Air Defense Artillery
ADEXJAM                  Artillery-Delivered Expendable Jammer
ADTIP                    Army Domestic Technology Tnmsfer Program
AFAIDS                   Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System
AFFS                     Advanced Fire Finder System
AI                       Artificial Intelligence
AIS                      Autonomous Intelligent Submunition
ALB                      AirLand Battle
APAM                     Anti-Personnel Anti-Materiel
APC                      Armored Personnel Carner
ARDEC                    Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center
ARL                      Army Research Laboratory                              .,
ARM                      Anti-Radiation Missile
ARO                      Army Research Office
ASARC                    Army Systems Acquisition Review Council
ASAS                     All Sources Analysis System
ASOC                     Air Support Operations Center
ASM                      Armored Systems Modernization
ASP/DSP               . .Analog Signal Processing/Digital Signal Processing
ASRM                     Advanced Solid Rocket Motor
ASTMP                    Army SCience and Technology Master Plan
ATACMS                   Army Tactical Missile System
ATACS                    Advanced Target Acq~iSitio'n Counterfrre System
ATCCS                    Army Tactical Command and Control System
ATBM                     Anti-Tactical Ballistic Missile
ATBMP                    Army Technology Base Master Plan
AID                      Advanced Technology Demonstration
AVRDEC                   Aviation Research. Development, and Engineering Center
BAT                      Brilliant Anti-Armor Submunition •                 "
BCS                      Banery Computer System
BOA                      Battle Damage Assessment
BDE                      Brigade
BOP                      Battlefield Development Plan
BED                      Battlefield Environment Directorate
BFMA                     Battlefield Functional Mission Area
BFV                      Bradley Fighting Vehicle

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                               A-I

 BIS 2015        Battlefield Infonnation System for 2015
 BMP             Bronevaya Maschina Piekhota (Soviet Annored Infantry Fighting Vehicle)
 BTI             Balanced Technology Initiative
 C2              Command and Control
 C2TAC           (U. S. Anny) Communication-Electronics   Command Technology Assessment
                 Center for Command and Control                                                 l
 C3              Command, Control, Communications                                               f
 C4I            Command, Control, Communications, Computer and Intelligence
 CAAM           Computer Assisted Artillery Meteorology
 CB/SS          Coordinated Brilliant/Smart Munitions
 CCS            Command and Control System
 CECOM          (U.S. Anny) Communications-Electronics    Command
 CF             Counterfrre
 cas            Common Guardrail System
 CIS            Commonwealth of Independent States (Fonnerly Soviet Union
 CMT            Critical Mobile Target(s)
 COMINT         Communications Intelligence
 CONUS          Continental United States
 CP             Command Post
 CR.            OoseRange
 CRDEC          Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center
 err            Commanders Tactical Terminal
 CY             Calendar Year
 DA             Deparnnent of Anny
 DARPA          Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
 DASM           Deep Attack Smart Munition
 DDR&E          Director of Defense Research and Engineering
 DE             Directed Energy
 DEW            Directed Energy Weapon
 DFAM           Deep Fire Attack Munition
 DIAD           Destruction of Integrated Air Defense
 DIVARTY        Division Artillery
 DMD            Digital Message Device
 DNA            Defense Nuclear Agency
 DoD            Deparment of Defense
 OOE            Deparnnent of Energy
 DPICM          Dual Purpose Improved Conventional Munition~
 DS             Direct Support
 EAC            Echelons Above Corps
 ECBRS          Enhanced Concept Based Requirements System
 ECM            Electronic Countermeasures
 ECCM           Electronic Counter-Counter Measures
 EFP            Explosively Formed Penetrator
 ELINT          Electronic Intelligence
 EMD            Engineering and Manufacturing Development

A-2                                                 PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 ANNEX A-:.- ABBREVIATIONS                         AND ACRONYMS                  (CONTINUED)

EN                       Enhanced
EPA                      Extended Planning Annex
EPSD                     Electronic and Power Sources Directorate
ER                       Extended Range
ERIS                     Exo.aanospheric Reenny Vehicle Interceptor Subsystem
EW                       EleCtronic Warfare                         .
F2S2                     Future FIre Support System
FA                       Field Artillery
FAADC2                   Forward Area Air Defense Command and Control
FAAOPS                   Field Artillery Attack Operiuions Requirements Study
FARRP                    Forward Area Reanning Refuel Point .
FCS                      Fire Control S~tion
FC2S.                    Future Command and Control System
FDC                      Frre Direction Center
FDDM                     Fire Direction Data Manager
FDS                    , Fire Direction System       .
FLOT                     Forward Line of Own Troops
PM                       Field Manual
FOO-M                    Fiber Optic Guided Missile.
FR                       France
FS                       Fire Support
FSCL                     Fire Support Coordination Line . .
FSCOORD                  FS Coordinator
FSE                      Fire Suppon Element
FSO                      Fire Supprn:tOfficer
FfAS                     Future Target'Acquisition System
FUE                    . First Unit Equipped
FY                       Fiscal Year
G&C                      Guidance and cOntrol          .
GAO                      Go~emment Accounting Office
GE-                      Germany
GLTR                     Ground Launched Tacit Rainbow ..
GNP                      Gross National Produc~ ...
GPS                      Global Positioning Syst~m .
GRCS                     Guardrail Common Sensor'
GS                       General Support
GSM                      Ground Suppon Module
GSR                      General Support Reinforcing ."
HBCU/Ml                  Historically Black Colleges and Univ.ersities/Minority Institutions
HEDI                     High Endo.atrnospheric Defense Interceptor              "'.
 HERD                    Human Engineering Research Directorate
.HIMARS                  High Mobiijty Artillery Rocket System .
 HMMWV                   High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle
 HPT                     High Payoff Target .      '
HQDA                     Headquarters, Depannlent of the Anny

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan '.                                                    A-3

 HTI            Horizontal Technology Insertion
 HVT            High Value Target
 IDF            Israeli Defense Force
 IEW            Intelligence Electronic Warfare
 IFCS           Improved Fire Control System
 IFCS-l         Improved Fire Control System-Block One
 IFCS-2         Improved Fire Control System-Block Two
 IFCS           Interim Fire Control System
 IFSAS          Interim FIre Support Automation System
 ll..MS         Improved Launcher Mechanical System
 IMINT          Imagery Intellige!1ce
 IMU            Inertial Measurement Unit
 IOC            Initial Operational Capability
 IOF            Inter-Operability Facility
 IOlE           Initial Operational Test and Evaluation
 IPB            Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield
 IR             Infrared
 IR&D           Independent Research and Development
 ISRP           Improved Stabilization Reference Platfonn
 JPSD.          Joint Precision Strike Demonstration
 JSOW           Joint Standoff Weapon
 JSTARS         Joint Swveillance and Target Attack Radar System
 ITD            Joint Technology Demonstration
 KM             Kilometer
 KW             Kilowatts
 LADAR          Laser Radar
 LAM            Louisiana Maneuvers
 LATS           Long-wave Infrared Advanced Technology Seeker
 LEAP           Lightweight Exoannospheric Projectile
 LID            Light Infantry Division
 LLM            LauncherlLoader Module
 LMS            Lightweight Multipurpose Shelter
 LOCAAS         Low Cost Anti-Annor Submunition
 LONG ARM       Long Range Artillery Missile
 LONG FOG       Long Range Fiber Optic Guided Missile
 LPI            Low Probability of Intercept
 LRRDAP         Long Range Research, Development and Acquisition Plan
 LRU            Line Replaceable Unit
 LTACFIRE       Lightweight Tactical Fire Direction System
 LWIR           Long-wave Infrared
 MANPRINT       Manpower and Personnel Integration
 MAPS           Modular Azimuth Positioning System
 MD .           Materials Directorate
 MDS            MeteorologiCal Data System
 MFOM           M270 Family of Munitions

A-4                                                     PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
  ANNEX A -            ABBREVIATIONS                AND ACRONYMS               (CONTINUED)

MICOM                     u.S. Army Missile Command
MLRS                      Multiple Launch Rocket System
MMS                       Meteorological Measuring Set
MMW                       Millimeter Wave
MPS                      .Mobile Profiler System
MRC                       Major Regional Conflict
MRL                       Multiple Rocket Launcher
MRMAN                     MissileIRocket Manager
MS                        Meteorological Sensor
MSFC                      Marshall Space Flight Center
MSL                       Missile
NASA                      National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NATO                      North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVSTAR                   Navigational System Tracking and Range
NBC                       Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical
NCIR                      Non-Cooperative Target Recognition
NDI                       Non-Developmental Item
NLOS                      Non Line-Of-Sight
0&0                       Operational and Organizational
OD                        Operations Directorate
ORD                       Operational Requirements Document
OSD                       Office of the Secretary of Defense
P3I                       Pre-Planned Product Improvement
PADS                      Position and Azimuth Determining System
PDAMS                     Precision Deep Attack Missile System
PDS                       Positioning Detennination System
PDSS                      Post Deployment Software Support
PGM                       Precision Gui~ Munition
PEO                       Program Executlve Office
PLGR                      Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver
POL                       Petrolem:n, Oil and Lubrication
POM                       Program Objective Memorandum
POS/NAV                   Position/Navigation .!.

R                         Reinforcing
R&D                       Research and Developmen't
RAM                       Reliability, Availability and Maintainability
RDA                       Research, Development and Acquisition
RDT&E                     Research, Development, Test and Evaluation
RF                        Radio Frequency
RFAM                      Radio Frequency Attack Munition
 RP                      Rocket Pod
.RRPR                    Reduced Range Practice Rocket
RSTA                     Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition
RTEMS                    Real Time Executive for Missile Systems         .
SADARM                    Sense and Destroy Annor

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                     A-5

 SBIR       Small Business Innovative ~search
 SDIO       Strategic Defense Initiative Organization
 SEAD       Suppression of Enemy Air Defense
 SlAG       Smvey Instroment Azimuth Gyro
 SIGINT     Signal Intelligence
 SINCGARS   Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System
 SLAD       Smvivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate
 SNSG       Smvey North Seeking GyroscoPe
 SOJ        Stand Off Jammer
 SP         Self ProPelled
 SR         Short Range
 SRM        Solid Rocket Motor
 SRP        Stabilization Reference Point
S/S         Support and Sustainment
S3ID        Signatures, Sensors and Signal Processing Integration Directorate
SlMP        Science and Technology Master Plan
STO         Science .and Technology Objectives
TA          Target Acquisition
TACFIRE     Tactical FJre Direction System
TACOM       U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command
TACP        Tactical Air Control Party      .
TAMSS       Target Area Meteorological Sensor System
TBM         Tactical Ballistic Missile
TO          Technology Demonstration
TGW         Tenninal Guidance Warhead
TIBS        Tactical Intelligence Broadcast System
TIDS        Tactical Infonnation Distribution System
TI..E       Target Location Error
TM          Tactical Missile
TMD         Theater Missile Defense
TRADOC      (U. S. Army) Training and Doctrine Command
TSEU        Technology Seeker Evaluation Unit
TSSAM       Tri-Service Stand off Attack Missile
TTCP        The Technical Cooperation Program
TVA         Target Value Analysis
UAV         Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UAV-CR      Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Close Range
UAV-SR      Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Shon Range
UGV         Unmanned Ground Vehicle
UK          United Kingdom
URI         University Research Initiative
USAF/ASD    U.S. Air Force Systems Command/Aeronautical Systems Division
USASDC .    U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command
VHSIC       Very High Speed Integrated Circuits
WID         Weapons Technology Directorate

A-6                                                PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan

1.    INTRODUCTION                                      manders, through their soldiers, can use in deci-
                                                        sively executing the Army's FS mission.
This annex covers science and technology program
efforts, their structure, key critical and emerging     2.1     BACKGROUND
teChnologies along with an investment strategy
that supports Missile and Rocket System Mod-            The Army must continue to focus modernization
ernization programs. Planned Advanced Tech-             on systems that potentially abate our most Press-
nology Demonstrations        (A TOs), Technology        ing deficiencies, enhance current capabilities or
Demonstrations      (fOs), and Joint Technology         provide new capabilities through technology
Demonstrations (ITDs) are discussed covering            transfer and leap ahead technology. Figure B-1
critical, emerging, and key technologies that can       provides a view of events and time-lines experi-
be translated into potential operational capabilities   enced in a typical Science and Technology pr0-
for FS weapon systems that will meet future op-         gram. The complete cycle covers a period of 15
erational requirements. These technology efforts        years from the insertion of a technology into the
are structured to provide leap-ahead technology         system until all the required troops have equipment
and technology transfer opponunities through the        and spares to accomplish their mission. It shows
leveraging of technology programs from all              that current science and technology efforts cannot
sources, including the Defense Advanced Research        influence near-tenn capabilities, may' influence,
Projects Agency (DARPA), the Defense Nuclear            mid-tenn capabilities, and most definitely will
Agency (DNA), the National Aeronautics and              influence far-tenn capabilities.
Space Administration (NASA), the Department
of Energy (DOE), Sister Services, and initiatives        The continuing changes in threat, doctrine, tech-
such as the Strategic Defense Initiative Organiza-       nology, and national Priorities translate into re-
tion (SDIO) and the Balanced Technology Initia-          quirements for Army modernization. The materiel
tive (Bll). Included in this Annex are the results       user focuses on near-term requirements while the
of a technology assessment that was chartered to         combat and materiel developers focus on systems
assess U.S. Technology research and to evaluate          upgrades/systems and advanced concepts required
its relevance to PEO MSL and to prepare a repon          to meet the needs of mid-renn and far-term re-
dealing with those critical and emerging tech~           quirements. The Science and Technology Program
nologies that have potential to PEO MSL weapon           develops and transitions the new technologies re-
systems.                                                 quired for future sysJems Engineering and Manu-
                                                         factUring Development. (EMD). By focusing on
2.    SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY'                           .transfer/insertion of critical, emerging and key
                                                         technologies into new systems/system upgrades
 The science and technology program must confonn.        and advanced concepts, new capabilities can
 with the new science and teChnology strategy            quickly progress into EMD.
 established by the Director of Defense Research
 and Engineering (DDR&E) and emphasize critical         The i~ that procuring and fielding hardware is
 Anny needs and opponunities that provide the           more impo~t      than investing in technologies,
 technological foundation for the Anny's modern-        which may not be realized for a decade or more,
 ization. The focus is on AIDs, IDs, and JTDs           often makes science and technology funding a
'associated with the eight science arid technology      prime candidate for budget cuts. Such expedient
 thrusts, to provide for quality materiel that com-     short-tenn savings at the expense of long-term

fED Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                B-1
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B-2                                                                             PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
invesnnents must be resisted. The total obligation         The Army Science and Technology funding by
authority for the Anny will continue to be reduced         budget category for the DA is shown in Figure
for the foreseeable future. The allocation ofFY92          B-3.
Research, Development and Acquisition (RDA)
funding for Department of the Anny (DA) is
shown in Figure B-2.

                                                                 ACTUAL IPRCUECTED
      25                                                                     I
 ~                                                                           I
 :J                                                                          I
 e    10

       5                                                                                        Development, Test
                                                                                                and Evaluation
                                                                                                BA2 (6.3A)
       0                                                                                        BA 1 (6.1 and 6.2)
           70            75            80             85               90   92   95   97
                                             FISCAL YEAR
            FY92 JOINT APPROPRIATIONS REPORT 1C2-328. 18 NOV 91

                                        Figure B-2. Army Budget Trends

                                                                                           96     97
                                                       FISCAL YEAR

                              Figure B-3. Army Science and Technology Funding

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                         B-3
2.2    TECHNOLOGY PLANNING                          concept The Anny used the BFMA concept to
                                                    adopt a list of 14 emerging technologies that were
The Anny is moving away from its traditional        derived from the list of DoD critical technologies
branch oriented mission area concept toward the     (Figure B-4). These 14 emerging technologies
Battlefield Functional Mission Area (BFMA)          provide the most potential for improving Army

                                                                ARMY KEY EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

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                  DoD CRrr/CAL TECHNOLOGIES                    < :E < < a: < Q. 0 en                    ..J Q.  z                 <
                                                               •• ••                 •
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                   Figure 8-4. Army Emerging TechnologiesIDoD Critical Technologies

B-4                                                                 PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
war fighting capabilities. DoD critical technologies       c. Longer term applicability:
are translated into requirements through BFMA
analysis by evaluating weapons concepts and                      •   Biotechnology materials and processes
doctrine to accomplish a battlefield function. The               •   High energy density materials
BFMA concept allows for cross mission area                       •   Hypervelocity projectiles
prioritization and allocation of resources with                  •   Pulsed power
technology planning focused on battlefield                       •   Superconductivity
deficiencies rather than mission areas.
                                                           2.3       SCIENCE AND
The. third Annual Defense Critical Technologies                      TECHNOLOGY
Plan, released in draft form March 1991, is in                       INVESTMENT STRATEGY
response to a public law that requires the Secre-
tary of Defense to submit to Congress an annual
                                                           The Army's science and technology strategy links
plan for developing those technologies consid-
                                                           the overnll Army strategy of technological superi-
ered by the Secretaries of Defense and Energy to
                                                           ority to the science and technology actions that
be most critical to ensuring the long-tenn qualita-
                                                           must supPOrt this policy. This strategy is commit-
tive superiority of U.S. weapon systems. The
                                                           ted to the maintenance of technological superior-
plan was developed by an Office of the Secretary
                                                           ity, while preserving the flexibility to cope with a
of Defense (OSD) chartered working group and
                                                           wide array of possible threat, technology, and
identified 21 .critical technologies. These were
                                                           budget environments.      The Army intent based
prioritized into three groups:
                                                       .   upon ~pting the 14 emerging technologies is to:

a       Most Pervasive:                                    a Provide sufficient funding for progress on a
                                                           broad front
    •     Composite materials
    •     Computational fluid dynamics                     b. Stabilize funding so that laboratory activities
    •     Data fusion                                      can be properly planned
    •     Photonics
    •     Semiconductor materials and microelec-           c. Ensure that the technical. staff has developed
          tronic circuits                                  concrete plans
    •     Signal processing
    •     Software engineering                             d.. Provide a mechanism by which management
    •     Flexible manufacturing                           can review importaI)t areas across, organizational
    •     Passive sensors                                  boundaries

b. Immediate advances in weapon system capa-               e. Meet our obligations to society through sup-
bilities:                                                  port of small and disadvantaged businesses, His-
                                                           torically Black Colleges and Universitie~or-
    •     Air breathing propulsion                         ity Institutions (HBCU/MI), youth outreach pr0-
    •     Machine intelligence/robotics                    grams, and the sponsorship of environmental re-
    •     Parallel computer architectureslHi               search. •                  ..
          perfonnance computing
    •     Sensitive radars                                 f. Publish the Army Vision and the science and
    •     Signature control                                technology strategic plan in the Anny Science
    •     Simulation and modeling .                        and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP).
    •     \\'eapon system environment

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                     B-5
  The principles set forth in the AS1MP for the             AS1MP and are listed in Figure B-6 along with
  science and technology invesnnent strategy are            the applicable DoD critical technology, respon-
  identified in Figure B-5.                                 sible agency, and science and technology thrust
  2.4      SCIENCEAND
           TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVES                            2.5      ADVANCEDTECHNOLOGY
  Science and Technology Objectives (STOs) are
  specific, measurable major technology advance-            AIDs are a central tenet of the science and tech-
 ments that are to be achieved by a specific year.          nology strategy. They are risk reducing, inte-
 They are reviewed annually by the Deputy Assis-            grated, "proof of principle" demonstrations de-
 tant Secretary for Research and Technology, Of-            signed to assist near-tenn system developments in
 fice of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for            the satisfaction of specific operational capability
 Research, Development and Acquisitiori. They               needs. Such demonstrations, coupled with simu-
 are revised as necessary to maintain cunency and           lations and exercises associated with the science
 consistency with economic factors and Anny                 and technology thrusts, will help ensure that the
 leadership guidance. FS STOs are covered in the            technology is ready, manufacturing processes are


 Near, Mid and Far Term Needs
 Technology Push/Requirements Pull
 Weapon Systems and Other Battlefield Requirements

              - Systems/Systems Upgrades and 50%
                  Advanced Concepts
 Supporting Capabilities     10%
 Systemic Problems           15%
 Emerging Technologies       25%


             - Technology Transfer
             - Technology Insertion

             - Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATDs)
             - Joint Technology Demonstrations (JTDs)
             - Technology Demonstrations (TDs)
             - Prototyping


             - To Foster Climate for Technology Initiatives and Innovative Opportunities While Providing
               . Flexibility to Labs and RDEC Directors to Seize Local High Payoff Opportunities .

                      Figure B-S. Science and Technology Investment Strategy Principles

B-6                                                                    PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                                        SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY            OBJECTIVES

                                                                       DoDCRmCAL                      THRUST
        NO.                            TITLE                           TECHNOLOGY

       II.J.3       IMPROVED PROJECTILE                                     17             ARL          2,5

       II.J.4       GPSFUZE                                                 7,8,9          ARL          2,5

       II.J.5       BISTATIC RADAR FOR WEAPONS           LOCATION           7,8,9          CECOM        1,2

       II.J.9      EXTENDED      RANGE ARTILLERY     PROJECTILES            5, 18          ARDEC        2,5

       II.J.11      ULTRA-WIDE    BANDWIDTH    RADAR                        7              HDL          1

       II.J.12     VISUAL IMAGING PROJECTILE        GLOBAL                  9,16           ARL          1,2
                   POSITIONING ROUND

       II.J.13     LONG FOG                                                 1,3,9          MICOM        2

       II.J.15     JOINT PRECISION     STRIKE DEMONSTRATION                 5,9,12         JPSO         2

       III.F.3     DECISION AIDS FOR ADV ARTILLERY                          4              ARDEC        2,5

       III.M.1     ENERGETIC     MATERIALS,wARHEADS                         17,21          ARDEC        2,5

       V.F.16      AMMUNITION     MANAGEMENT                                2,5            AMMOLOG      7

       V.H.3       INSENSITIVE    MUNITION (1M)                             17,21          ARDEC        2,5

       1IJ.K.3     TARGET AREA METEOROLOGY                                  11             ARL         2,5

         1.     Global Surveillance and Communications        5.   Advanced Land Combat
         2.     Precision Strike                              6.   Synthetic Environments
         3.     A'JrSuperiority and Defense                   7.   Technology for Affordability
         4.     Sea Control and Under Sea Superiority         8.   Warriors' Edge

                                   Figure 8-6 •. Science and Technology Objectives

available and operating concepts are understood               demonstrate detection and track accuracies suf-
before a fonnal acquisition program is under-                 ficient to meet the weapons location requirement
taken. The FS ATO of specific interest to PEo-                of the Advanced Firefinder System (AFFS)
MSL in the Science and Technology Master Plan                 (Formerly the Advanced Target Acquisition
is described below.                          ."               Counterfrre System (ATACS» by FY94.

Bi~utic Radar for WeapOns Location. This ATO                  2.6       TECHNOLOGY
'is aJso a STO that was included in Figure B-6                          DEMONSTRATIONS
above. It is proposed as a joint U.S. Anny and
Israeli Defense Force (IDF), Nunn funded ini-                The primary focus of IDs... is to demonstrate the
tiative. The objective is to demonstrate an Anti             feasibility arid practicality of a technology for
Radiation Missile (ARM) resistant transmitter                solving specific military deficiencies. They pr0-
using advanced antenna designs ancVorlow proba-              vide infonnation that reduces uncertainties and
bility of intercept (LPI) wavefonns for a bistatic           subsequent engineering costs, while sinlulta-
radar by FY93, demonstrate a three-dimensional               neously providing valuable development and re-
capability in a bistatic radar by FY94, and                  quirements data. FS IDs of specific interest to

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                       B-7
PEO-MSL are included in the ASTMP and are               demonstrate low cost rocket propulsion, Guidance
described below.                                        and Control (G&C)and composite materials in a
                                                        lightweight launcher for increased range and im-
2.6.1    Long Range Fiber Optic Guided                  proved accuracy that will be capable of firing the
         Missile (LONGFOG)                              entire M270 Family of Munitions (MFOM). The
                                                        system will be light enough to be transported by
This TO will provide the battlefield commander          C-130 (CH-47 aircraft, UH-60 desirable).
with a long-range (lOO+km) precision guided
standoff weapon for smgical strikes against hard-       2.6.6   Long Range Artillery Missile
ened and other HVTs.                                            (LONGARM)

2.6.2    Deep Attack Smart Munition                     This 1D will demonstrate a multi-mission recon-
         Technology                                     naissance/engagement missile system capable of
                                                        delivering conventional munitions for the attack
This 1D will evaluate real time performance of          of high value tactical targets beyond the current
state-of-the-art seeker and sensor breadboard           range of Army T ACMS for cross-corps and deep
hardware for automatic acquisition and engage-          operations.
ment of mobile annor and other HVTs in realistic
battle environments.                                    2.6.7   Coordinated BrilliantJSmart
                                                                Munitions (CB/SS)
2.6.3     Autonomous Intelligent Submunition
        . (Damocles)                                    Demonstrates coordinated submunitions utilizing
                                                        the hunter/killer concept The smart component
This 1D will develop and demonstrate a wide             of this demonstration consists of smart lethal
area search, sensor fuzed munition capable of           submunitions that receive target information from
being delivered by tactical surface-to-surface          the "brilliant hunter observer."
missiles (e.g., ATACMS).
                                                        2.6.8   Advanced Warhead Demonstration
2.6.4     Future FS System (F2S2)
                                                        Evaluates new explosively formed penetrator
This TO is an addi.tional demonstration that has        (EFP) concepts and other warhead concepts. The
been added to the Science and Technology Mas-           result of these evaluations will provide increased
ter Plan. F2S2 is planned as a leap ahead               range, footprint, lethality, and countermeasure re-
unconstrained teChnology demonstration with op-         sistant munitions for the field commander.
timum lethality as the driving factor. The demon-
stration will include an attack module and a sup-       2.6.9   Energetic Materials/Warheads
port module with a lightweight warhead and will
integrate emerging technologies in navigation, C2,      Demonstrates in a SADARM type warhead a
artificial. intelligence (AI) and lethality. The F2S2   10% more powerful, less sensitive energetic ma-
is planned to replace all indirect fue weapons          terial expected to achieve a 25% improvement in
from the l05mm through ATACMS.                          annor penetration in FY95.

2.6.5     High Mobility Artillery Rocket                2.6.10 Target Area Meteorological Semor
          System (HIMARS)                                      System (TAMSS)
             .                                          u.S. Army Research Laboratory (Battlefield
The HIMARS will provide a demonstration of
quick reaction FS for the light forces. It. will        Weather Directorate) is currently developing the

B-8                                                                PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
software and a tactical atmospheric profiler called   mg mature technologies to achieve required capa-
the Mobile Profiler System (MPS). MPS is ca-          bilities will assist the materiel developers in pr0-
pable of integrating radar wind profIles and radio-   viding effective and efficient FS systems to ex-
metrically derived temperature profiles with me-      ecute today's FS doctrine. Science and Technol-
teorological satellite derived wind and tempera-      ogy efforts progress from basic research through
ture profiles to provide vertical profiles for the    exploratory research to system application.
target area without use of a balloon borne sensor.
Software developed as part of the Computer As-        3.1      FIRE SUPPORT SYSTEM OF
sisted Artillery Meteorology (CAAM) Program                    SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY
will provide target area met data for ballistic and            NEEDS
smart weapons employment

2.6.11 Low Cost Anti-Annor Submunition                The PEO MSL Modernization Plan is the key
          (LOCAAS)                                    planning document which addresses the Army FS
                                                      Missile and Rocket modernization needs support-
This 1D will develop prototypes of low cost ad-       ing the Army's strategic role in implementing
vanced submunition concepts that have multi-          National Strategy. The development and mod-
 service and multi-target applicability. Specific     ernization programs outlined in the moderniza-
programs targeted are the Army BAT, TACMS,            tion plan, along with the leveraging of technology
 and MLRS and the USAF Joint Standoff Weapon          programs associated with this annex, will playa
 (JSOW).                                              significant role in the meeting of future FS needs...
                                                      According to the user, FS needs include increased
 2.7 JOINT TECHNOLOGY                                 mobility, improved Reconnaissance, Surveillance,
                                                      and Target Acquisition (RSTA), greater range,
          DEMONSTRATIONS                              improved accuracy and lethality, enhanced com-
                                                      munications, command and control (C3), improved
JJ1Ds will be conducted to support the DDR&E          survivability, improved training, decreased man-
'Science and Technology Thrusts. These JIDs           power requirements, increased battlefield kill
 will be designed to leverage the on-going comple-    power, improved strategic deployability, extended
 mentary technology developments throughout           range, reduced logistical bunlen, and reduced de-
 000, with a view toward enhancing 'sensor-.
                                                      velopment time. The leveraging of technology
 through-shooter system developments. Tools and       programs associated with the DoD critical tech-
 techniques for the development an~ assessment of     nology areas, the Army's emerging technology
 new operational concepts and end-to-end func-        areas, and the key technology areas associated
 tionality among the services will be explorec;l.. with the new Science and Technology Thrusts
 Army funding will become key to ensure tha~ . will allow the PEO MSL to meet the increasing
 Army systems employed in concert with the other' needs of the user. Science and Technology needs
 service systems are adequately tested and contrib- . for FS System of Systems composed of Weapons
 ute to a seamless air, laneLand sea architecture for and Munitions, Target Acquisition, C3, and Sup-
 employment                                           port and Sustainment (S/5) elements must be met
                                                      concurrently.                ~
      TECHNOLOGY PRIORITIES                            3.1.1 Weapons And Munitions

                                                       Once a threat target is detected and identified, it
PEO Tactical Missiles priorities for the near, mieL    must be engaged Science and Technology ef-
and far-terms are illustrated in Figure B-7. Adapt-    fons for smart/brilliant munitions and warhead

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                              B-9
                        NEAR TERM                                                                            FAR TERM (02-10) AND
                                                                  MID TERM (H4J1)                                  BEYOND
                                                           - Develop Hard KJI PI Munitions           • Enhanc8d    H81d Kill PI Munhlons
               - Conducl Predslon Imeldlctlon       (PI)

                                                           - Enhance Range Capabllhles               • Develop Munhlons Whh Loher,
               - Enhance Range Capability
                                                                                                       Enhanced Search, Target 10, and
                                                           - Enhance S1gn&lUI'8 Control                Muhl-OptionaJ AltacX C8pabllity
               -Incr'eae SuMvabilityA.8thallty

                                                           - Enhance SUrvMIbllllyA.8thality          • Fund CapabNhies Development
               - Increese Str8leglc   MobIlity

               - Enhance Fire Control                      - Develop Enhanc8d AntI-
                                                             R8dI8lIonlJam Capability
               - Fund Capablhle6      Developmem
                                                           - Enhanoe N1:;urBCf

                                                           - Streemllne   Maserlel ~ulshion

                                                           - DeY8lop AdIvelP8aaIYe         Sensors

                                                           - fnhanca PosItion Loc8tIon

                                                           - Fund Capablhles       Development

                RESEARCH                                    RESEARCH                                  RESEARCH

                                                            - F2S2                                    - F2S2
                - ATACMS     p31 APAM
                                                            -RFAM                                     - Future Sman Munhlon (FSM)
                                                            -OASM                                     -FC2S(C2)
                                                            -LONGFOG                                  -ATAS     (TA)
                                                            -LONGARM          '                       - Advanced       Propulsion
                _ Guld8n08   and Comrol                     - Guldano8    and Comrol                  - BrIlliant Munhlons

                                                            - Slgn&lure RedUdion                      -/ij

                _ Advanced    Rock8t Propulsion             - Advanced BMIC3I
                                                            _ Advanced     Rockel Propulsion
                - AdV8IlC8d BM,c31
                                                            • Advanoed     Signal processing
                _ Advanced    Signal processing

                _ Advanced    Signature   Control           - Duel Mode Seeker

                                                            _ Artificial Intelligence    (AI)
                - Duel Mode Seeker

                 - BATP31

                 - SAnAAM    P3l

                                             Figure B.7. PEO Tactical Missiles Priorities

lethality will improve kill probabilities. Science                                      agement, autonomous sensors, and seekers. Sig-
and Technology efforts support Deep Fire Anack                                          nal processing and computing are some of the
Munition, Radio Frequency Attack Munition, and                                          supporting efforts to improve overall weapons
Future Smart Munitions research. Engaging the                                           systems lethality,.deployability, and supportabil-
enemy at longer ranges reduces enemy effective-                                         ity. These improvements provide for greater sys-
ness, shapes the battlefield, and is an imperative                                      tems effectiveness and a more capable force.
for future warfighting. Range improvement for
ATACMS, MLRS, and any future delivery ve-                                               3.1.2 Target AcquisitionlIdentification
hicle must evolve from Science and Technology
programs. Science and Technology efforts in-                                            Finding the enemy on the battlefield is the fIrSt
clude improvements in G&C, materials and com-                                           requirement of engagement Locating and identi-
posites, miniaturization, propulsion, energy man-                                       fying enemy personnel, tank units, AD systems,

B-]O                                                                                                   PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
artillery systems, TBMs and other potential tar-        and staff of routine data and infannation handling
gets, and simultaneously delivering necessary tar-      functions associated with assessing the situation,
geting infannation to the C2 system is a challeng-      allocating targets to units, and task planning. The
ing requirement      Counterfire target acquisition     effort includes. the netting of FS sensors with
planning evolves around the FJrefinder system           National Assets, Joint/Allied FCS, UAV, and
with Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) to           UGV. It is necessary to develop alternate methods
address the near and mid-term requirements and          (other than RF) of netting and transferring data
the new AFFS, for the far-term. Planning for            between sensoI'S, intelligence assessment systems,
meeting target acquisition requirements for close       and FCSs.
support and interdiction fues utilizes National as-
sets, Anny Intelligence systems (ground based           3.1A    Support And Sustainment
sensors-light and heavy, UA V systems, advanced
QillCKF'IX and GRCS platforms), Unmanned                Current and evolving warfighting doctrine is
Ground Vehicles (UGV s), JST ARS, and the Future        predicated on the requirements for a rapid de-
Target Acquisition System (FfAS). Science and           ployment of forces capable of swift, decisive en-
Technology research in active and passive detec-        gagements on a porous battlefield Lightweight,
tion is a prime requirement to develop future           mobile systems that reduce deployment require-
 systems that can locate and cue enemy targets for      ments while maintaining the capability to engage
 identification and engagement in near real-time.       enemy forces with close support, countetfJre and
Locating the target is the first step to destroy it     precision interdiction are necessary. Future combat
 Identifying the target as friend or foe is a funda-    support systems must have the capability to main- .
mental requirement for effective weapons utiliza-       tain pace with the maneuver forces.
 tion. Particular emphasis is placed on systems
 that identify targets from their optical, electro-     3.2.     KEY TECHNOLOGIES AND
 magnetic, or acoustical signatures. Science and                 FIRE SUPPORT
 Technology efforts in algorithm development,
 computer miniattnization, and embedded software        The Science and Technology Thrusts key tech-
 support the FS BFMA.                                   nologies will be receiving much more attention in
                                                        the future since the science and technology man-
3.1.3 Command and Control                      '.       agement focus, along with the associated funding,
                                                        will be concentrating on developing SPeCific ca-
Optimal use of FS assets will increase the effec-       pabilities that can be proven with ATOs. These
tiveness, efficiency, and lethality of artillery frres. demonstrations, coupled with simulations and
FS operations must be coordinated at each opera~. exercises, will help to ensure that key' technologies
tionallevel with adjacent units, Joint Commands~        are  mature and ready, manufacturing 'processes
and Combined (Allied) effom to achieve tactical' . are available, and operating concepts are under-
and strategic objectives. The Science and Tech- . stood before committing to a fannal acquisition
nology challenge is to develop C2 systems archi-        program. Technology demonstrations are not new;
leCture with hardware, software, real-time pro-         however, what is new is the scope and depth of the
cessing, and data handling capabilities that can be     planned t~hnology demonstrations, their central-
expanded to handle the target load. It also provides    ity in the acquisition process:-and the emphasis on
for rapid engagement of designated targets and          demonstrating   an   overall military capability. The
near real-time assessment of the effectiveness of       DDR&E objective is "that every ATO be designed
the fIreS. The architecture must supPort systems        to satisfy acquisition decision makers that the
based on decision aids that relieve the commander       technology is feasible, affordable, and compatible

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                                B-II
with the operational concepts and force structure                  3.3 LEVERAGING
envisioned for the base force." The key technolo-                      TECHNOLOGY FOR mrnE
gies applicable to FS encompass the majority of                              SUPPORT
technologies listed in Figure B-8 below. The
DoD critical technologies were addressed in para.
                                                                   The notion of "leveraging" technology is based
2.2 along with their prioritization into three cat-
                                                                   upon the fact that the Army will not fund all the
egories by the Third Annual Defense Critical
                                                                   R&D activities it requires. Often, when other
Technologies Plan.

                  DODCRmCAL                                 I                      MIL" ARIL Y CRmCAL
                 TECHNOLOGIES                                                         TECHNOLOGIES

        (1) Semiconductor Materials and Microelectronic          (1)    Information Systems and Networks Technology
             Circuits                                            (2)    Computer Hardware Technology
        (2) Software Engineering                                 (3)    Computer Software Technology
        (3) High Performance Computing                           (4)    Automated Control of Industrial Systems (ACIS)
        (4) Machine Intelligence And Robotics                           Technology
        (5) Simulation And Modeling                              (5)    Materials and Production Technology
        (6) Photonics                                            (6)    Directed Energy (DE) and Kinetic Energy (KE)
        (7) Sensitive Radar                                             Systems Technology
        (8) Passive Sensors                                      (7)    Semi Conductor and Electronic Component
        (9) Signal And Image Processing                                 Technology
       (10) Signature Control                                    (8)    Instrumentation Technology
       (11) Weapon System Environment                            (9)    Telecommunications Technology
       (12) -Data Fusion                                        (10)    Communication, Navigation, Guidance, Control
       (13) Computational Fluid Dynamics                                and Identification Technology
       (14) Air Breathing Propulsion                            (11)    Microwave/Millimeter Wave Technology
       (15) Pulsed Power                                        (12)    Vehicular Technology
       (16) Hypervelocity Projectiles and Propulsion            (13)    Optical Technology
       (17) High Energy Density Materials                       (14)    Sensor Technology
       (18) Composite Materials                                 (15)    Sea Surface and Undersea Systems
       (19) Superconductivity                                           Technology
       (20) Biotechnology                                       (16)    Chemicals and Biotechnology
       (21) Flexible Manufacturing                              (17)    Nuclear Related Technology
                                                                (18)    Survivability and Hardening Technology
                                                                (19)    Energy Systems Technology
                                                                (20)    Energetic Materials and Devices Technology
                                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY KEY
          ARMY EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES                                             TECHNOLOGIES

        (1)   Advanced Manufacturing Technology                  (1)   Computers
        (2)   Advanced Materials and Materials Processing        (2)   Software
        (3)   Advanced Propulsion Technology                     (3)   Sensors
        (4)   Advanced Signal Processing and Computing           (4)   Communications Networking
        (5)   Artificial Intelligence                            (5)   Electronic Devices
        (6)   Biotechnology                                      (6)   Environmental Effects
        (7)   Directed Energy                                    (7)   Materials And Processes
        (8)   Low Observable Technology                          (8)   Energy Storage
        (9)   Microelectronics, Photonics and Acoustics          (9)   Propulsion and Energy Conversion
       (10)   Neuroscience Technology                           (10)   Design Automation
       (11)   ProtectiorVLethaiity                              (11)   Man-System Interfaces
       (12)   Power Generation, Storage and Conditioning
       (13)   Robotics
       (14)   Space Technology

                                     Figure B-8. Key Technologies         and Fire Support

B-12                                                                              PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
agencies are interested in similar activities, R&D   d Technologies for advanced, hardened, minia-
costs can be shared. Therefore, Anny Science         turized computers
and Technology funding is often applied to "le-
verage" non-Anny resourced technologies.             e. High velocity missile sub-components directly
                                                     applicable to tactical and TMD systems
3.3.1   Cost Sharing With Other Armed                          .
        Senices and DoD Agencies                     3.3.3   Non DoD Govemmental Technology
Leveraging includes innumerable cost-sharing
technology base programs between the Anny and        Two non-DoD agencies of primary interest to the
other setvices. Many science and technology          Army's R&D programs are the NASA and the
efforts are coupled with DoD agencies such as        DOE. Both of these agencies have large research
DARPA, DNA, and SDIO. The close working              budgets in comparison with the Army. Through
relationships with other agencies increased sig-     the NASA Technology Utilization Offices, their
nificantly with Congress' creation of the BTI in     Tech Briefs Journal, and cooperative agreement,
 1987 to "expand research on innovative concepts     the Army gains access to important NASA science,
and methods of enhancing defense capabilities."      engineering, and test and evaluation expertise.
Some current projects of interest to the FScom-      The Army also participates with DOE and the
munity include the AI module, battalion targeting    other Services in the DoD and DOE Munitions
system, combat vehicle C2, image exploitation        Technology Development programs, and shares
system, multi-sensor aided targeting, uncooled       the costs for developing conventional weapons ..
focal-plane     arrays,  low cost anti-armor         technologies including explosives, warhead design,
submunition, autonomous guidance for conven-         development of heavy metal alloys, and computer
tional weapons, and IR countermeasures.              modeling. Additional joint work is being con-
                                                     ducted with Los Alamos, Livermore, and Sandia
3.3.2 U.S. Army Strategic Defense                    National Laboratories on the ignition and com-
        Applications                                  bustion of liquid and solid insensitive propellants
                                                      and explosives as well as the identification of new
An imponant source of FS applicable technology       energy producing materials.
programs that show potential for leverage is the
U.S. Army Strategic        Defense   Command.     3.3.4 Industry Technology Cooperative
(USASDC) in supporting the Army's Theater                   Programs
Missile Defense (TMD) program in cooperation
with NATO and other. allies. A preliminary ar-    The Independent Research and Development
chitecture for defense in both the European and . (IR&D) Program is planned and executed by con-
various contingency theaters has been developed.  .tractors to enhance their technical capabilities or
with follow-on effons ongoing. Technology re- . to develop new defense-related products. These
search effans of USASDC with high application      programs are funded from contractor resources as
to FS include:                                     industry capital investment, but a portion of these
                                                   costs are recovered in the overhead portion of
a. Directed energy beam technologies               contracts •with DoD. IR&D programs are key
                                                   mechanisms for the Army to use science and
b. Passive and active sensors, including optical,  technology resources to leverage indusny invest-
IR, radar, and other innovative sensor technolo-   ment The finns, through Army on-site reviews,
gies                                               can learn about Army technology interests and
                                                   needs and can tailor research efforts along these
c. New missile G&C technologies                    lines. The Army gains detailed knowledge of

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                          B-13
indusny technical effons and can tailor R&D in-        Army has increased funding of this program re-
vestment to avoid duplication of effort or enter       flecting Army leadership's commitment to this.
into cooperative research agreements with these        effort.
firms. Promising technologies for FS applica-
tions now being pursued through IR&D include:          3.3.6   Other Technology Cooperative
a.' Insensitive munitions, new propellants,     fuz-
ing, safe and arming technology                        Other leveraging Programs involve interaction with
                                                       the National Science Foundation, and various
b. Structural composites,    manufacturing     tech-   Programs of international cooperation with allies
nology                                                 and friendly nations to exchange or share technol-
                                                       ogy, or to pmsue joint R&D programs. Under
c. Neural networks                                     these programs, many formal technical working
                                                       groups and panels are sponsored by NATO. One
d. Real time or re-hostable Ada and other soft-        example is The Technical Cooperation Program
ware developments                                      (ITCP) under which Australia, Canada, New,
                                                       Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United
e. U A V technology, avionics, mission planning        States share defense R&D technology and conduct
                                                       cooperative programs.      The Nunn amendment
f. New warheads       and explosively        formed    also proVides an example of increasing interest by
penetrators                                            Congress in leveraging technology with allies.

g. MLRS improvements to include launcher fIre          3.3.7   U.S. Army Research, Development
control, propulsion and submunition dispersion                 and Engineering Centers (RDECs)

h. Miscellaneous other Projects including MMW          The centers and laboratories conduct basic, ex-
technology, parallel processing architectures,         ploratoI)' and advanced research to evolve tech-
guidance processor technology, advanced missile        nology into future capabilities. The Army Research
system design, acoustic non-cooperative target         Office (ARO) conducts basic research (6.1) while
recognition (NCfR), multi-mode seekers, expert         centers and laboratories conduct concept definition
systems, digital processing, avionics and G&C          and development (6.1 through 6.3A). The centers
                                                       also frequentl y support specific weapons Programs
Additional technology     leveraging opponunities      already in development by applYing technical ex-
exist through the Small   Business Innovative Re-      pertise toward solving specific problems encoun-
search (SBIR) program,     the Advanced Concepts       tered during EMD or product improvement
and Technology (ACD        program, and the Army
Domestic     Technology       Transfer  Program U.S. Army Research Office (ARD)
                                                       The ARO coordinates, supports, and manages
3.3.5   Academic Research and Technology               basic scientific research in the physical and engi-
        Cooperation                                    neering sciences, materials science, geosciences,
                                                       biology, and mathematics.      ARO is conducting
Leveraging programs with Academia include the          research in measuring short-lived molecules cru-
University    Research Initiative (URI) centers,       cial to the ignition and combustion of propellants,
Army Centers of Excellence, and support of sci-        error correction for 16k data transmission by the
entific and engineering research at HBCUs. The         Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio Sys-

B-14                                                              PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
tern (SINCGARS),. and surface treatment for  Missile Command Research,
lightweight aluminum systems.                                  Development, and Engineering
                                                               Center (MICOM RDEC) U.s. Army Annament Research,
          Development, and Engineering                The MICOM RDEC is the lead organization for
          Center (ARDEC)                              Anny Missile and Rocket systems, and Directed
                                                      Energy Weapon (DEW) technologies. Research
  ARDEC develops, type-classifies, and fields new     is conducted in G&C, terminal homing, high-
  weapons and munitions to enhance their system       power/energy lasers and materials, UAVs, and
  effectiveness. ARDEC is conducting R&D ef-          UGVs. Efforts in the PEO MSL area include
  forts on more powerful explosives, new methods      modern optics applications for target acquisition
. for producing explosives, SAD~        image pr0-    and precision attack to include: tricolor optics and
  cessing systems, and smart munitions.               efforts to reduce cost and improve producibility of
                                                      deteetorfocal plane arrays; mathematical modeling Chemical Research, Development,               of missile dynamics, seeker perfonnance, and pro-
        and Engineering Center (CRDEC)                pellant combustion processes for more finite sim-
                                                       ulation of Missile and Rocket Systems; research
 CRDEC conducts R&D in chemical warfare and            to produce insensitive munition high energy pr0-
 chemical/biological defense methods. Current          pellants; application of advanced composites to
 efforts include AIIrobotics for handling hazard-      missile structures for weight reduction and strength
 ous materials, advanced materials and materials       enhancements; and inertial guidance system .
 processing, and chemical aerosols.                    development to improve accuracy and reduce sys-
                                                       tem weight and cost. Aviation Research, Development,
         and Engineering Center (AVRDEC)      Communications-Electronics
                                                               Command (CECOM)
 AVRDEC is the focal point for managing, plan-
 ning, and conducting R&D for Anny airmobile  Communications-Electronics Com-
 systems. Current research efforts include AI for      mand Research, Development, and Engineer-
 diagnosis of electronic subsystems and .!'Jlulti-     ing Center (CECOM RDEC). CECOM's RDEC
 sensor data fusion for target acquisition.            pursues technology to enhance battlefield infor-
                                                       mation systems by providing applications, systems Tank Automotive Command                       engineering, integration, and demonstrations to
           Research Development, and                   acquire, manage, distribute, and exploit informa-
           Engineering Center (T ACOM                  tion for friendly operations and to.'deny enemy
           RDEC)                                       collection, distribution, and use of information.
                                                    '. Current efforts include evolving the Battlefield
 TACOM RDEC efforts focus on technology ap-            Information Conceptual System for 2015 (BIS-
 plications that improve the effectiveness and         2015) where C3, Intelligence Electronic Warfare
 readiness of tactical combat and support vehicles.    (IEW), high frequency modems and standards for
 Efforts to replace heavy metal components with        data ttan~ission, information collection using
 composites will pioduce lighter vehicles with re-     thermal night sights, and forward looking infrnred
 duced signatures. Suspension technology research      sensors are integrated into a single C41warfighting
 will also provide improved mobility and increased     system. The conceptual BIS-2015 will integrate
 commonalty of components.                             the three major functions of information collec-

  PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan

tion, system infannation denial (jamming, protec-       ground-based military materiel using laser induced
tion, deception) and information transport under        fluorescence.
one information management system architecture.
                                                  Weapons Technology Directorate
                                                                                                               I Communications-Electronics          Com-      (WfD). WID is responsible for all efforts within
mand (CECOM) Center for Electronic War-                 the ARL that contribute to survivability enhance-      I
fare Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target            ment and weapon effectiveness. It serves as the
Acquisition (EW IRST A). The mission of the             principal focal point for research applications and
CECOM Center for EW /RSTA is to provide en-             simulation for survivability and lethalitY. WID        I
hanced capabilities to locate, identify, traCk, tar-    R&D efforts are primarily focused on establish-
get, and counter battlefield threats by either elec-
tronic jamming or by deception. The Center's
                                                        ing and maintaining a weapons-oriented research
                                                        program to solve problems related to ballistics        I
mission includes the design, development, initial       and wlnerability. Efforts with potential applica-
acquisition, and fielding of noncommunications          tion to FS include fuze technology to increase
EW countenneasures            and communications/        safety and reduce the size and cost of missile safe
noncommunications intelligence equipment, along          and arm devices, and an anti-armor effort investi-
with surveillance, weapon location, deteCtion, and       gating various approaches to defeating armor.
identification systems. Efforts involving tech-
nologies relating to FS include developing ground Electronics and Power Sources Di-
and airborne equipment to locate, identify, and      rectorate (EPSD). The directorate serves as the
classify high priority targets and providing equip-  lead Army organization for research, develop-
ment that measures meteorological conditions for . ment, and integration of advanced electronics and
fire control and intelligence elements.              power sources technology. Research efforts in-            ,
                                                     clude the 94 GHz monopulse transceiver for mil-     CECOM Technology Assessment           limeter/micrometer wave applications in smart
 Center for Command and Control (C2T AC).
The mission of C2T AC is to assess emerging C2
                                                     munitions, nonelectronic efforts to provide pre-
                                                     processed sensing information throughput, deci-
 technology from the user's perspective. This center sion making capability an order of magnitude
 will assist in the establishment and documentation  greater than microelectronics, and vel)' high speed
 of future operational -requirements and provide a   integrated circuits (VHSIC).
 means fOf transitioning key technologies from the
 laboratory to the battlefield.                Sensors, Signatures, Signal and In-          I
                                                        formation Processing Directorate (S3ID). S3ID   U.S. Army Research     Laboratory            is responsible fOf creating sensor and signaVdata
           (ARL)                                        processing concepts capable of adaptive opera-
                                                        tion and automatic fusion as well as supporting Battlefield Environment Directorate         real-time information distribution to enable the
. (BED). BED serves as the Anny's leading source        army to acquire, locate, identify, and engage the
  of expertise on the effect of the aonosphere on the   enemy in real-time and under all battlefield envi-
  battlefield. BED conducts research toward devel-      ronmental conditions. Research efforts support-
  oping techniques to measure and predict weather       ing future FS systems and hardware include: auto-
  at operational and tactical levels and to quantify    matic target acquisition system to detect tank size
  atmospheric effects on warfighting systems and        vehicles from 1/2 to 1 1/2 Ian distance, MMW
  capabilities. BED programs with potential appli-      radar technology for MMW guidance sensors;
  cation to FS include: the portable meteofological     and the application of explosive foil initiators to
  system that is designed to collec4 process and        electronic safe and arm devices.
  display weather data; and a system to detect

 B-16                                                               PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                                                        enabling science in the development of Army Human Engineering and Research
Directorate (HERD). The directorate provides            material.
Army leadership in R&D regarding soldier per-
                                               Advanced Concepts and Plans Direc-
fonnance as it relates to the design of future Army
                                                        torate (ACAP). ACAP establishes policies and
systems. HERD provides support to combat de-            procedures for the management of, and exercising
velopers, PEOsIPMs and to RDECs regarding the
                                                        technical SUPervisionover, AMC's teCh base pr0-
 application of MANPRINT considerations in the
                                                        gram. The directorate provideS a centralized tech-
design of new combat capabilities and systems.
                                                        nieal staff that PerJnits the laboratory to operate as
FS related efforts include knowledge-based AI
                                                         a unified whole through leadership and integra-
 systems for diagnostics of electronic components
                                                         tion of planning, marketing, technology transfer,
 and the human auditory system mathematical
                                                         program analysis, laboratory management, and
 modelling to evaluate the effects of system noise
                                                         technology assessment
 on crews.
                                                Operations Directorate (OD). The Materials Directorate (MD). The di-
 rectorate is responsible for processing and manu-       operations directorate provides administrative and
 facturing research to support the acquisition of        support services to ARL organizational elements
 future Army systems and to provide advise on            at all ARL sites and ensures the execution of real
                                                         property maintenance and base operations support
 avoiding and solving problems and reducing costs
 in current systems. MD conducts materials R&D           functions.
  in advanced ceramics, organic materials, metals,
  and solid mechanics for fielded, developing, and . Cooperative Science and Technology
  future systems. The composite hull teChnology                    Activities .
  program will provide a lighter chassis for FS
   systems and the machine vision novel teChnique        The U.S. Anny looks to foreign sources for tech-
   for evaluating aging and failure of polymer com-       nology and exploratory development By the year
   posites will improve the shelf life evaluation of      2000, approximately 25% of the Army's RDT&E
                                                          will be dedicated to cooperative efforts. The
   missile system components.
                                                          following are examples of current cooperative SurvivabilitylLethality Analysis Di-        . technology base activities.
  rectorate (SLAD). The directorate detennines
  the survivability/lethality of Anny systems to the Multiple Launch Rocket System -
                                                           Tenninal Guidance Warhead (MLRS-TGW).
  full spectrum of battlefield threats. SLAD acts as
  the Army focal point for teChnical advice and ..         The MLRS-TGW program was initiated in FY84
  consultation on survivability/lethality maners. If       with the U.S., France, United Kingdom, and
  designs, produces, operates, and maintains facili-       Gennany cooperating to develop an integrated
   ties to support the Anny's survivability/vulner-      . circuit, sensor transceiver for the MLRS missile.
                                                           While the U.S. is no longer an active participant,
   ability/lethality program requirements.
                                                            the program continues to apply teChnology ad- Advanced Computational and Infor-              vances th'\t will reduce the cost of sensor electron-
   mation Sciences Directorate (ACIS). The di-             ics.                           ~

   rectorate plans, designs, manages, and operates
                                                  Nunn Amendment Cooperative Ef-
   the global computing, communications, and in-
                                                           forts. The Nunn amendment was approved in
   formation system assets of the ARL. ACIS per-
                                                           FY86. One Nunn-funded effort is a joint U.S.
   forms research in computational and infonnation
                                                           Army and IDF bistatic radar for weapons location
    sciences as wells as simulation teChnology to as-
    sure maximum use of advanced computing as an           (See para 2.4 and 2.5).

   PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
4.   TECHNOLOGY DATABASE                              c. Fire Support Battlefield Deficiencies
                                                           1.Reference number (003 - 999)
                                                          2. Title of deficiency
The U.S. Army, PEG for Tactical Missiles is               3. System of Systems application (W 1M,
developing a State of Technology Report for as-           TA, C3, S/S)
signed tactical missile systems. The effort involves
the identification of teChnologies/research efforts  d. Keywords
applicable to the FS BFMA. The intent is to
identify teChnologies and research efforts with . The data base currently contains a total of 188
potential application to FS systems, and then to     teChnology programs from six primary sources
focus planning efforts and resources toward those    that include the USASDC/SDIO, USAMICOM,
teChnologies to result in enhanced capabilities of   USALABCOM, USAFSC, USNIONT, and the
future FS systems or improvements to current         Marshall Space Flight Center, (MSFC), NASA.
 systems. The PEG MSL established a require-         All teChnologyprograms identified through these
 ment to document the results of a "State of Tech-    sources were reviewed for possible FS applica-
 nology Report" in a data base so that the infonna-   tion, applicabl~ technology area (up to three per
 tion could be stored and identified by teChnology program), applIcable FS battlefield deficiency (up
 area. dBASE IV was selected as the system of         to five per program) and representative keywords.
 choice to handle this effort. This resulted in the Emphasis was placed on those teChnology pro-
 development of a program that would allow for        gram.s.that are associated with the Weapons and
 various search and data maintenance routines to      MumtIons FS Battlefield Deficiencies.
 edit, add, and delete the following elements within
  the data base:                                       Comprehensive review of the 188 teChnology
                                                       programs involved in the technology assessment
  a. Technology Program                                associated with the State of Technology Report
                                                       resuI~ed in the detennination of 13 programs as
       1. Title                                        candidates for technology transfer to assist in the
       2. Synopsis                                     abatement of five FS Battlefield Deficiencies that
       3. Point of ContaCt and phone number            affect PEO MSL Weapon Systems. There were
       4. Organization and address                     30 programs classified as promising technologies
       5. Funding level                                that can be further developed to assist in the
       6. Funding notes                                abatement of six FS Battlefield Deficiencies that
       7. Milestones                                    affect PEO MSL Weapon Systems. There were
       8. Source of technology program infonna-         four techn.ology programs classified as emerging
       tion                                             technologtes that can be considered in the abate-
                                                        ment of four FS Battlefield Deficiencies that affect
   b. Technology Areas                                  PEG MSL Weapon'Systems. The remainder of
                                                        techn.ologyprograms were assigned by battlefield
        I. DaD critical teChnologies                    defiCIencyto the Target Acquisition, C3, and S/S
        2. Anny emerging technologies                   elements of the FS System of Systems without
        3. Science and teChnology key teChnologies breakin~ them down into the respective technology
        4. Mili~ly Critical technologies                categones (Figure B-9). The definitions of tech-
                                                         nology program category selection criteria are
                                                         listed below:

                                                                     PED Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
                                                                                                 FIRE SUPPORT SA TTLEFIELD DEFIOENCY NUMBER

                                                                                                      ggg   003   TOO8 T041 T044           1072 1102   010 1081 1 088       016 10601061          T067
                                            004          006      012 017 049 051
                          TECHNOLOGY                                                                                                                        C3              SUPPORT/SUST A1N
                                                                                                                    TARGET ACQUISITION
                           PROGRAMS                       WE~mONS

                                                                   7        1           0        1     0
                          TECHNOlOGY         9            4
                          TRANSFER                                          ,


                          PROMISING         25           14       10        0           10       9     1                                                                                                ..

                          EMERGING                        '2        2       0           0        0     0                                                                                           \
                                                                                                                                                                                              '.   ,
                          OTHER                               6     3       4            9       9      0

                                             44           26       22           5       19       19     1    30 115           1 T T T
                                                                                                                                  25   6     42    1    26 1   5   1   13    81   1   2   1   0        126
                           TOTAL PROGRAMS
                                                                        Figure 8-9. Technology Assessment ResultS
                                                                                             .                .
                                                                                                                          was available during the conduct of the technol-
            a.            T~hnology Transfer Candidate
                                                                                                                          ogy assessment task.
               1. Viable program, has capacity to enhance
                                                                                                                           The 13 technology programs that were assessed
               FS capabilities and/or abate a FS battlefield
                                                                                                                            as being technology transfer candidates along with
             . deficiency and/or meet a FS need                                                                             their source are described below. ' Additional in-
                                                                                                                            fonnation on these programs. may be found in
                          2.' Adequately funded program                                                                     the Program Data Sheets in Anne.x B of the PEO
                                                                                                                          , FS State of Technology Report dated 3 l' August
                          3. Proven/measured milestones or success-
                          fully completed program                                                                            1992.
                                                                                                                          a. Software Analysis Development: Develop-
             b. Promising Technology ,.-\
                                   ,                                                                                     'ment of machine independent operating' system
                                                                                                                          hardware' utilizing Ada for e~bedded computer
                 •   ,I     1. Ongoing program, has capacity to, .                                                    , .architecture analysis to include multiprocessing~
                            enhance FS capaoilities, or abate a FS .                                                    . heterogeneous RealTime Executive for Missile
                          , battlefield deficiency, or m~t a FS need                                                  ',; Systems (RTEMS) and develop state-of-the-art
    .. -.
                                                                                                                         , programmable architecture for analysis of prob-

                          '2. Funded program                      I..   ,
                                                                                                                  , ',f   "lern p3.rtitioning and hardware simulation/emula":
                                             .       .
                                                                                                                    .' .' tion (MICOM/RDEC).
                            3. ~1ilestones available
                                                                                                                             b. Rocket Motor Structural J ntegrity and Service
             ,c.' Emerging TeChnology Candidate                                                                            , Life Prediction: The modeling/validation of real-
                  1. , New or ongoing program that has                                                                       istic thermal loads and improved crack forma-
                  potential application to FS programs.                                                                      tions and propagation assists in the understanding
                                                 -   ,
                                                                                                                             of the structural behavior, agfug, and service life
                            2. Funded program                                                                                of missile systems in order to be able to predict
                                                          .                         .                                         these behaviors and verify them. This technology
                           , 3. 'Milestones may not be available                                                              applies to all solid propulsion systems (MICOMl
                                                                                                                              ROEC).                                             .
                     d. Other -Those technology progriuns that are
                     unfunded or for which' n'o funding information'

                     rEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
  c. Dual Mode Seeker: The demonstration of an            Several of the rayon-based materials represent
  autonomous acquisition and guidance of a com-          advancements in the state-of-an forprepreg mate-
  mon apenure dual mode Millimeter Wave/lnfra-           rials. The MX4996 and MX6275 prepregs were
  red (MMW IIR) seeker against missile sites and         constructed from "post woven" carbon fabrics
  armored targets. This has been a joint effort with     produced by weaving carbonized yams. This
  the Air Force and has successfully leveraged the
  funding and technical expertise of both the Army
                                                         approach differs from the standard carbonized            I
                                                         fabric manufacturing in which rayon yams are
  and the Air Force (MICOM/RDEC).                        fU"Stwoven into a fabric and the entire fabric is
                                                         carbonized. The post weaving process eliminates          ~
 d. Light-weight       Exoatmospheric    Projectile      many variabilities inherent in carbonizing fabrics
 (LEAP): A lightweight advanced technology kill          such as weave distortion (NASA/MSFC).
 vehicle designed to operate in the exoatmosphere,                                                                J
 but with potential to be effective in both the AD       h. Slit Digital    Radiography for Analysis of
 and TMD areas. Features include miniaturized            Bondline Defects: SBIR task to look at the feasi-
 electronics, hit-to-kill guidance and the ability to     bility of using a radiographies nondestructive          J
 withstand the high shock of launch and acceleration     evaluation methcxl to inspect the first bondline
 (SDIO/SDC).                                              between case and insulation in typical large solid
                                                         rocket motors (SRMs). This methcxl has the p0-           I
 e. Exoatmospheric Reentry Vehicle Interceptor           tential to improve on the resolution of this bondline
 Subsystem (ERlS): Designed to be the ground-            and the probability of detection of common
 based, mid-course interceptor in the strategic de-      anomalies such as unbonds. Slit digital radiogra-       I
ofense system. Although being developed as a             phy is a technique which may be applied to map-
 strategic weapon, many ERIS component tech-
 nologies (e.g., inertial measurement unit (IMU),
                                                         ping density variations within rocket motor walls.
                                                         This could replace the use of traditional film tan-
 signal processor and scanning seeker) may have          gential radiography for inspecting the case to in-
 applicability to FS (SDIO/SDC).                         sulation bondline (NASNMSFC).

f.    Expandable Epoxy Polymer: Development of          i. D2 Endoatmospheric Hyperve[ociry Projec-
 an epoxy resin which wheon polymerized would           tile: A very smart miniature guided projectile,
 undergo expansion or at least maintain its volume.     featuring shock-hardened (100,000 g), miniatur-
 This resin was applied in the fabrication of sub-      ized controls and electronics. May be launched
 scale rocket cases that were successfully tested
 demonstrating superior performance of the rocket
                                                        from a gun or mounted on a small missile. Em-            I
                                                        ploys a visible or IR seeker to achieve hit-to-kill
 motor cases. Test results indicated a composite        intercepts against maneuvering targets (up to 50
 material with superior adhesive properties, high
 impact hardness, excellent tensile strength, high
                                                        g) from very low to high altitudes (SDIO/SDC).           I
 glass transition temperatures, and electric dissipa-   j. Westinghouse ANrrpS-70 ATBM Radm: An
 tion. U.S. Government owns the basic. patent            operational, three dimensional, track -while-scan
 (SDIO/SDC).                                            radar designed for search: acquisition, and track-
                                                        ing of aircraft and shon range ballistic missile
 g. Alternative Ablative Material Development           targets. The radar is based on a proven, fielded         :8
for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Applications: An          USAF AD radar (ANffPS-75). The Anti Tactical
 advanced development program initiated by the          Ballistic Missile (ATBM) version of the. radar
 Materials and Processes Laboratory at MSFC to          would incorporate antenna modifications and could
 evaluate candidate ablative material systems for       be mounted on a 2.5 ton truck to arrive at a tactical
 the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) nozzle.         system configuration. Experimentation with the

                                                                   PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan
 radar involves development and testing of the          The report concluded that there are technology
 expert missile tracking software to track short        programs within and beyond the FS Mission Area
 range tactical ballistic missiles in real time and     that can be pursued to enhance PEa MSL capa-
 improve the accuracy of impact and launch point        bilities and to abate FS Battlefield Deficiencies.
 predictions (SDIO/SDC).                                The limited resources that are available to the
                                                        PEa MSL can be optimized by investing in coop-
 k. High Endoarmospheric Defense Interceptor            erative agreements within and beyond the U.S.
 (HEDI): Program PurPOse is to develop and test         Army with the specific purPOse of improving
 the technology and hardware associated with the        existing MFOM systems faster and cheaPer, rather
 intercept and kill of high speed re-entry vehicles     than attempting to develop new systems.
 at high altitudes. Although being developed for
 employment in the strategic defense system, many       s.    SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
 lIEDI components, (e.g., IMU, scanning seeker,               VISION FOR FIRE SUPPORT
 advanced data processor, laser rnngefinder) may
 be adaptable to use in tactical FS and TMD sys-        The next generation of operational doctrine influ-
 tems (SDIO/SDC).                                       ences the way the Army will apply rapidly
                                                        emerging technologies on the battlefields of the
 I. Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) Advanced Tech-            21st century.
 nology Seek£r (LATS): Program is oriented to-
  ward developing a technology base for advanced       Technological advancements have significantly
  exoatmospheric LWIR seekers. A Technology            increased the lethality, range, and accuracy of
  Seeker Evaluation Unit (fSEU) is being devel-        modern weapon systems. However, high costs
  oped to include an intelligent focal plane, smart    associated with drastically reduced military bud-
  analog signal processing/digital signal processing   gets, and a smaller Army result in fewer systems
  (ASP/DSP) electronics, nuclear hardened compo-       being available on the future battlefield Despite
  nents, longer wavelength detectors, and flash        these trends, the force must be modernized in the
, cooled optics (SDIO/SDC).                            face of budgetary constraints, so that we never
                                                       relinquish our technological advantages.
m. Global Positioning System (GPS) Exploilq.-
non: GPS normally provides a military user with         Efforts must continue in the Science and Tech-
 18 meter three dimensional positioning and 100         nology program to develop promising technologies
nanosecond timing accuracies. In theory, this can       that can be adapted to systems/system upgrades
be improved to 4 meters positioning and less than       and advanced concept systems. These systems
 10 nanosecond timing between cooperating users         must improve strategic mobility, deployability,
that stay within several hundred miles of each         .responsiveness, survivability and lethality, and
other. This Program will identify specific appli-       must' enhance surveillance and target acquisition
cations in the electronic warfare (EW) domain           capabilities. Advanced concept systems must en-
that exploit various levels ofGPS positioning and       able the rapid massing of range fIreS to allow
timing service and demonstrate the most useful          the commander to seize and maintain the initia-
applications. These applications will include, but      tive while dispersing his forces Jo reduce their
not be limited to, emitter location with either         vulnerability.
s~multaneous pulse time of arrival or azimuth
measurements, and cooperative deceptive jam-           As opportunities for critical, emerging, and key
ming U.S. Air Force Systems Command/Aero-              technologies are assessed in their contribution to
nautical Systems Division (USAF/ASD).                  the FS mission, the user's perspective must al-

PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan                                                               B-21.
    ways be in the forefront Today's lessons learned
                                                           often the critical element in development pro-
    from Desert Stonn and Just Cause must be inte-
                                                           grams. Therefore, a concerted effon must be
    grated at Combat Training Centers and in major
                                                           made with other Anny organizations to build a
    exercises such as Reforger, Bright Star, and Loui-
                                                           first rate capability to integrate software develop-
    siana Maneuvers. Traditional branch boundaries
                                                           ment into the materiel development process along
   must be reviewed utilizing the BFMA concept             with force structure, doctrine, and training pro-
   and insights from Battle Labs, coupled with             grams to satisfy overall FS requirements.
   affordability measures integrated to ensure a Sys-
   tem of Systems approach to all modernization            Finally, it is imperative that the FS conimunity
                                                           shed the traditional parochialism that often clouds
                                                           our ability to make unbiased, objective trade-offs,
   Promising technologies must be transferred[m-
                                                           as we assess the myriad of future solutions to
   serted to improve performance and equipment
                                                           battlefield deficiencies. The programs discussed
   reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM).
                                                          in this Annex all have sponsors, and each program
   Likewise, investtnent must be made in manpower
                                                          was conceived as the solution to Some shortcom-
   saving strategies like decision aids, AI, expen
                                                          ing. The synergistic relationship within the Sys-
   systems, etc., to increase fighting strength even
                                                          tem of Systems, however, dictates that each p0-
   as the force strucnrre is reduced. Testing must be
                                                          tential solution be assessed against others, and a
  improved, with the perspective of the user in           single, cost-effective approach be jointly selected
  mind. Time must be spent at the front end to
                                                          by the Army as a whole to avoid duplication of
  properly identify critical test issues and criteria
                                                         funding and counterproductive budget battles.
  that will withstand the scrutiny of outside reviews .
                                                         Technology transfer to current and new systems
  by the Government Accounting Office and the
                                                         must be centrally managed, prioritized, and funded
  05D. Establishing software requirements and
                                                         with a plan for decentralized execution. Only
  software testing remain intractable problems.          then can we be confident that our limited dollars
  Software, rather than the hardware it supports, is     are spent efficiently and effectively.

                                                                   PEO Tactical Missiles Modernization Plan       It

 AMSMI-CG          RD-PR
 AMSMI-MMC         RD-QA
 AMSMI-SP          RD-SE
AMSMI-SW           RD-SI
 ATCD-L            RD-SS
ATCG               RD-ST
ATCL-C             RD-TI
ATSF-CBL           SARD-TT
ATSF-CC            SARD-ZA
ATSF-CCA           SARD-ZS
ATSF-CD            SARD-ZT
ATSF-CN            SDIO-D
ATSF-CSI           SFAE-AR
ATSF-RrvlS         SFAE-CS
ATSF-TA            SFAE-IEW
ATSH-CDC           SFAE-LL
ATZK-MW            SFAE-MAL-TO
ATZR-C             SFAE-MSL-AM
DACS-LM            SFAE-MSL-AT
JPSD-TF            SFAE-MSL-ML
RD                 SFAE-MSL-P
RD-AC              SFAE-MSL-S
RD-AS              SFAE- MSL-SI
RD-BA              SFAE-MSL-XL
RD-GC              SFAE-MSL-XN
                                 DEPARTMENT        OF THE ARMY
                              REDSTONE ARSENAl.. ALABAMA 35898-8000

       REPLY TO

SFAE-MSL-FSI                                                              26 May 1993


SUBJECT:       M270 Family of Munitions                   Modernization   Plan

1. The attached'PEO Tactical Missiles, "M270 Family of Munitions
Modernization PIan", revises and supersedes the "PEO Fire Support
Modernization Plan", dated 9 December 1991. This revised edition
of the plan encompasses effects of budget and program plans as
they existed at the close of the previous administration.   It is
obvious that the continuing unfolding of world events, coupled
with new political and budget priorities will necessitate further
updates to this plan as we build toward the 96 POM.   In the next
version of the plan we will broaden the scope of our coverage of
the System-of-System interfaces and complementary programs as
well as technology insertion candidate programs.

2. It is my intent to continue to work closely with each
addressee to ensure our programs progress in a coordinated,
rationalized, and integrated fashion.   We solicit the involvement
and input of all addressees as we begin the process for 1994.
The input you have provided us in the past was most beneficial in
building this version of our modernization plan and I deeply
appreciate your support.   As we look ahead, I invite your
continuing participation in our plans to develop and modernize
World Class Rockets, Missiles and Munitions systems, at.
affordable costs, in the right quantities, and at the right time
for our soldiers.

                                                    ~lit! n_.
                                                                          Co   1.-, oQ .

Encl                                  fer      EORGE
                                               .                 ~IAMS
                                             Program Executive Officer,
                                               Tactical Missiles

                                    AN EQUAL OPPORTUNTY   E1WLOYER
SUBJECT:   M270 Family of Munitions   Modernization   Plan

Louisiana Maneuvers Task Force, ATTN:   DACS-LM (BG Franks), Fort
  Monroe, VA 23651-5000
Joint Precision Strike Demonstration-Task Force, ATTN:
  COL Fricas, 5109 Leesburg Pike, Suite 309, Falls Church,
  VA 22041
TRAC Study Analysis Center, ATTN: ATRC-SA, Fort Leavenworth,
  KS   66027
U.S. Army Missile and Space Intelligence Center, ATTN: AIAMS-TA,
  Redstone Arsenal, AL  35898-5500

HQDA, TRADOC, ATTN:   ATCG, ATCD-L, Fort Monroe, VA 23651-5000
  SARD-SM, SARD-ZA, SARD-ZS, SARD-ZT, Washington, DC 20310-0103

Commanding General, U.S. Army Field Artillery    Center and Fort
  Sill, ATTN:  ATZR-C, Fort Sill, OK 73503

  OK 73503-5600
USAIS, ATTN:  ATSH-WC, Fort Benning, GA 31905

USAIC, ATTN:   ATZB-FS, Fort Benning GA 31905-5403
USAARC and Fort Knox, ATTN:    ATZK-MW, Fort Knox, KY 40121-5000
USACAC, ATTN:   ATZL-CDC-B, ATZL-CAI, Fort Leavenworth, KS
USACASCOM, ATTN:    ATCL-C, Fort Lee, VA 23801-6000
  Arsenal, AL    35898-5000
USAADASCH,. ATTN:   ATSA-TSM, Fort Bliss, TX 79916~0058
USAADASCH, ATTN:    ATSA-CD, ATSA-ADL, Fort Bliss, TX 79916~0002

Program Executive Office
Armaments, ATTN:   SFAE-AR, picatinny Arsenal, NJ  07806-5000
Armored Systems Modernization, U.S; Army Tank-Automotive Command,
  ATTN:   SFAE-ASM, Warren, MI 48090
Aviation, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (RDA),
  ATTN:, SFAE-AV (MG Irby), St..Louis, MO    63120

  SUBJECT:   M270 Family of Munitions   Modernization   Plan

 Combat Support, ATTN:     SFAE-CS, (Mr. Burcz), Warren, MI
 Command and Control Systems, ATTN:      SFAE-CC (Mr. Giordano),
   Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703-5000
 Communication Systems, ATTN:     SFAE-CM, (Mr. Atkinson), Fort
   Monmouth, NJ     07703-5501
 Cruise Missiles Project and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Joint
   Project, ATTN: . SFAE-CU, Washington, DC 20361-1014
 GPALS, P.O. Box, 16686, ATTN:    SFAE-CM-GPS, Arlington, VA
 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare, ATTN:      SFAE-IEW, Vint
   Hill Farms Station, Warrenton, VA 22186-5115
 Project Manager
Air-to-Air Missile Project Office, ATTN:       SFAE-MSL-ATA, Redstone
   Arsenal, AL    35898-5630
Army TACMS Project Office, ATTN: SFAE-MSL-AT, Redstone Arsenal,
   AL   35898-5650
AVENGER Project Office, ATTN:      SFAE-MSL-AVG, Redstone Arsenal,
   AL   35898-5799
BAT Project Office, ATTN:     SFAE-MSL-XB, Redstone Arsenal, AL
   Redstone 'Arsenal, AL   35898-5700
NLOS Project Office, ATTN:     SFAE-MSL-NL, Redstone Arsenal, AL
TSSAM Project Office, ATTN:     SFAE-MSL-XN, Redstone Arsenal,
  AL   35898-8000

Product Manager, FAAD Sensors Product Office, ATTN:  SFAE-IEW-
  GSI, 4910 University Square, Suite 7, Huntsville, AL

RAND, 1700 Main Street, P. 0'. Box 2138, ATTN:     George Tayl.or,
  Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138

LORAL, P. O. Box 650003; Mail Stop MC-48, ATTN:     .Clem Rhodes,
  Dallas, TX 75265-0003
SFAE-MSL (COL Devanney)
SFAE-MSL-ADI (Mrs. Ross)
SFAE-MSL-S (Mr. Howerton)
SFAE-MSL-SI (Ms. Floyd)


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